WorldWideScience

Sample records for car following

  1. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  2. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following model is a kind of microscopic simulation model for vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of vehides in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control.Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors and feflects the real traffic sit-uation in a better way. This paper gives a systematic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introducing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disavantages of GHR model, OV model,CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptotic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  3. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following models is a kind of microscopic simulation model f or vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of v ehicles in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control. Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors a nd reflects the real traffic situation in a better way. This paper gives a syste matic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introd u cing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disadvantages of GHR model, OV m odel, CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptot ic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  4. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Sheng Yang; Yao Yu; De-Xin Yu; Hu-Xing Zhou; Xiang-Lun Mo

    2013-01-01

    Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF). Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in...

  5. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  6. The car following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Peng-jun; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Based on optimal velocity car following model, a new model considering traffic jerk is proposed to describe the jamming transition in traffic flow on a highway. Traffic jerk means the sudden braking and acceleration of vehicles, which has a significant impact on traffic movement. The nature of the model is researched by using linear and nonlinear analysis method. A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point and the traffic jam. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations are also given.

  7. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  8. Statistical Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hiromasa; Zgonnikov, Arkady; Saito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A fair simple car driving simulator was created based on the open source engine TORCS and used in car-following experiments aimed at studying the basic features of human behavior in car driving. Four subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. The subjects were instructed to drive a car without overtaking and losing sight of a lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed. Based on the collected data the distributions of the headway distance, the car velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with the available experimental data for the real traffic flow. A new model for the car-following is proposed to capture the found properties. As the main result, we draw a conclusion that human actions in car driving should be categorized as generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation. Besides, we hypothesize that the car jerk together with the car acceleration are additional phase variables required for describing the dynamics of car motion g...

  9. Model-based vision for car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Henry; Nashman, Marilyn; Lumia, Ronald

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a vision processing algorithm that supports autonomous car following. The algorithm visually tracks the position of a `lead vehicle' from the vantage of a pursuing `chase vehicle.' The algorithm requires a 2-D model of the back of the lead vehicle. This model is composed of line segments corresponding to features that give rise to strong edges. There are seven sequential stages of computation: (1) Extracting edge points; (2) Associating extracted edge points with the model features; (3) Determining the position of each model feature; (4) Determining the model position; (5) Updating the motion model of the object; (6) Predicting the position of the object in next image; (7) Predicting the location of all object features from prediction of object position. All processing is confined to the 2-D image plane. The 2-D model location computed in this processing is used to determine the position of the lead vehicle with respect to a 3-D coordinate frame affixed to the chase vehicle. This algorithm has been used as part of a complete system to drive an autonomous vehicle, a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) such that it follows a lead vehicle at speeds up to 35 km/hr. The algorithm runs at an update rate of 15 Hertz and has a worst case computational delay of 128 ms. The algorithm is implemented under the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobotic Control System Architecture (NASREM) and runs on a dedicated vision processing engine and a VME-based multiprocessor system.

  10. An extended car-following model at signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2014-08-01

    To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.

  11. Following Car Algorithm With Multi Agent Randomized System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Gouiouez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Following Car Algorithm in Microscopic Urban Traffic Models which integrates some real-life factors that need to be considered, such as the effect of random distributions in the car speed, acceleration, entry of lane… Our architecture is based on Multi-Agent Randomized Systems (MARSdeveloped in earlier publications

  12. An improved car-following model with multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lantian; Zhao, Xiangmo; Yu, Shaowei; Li, Xiuhai; Shi, Zhongke

    2017-04-01

    In order to explore and evaluate the effects of velocity variation trend of multiple preceding cars used in the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) strategy on the dynamic characteristic, fuel economy and emission of the corresponding traffic flow, we conduct a study as follows: firstly, with the real-time car-following (CF) data, the close relationship between multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback and the host car's behaviors is explored, the evaluation results clearly show that multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation with different time window-width are highly correlated to the host car's acceleration/deceleration. Then, a microscopic traffic flow model is proposed to evaluate the effects of multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the CACC strategy on the traffic flow evolution process. Finally, numerical simulations on fuel economy and exhaust emission of the traffic flow are also implemented by utilizing VT-micro model. Simulation results prove that considering multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the control strategy of the CACC system can improve roadway traffic mobility, fuel economy and exhaust emission performance.

  13. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  14. Jam-absorption driving with a car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yohei; Nishi, Ryosuke; Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Jam-absorption driving (JAD) refers to the action performed by a single car to dynamically change its headway to remove a traffic jam. Because of its irregular motion, a car performing JAD perturbs other cars following it, and these perturbations may grow to become the so-called secondary traffic jams. A basic theory for JAD (Nishi et al. 2013) does not consider accelerations of cars or the stability of traffic flow. In this paper, by introducing car-following behaviors, we implement these elements in JAD. Numerous previous studies on the instability of traffic flow showed that even in a region whose density is below a critical density, perturbation may grow if its initial magnitude is large. According to these previous studies, we expect that the perturbations caused by JAD, if they are sufficiently small, do not grow to become secondary traffic jams. Using a microscopic car-following model, we numerically confirmed that the stability of a flow obeying the model depends on the magnitude of JAD perturbations. On the basis of this knowledge, numerical results indicate that parameter regions exist where JAD allows traffic jams to be removed without causing secondary traffic jams. Moreover, JAD is robust against a parameter of acceleration in the model, as well as the choice of car-following models.

  15. Non-lane-based full velocity difference car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dianhai; Tao, Pengfei; Li, Pingfan

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe car following behavior in real world, this paper presents a non-lane-based car following model by incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. And numerical simulation is carried out to validate the analytic results. The property of the model is investigated, and it is found that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion. The results implied that incorporating the lane width effects in car following model not only stabilize traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam, but also lower critical headway and increase capacity. Thus, the lateral separation effects greatly enhance the realism of car following models.

  16. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF. Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in electric field, and the interaction of the attractive potential energy and the repellent potential energy between vehicles simplifies the various influence factors on the target vehicle in actual following behavior. Consequently, it can make a better analysis of the following behavior under the lateral separation. Then, the proposed model has been demonstrated in simulation environment, through which the space-time trajectories and the potential energy change regulation are obtained. Simulations verify that the following vehicle's behavior is vulnerable to be affected by lateral distance, where the attractive potential energy tends to become repellent potential energy as the longitudinal distance decreases. The search results prove that the proposed model quantifies the relations between headway and potential energy and better reflects the following process in real-world situation.

  17. A compound compensation method for car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Jun, Du; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-10-01

    A compound compensation mechanism was introduced into the car-following system. Two basic compensation methods were combined to generate a compound control strategy to improve the performance of the traffic flow system. The compensation effect was analyzed with unit step response in time domain and bode diagram in frequency domain, respectively. Two lemmas and one theorem were proved with the use of Routh criteria and small gain theorem. Numerical simulations were conducted in two situations under three types of condition. The simulation results verify the truth that with the increasing compensation parameters the stability of the car-following system is strengthened. It is shown that numerical results are in accordance with analytical results. In general, the performance of car-following model can be improved with an exterior control method.

  18. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-07-01

    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  19. Haptic gas pedal feedback for active car-following support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on supporting drivers in the longitudinal control of their vehicle during car-following. The goal of the research is the human-centred development of a haptic gas pedal interface that comfortably supports drivers in maintaining a safe separation wi

  20. Two velocity difference model for a car following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. X.; Cheng, R. J.; Li, Z. P.

    2008-09-01

    In the light of the optimal velocity model, a two velocity difference model for a car-following theory is put forward considering navigation in modern traffic. To our knowledge, the model is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically, because it considers more aspects in the car-following process than others. Then we investigate the property of the model using linear and nonlinear analyses. The Korteweg-de Vries equation (for short, the KdV equation) near the neutral stability line and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (for short, the mKdV equation) around the critical point are derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jam could be thus described by the KdV soliton and the kink-anti-kink soliton for the KdV equation and mKdV equation, respectively. Numerical simulations are made to verify the model, and good results are obtained with the new model.

  1. Stochastic Car-Following Model for Explaining Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Song, Tao; Dong, Liyun; Dai, Shiqiang

    There is a common time parameter for representing the sensitivity or the lag (response) time of drivers in many car-following models. In the viewpoint of traffic psychology, this parameter could be considered as the perception-response time (PRT). Generally, this parameter is set to be a constant in previous models. However, PRT is actually not a constant but a random variable described by the lognormal distribution. Thus the probability can be naturally introduced into car-following models by recovering the probability of PRT. For demonstrating this idea, a specific stochastic model is constructed based on the optimal velocity model. By conducting simulations under periodic boundary conditions, it is found that some important traffic phenomena, such as the hysteresis and phantom traffic jams phenomena, can be reproduced more realistically. Especially, an interesting experimental feature of traffic jams, i.e., two moving jams propagating in parallel with constant speed stably and sustainably, is successfully captured by the present model.

  2. Calibrating Car-Following Model Considering Measurement Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Car-following model has important applications in traffic and safety engineering. To enhance the accuracy of model in predicting behavior of individual driver, considerable studies strive to improve the model calibration technologies. However, microscopic car-following models are generally calibrated by using macroscopic traffic data ignoring measurement errors-in-variables that leads to unreliable and erroneous conclusions. This paper aims to develop a technology to calibrate the well-known Van Aerde model. Particularly, the effect of measurement errors-in-variables on the accuracy of estimate is considered. In order to complete calibration of the model using microscopic data, a new parameter estimate method named two-step approach is proposed. The result shows that the modified Van Aerde model to a certain extent is more reliable than the generic model.

  3. A Model of Car-Following with Adaptive Headway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-peng; LIU Yun-cai

    2006-01-01

    The performances of a well-known GHR car-following model was investigated by using numerical simulations in describing the acceleration and deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. It is shown that in GHR model vehicle is allowed to run arbitrarily close together if their speed are identical ,and it waves aside even though the separation is larger than its desired distance. Based on these investigations, a modified GHR model which features a new nonlinear term which attempts to adjust the inter-vehicle spacing to a certain desired value was proposed accordingly to overcome these deficiencies. In addition, the analysis of the additive nonlinear term and steady-state flow of the new model were studied to prove its rationality.

  4. A new car-following model with two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Shi, Zhong-ke; Li, Tong

    2014-01-01

    A new car-following model is proposed by taking into account two different time delays in sensing headway and velocity. The effect of time delays on the stability analysis is studied. The theoretical and numerical results show that traffic jams are suppressed efficiently when the difference between two time delays decreases and those can be described by the solution of the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. Traffic flow is more stable with two delays in headway and velocity than in the case with only one delay in headway. The impact of local small disturbance to the system is also studied.

  5. A New Car Following Model: Comprehensive Optimal Velocity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jun-Fang; JIA Bin; LI Xing-Gang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new car-following model, i.e.comprehensive optimal velocity model (COVM),whose optimal velocity function not only depends on the following distance of the preceding vehicle, but also depends on the velocity difference with preceding vehicle.Simulation results show that COVM is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically.Then, the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis, which has shorwn that the model could obtain a bigger stable region than previous models in the phase diagram.Through the nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV (mKdV) equations are derived for the triangular shock wave, the soliton wave, and the kink-antikink soliton wave.At the same time, numerical simulations are edso carried out to show that the model could simulate these density waves.

  6. A new multi-anticipative car-following model with consideration of the desired following distance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.; Liu, R.; Ngoduy, D; Shi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We propose in this paper an extension of the multi-anticipative optimal velocity car-following model to consider explicitly the desired following distance. The model on the following vehicle’s acceleration is formulated as a linear function of the optimal velocity and the desired distance, with reaction-time delay in elements. The linear stability condition of the model is derived. The results demonstrate that the stability of traffic flow is improved by introducing the desired following dist...

  7. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  8. Analysis of drivers' characteristics in car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Min

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the influence of drivers' behaviors on traffic flow has attracted considerable attention according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. In this paper, an extended car-following model is presented by considering drivers' timid or aggressive characteristics. The impact of drivers' timid or aggressive characteristics on the stability of traffic flow has been analyzed through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. Numerical simulation shows that the propagating behavior of traffic density waves near the critical point can be described by the kink-antikink soliton of the mKdV equation. The good agreement between the numerical simulation and the analytical results shows that drivers' characteristics play an important role in traffic jamming transition.

  9. Full velocity difference and acceleration model for a car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Liu, Qingling; Li, Xiuhai

    2013-05-01

    In order to describe the car-following behavior more actually in real traffic, a full velocity difference and acceleration model (for short, FVDAM) is proposed by synthetically taking into account headway, velocity difference and acceleration of the leading car on the basis of full velocity difference model. The analytical method and numerical simulation results show that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, that incorporating the acceleration of the leading car into car-following model can stabilize traffic flow, suppress the traffic jam and increase capacity, and that the following car in FVDAM can accelerate more quickly than in FVDM.

  10. Solitons and kinks in a general car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2013-09-01

    We study a general car-following model of traffic flow on an infinitely long single-lane road, which assumes that a car's acceleration depends on time-delayed values of its own speed, the headway between it and the car ahead, and the rate of change of headway, but makes minimal assumptions about the functional form of that dependence. We present a detailed characterization of the onset of linear instability; in particular we find a specific limit on the delay time below which the marginal wave number at the onset of instability is zero, and another specific limit on the delay time above which steady flow is always unstable. Crucially, the threshold of absolute stability generally does not coincide with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function. When the marginal perturbation at onset has wave number 0, we show that Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations can be derived under the usual assumptions, and that corrections to the KdV equation “select” a single member of the one-parameter set of its one-soliton solutions by driving a slow evolution of the soliton parameter. While in previous models this selected soliton has always marked the threshold of a finite-amplitude instability of linearly stable steady flow, we find that it can alternatively be a stable, small-amplitude jam that occurs when steady flow is linearly unstable. The model reduces to the usual modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation only in the special situation that the threshold of absolute stability coincides with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function; in general, near the threshold of absolute stability the model reduces instead to a KdV equation in the regime of small solitons, while near an inflection point it reduces to a Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation. Like the mKdV equation, the Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation admits a continuous family of kink solutions, and the selection criterion arising from the corrections to this equation can be written down

  11. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  12. Modeling of Car-Following Required Safe Distance Based on Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi Qu; Xiufeng Chen; Wansan Yang; Xiaohua Bian

    2014-01-01

    In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe...

  13. Time headway in car following and operational performance during unexpected braking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W.H.; van Winsum, W.

    1997-01-01

    The relation between car-following behaviour and braking performance was studied in a driving simulator. The theoretical perspective was that individual differences in tactical car-driving behaviour may be related to skills on the operational level of the driving task via a process of adaptation. In

  14. Intermittent Control Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2016-01-01

    A rather simple car driving simulator was created based on the available open source engine TORCS and used to analyze the basic features of human behavior in car driving within the car-following setups. Eight subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. They were instructed to drive a virtual car without overtaking the lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed and not to lose sight of it. Moreover, these experiments were conducted with four different speed including 60km/h, 80km/h, 100km/h, and 120km/h. Based on the collected data the distribution of the headway, velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with available experimental data collected previously by the analysis of the real traffic flow. A new model for car-following is proposed capture the found properties. As the main results we draw a conclusion that the human behavior in car driving should be categorized as a generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation of the acti...

  15. Modeling of Car-Following Required Safe Distance Based on Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayi Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe distance. The model was developed and implemented to describe the relationship between longitudinal safe distance and lateral safe distance under the condition where the leader keeps uniform deceleration. The results obtained herein are deemed valuable for car-following theory and microscopic traffic simulation.

  16. A Control Method for Congested Traffic in the Car-Following Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Yu, Jian; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2012-05-01

    A simple control method to suppress traffic congestion is proposed for the car-following model. The stability conditions are derived by using the control method, and the feedback signals, which act on our traffic system, are extended to the car-following model. The control signals will play an effect only if the traffic is congested. The corresponding numerical simulation results agree well with our theoretical analysis, and our control method can successfully suppress traffic jams.

  17. An improved car-following model considering influence of other factors on traffic jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Ma, Jian; Lo, Siu-ming

    2012-12-01

    In the Letter, a modified car-following model is presented, in which, the effects of vehicles (or non-motor vehicles) on other lanes without isolation belts are taken into account. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the control theory method. To check the validity of the present theoretical scheme, the numerical simulation is carried out for the new car-following model, and the simulation result is consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  18. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  19. The influence of fog on car following distance

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, V.; BEAUDOIN, E; de Boer, E

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis of distance misperception in fog has recently been corroborated by a series of fog chamber studies (Cavallo et al., 2000), showing an overestimation of 30-60 % of vehicle distance in foggy conditions, when the vehicle lights but not its outline remained visible. To validate these findings in a more ecological setting, we studied the control of following distance in a driving simulator experiment. Results revealed shorter following distances in all foggy conditions, irrespective...

  20. A new car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Tie-Qiao; Huang Hai-Jun; Wong S. C.; Jiang Rui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new car-following model by taking into account the effects of the traffic interruption probability on the car-following behaviour of the following vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway sensitivity space-stable, metastable, and unstable-are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that the traffic interruption probability indeed has an influence on driving behaviour, and the consideration of traffic interruption probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flow.

  1. Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.

  2. An improved car-following model considering variable safety headway distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-han; Du, Yi-man; Wu, Jian-ping

    2014-12-01

    Considering high speed following on expressway or highway, an improved car-following model is developed in this paper by introducing variable safety headway distance. Stability analysis of the new model is carried out using the control theory method. Finally, numerical simulations are implemented and the results show good consistency with theoretical study.

  3. An improved car-following model considering variable safety headway distance

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yuhan; Wu, Jianping; Du, Yiman

    2014-01-01

    Considering high speed following on expressway or highway, an improved car-following model is developed in this paper by introducing variable safety headway distance. Stability analysis of the new model is carried out using the control theory method. Finally, numerical simulations are implemented and the results show good consistency with theoretical study.

  4. An Improved General Motor Car-Following Model considering the Lateral Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Tao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We improve the typical GM car-following model. In order to describe the impacts of the lateral offset between the vehicles in car-following state, this paper proposes time distance to measure the drivers' attention of driving environment and uses generalized expectation headway to describe the ideal driving state of the driver. Take the difference between the actual and expected headway as the important standard for driver to decide whether to speed up or slow down. Then take the drivers' attentions and the expected headway as the decision-making factors, and consider them while revising the GM car-following model. The numerical simulation shows the improved GM model conforms to the general driving behavior, enhances the function of the typical model, and strengthens the model stability.

  5. GENERAL: Considering Backward Effect in Coupled Map Car-Following Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han-Mei; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2010-07-01

    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al., a new control method is proposed to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under open boundary condition. The influence of the following car to the system has been considered. Our method and that presented by Konishi et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 4000] are compared. Although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam, the simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by ours is better than that proposed by the Konishi's et al. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  6. The Stability Analysis for an Extended Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Meng, Xiang-Pei; Zhu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A new method is proposed to study the stability of the car-following model considering traffic interruption probability. The stability condition for the extended car-following model is obtained by using the Lyapunov function and the condition for no traffic jam is also given based on the control theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate and verify the analytical results. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the traffic interruption probability has an influence on driving behavior and confirm the effectiveness of the method on the stability of traffic flow.

  7. Staggered car-following induced by lateral separation effects in traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dian-hai; Xu, Cheng; Huang, Zhi-yi

    2012-01-01

    This Letter develops a new staggered car-following model taking into consideration lateral separation effects. Time-to-collision, calculated using visual angle variables, is introduced to describe the lateral separation distance and improve the optimal velocity model. The analytical and numerical results show that the stability of traffic flow can gradually be enhanced with the increase of lateral separation effects. The asymmetry property of traffic flow is also investigated using the new model. The results imply that incorporating lateral separation effects into the car-following model leads to the suppression of traffic jams and greatly enhances the realism of the model.

  8. Microscopic Calibration and Validation of Car-Following Models -- A Systematic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and validation techniques are crucial in assessing the descriptive and predictive power of car-following models and their suitability for analyzing traffic flow. Using real and generated floating-car and trajectory data, we systematically investigate following aspects: Data requirements and preparation, conceptional approach including local maximum-likelihood and global LSE calibration with several objective functions, influence of the data sampling rate and measuring errors, the effect of data smoothing on the calibration result, and model performance in terms of fitting quality, robustness, parameter orthogonality, completeness and plausible parameter values.

  9. Numerical analysis on car-following traffic flow models with delay time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the speed relaxation time on the optimal velocity car-following model (OVM) with delay time due to driver reaction time proposed by Bando et al.(1995) were studied by numerical methods. Results showed that the OVM including the delay is not physically sensitive to the speed relaxation times. A modified car-following model is proposed to overcome the deficiency. Analyses of the linear stability of the modified model were conducted. It is shown that coexisting flows appear ifthe initial homogeneous headway of the traffic flow is between critical values. In addition, phase transitions occur on varying the initially homogeneous headway.

  10. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  11. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  12. Vehicles' Sample Generation and Realization in Car-Following Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Danilevičius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the article is the adjustment of car-following mathematical models according to collected traffic data. Here the problem of ineffectively burdened road section is solved by adjusting the speed of vehicles in order to reduce the distance between the cars to a safe distance. The paper analyzes the car-following models to measure the interaction between vehicles in the same lane. Experimental data processed in Matlab and traffic distribution histograms are created using the most appropriate distribution curve. Distribution curve is used to compile congestion scenario of road section. Applicable model uses fundamental diagrams, which are created from the kind of traffic flow measurements. The mathematical model allows to choose the optimal vehicle speed while maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and to make recommendations to improve the traffic as the process.

  13. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  14. Car-following theory of steady-state traffic flow using time-to-collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng JIN; Zhi-yi HUANG; Peng-fei TAO; Dian-hai WANG

    2011-01-01

    The conventional car-following theory is based on the assumption that vehicles will travel along the center line of lanes.However,according to the field survey data,in complex traffic conditions,a lateral separation between the leader and the follower frequently occurs.Accordingly,by taking lateral separation into account,we redefined the equation of time-to-collision (TTC) using visual angle information.Based on the stimulus-response framework,TTC was introduced into the basic General Motors (GM) model as a stimulus,and a non-lane-based car-following model of steady-state traffic flow was developed.The property of flow-density relationship was further investigated after integrating the proposed car-following model with different parameters.The results imply that the property of steady-state traffic flow and the capacity of each lane are highly relevant to the microscopic staggered car-following behavior,and the proposed model significantly enhances the practicality of the human driving behavior model.

  15. Calibrating Car Following Parameters for Snowy Road Conditions in the Microscopic Traffic Simulator VISSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asamer, J.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Heilmann, B.

    2013-01-01

    Calibrated simulation models taking into account adverse weather conditions can be used to optimise traffic management strategies, such as speed adaptation and signal timing optimisation. On snowy road conditions, car following behaviour changes because drivers tend to accelerate more slowly, increa

  16. Preferred time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W

    1998-01-01

    18 subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in ma

  17. Prefered time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van

    1999-01-01

    18 Subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in ma

  18. The Research of Car-Following Model Based on Real-Time Maximum Deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of real-time maximum deceleration in car-following. The real-time maximum acceleration is estimated with vehicle dynamics. It is known that an intelligent driver model (IDM can control adaptive cruise control (ACC well. The disadvantages of IDM at high and constant speed are analyzed. A new car-following model which is applied to ACC is established accordingly to modify the desired minimum gap and structure of the IDM. We simulated the new car-following model and IDM under two different kinds of road conditions. In the first, the vehicles drive on a single road, taking dry asphalt road as the example in this paper. In the second, vehicles drive onto a different road, and this paper analyzed the situation in which vehicles drive from a dry asphalt road onto an icy road. From the simulation, we found that the new car-following model can not only ensure driving security and comfort but also control the steady driving of the vehicle with a smaller time headway than IDM.

  19. Phase transitions in a new car-following traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Shi Peng-Fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the well-known optimal velocity car-following model(the OVM) with numerical simulation in describing the acceleration process that is induced by the motion of a ldading car with a pre-specifide speed profile. Results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing this process. Modification of the OVM to overcome the deficiency is demonstrated. The linear stability for the modified model is analysed. If the linear stability condition can not be satisfied, phase transitions occur on varying the initial homogeneous headway of the traffic flow.

  20. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  1. Traffic chaos and its prediction based on a nonlinear car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui FU; Jianmin XU; Lunhui XU

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the dynamic behavior and its predictions for a simulated traffic flow based on the nonlinear response of a vehicle to the leading car's movement in a single lane.Traffic chaos is a promising field,and chaos theory has been applied to identify and predict its chaotic movement.A simulated traffic flow is generated using a car-following model(GM model),and the distance between two cars is investigated for its dynamic properties.A positive Lyapunov exponent confirms the existence of chaotic behavior in the GM model.A new algorithm using a RBF NN (radial basis function neural network) is proposed to predict this traffic chaos.The experiment shows that the chaotic degree and predictable degree are determined by the first Lyapunov exponent.The algorithm proposed in this paper can be generalized to recognize and predict the chaos of short-time traffic flow series.

  2. Bifurcations and multiple traffic jams in a car-following model with reaction-time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krauskopf, Bernd; Wilson, R. Eddie

    2005-11-01

    We investigate an optimal velocity car-following model for n cars on a circular single-lane road, where reaction-time delay of drivers is taken into account. The stability of the uniform flow equilibrium is studied analytically, while bifurcating periodic solutions for different wave numbers are investigated with numerical continuation techniques. This reveals that the periodic solution with the smallest wave number may be stable, and all other periodic solutions are unstable. As n is increased, periodic solutions develop stop- and go-fronts that correspond to rapid deceleration and acceleration between regions of uniformly flowing and stagnant traffic. In terms of the positions of all cars on the ring these fronts are associated with traffic jams. All traffic jams form a traffic pattern that evolves under time, due to slow motion of the fronts. The traffic pattern corresponding to the stable periodic motion of cars is the only stable one. However, we find that other periodic orbits may be unstable only so weakly that they give rise to transient traffic jams that may persist for long times. Eventually, such traffic jams either merge with one another or disperse, until the stable traffic pattern is reached.

  3. Cellular Automation Model of Traffic Flow Based on the Car-Following Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a new cellular automation (CA) traffic model that is based on the car-following model. A class of driving strategies is used in the car-following model instead of the acceleration in the NaSch traffic model. In our model, some realistic driver behaviour and detailed vehicle characteristics have been taken into account, such as distance-headway and safe distance, etc. The simulation results show that our model can exhibit some traffic flow states that have been observed in the real traffic, and both of the maximum flux and the critical density are very close to the real measurement. Moreover, it is easy to extend our method to multi-lane traffic.

  4. Comparing Numerical Integration Schemes for Time-Continuous Car-Following Models

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When simulating trajectories by integrating time-continuous car-following models, standard integration schemes such as the forth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) are rarely used while the simple Euler's method is popular among researchers. We compare four explicit methods: Euler's method, ballistic update, Heun's method (trapezoidal rule), and the standard forth-order RK4. As performance metrics, we plot the global discretization error as a function of the numerical complexity. We tested the methods on several time-continuous car-following models in several multi-vehicle simulation scenarios with and without discontinuities such as stops or a discontinuous behavior of an external leader. We find that the theoretical advantage of RK4 (consistency order~4) only plays a role if both the acceleration function of the model and the external data of the simulation scenario are sufficiently often differentiable. Otherwise, we obtain lower (and often fractional) consistency orders. Although, to our knowledge, Heun's met...

  5. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  6. Exact Shock Solution of a Coupled System of Delay Differential Equations: A Car-Following Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutiya, Yohei; Kanai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    In this letter, we present exact shock solutions of a coupled system of delay differential equations, which was introduced as a traffic-flow model called car-following model. We use the Hirota method, originally developed in order to solve soliton equations. The relevant delay differential equations have been known to allow exact solutions expressed by elliptic functions with periodic boundary conditions. In the present work, however, shock solutions are obtained with open boundaries, representing the stationary propagation of a traffic jam.

  7. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  8. Effect of looking backward on traffic flow in a cooperative driving car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. X.; Zhu, H. B.; Dai, S. Q.

    2006-12-01

    An extended car following model is proposed by incorporating intelligent transportation system and the backward looking effect under certain condition in traffic flow. The neutral stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The results show that anticipating the behavior of vehicles preceding and following one vehicle could lead to appreciable stabilization of traffic system. From the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headways, it is shown that the traffic jam could be suppressed efficiently via taking into account the information about the motion of two preceding vehicles and one following vehicle, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  9. [A seatbelt sign following a car accident: look for internal abdominal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Vincent M; van der Vlies, C H Kees; Luitse, Jan; Meier, Mark A; Ponsen, Kees-anJ; Goslings, J Carel

    2010-01-01

    We present three patients, a 55-year-old man, a 69-year-old woman and a 25-year-old man, with a seatbelt sign following a car accident. All 3 patients exhibited various injuries that may occur in the case of a blunt trauma, for example rib fractures. In one patient, however, symptoms of internal abdominal injury occurred several days after the accident. The presence of a seatbelt sign is associated with an increased risk of internal abdominal injury. We therefore advise a CT scan of the abdomen in patients who present with a seatbelt sign, even if abdominal ultrasound does not reveal signs of injury.

  10. A novel car following model considering average speed of preceding vehicles group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dihua; Kang, Yirong; Yang, Shuhong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new car following model is presented by considering the average speed effect of preceding vehicles group in cyber-physical systems (CPS) environment. The effect of this new consideration upon the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation was derived via nonlinear analysis to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the critical point. Good agreement between the simulation and the analytical results shows that average speed of preceding vehicles group leads to the stabilization of traffic systems, and thus can efficiently suppress the emergence of traffic jamming.

  11. Simulating train movement in railway traffic using a car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Guan Li-Jia

    2009-01-01

    Based on a car-following model, in this paper, we propose a new traffic model for simulating train movement in railway traffic. In the proposed model, some realistic characteristics of train movement are considered, such as the distance headway and the safety stopping distance. Using the proposed traffic model, we analyse the space-time diagram of traffic flow, the trajectory of train movement, etc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can be successfully used for simulating the train movement. Some complex phenomena can be reproduced, such as the complex acceleration and deceleration of trains and the propagation of train delay.

  12. Effects of signal light on the fuel consumption and emissions under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yi, Zhi-Yan; Lin, Qing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is utilized to study the effects of signal light on each vehicle's fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOX. The numerical results show that each vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions are influenced by the signal light and that the effects are related to the green split of the signal light and the vehicle's time headway at the origin, which can help drivers adjust their micro driving behavior on the road with a signal light to reduce their fuel consumption and emissions.

  13. Modeling Car-Following Dynamics During the Starting and Stopping Process Based on a Spring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 杨少辉; 初连禹

    2004-01-01

    Car-following models describe how one vehicle follows the preceding vehicles. In order to better model and explain car-following dynamics, this paper categorizes the state of a traveling vehicle into three sub-processes: the starting (acceleration) process, the car-following process, and the stopping (deceleration) process. The starting process primarily involves vehicle acceleration behavior. The stopping process involves not only car-following behavior but also deceleration behavior. This paper regards both the stopping process and the starting process as spring systems. The car-following dynamics during the starting process and the stopping process is modeled in this paper. The parameters of the proposed models, which are represented in the form of trigonometric functions, possess explicit physical meaning and definitive ranges. We have calibrated the model of the starting process using data from the Traffic Engineering Handbook, and obtained reasonable results. Compared with traditional stimulus-response car-following models, this model can better explain traffic flow phenomena and driver behavior theory.

  14. Modified coupled map car-following model and its delayed feedback control scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Hong-Xia

    2011-01-01

    A modified coupled map car-following model is proposed,in which two successive vehicle headways in front of the considering vehicle is incorporated into the optimal velocity function. The steady state under certain conditions is obtained. An error system around the steady state is studied further. Moreover,the condition for the state having no traffic jam is derived. A new control scheme is presented to suppress the traffic jam in the modified coupled map car-following model under the open boundary. A control signal including the velocity differences between the following and the considering vehicles,and between the preceding and the considering vehicles is used. The condition under which the traffic jam can be well suppressed is analysed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al. (the KKH model). The simulation results show that the temporal behaviour obtained in our model is better than that in the KKH model. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Modified coupled map car-following model and its delayed feedback control scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia

    2011-09-01

    A modified coupled map car-following model is proposed, in which two successive vehicle headways in front of the considering vehicle is incorporated into the optimal velocity function. The steady state under certain conditions is obtained. An error system around the steady state is studied further. Moreover, the condition for the state having no traffic jam is derived. A new control scheme is presented to suppress the traffic jam in the modified coupled map car-following model under the open boundary. A control signal including the velocity differences between the following and the considering vehicles, and between the preceding and the considering vehicles is used. The condition under which the traffic jam can be well suppressed is analysed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al. (the KKH model). The simulation results show that the temporal behaviour obtained in our model is better than that in the KKH model. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  16. Calibrating the Local and Platoon Dynamics of Car-following Models on the Reconstructed NGSIM Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtc, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The NGSIM trajectory data are used to calibrate two car-following models - the IDM and the FVDM. We used the I80 dataset which has already been reconstructed to eliminate outliers, unphysical data, and internal and platoon inconsistencies contained in the original data.We extract from the data leader-follower pairs and platoons of up to five consecutive vehicles thereby eliminating all trajectories that are too short or contain lane changes. Four error measures based on speed and gap deviations are considered. Furthermore, we apply three calibration methods: local or direct calibration, global calibration, and platoon calibration. The last approach means that a platoon of several vehicles following a data-driven leader is simulated and compared to the observed dynamics.

  17. Coupled map car-following model and its delayed-feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, K; Kokame, H; Hirata, K

    1999-10-01

    This paper proposes a coupled map car-following traffic model, which describes a dynamical behavior of a group of road vehicles running in a single lane without overtaking. This model consists of a lead vehicle and following vehicles, which have a piecewise linear optimal velocity function. When the lead-vehicle speed is varied, we can observe a traffic jam in the group of the vehicles. We derive a condition under which the traffic jam never occurs in our model. Furthermore, in order to suppress the traffic jam, for each vehicle we use a dynamic version of decentralized delayed-feedback control proposed in [Konishi, Hirai, and Kokame, Phys. Rev. E 58, 3055 (1998)], and provide a systematic procedure for designing the controller.

  18. An extended car-following model accounting for the average headway effect in intelligent transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  19. A new coupled-map car-following model based on a transportation supernetwork framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jing; Huang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Guan-Rong; Xu, Wei-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    A new car-following model is proposed by considering information from a number of preceding vehicles with inter-vehicle communication. A supernetwork architecture is first described, which has two layers: a traffic network and a communication network. The two networks interact with and depend on each other. The error dynamic system around the steady state of the model is theoretically analyzed and some nonjam criteria are derived. A simple control signal is added to the model to analyze the criteria of suppressing traffic jams. The corresponding numerical simulations confirm the correctness of the theoretical analysis. Compared with previous studies concerning coupled map models, the controlled model proposed in this paper is more reasonable and also more effective in the sense that it takes into account the formation of traffic congestion.

  20. Feedback control scheme of traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Li, Hua-Min

    2013-09-01

    Based on the pioneering work of Konishi et al. [Phys. Rev. E (1999) 60 4000], a new feedback control scheme is presented to suppress traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model under the open boundary condition. The effect of the safe headway on the traffic system is considered. According to the control theory, the condition under which traffic jams can be suppressed is analyzed. The results are compared with the previous results concerning congestion control. The simulations show that the suppression performance of our scheme on traffic jams is better than those of the previous schemes, although all the schemes can suppress traffic jams. The simulation results are consistent with theoretical analyses.

  1. Stabilization effect of multiple drivers' desired velocities in car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Min; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Li, Hua-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of driver's individual behavior on traffic flow more accurately, a new car-following model is proposed with consideration of multiple drives' desired velocities. The stability criterion of the new model is derived through linear stability theory and the results show that the current driver's desired velocity can stabilize traffic flow but the preceding driver's desired velocity can damage traffic stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the traffic jamming transition characteristics near the critical point can be described by the kink-antikink soliton of the mKdV equation. Numerical simulation confirms the analytical results, which shows that the multiple drivers' desired velocities play an important role in traffic evolution.

  2. An Improved Car-Following Model for Multiphase Vehicular Traffic Flow and Numerical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Gong, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2006-08-01

    This paper attempts to introduce an improved difference model that modifies a car-following model, which takes the next-nearest-neighbor interaction into account. The improvement of this model over the previous one lies in that it performs more realistically in the dynamical motion for small delay time. The traffic behavior of the improved model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods with the finding that the new consideration could further stabilize traffic flow. And some simulation tests verify that the proposed model can demonstrate some complex physical features observed recently in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, coexisting flow, and jam flow; spontaneous formation of density waves; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the coexisting flow. Furthermore, the improved model also predicts that the stable state to relative density in the coexisting flow is insusceptible to noise.

  3. GENERAL: A control method for congested traffic in the coupled map car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei-Ying; Ge, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Han-Mei; Lei, Li

    2009-10-01

    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al, a new control method is presented to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under an open boundary. A control signal concluding the velocity differences of the two vehicles in front is put forward. The condition under which the traffic jam can be contained is analyzed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al [Phys. Rev. 1999 E 60 4000-4007]. The simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the Konishi's et al. method, although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  4. An extended car-following model based on intelligent transportation system application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. X.; Dai, S. Q.; Dong, L. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The jams in the congested traffic reveal various density waves. Some of them are described by the nonlinear wave equations: the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the modified KdV equation. An extended car following model are proposed in previous work, and the kink-antikink solution has been obtained from the mKdV equation. We continue to derive the KdV equation near the neutral stability line by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jam could be thus described by the soliton solution, and the analysis result is consistent with the previous one. From the numerical simulations results, the soliton waves are found, and traffic jam is suppressed efficiently as encounter big disturbances.

  5. Car-following model with relative-velocity effect and its experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, Daisuke; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishi, Ryosuke; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-04-01

    In driving a vehicle, drivers respond to the changes of both the headway and the relative velocity to the vehicle in front. In this paper a new car-following model including these maneuvers is proposed. The acceleration of the model becomes infinite (has a singularity) when the distance between two vehicles is zero, and the asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is incorporated in a nonlinear way. The model is simple but contains enough features of driving for reproducing real vehicle traffic. From the linear stability analysis, we confirm that the model shows the metastable homogeneous flow around the critical density, beyond which a traffic jam emerges. Moreover, we perform experiments to verify this model. From the data it is shown that the acceleration of a vehicle has a positive correlation with the relative velocity.

  6. A control method for congested traffic in the coupled map car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Fei-Ying; Ge Hong-Xia; Zhang Hui; Yu Han-Mei; Lei Li

    2009-01-01

    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al, a new control method is presented to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under an open boundary. A control signal concluding the velocity differences of the two vehicles in front is put forward. The condition under which the traffic jam can be contained is analyzed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al [Phys. Rev. 1999 E 60 4000-4007]. The simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the Konishi's et al. method, although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Impacts of SOC on car-following behavior and travel time in the heterogeneous traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Ding, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Since the SOC (state of charge) of the battery of each electric vehicle directly determines whether the battery should be charged/swapped, the SOC may affect the electric vehicle's driving behavior. In this paper, we introduce the SOC of battery into the electric vehicle's driving behavior model and propose a car-following model for electric vehicles, and then use the proposed model to study the effects of the SOC of battery and battery swap on each vehicle's driving behavior in the heterogeneous traffic system consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles. The numerical results show that the proposed model can reproduce some complex traffic phenomena resulted by the SOC of battery and battery swap and that the influences on each vehicle's driving behavior are directly related to the initial traffic state, the electric vehicle's proportion, and the SOC of battery.

  8. An extended car-following model with consideration of speed guidance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The main motivation of this paper is to analyze the influences of speed guidance strategies on the driving behaviors under four different traffic signalized conditions and to investigate an extended car-following model to explore how the speed guidance affects two different vehicle types that are intelligent vehicles and traditional vehicles during the phase-change periods. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of the speed guidance strategies on vehicle's movement trail including the acceleration strategy, smooth braking strategy, and deceleration strategy. Moreover, the benefits of the speed guidance could be enhanced by lengthening the guiding space range, expanding permitted guiding speed range, and increasing the percentage of the intelligent vehicles.

  9. Modelling and Simulation for Train Movement Control Using Car-Following Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You; TANG Tao

    2011-01-01

    Based on optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose a new railway traffc model for describing the process of train movement control.In the proposed model, we give an improved form of the optimal velocity function Vopt, which is considered as the desired velocity function for train movement control under different control conditions.In order to test the proposed model, we simulate and anaiyze the trajectories of train movements,moreover, discuss the relationship curves between the train allowable velocity and the site of objective point in detail Analysis results indicate that the proposed model can well capture some realistic futures of train movement control.PACS numbers: 02.70.-c, 89.40.-a

  10. Traffic stability of a car-following model considering driver’s desired velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering driver’s desired velocity according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. The effect of driver’s desired velocity on traffic flow has been investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear stability condition shows that driver’s desired velocity effect can enlarge the stable region of traffic flow. From nonlinear analysis, the Burgers equation and mKdV equation are derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves in the stable and unstable regions respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the analytical results, which reveals that traffic congestion can be suppressed efficiently by taking driver’s desired velocity effect into account.

  11. An Improved Car-Following Model for Multiphase Vehicular Traffic Flow and Numerical Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Peng; GONG Xiao-Bo; LIU Yun-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce an improved difference model that modifies a car-following model, which takes the next-nearest-neighbor interaction into account. The improvement of this modelover the previous one lies in that it performs more realistically in the dynamical motion for small delay time. The traffic behavior of the improved model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods with the finding that the new consideration could further stabilize traffic flow. And some simulation tests verify that the proposed model can demonstrate some complex physical features observed recently in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, coexisting flow, and jam flow;spontaneous formation of density waves; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the coexisting flow. Furthermore, the improved model also predicts that the stable state to relative density in the coexisting flow is insusceptible to noise.

  12. A new car-following model considering the related factors of a gyroidal road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Yu, Rui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A novel car-following model was proposed to describe the motion of the vehicles on a single lane gyroidal road. We explore the related effects of gyroidal road upon uniform traffic flow analytically and numerically. The analytical result shows that the related factors of gyroidal road including the friction coefficient, radius of curvature and slope have great influences on the stability of the uniform flow respectively. The modified KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation is derived in the unstable area and the kink solution is obtained near the critical point. A series of simulations are conducted to verify the effects upon uniform traffic flow under different road conditions. It is shown that the amplitudes of the headway oscillation wave were affected by the friction coefficient, radius of curvature and slope respectively. The numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical results.

  13. Empirical evidence and stability analysis of the linear car-following model with gamma-distributed memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Pan, Yan; Wang, Haixin; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2016-05-01

    Car-following models, which describe the reactions of the driver of a following car to the changes of the leading car, are essential for the development of traffic flow theory. A car-following model with a stochastic memory effect is considered to be more realistic in modeling drivers' behavior. Because a gamma-distributed memory function has been shown to outperform other forms according to empirical data, in this study, we thus focus on a car-following model with a gamma-distributed memory effect; analytical and numerical studies are then conducted for stability analysis. Accordingly, the general expression of undamped and stability points is achieved by analytical study. The numerical results show great agreement with the analytical results: introducing the effect of the driver's memory causes the stable regions to weaken slightly, but the metastable region is obviously enlarged. In addition, a numerical study is performed to further analyze the variation of the stable and unstable regions with respect to the different profiles of gamma distribution.

  14. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost without late arrival and the corresponding traffic properties using a car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Ziqi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first apply a generalized car-following model to study the commuter trip cost without late arrival from an analytical perspective; and then use the full velocity difference (FVD) model to verify the analytical results and explore the corresponding traffic properties from a numerical perspective. Finally, we explore the evolutions of traffic flow on a road with an open boundary under three traffic situations (i.e., the number of commuters is low, moderate, and high) and find that the evolution of traffic flow is related to the number of commuters. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the analytical results and illustrate that car-following models can be used to study each commuter's trip cost without late arrival and that the car-following model can accurately quantify each commuter's trip cost.

  15. Stabilization strategies of a general nonlinear car-following model with varying reaction-time delay of the drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shukai; Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Keping

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the stabilization strategies of a general nonlinear car-following model with reaction-time delay of the drivers are investigated. The reaction-time delay of the driver is time varying and bounded. By using the Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the state feedback control strategy for the stability of the car-following model is given in the form of linear matrix inequality, under which the traffic jam can be well suppressed with respect to the varying reaction-time delay. Moreover, by considering the external disturbance for the running cars, the robust state feedback control strategy is designed, which ensures robust stability and a smaller prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level for the traffic flow. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  16. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA networks following the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruixin; Su, Shengzhong; Wan, Yinan; Shen, Frank; Niu, Ben; Coslo, Denise M; Albert, Istvan; Han, Xing; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a xenosensor, serving to regulate xenobiotic detoxification, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism. CAR activation is also a key contributor to the development of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The underlying pathways affected by CAR in these processes are complex and not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of gene expression and appear to impact many cellular pathways, including those involved in chemical detoxification and liver tumor development. In this study, we used deep sequencing approaches with an Illumina HiSeq platform to differentially profile microRNA expression patterns in livers from wild type C57BL/6J mice following CAR activation with the mouse CAR-specific ligand activator, 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP). Bioinformatic analyses and pathway evaluations were performed leading to the identification of 51 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly altered by TCPOBOP treatment, including mmu-miR-802-5p and miR-485-3p. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs revealed altered effector pathways, including those involved in liver cell growth and proliferation. A functional network among CAR targeted genes and the affected microRNAs was constructed to illustrate how CAR modulation of microRNA expression may potentially mediate its biological role in mouse hepatocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  17. Analysis of car-following model considering driver’s physical delay in sensing headway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Dai, S. Q.

    2008-05-01

    An extended car-following model is proposed by taking into account the delay of the driver’s response in sensing headway. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The results show that the stability region decreases when the driver’s physical delay in sensing headway increases. The KdV equation and mKdV equation near the neutral stability line and the critical point are respectively derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jams could be thus described by soliton solution and kink-antikink soliton solution for the KdV equation and mKdV equation respectively. The numerical results in the form of the space-time evolution of headway show that the stabilization effect is weakened when the driver’s physical delay increases. It confirms the fact that the delay of driver’s response in sensing headway plays an important role in jamming transition, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  18. Proportional-differential effects in traffic car-following model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing; Liu, Jian-lei

    2014-07-01

    Traffic flow system's stability analysis can be seen as a typical control system problem, which has three kinds of damping ratio properties from the viewpoint of control theory. To discover the damping ratio characteristics of traffic flow system under sudden outer impulse, firstly, we proposed a new method to build the traffic flow model based on state space theory. Secondly, we deduced one form of state transfer matrix from system closed-loop transfer function reversely. Lastly, we fully investigated the proportional-differential effects in the traffic car-following model system analytically and numerically. For unsteady traffic flow system with the proportional-differential (PD) term, in order to suppress the traffic jam, we derived a kind of decoupled delay-feedback control algorithm, which used H∞-norm and the numerical simulation method to find the feedback gain k and delay time τ. The traffic flow system's transient performance formula was presented with and without PD term, and we found out the important impact of PD term on traffic flow system' stability. The numerical simulation results substantiate our theoretical and analytical results.

  19. ONE-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL OF TRAFFIC FLOW BASED ON CAR-FOLLOWING IDEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董力耘; 薛郁; 戴世强

    2002-01-01

    An improved one-dimensional CA (Cellular Automaton) traffic model was proposed to describe the highway traffic under the periodic boundary conditions. This model was based on the idea of the car-following model, which claims that the motion of a vehicle at one time step depends on both its headway and the synchronous motion of the front vehicle,thus including indirectly the influence of its sub-neighboring vehicle. In addition, the socalled safety distance was introduced to consider the deceleration behavior of vehicles and the stochastic factor was taken into account by introducing the deceleration probability.Meanwhile, the conditional deceleration in the model gives a better description of the phenomena observed on highways. It is found that there exists the metastability and hysteresis effect of traffic flow in the neighborhood of critical density under different initial conditions.Since this model gives a reasonable depiction of the motion of a single vehicle, it is easy to be extended to the case of traffic flow under the control of traffic lights in cities.

  20. The influence of the non-motor vehicles for the car-following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Cheng, Rong-jun; Lei, Li; Ge, Hong-xia

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the non-motor vehicles and traffic jerk is considered for the car-following model in this paper. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. A control signal which is the velocity difference between the target vehicle and the following vehicle is added into the model and the stability condition is obtained. Numerical simulation is used to display the results for the stability of the model with and without control signal.

  1. A new car-following model with consideration of the velocity difference between the current speed and the historical speed of the leading car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangxun; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Yu, Chenyan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new car-following model is proposed based on taking the effect of the leading vehicle's velocity difference between the current speed and the historical speed into account. The model's linear stability condition is obtained via the linear stability theory. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are deduced through the nonlinear analysis. The kink-antikink soliton can interpret the traffic jams near the critical point. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations is also given. Numerical simulation shows that the new model can improve the stability of traffic flow, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of a new car-following model accounting for the global average optimal velocity difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the global average optimal velocity difference effect on the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model. We investigate the influence of the global average optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow by making use of linear stability analysis. It indicates that the stable region will be enlarged by taking the global average optimal velocity difference effect into account. Subsequently, the mKdV equation near the critical point and its kink-antikink soliton solution, which can describe the traffic jam transition, is derived from nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the effect of the global average optimal velocity difference can efficiently improve the stability of traffic flow, which show that our new consideration should be taken into account to suppress the traffic congestion for car-following theory.

  3. The Feedback Control Strategy of the Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Car-Following Model with Two Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the driver’s sensing the headway and velocity the different time-varying delays exist, respectively, and the sensitivity of drivers changes with headway and speed. Introducing the fuzzy control theory, a new fuzzy car-following model with two delays is presented, and the feedback control strategy of the new fuzzy car-following model is studied. Based on the Lyapunov function theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI approach, the sufficient condition that the existence of the fuzzy controller is given making the closed-loop system is asymptotic, stable; namely, traffic congestion phenomenon can effectively be suppressed, and the controller gain matrix can be obtained via solving linear matrix inequality. Finally, the simulation examples verify that the method which suppresses traffic congestion and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions is effective.

  4. Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation in a car-following model considering the driver's physical delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Cheng, Rong-jun; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model considering the delay of the driver's response in sensing headway is proposed to describe the traffic jam. It is shown that the stability region decreases when the driver's physical delay in sensing headway increases. The phase transition among the freely moving phase, the coexisting phase, and the uniformly congested phase occurs below the critical point. By applying the reductive perturbation method, we get the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation from the car-following model to describe the transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. We show the connection between the TDGL equation and the mKdV equation describing the traffic jam.

  5. A control method for congested traffic induced by bottlenecks in the coupled map car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomei; Gao, Ziyou

    2006-07-01

    We present a simple control method to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map car-following model under open boundary, based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al. [Coupled map car-following model and its delayed-feedback control, Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 4000-4007]. Theoretically, it is proven that the congested traffic in the traffic system could be suppressed by using the method. Comparison between our method and the method of Konishi et al. is carried out. The simulation results show the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the method of Konishi et al., although both the methods can suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results demonstrate that the traffic system can move into a homogeneous phase and the flux has great increases by the introduction of the control signal. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  6. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients.

  7. MOVING OBJECTS TRAJECTOTY PREDICTION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROXIMATOR BY CONSIDERING INSTANTANEOUS REACTION TIME, CASE STUDY: CAR FOLLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poor Arab Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving

  8. Moving Objects Trajectoty Prediction Based on Artificial Neural Network Approximator by Considering Instantaneous Reaction Time, Case Study: CAR Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor Arab Moghadam, M.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving objects being

  9. Stability analysis in a car-following model with reaction-time delay and delayed feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanfei; Xu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback control in terms of both headway and velocity differences has been proposed to guarantee the stability of a car-following model including the reaction-time delay of drivers. Using Laplace transformation and transfer function, the stable condition is derived and appropriate choices of time delay and feedback gains are designed to stabilize traffic flow. Meanwhile, an upper bound on explicit time delay is determined with respect to the response of desired acceleration. To ensure the string stability, the explicit time delay cannot over its upper bound. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed control method can restraint traffic congestion and improve control performance.

  10. Impacts of the driver's bounded rationality on the traffic running cost under the car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The driver's bounded rationality has significant influences on the micro driving behavior and researchers proposed some traffic flow models with the driver's bounded rationality. However, little effort has been made to explore the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on the trip cost. In this paper, we use our recently proposed car-following model to study the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on his running cost and the system's total cost under three traffic running costs. The numerical results show that considering the driver's bounded rationality will enhance his each running cost and the system's total cost under the three traffic running costs.

  11. Influences of vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost without late arrival under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use car-following model to explore the influences of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter’s trip cost without late arrival on one open road. Our results illustrate that considering the vehicle’s fuel cost and emission cost only enhances each commuter’s trip cost and the system’s total cost, but has no prominent impacts on his optimal time headway at the origin of each open road under the minimum total cost.

  12. Kink antikink density wave of an extended car-following model in a cooperative driving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Shi, Zhongke; Zhou, Bingchang

    2008-12-01

    We propose an extended optimal velocity model applicable to cooperative driving control system by considering the headway of arbitrary number of cars that precede and the relative velocity. The stability condition of the extended model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point by applying the nonlinear analysis. Thus the traffic jams can be described by the kink-antikink density wave which is the solution of the mKdV equation. The simulation results confirm the analytical results and show that the traffic jams are suppressed more efficiently with considering not only the headway of more vehicles ahead but also the relative velocity.

  13. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.

  14. 车辆跟驰的分子动力学特性及其模型%Molecular kinetics behavior of car-following and its model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲大义; 杨建; 陈秀锋; 卞晓华

    2012-01-01

    应用分子动力学研究了车辆跟驰特性,探索了车辆跟驰的需求安全距离及其应用模型构建。通过赋予跟驰模型多个刺激项的反应权重,运用数学演绎方法,推导出驾驶员对各种刺激反应同向性的状态方程。在此基础上提出了描述跟驰变化过程的分子跟驰模型。数据验证和试验对比分析结果表明,分子跟驰模型对跟驰状态的描述更加全面和贴切,弥补了速度跟驰模型的不足,完善了交通流跟驰理论。%The car-following behavior was studied by molecular kinetics,the required safe distance was explored and an application model was built.By giving the reaction weights to various stimuli,a state equation for the isodirectionality of the responses of the driver to various stimuli was derived using the mathematical deduction.Based on this equation,a molecular car-following model was built to describe the car-following behavior.The results of analyses from the data validation and the experimental comparison showed that the proposed molecular car-following model describes the car-following behavior more completely and appropriately,makes up the deficiency of the speed-based car-following models,and improves the car-following theory.

  15. Stabilization effect of traffic flow in an extended car-following model based on an intelligent transportation system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H X; Dai, S Q; Dong, L Y; Xue, Y

    2004-12-01

    An extended car following model is proposed by incorporating an intelligent transportation system in traffic. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The results show that anticipating the behavior of more vehicles ahead leads to the stabilization of traffic systems. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (the mKdV equation, for short) near the critical point is derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jam could be thus described by the kink-antikink soliton solution for the mKdV equation. From the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam is suppressed efficiently with taking into account the information about the motion of more vehicles in front, and the analytical result is consonant with the simulation one.

  16. A control method applied to mixed traffic flow for the coupled-map car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rong-Jun; Han, Xiang-Lin; Lo, Siu-Ming; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2014-03-01

    In light of previous work [Phys. Rev. E 60 4000 (1999)], a modified coupled-map car-following model is proposed by considering the headways of two successive vehicles in front of a considered vehicle described by the optimal velocity function. The non-jam conditions are given on the basis of control theory. Through simulation, we find that our model can exhibit a better effect as p = 0.65, which is a parameter in the optimal velocity function. The control scheme, which was proposed by Zhao and Gao, is introduced into the modified model and the feedback gain range is determined. In addition, a modified control method is applied to a mixed traffic system that consists of two types of vehicle. The range of gains is also obtained by theoretical analysis. Comparisons between our method and that of Zhao and Gao are carried out, and the corresponding numerical simulation results demonstrate that the temporal behavior of traffic flow obtained using our method is better than that proposed by Zhao and Gao in mixed traffic systems.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Multiple car-following model of traffic flow and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guang-Han; Sun, Di-Hua

    2009-12-01

    On the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model, an improved multiple car-following (MCF) model is proposed by taking into account multiple information inputs from preceding vehicles. The linear stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Through nonlinear analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is constructed and solved. The traffic jam can thus be described by the kink-antikink soliton solution for the mKdV equation. The improvement of this new model over the previous ones lies in the fact that it not only theoretically retains many strong points of the previous ones, but also performs more realistically than others in the dynamical evolution of congestion. Furthermore, numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the proposed model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity that occurs at small sensitivity coefficients λ in the FVD model by adjusting the information on the multiple leading vehicles. No collision occurs and no unrealistic deceleration appears in the improved model.

  18. Analytical studies on an extended car following model for mixed traffic flow with slow and fast vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Xu, Xun; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Xu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The car-following model is extended to take into account the characteristics of mixed traffic flow containing fast and slow vehicles. We conduct the linear stability analysis to the extended model with finding that the traffic flow can be stabilized with the increase of the percentage of the slow vehicle. It also can be concluded that the stabilization of the traffic flow closely depends on not only the average value of two maximum velocities characterizing two vehicle types, but also the standard deviation of the maximum velocities among all vehicles, when the percentage of the slow vehicles is the same as that of the fast ones. With increase of the average maximum velocity, the traffic flow becomes more and more unstable, while the increase of the standard deviation takes negative effect in stabilizing the traffic system. The direct numerical results are in good agreement with those of theoretical analysis. Moreover, the relation between the flux and the traffic density is investigated to simulate the effects of the percentage of slow vehicles on traffic flux in the whole density regions.

  19. CARS and SHG microscopy to follow the collagen production in living human corneal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin gel 3D cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Mortati, Leonardo; Sassi, Maria Paola

    2011-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is combined with second harmonic generation (SHG) technique in order to follow the early stage of stem cell differentiation within a 3D scaffold. CARS microscopy can detect lipid membranes and droplet compartments in living cells and SHG microscopy enables a strong imaging contrast for molecules with a non-centrosymmetric ordered structure like collagen. One of the first evidence of hMSCs differentiation is the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) where the collagen protein is its main component. This work demonstrated the multimodal CARS and SHG microscopy as a powerful non-invasive label free technique to investigate the collagen production dynamic in living cell 3D cultures. Its ability to image the cell morphology and the produced collagen distribution on a long term (4 weeks) experiment allowed to obtain important information about the cell-scaffold interaction and the ECM production. The very low limit reached in detecting collagen has permit...

  20. Analysis of Car Following Behavior Based on Helly Car Follow ing M odel Calibration Parameters%基于Helly跟驰模型标定参数的跟驰行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜军; 陆建

    2015-01-01

    Parameter calibration occupies an important place in the studies on following model .the ex‐perimental data in actual traffic situation are collected based on instrumented vehicle ,and the traveling track of the leading vehicles and following vehicles through data processing .Then ,the Helly linear car following model is calibrated ,and out a reliable estimation of the model parameters calibration results using the Bootstrap method is carried out .At last ,the influence of different driving states and experi‐ence is analyzed based on model parameters ,the study indicates that the driver’s response time w hen decelerating is significant less than that w hen accelerating ;In the process of deceleration ,the reaction of drivers to the change of the speed and distance is more obvious regardless of driving experience ,and non‐professional drivers are more sensitive than professional drivers .%参数标定在跟驰模型研究中占有重要地位。利用实验车在实际道路交通环境下采集实验数据,通过数据处理得到跟驰车辆对的行驶轨迹。然后对Helly线性跟驰模型进行标定,并使用Boot‐strap方法对标定结果进行可靠性估计。根据模型参数分析了不同行驶状态和驾驶经验的影响,研究表明,减速停车过程中驾驶人的反应时间显著小于加速启动过程;减速停车过程中驾驶人对速度和距离变化的反应更加明显,并且非专业驾驶人的敏感性要高于专业驾驶人。

  1. 环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为研究%Car Following Behavior of Roundabout Entrance Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金勇; 刘岩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为,依据实地交通调查的数据,利用线性跟驰模型和回归分析方法对环形交叉口入口道跟驰车辆进行分析,分析结果表明:环形交叉口入口道的车辆跟驰行为是符合线性跟驰模型的,但是有别于普通道路上的车辆跟驰行为,其反应强度系数λ的值在0.2 ~1.0之间,λ值为0.38出现的概率比较大,占40%,进行稳定性分析可知车间距的摆动处于基本稳定和衰减摆动两种状态,是符合局部稳定性的.%The car-following behavior of roundabout entrance lane is studied by using liner car-following and regression models for obtaining the car-following behavior to match the liner car-following behavior. However, it is different from the behavior on the road. The value of reaction intensity factor is between 0. 2 to 1. 0,and the value 0. 38 appears relatively more often and accounting for 40%. The swing of car space headway is between stable status and decay swing with the stability analysis,and it is consistent with local stability.

  2. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  3. 车辆跟驰行为建模的回顾与展望%Review and Outlook of Modeling of Car Following Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 金盛

    2012-01-01

    系统地回顾了跟驰理论60年的发展历程,依据建模思想将跟驰行为模型分为交通工程角度和统计物理角度。交通工程角度的跟驰模型包括刺激-反应类、安全距离类、心理-生理类及人工智能类模型;统计物理角度的跟驰模型包括优化速度模型、智能驾驶模型和元胞自动机模型。针对各类模型分别阐述了其建模思路、模型结构、参数标定及其扩展研究。最后,展望了跟驰行为建模的发展趋势与研究方向,为建立适合中国交通流特点的跟驰模型提供参考。%Authors reviewed the development of car following theory from a system point of view.Based on the modeling ideas,car following models were divided into point of view of traffic engineering and statistical physics.In the point of view of traffic engineering,car following models were classified into stimulus-response models,safety distance models,psycho-physical models and artificial intelligence models.In the point of view of statistical physics,car following models were classified into optimal velocity models,intelligent driver models,and cellular automata models.Then,various types of modeling ideas,model structure,parameter calibration,and related research were elaborated.Finally,development trends and research directions of car following models were proposed.It can provide reference for car following modeling of considering traffic flow characteristics in China.

  4. Common feature of concave growth pattern of oscillations in terms of speed, acceleration, fuel consumption and emission in car following: experiment and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations by using vehicle trajectory data in a car following experiment. We measured the standard deviation of acceleration, emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle in the car-following platoon. We found that: (1) Similar to the standard deviation of speed, these indices exhibit a common feature of concave growth pattern along vehicles in the platoon; (2) The emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle decrease remarkably when the average speed of the platoon increases from low value; However, when reaches 30km/h, the change of emission and fuel consumption with is not so significant; (3), the correlations of emission and fuel consumption with both the standard deviation of acceleration and the speed oscillation are strong. Simulations show that with the memory effect of drivers taken into account, the improved two-dimensional intelligent driver model is able to reproduce the common feature of traffic oscillation evolution quite well.

  5. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  6. The Kaprun cable car fire disaster--aspects of forensic organisation following a mass fatality with 155 victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harald J

    2003-12-17

    In November 2000, a tunnel-bound cable car in Kaprun caught fire, with the subsequent death of 155 persons. No passenger list was in existence and bodies were burnt to such an extent that morphological identification was not feasible. A full post-mortem examination was performed on all bodies. All bodies were positively identified within 19 days after the incident by DNA analysis. Cause of death was determined to be carbon monoxide poisoning in combination with suffocation due to inhalation of smoke. The organisational aspects of processing are portrayed.

  7. 车辆跟驰安全距离的区间分析方法%Interval Analysis Method for Safety Distance of Car-following

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余朝蓬; 王营; 高峰

    2009-01-01

    In the car-following process, there are some uncertain parameters in the vehicle brake system and the driver, such as the brake acceleration, the action time of the vehicle arrester and the response time of the driver, etc. Generally, the ranges of these uncertain parameters are easy to be found, but the effect of them on the car-following process is one of the hard issues. This paper used the interval number to describe the uncertain parameters in the car-following process. Based on the approximate computational method of the safety distance, the interval analysis was employed to calculate the safety distance of vehicles under two typical conditions. The results show that the safety distance calculated by the interval analysis method is not a certain value, but an interval value. Therefore, the intervalanalysis method can forecast the effects of the uncertain parameters on the safety distance in the car-following process.%在车辆跟驰过程中,车辆制动系统和驾驶员自身的一些参数均具有一定程度的不确定性,例如车辆的制动减速度、车辆制动器的作用时间及驾驶员的反应时间等.这些不确定量的变化范围通常比较容易确定,然而,如何预测这些不确定量对车辆跟驰行为的影响是目前已有车辆跟驰模型较难以解决的问题之一.文中使用区间数学中的区间数来描述车辆跟驰过程中的车辆制动系统和驾驶员自身参数的不确定性,基于车辆跟驰过程中车辆安全距离的近似计算公式,采用区间分析方法计算了两种典型工况下的车辆安全距离.结果表明,该方法计算得到的车辆安全距离不是确定值而是区间值或者说是一个变化范围,因此能更加真实地预测各种不确定量对车辆安全距离的影响.

  8. Analysis of the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we use car-following theory to study the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost. The numerical results illustrate that the traditional vehicle’s running cost is larger than that of the electric vehicle and that the system’s total running cost drops with the increase of the electric vehicle’s proportion, which shows that the electric vehicle is better than the traditional vehicle from the perspective of the running cost.

  9. 改进的基于安全距离的车辆跟驰模型%Improved Safe Distance Car-following Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨达; 蒲云; 祝俪菱; 杨飞; Ran Bin

    2013-01-01

    Gipps' model,the well-known safe distance car-following model,has a strict restriction on the car-following behavior,that is,the following vehicle has to maintain the exact safe distance with the leading vehicle to avoid accident.However,this restriction is not consistent with the reality.Owning to this reson,an enhanced safe distance car-following model was proposed first,and then evaluated by comparing with Gipps' model.Furthermore,simulations were conducted to analyze the characteristics of the new model.The results of evaluation and simulation illustrate that the proposed model has more accurate prediction result than Gipps' model,and can reproduce the stable flow and shockwave that are very common in real traffic flow.In addition,the enhanced model can stabilize traffic flow.%由于经典的基于安全距离的车辆跟驰模型Gipps模型要求车辆行驶时恰好与前车保持安全距离,这是一个对车辆跟驰行为过分严格的约束,不符合实际情况,根据实际情况提出车辆跟驰距离是有关安全距离和前后车相对速度的函数,并据此建立了改进的基于安全距离的车辆跟驰模型.NGSIM数据经过处理后被用来标定Gipps 模型和改进后的模型,在标定结果的基础上对模型进行了统计意义上和仿真预测能力上的模型评价.结果显示:改进后的基于安全距离的车辆跟驰模型比Gipps模型有更高的仿真精确,可以再现出宏观交通中的稳定交通流和冲击波等常见的交通现象,并且改进模型在一定程度上使交通流变得更加稳定.

  10. Reaction Time and Headway in Car-Following Flow%跟驰车流中的反应时间和车头间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷; 曹世理; 马壮林; 朱彤; 王伟力

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using driving simulator to simulate driving behaviors, car following experiments were conducted in virtual and real road environments using the fourth ring road in Beijing as an example to create simulation scenarios and taking into account the factors such as geometry alignment, traffic equipment, environment condition, and traffic condition. The reaction time and headway of car-following flow in acceleration and deceleration states were compared between driving simulator and real-world environment, and the experimental results were interpreted in terms of monocular depth cues in virtual environment and behavior characteristics of the simulated vehicles. The results show that the reaction time of drivers in car-following acceleration and deceleration states in the virtual situation is slightly larger than that in the real situation. The headway in virtual environment is significantly larger than that in the real environment. When using simulator to study driving behaviors, distance-related parameters need to be modified to obtain consistent results with the actual road environment, and the range of correction coefficient is between 1.5 to 2.0.%为了研究利用驾驶模拟舱研究驾驶行为的效果,考虑道路几何线形、交通设施、环境条件、交通条件等因素,以北京四环道路环境为例搭建模拟场景,在该模拟环境和相应真实道路环境下进行车辆跟驰实验,提取并对比了加减速跟车状态下的反应时间和车头间距数据,从虚拟环境深度线索和仿真车辆行为特性两方面分析了实验结果.研究结果表明,在加速和减速跟驰状态,在仿真环境中的驾驶人反应时间均略大于真实道路环境,但差别不显著;仿真环境下的车头间距显著大于真实环境;采用驾驶模拟舱研究驾驶行为时,需修正与距离相关的参数才能得到与实际道路环境相符的结果,修正系数的取值范围为1.5~2.0.

  11. 时滞车辆跟驰模型及其分岔现象%REVIEW OF TIME-DELAYED CAR FOLLOWING MODELS AND BIFURCATION PHENOMENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鉴; 徐荣改

    2013-01-01

    In car following theory of traffic dynamics, human drivers need a finite period of time to process stimuli of preceding vehicles and make a decision, which is attributed to human physiological factors. Since mechanical devices also need time for sensing, computing and actuating, time delay seems unavoidable even in autonomous cruise control systems. As a result time delays should be considered as an inherent factor in car following theories of traffic dynamics. One of the key problems in need of study is how time delays affect the traffic flow patterns and their evolutions. In this paper, time-delayed car following models which are continuous in both time and space are firstly surveyed. Then the progress in the dynamic behaviors based on bifurcation theory is reviewed. Defects of these models and the corresponding bifurcation research are pointed out in this summary. Finally we conclude that research on dynamic behaviors of time-delayed car following models with traffic flow parameters based on bifurcation theory are of great significance and necessity. By means of such research, the underlying mechanisms of traffic jam formation and evolution can be better understood. Traffic jam patterns can be categorized from a synchronization perspective through classifying dynamic behaviors in parameter plane, and hence, different traffic control strategies can be put forward by traffic management department based on the above jam patterns.%交通流车辆跟驰理论中,由于生理因素,造成司机在处理前方车辆变化信息和采取应对措施之间存在时间滞后.即使是在自动巡航控制系统中,设备在感知信息、计算所需操作并最终作动车辆这一过程中时滞也不可避免.因此交通流跟驰理论的数学模型本质上应包含时滞.时滞的存在对各种交通模式的出现及其相互演化产生怎样的影响?这是值得我们关注的问题.本文首先综述了各类时间和空间连续的时滞车辆跟驰模型.

  12. An Improved Car-Following Dynamic Model%一种改进的车辆跟驰动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宝贵; 杨兆升

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of current car-following models, a novel optimal velocity ( desired velocity) function is proposed and an improved car-following dynamic model is established based on the "stimulus-response" pattern. Then, the stability of this model is analyzed by using the Lyapunov stability theory on motion. Finally, the parameter calibration and application verification of the improved model are performed by using the measured data. The results show that the theoretical results of the improved model accord well with the experimental data in terms of starting acceleration, approximately uniform speed and deceleration, without unrealistic acceleration which occurs in other models.%针对现有跟驰模型存在的不足,文中提出了一种新的优化速度(期望速度)函数,基于“刺激—反应”模式建立了改进的车辆跟驰动力学模型,并运用李亚普诺夫运动稳定性理论对其进行了稳定性分析.最后运用实测数据对模型进行了参数标定和应用性验证.结果表明:改进模型在模拟交通流的启动加速、近似匀速和减速过程方面与实测数据都具有较高的一致性,没有出现已有模型的不切实际的加速度.

  13. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  14. New full velocity difference model considering the driver’s heterogeneity of the disturbance risk preference for car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, You-Zhi; Zhang, Ning

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new full velocity difference model considering the driver’s heterogeneity of the disturbance risk preference for car-following theory to investigate the effects of the driver’s heterogeneity of the disturbance risk preference on traffic flow instability when the driver reacts to the relative velocity. We obtain traffic flow instability condition and the calculation method of the unstable region headway range and the probability of traffic congestion caused by a small disturbance. The analysis shows that has important effects the driver’s heterogeneity of the disturbance risk preference on traffic flow instability: (1) traffic flow instability is independent of the absolute size of the driver’s disturbance risk preference coefficient and depends on the ratio of the preceding vehicle driver’s disturbance risk preference coefficient to the following vehicle driver’s disturbance risk preference coefficient; (2) the smaller the ratio of the preceding vehicle driver’s disturbance risk preference coefficient to the following vehicle driver’s disturbance risk preference coefficient, the smaller traffic flow instability and vice versa. It provides some viable ideas to suppress traffic congestion.

  15. Remote controlling and intelligent following car design based on STM 32%基于 STM32的可遥控智能跟随小车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 孙晓菲; 张煜

    2015-01-01

    针对物品搬运时人类双手仍无法完全解放的现状,设计并实现了一种基于STM32、超声波测距以及比例控制算法的可遥控智能跟随小车。小车以STM32为控制核心,有智能跟随和红外遥控2个模式可选。跟随模式下用2个安装在前端的超声波模块分别实时测量小车与目标之间的距离,单片机采用比例控制算法,根据实测距离控制左右电机转速;遥控模式下单片机根据接收到的红外遥控信号控制小车的运动方向。试验结果表明:小车在2m以内准确跟随几率大于95%、响应时间小于250 m s。该设计实现了小车对目标的360°智能跟随以及在必要情况下对小车的遥控操作,系统可靠,较人性化。%Currently human hands are still not liberated when men carry things .This paper designs and implements an remote control and intelligent following car based onSTM 32 ,ultrasonic ranging and proportional control algorithm .The car uses STM32 as its control center ,and the intelligent follower mode and the infrared remote controlling mode are both available for the car .There are two ultrasonicmodulesinstalledon the front to watch thedistance between the car and the targetat each time under the following mode .SCMadopts proportional control algorithm and controls the motor speed on the left and right side according to the watcheddistance .Itcontrols the moving direction of the car according to the received infrared signal under remote controlling mode . Experimental results show the car accurately follow probability greater than 95% and response time less than 250 ms within two meters .This design accomplishes the goal that a intelligent car can automaticallyfollow the targeteven turning 360°and peoplecan control the car remotely when necessary .The system is reliable and convenient to people .

  16. Phase 1 studies of central memory-derived CD19 CAR T-cell therapy following autologous HSCT in patients with B-cell NHL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Popplewell, Leslie L; Wagner, Jamie R; Naranjo, Araceli; Blanchard, M Suzette; Mott, Michelle R; Norris, Adam P; Wong, ChingLam W; Urak, Ryan Z; Chang, Wen-Chung; Khaled, Samer K; Siddiqi, Tanya; Budde, Lihua E; Xu, Jingying; Chang, Brenda; Gidwaney, Nikita; Thomas, Sandra H; Cooper, Laurence J N; Riddell, Stanley R; Brown, Christine E; Jensen, Michael C; Forman, Stephen J

    2016-06-16

    Myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a mainstay of therapy for relapsed intermediate-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, relapse rates are high. In phase 1 studies designed to improve long-term remission rates, we administered adoptive T-cell immunotherapy after HSCT, using ex vivo-expanded autologous central memory-enriched T cells (TCM) transduced with lentivirus expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). We present results from 2 safety/feasibility studies, NHL1 and NHL2, investigating different T-cell populations and CAR constructs. Engineered TCM-derived CD19 CAR T cells were infused 2 days after HSCT at doses of 25 to 200 × 10(6) in a single infusion. In NHL1, 8 patients safely received T-cell products engineered from enriched CD8(+) TCM subsets, expressing a first-generation CD19 CAR containing only the CD3ζ endodomain (CD19R:ζ). Four of 8 patients (50%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16-84%) were progression free at both 1 and 2 years. In NHL2, 8 patients safely received T-cell products engineered from enriched CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM subsets and expressing a second-generation CD19 CAR containing the CD28 and CD3ζ endodomains (CD19R:28ζ). Six of 8 patients (75%; 95% CI: 35-97%) were progression free at 1 year. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) TCM-derived CD19 CAR T cells (NHL2) exhibited improvement in expansion; however, persistence was ≤28 days, similar to that seen by others using CD28 CARs. Neither cytokine release syndrome nor delayed hematopoietic engraftment was observed in either trial. These data demonstrate the safety and feasibility of CD19 CAR TCM therapy after HSCT. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01318317 and #NCT01815749.

  17. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  18. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  19. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  20. Infarto cerebral secundario a trombosis de la carótida interna por traumatismo cervical Cerebral infarction secondary to internal carotid thrombosis following cervical trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, A.; Santos, M; R. Marín; Blanco, M; Sánchez, A.; R. González-Cámpora; J. Lucena

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una trombosis postraumática de la arteria carótida interna en un varón de 33 años, tras recibir un golpe con un balón en el cuello. La muerte se produjo 10 días después del golpe como consecuencia de un cuadro de hipertensión intracraneal y herniación cerebral secundaria a infarto isquémico extenso que afectaba a todo el territorio de la arteria cerebral media derecha, tanto superficial como profundo.In this paper, a case of post-traumatic thrombosis in the internal car...

  1. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  2. A car-following mo del with the consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology%考虑车与车互联通讯技术的交通流跟驰模型∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华雪东; 王炜; 王昊

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the research on traffic flow system based on some classical models, such as cellular automata and car-following models, has attracted much attention. Some meaningful achievements have been obtained in the past few years by scholars from various fields. This paper starts with literature review on traffic flow theory studies. Car-following models, including the initial model proposed by Newell in 1961 (Newell G F 1961 Oper. Res. 9 209) and some later modified ones (e.g. full velocity difference model, or FVD model for short) have been deeply investigated. Based on Newell’s car-following model, an extension of car-following model with consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is then developed. The vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology, which was proposed in the early 2000s, enable vehicles to collect traffic condition information from other vehicles (e.g. speed, headway, position, acceleration, etc.) and provide them for drivers in almost real time. Compared with those without V2V devices, drivers with information from V2V devices can react to traffic flow fluctuation timelier and more precisely. To represent the pre-reaction of drivers to traffic flow information provided by V2V devices, a parameter, α, is newly introduced into Newell’s car-following model. Then by second-order Taylor series expansion, a new car-following model with the influence of V2V (called V2V model) is proposed. Neutral stability condition of V2V model as well as phase diagram is derived theoretically with linear analysis method. The phase diagram of linear stability condition is divided into stable and unstable regions. By analyzing stability performance of the proposed model, it is evident that V2V communication technology can improve the stability of traffic flow system. Numerical simulation is demonstrated to study the influence of V2V devices on traffic flow on the one hand, and to acquire density waves as well as hysteresis loops under different values

  3. 考虑车辆机械惯性效应的跟驰模型及其稳定性分析%Car following model with consideration of the vehicle’s mechanical inertia effect and its stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桐; 陈渝光; 李雨宣

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe the car-following behavior more actually in real traffic,a new car following model by considering the vehicle’s mechanical inertia effect is proposed on the basis of the full velocity difference car following model.The stability condition is given by applying the control theory.The simulation results are com-pared with that of the previous models,and show that our model can overcome the deficiency that the acceleration of leading vehicle of motorcade instantly jumps in those models,and the traffic jam can be suppressed as the coeffi-cient of vehicle’s mechanical inertia effect decreases.The simulation results are consistent with theoretical analysis.%为了更加真实地描述在实际交通中的跟驰行为,基于全速度差模型,提出一个考虑车辆机械惯性的跟驰模型。应用线性控制理论给出模型的稳定性条件。与前人提出的模型仿真结果对比,理论结果与数值仿真一致,表明本文提出的模型能够克服前人模型中静止车队启动过程中头车加速度出现瞬间跳跃现象,同时随着车辆机械惯性系数的增加,交通拥堵更加容易发生。

  4. 基于最优间距的车辆跟驰模型及其特性%Car-Following Model Based on Optimal Distance and Its Characteristics Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨达; 蒲云; 杨飞; 祝俪菱

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the mechanism of car-following behaviors more accurately, a car-following optimal distance model (ODM) was proposed based on analysis of the optimal distance function, under an assumption that drivers in a car-following process always tend to maintain an optimal spacing distance. Then, the ODM and Gipps' car-following model were calibrated and evaluated using the next generation simulation (NGSIM) data. The numerical simulation method was adopted to analyze the acceleration characteristic of the ODM and its ability in reproducing the macroscopic phenomena of traffic flow. The results show that the simulation accuracy of the ODM in acceleration, velocity and distance MAE (mean average error) is 0. 36 m/s2, 0.99 m/s and 0.73 m higher than that of the Gipps' model; the ODM can reproduce the stable state and shock wave phenomenon of traffic flow, and always tends to choose an acceleration that can make the distance between successive vehicles equal or just fluctuate about the optimal distance value in the stable state.%为真实地反应车辆跟驰机理,假设在跟驰状态下,驾驶员倾向于保持最优跟驰间距,在分析最优间距函数的基础上,建立了车辆跟驰模型(optimal distance model,ODM).利用NGSIM数据,对ODM模型和经典Gipps车辆跟驰模型进行参数标定和评价.用仿真方法分析了ODM模型再现宏观交通流现象的能力和加速度特性.研究结果表明:与Gipps模型相比,ODM模型的加速度、速度和距离的仿真精度分别提高了0.36 m/s2、0.99 m/s和0.73 m,并能够再现实际交通流中稳定车流和冲击波等交通现象;在稳定交通流中,ODM模型总是趋向于使车辆间距等于最优跟驰间距,或在其附近小幅度波动.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of ErbB-Targeted CAR T-Cells, Following Intracavity Delivery in Patients with ErbB-Expressing Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Sophie; van Schalkwyk, May; Maher, John

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy using gene-modified T-cells has achieved impressive results in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, the development of similar strategies to treat solid tumors raises challenges with respect to tumor antigen selection and the achievement of efficient T-cell homing, survival and sustained effector function within the tumor microenvironment. To address these challenges, we have developed a gene-modified cellular therapy called T4 immunotherapy. To generate T4 immunotherapy, autologous T-cells are engineered by retroviral transduction to co-express two transgenes: (1) a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), T1E28z, targeted against a range of ErbB homodimers and heterodimers and (2) a chimeric cytokine receptor, 4αβ, that allows the selective ex vivo expansion of engineered cells using interleukin-4. Targeting of the extended ErbB network using CAR T-cells is supported by prevalence of ErbB dysregulation in diverse solid tumors and the clinical impact of monoclonal antibody therapy directed against members of this family. However, the key obstacle to effective clinical translation is risk of on-target toxicity owing to the lower level expression of ErbB family members in many healthy tissues. To de-risk T4 immunotherapy in man, we are undertaking a trial in patients with locally advanced or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In that setting, engineered T-cells are injected directly into the tumor without prior lymphodepletion, an approach that we believe will minimize risk of toxicity. This chapter outlines how we plan to advance the development of T4 immunotherapy thereafter in Phase II clinical testing. In that setting, regional (intracavitary) approaches will be used to administer this therapy to patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  6. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  7. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  8. A new car-following mo del considering drivers’ heterogeneity of the disturbance risk app etite%考虑司机扰动风险偏好异质的跟驰模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾友志; 张宁; 刘利娟

    2014-01-01

    基于优化速度模型,考虑司机扰动风险偏好异质的影响,提出了扩展模型。通过线性稳定性分析,得到了扩展模型的稳定性条件,表明前车司机扰动风险偏好系数相对跟驰车司机扰动风险偏好系数越小,扩展模型稳定区域越大。通过非线性分析获得了不稳定区域下的扭结-反扭结密度波。数值仿真也表明两者比值越小,越有利于初始稳态车流抑制扰动的传播和交通堵塞的形成。这为减少交通堵塞提供了一个可行的思路,比如按照司机扰动风险偏好系数相对大小由小到大进行排队形成车队行驶等。%Based on the optimal velocity model, with the consideration of the effect of drivers’ heterogeneity of the disturbance risk appetite, an extended model is proposed. The linear stable judging condition is obtained for the extended model by its stability analysis, which shows the smaller the ratio of the coefficient of the disturbance risk appetite for the former car driver to that for the following-car driver, the larger the stability area of the extended model is. The kink-antikink density wave is attained in an unstable area of the model by nonlinear analysis. Simulation results also show that the smaller the ratio of the coefficient of the disturbance risk appetite for the former car driver to that for the following-car driver, the better it is for the initial traffic flow to inhibit the disturbance propagation, hinder the formation of traffic jams and restore homeostasis. This paper provides a viable idea to reduce traffic congestion, for example, by forming convoys traveling in order from small to big according to the relative size of drivers’ coefficients of the disturbance risk appetite.

  9. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  10. 基于延迟估计算法的声音跟随小车%The car used to follow the sound based on delay estimation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震宇

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了基于延迟估计算法的声源定位小车的设计。本系统由音频接收、信号处理、无线收发、电机驱动及液晶显示五个模块构成。根据时间差确定声源位置。具体阐述了相关硬件及软件的设计,实际电路测试表明该系统稳定可靠,对声源的定位有较高的精度。%This article introduces a design the car use to fol ow the sound based on delay estimation algorithm.The system include the audio signal processing,wireless transceivers,motor drives and LCD five modules.Sound source position is determined according to the difference of time.Specifical y addressed the related hardware and software design,the actual circuit tests show that the system is reliable,sound source localization for higher accuracy.

  11. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  12. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  13. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  14. Measuring IL-6 and sIL-6R in serum from patients treated with tocilizumab and/or siltuximab following CAR T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Teachey, David T; Pequignot, Edward; Frey, Noelle; Porter, David; Maude, Shannon L; Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H; Melenhorst, Jan J; Lacey, Simon F

    2016-07-01

    T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) are demonstrating remarkable efficacy in hematologic malignancies. Treatment is often associated with life-threatening cytokine release syndrome (CRS) which can be effectively treated with cytokine blockade using the antibodies, Siltuximab or Tocilizumab respectively targeting IL-6 or the IL-6 receptor. As IL-6 blockade is moving into the clinic for the treatment of CRS as well as IL-6-driven rheumatologic and malignant diseases, clinicians are utilizing serum cytokine panels more frequently to assess the effects of IL-6 inhibitors. It is paramount to ascertain whether levels obtained are accurate, especially as certain drugs may, in theory, affect quantification. We report the comparative quantification of IL-6 and sIL-6R using Luminex-based immunoassay kits from two vendors. Our results indicate good agreement of the commercial immunoassays in measurement of IL-6 but disagreement in quantitation of sIL-6R. We found that both Siltuximab and Tocilizumab can interfere with the measurement of their respective ligands using reagents from one vendor but not the second. This has significant implications for the analysis of IL-6 and sIL-6R pharmacokinetics analysis in Siltuximab or Tocilizumab-treated patients. We found that high levels of IL-6 can falsely reduce the measured levels of sIL-6R and high levels of sIL-6R can reduce levels of IL-6 when measured with some commercial assays. These data demonstrate the importance of assessing the impact of cytokine-blocking agents on accuracy of clinical biomarker assays in other diseases, as drugs targeting TNF-alpha, IL1B, and IL5 are being used more frequently in a large number of diseases.

  15. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  16. Numerical simulation of car-following model considering preceding vehicle’s acceleration%考虑前车加速度信息的跟驰模型及数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡之英

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the deficiency of the description of car following behavior only considering the vehicle dis-tance in the Optimal Velocity(OV)model, an improved OV model is proposed by taking the effect of the preceding vehicle’s acceleration information on the car-following behavior of the following vehicle into account. Through the linear stability analysis of the model using the small vibration amplitude disturbance method, the stability condition of the improved OV model is obtained. The numerical simulation of the model is conducted. The results show that compared with the traditional OV model, the improved OV model can significantly enhance the stability region of the traffic flow after taking the impact of the acceleration information of the preceding vehicle into consideration, and it can suppress the traffic jam effectively.%为了改进最优速度(OV)跟驰模型只考虑车间距因素对车辆跟驰行为影响的不足,在考虑前导车加速度信息对后车跟驰行为影响的基础上,提出了一种改进OV跟驰模型。并利用小振幅扰动法对模型进行了线性稳定性分析,得到了模型的稳定性条件,对改进OV模型进行了数值模拟。仿真结果表明,与传统OV模型相比,考虑前导车加速度信息对跟驰车的影响后,交通流的稳定区域显著增加,改进OV模型能有效抑制交通流的堵塞。

  17. 考虑横向分离与超车期望的车辆跟驰模型*%A new car-following model considering lateral separation and overtaking expectation∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆成†; 孙文博

    2013-01-01

      为了更加客观地描述实际的车辆跟驰行为,在优化速度模型的基础上,通过引入横向分离参数并提出超车期望和虚拟前车的概念,建立了考虑横向分离与超车期望的车辆跟驰模型。对模型进行线性稳定性分析,得到了模型稳定性条件,发现车辆横向分离、超车期望和虚拟前车的位置的增加,在车流密度较小、车速较快的情况下,使得交通流稳定区域增大,但在车流密度较大、车速较慢的情况下,反而使得交通流稳定区域减小。数值模拟结果验证了模型稳定性分析的结果,表明在交通瓶颈处等交通流密度较大、运行缓慢的区域,为抑制交通拥堵,应该限制车辆的横向偏移和超车行为的发生。%In order to depict the real car-following behaviors better, in this paper we present a new car-following model by introducing the effect parameter of lateral separation distance and proposing the concepts of overtaking expectation and virtual front car based on OV model. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. It is found that with the increase of lateral separation and overtaking expectation, the stability region of traffic flow increases at a low density while it decreases at a high density. The results of numerical simulation verify the analytic results. Thus, in some places like traffic bottlenecks, which usually have a high traffic density, it is necessary to restrict the lateral movement and overtaking behavior of vehicles for suppressing the traffic jam.

  18. Car-following model featured with factors reflecting emergency evacuation situation%基于应急疏散交通特征的车辆跟驰模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红; 魏恒; 刘小明; 杨孝宽

    2008-01-01

    提出了一个应急交通疏散车辆跟驰模型(EECM),模型首次在车辆最小安全间距的动力学推导过程中纳入驾驶员心理行为影响因素,使得跟驰过程更客观地反映在紧急疏散状态下的交通流和疏散驾驶行为特性.通过文献研究分析传统跟驰理论与应急交通疏散跟驰特性的区别,并进一步进行驾驶员问卷调查对应急交通疏散条件下的驾驶心理行为特性进行统计分析,提炼出驾驶员行为差异分布系数和经验判断系数2个参数,并将其纳入车辆安全间距的动力学推导过程,建立了基于驾驶行为特性和最小安全间距的应急交通疏散车辆跟驰模型.应用GPs技术对北京东三环劲松路段高峰小时交通流跟驰数据,对EECM进行了比较验证,结论有力地支持了EECM模型及问卷量化分析的合理性.%A new emergency evacuation car-following model(EECM) is proposed. The model aims to capture the maincharacteristics of traffic flow and driver behavior under anemergency evacuation, and it is developed on the basis ofminimum safety distances with parts of the drivers' abnormalbehavior in a panic emergency situation. A thorough questionnairesurvey is undertaken among drivers of different ages. Based onthe results from the survey, a safety-distance car-following modelis formulated by taking into account two new parameters: adifferential distributing coefficient and a driver' s experientialdecision coefficient, which are used to reflect variations of drivingbehaviors under an emergency evacuation situation whencompared with regular conditions. The formulation and derivationof the new model, as well as its properties and applicability arediscussed. A case study is presented to compare the car-followingtrajectories using observed data under regular peak-hour trafficconditions and theoretical EECM results. The results indicate theconsistency of the analysis of assumptions on the EECM andobservations.

  19. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  20. 考虑双速度差效应的耦合映射跟驰模型%Considering two-velocity difference effect for coupled map car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红霞; 程荣军; 李志鹏

    2011-01-01

    基于Konishi等的研究工作,提出了涉及前方两辆车车头间距的优化速度函数的耦合映射跟驰模型.采用反馈控制方法,研究了耦合映射跟驰模型中的交通拥堵控制.利用反馈控制理论,给出了头车速度发生变化时交通流保持稳定的条件,并与Konishi等得到的结果进行了比较.数值模拟结果表明,所提出的模型在经典的反馈控制方法下描述的交通拥堵现象得到了有效抑制.%Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al,a new coupled map car-following model is presented by considering the headway distance of two successive vehicles in front.The feedback control method presented by Zhao-Gao is utilized to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map car-following model.According to the control theory,the condition under which the traffic jam can be suppressed is analyzed.The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al.The simulation results show that the new model with the feedback control method presented by Zhao-Gao could suppress the traffic jam effectively.

  1. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  2. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  3. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  4. A hospitalização por asma e a carência de acompanhamento ambulatorial Asthma-related hospitalizations and lack of outpatient follow-up treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se as crianças e os adolescentes internados por crise aguda de asma em duas unidades de saúde da cidade do Recife faziam acompanhamento ambulatorial preventivo para controle da asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de uma série de casos de pacientes internados por asma aos quais foi aplicado um questionário no momento da internação para verificar a freqüência de acompanhamento ambulatorial para tratamento profilático. Foi considerado asmático aquele paciente que apresentou duas ou mais crises de broncoespasmo com boa resposta aos broncodilatadores. RESULTADOS: Do total de 169 pacientes internados por asma, 67% (112/167 - dados referentes a 2 pacientes não foram fornecidos foram atendidos exclusivamente em serviços de urgência no período intercrise. Apesar de haver encaminhamento médico para atendimento ambulatorial em 53,3% (89/167 - dados referentes a 2 pacientes não foram fornecidos dos casos, apenas 16% (27/169 dos pacientes efetivamente freqüentavam um ambulatório específico de asma para tratamento preventivo e somente 13% (22/169 usavam medicação profilática. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das crianças e dos adolescentes internados por asma não fazia acompanhamento ambulatorial preventivo. Uma série de problemas, tais como a não referência para acompanhamento ambulatorial após a alta hospitalar, a dificuldade de acesso ao ambulatório e a impossibilidade de se obter a medicação profilática gratuitamente, entre outros fatores relacionados ao sistema de saúde, podem ter contribuído para esta baixa taxa de procura por atendimento ambulatorial. Recomenda-se a implementação de uma política de saúde que possibilite o efetivo funcionamento do programa de controle da asma.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the children and adolescents with acute asthma attacks admitted to two public hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil underwent outpatient follow-up treatment for the prevention and control of asthma

  5. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  6. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Monday 30 October until the evening of Tuesday 31 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  7. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 22 October until the evening of Monday 23 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  8. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  9. 基于单目视觉的跟驰车辆车距测量方法%Method of vehicle distance measurement for following car based on monocular vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余厚云; 张为公

    2012-01-01

    为了解决结构化道路上跟驰车辆的防追尾碰撞问题,首先在对车辆制动模型进行分析的基础上得到了车辆制动距离的计算公式,进而计算出跟驰车辆与前方车辆之间的安全距离.然后,从针孔模型摄像机成像的基本原理出发,推导出基于图像中车道线消失点的车距测量公式.车距测量结果只与图像中的近视场点到摄像机的实际距离有关,无需对所有的摄像机参数进行标定,从而解决了单目视觉车距测量问题.最后,完成了不同距离处前方车辆的车距测量试验.试验结果表明,该方法的车距测量相对误差小于3%,具备了较高的检测精度,能够满足跟驰车辆防追尾碰撞的应用要求.%To solve the problem of rear collision avoidance for the following car on structural road, the formula of braking distance is obtained based on the analysis of the vehicle braking model, and the safety distance is then calculated accordingly. Then, using the basic theory of imaging of a pin-hole model camera, the formula of vehicle distance measurement is deduced based on the vanishing point of lane lines. The formula is related only to the actual distance between the camera and the point of near field of view without calibrating all of the camera parameters, and the vehicle distance measurement can be realized with monocular vision. Finally, experiments for the measurement are performed with the preceding vehicle at different positions. Experimental results demonstrate that the relative error of vehicle distance measurement is less than 3% and the precision can meet the application of collision avoidance for the following car.

  10. ON A CAR-FOLLOWING MODEL BASED ON IMPROVED OPTIMAL VELOCITY FUNCTION AND ITS SIMULATION%一种基于改进优化速度函数的跟驰模型及仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟

    2015-01-01

    Based on full velocity difference (FVD)model,we presented a new car-following model which is based on the improved optimal velocity function.In the improved model,the optimal velocity function further makes use of the acceleration information of preceding vehicle to improve the traffic flow stability apart from considering the influence of between-vehicle distance and velocity difference.We analysed the linear stability of model using small vibration amplitude disturbance method,and obtained the stability condition of the model. Finally we compared the improved model with traditional FVD model,and found that the critical value of sensitivity coefficient of free flow stability in the new model was decreased,but the stability region was significantly enlarged.Numerical simulation results showed that the car-following model based on the improved optimal velocity function could effectively control the traffic flow jams.%在全速度差(FVD)模型的基础上,提出一种基于改进优化速度函数的跟驰模型。在改进模型中,优化速度函数除了考虑车间距和速度差的影响外,还进一步利用了前导车的加速度信息以提高交通流的稳定性。利用小振幅扰动法对模型进行线性稳定性分析,得到了模型的稳定性条件。最后与FVD模型进行比较,发现改进模型中自由流稳定的灵敏度系数临界值变小,稳定区域有明显增加。数值模拟结果表明,基于改进优化速度函数的跟驰模型能有效抑制交通流的堵塞。

  11. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  12. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  13. Modelling of individual car-following behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    In een simulator-experiment naar het volggedrag van automobilisten op autosnelwegen is gebleken dat een continu regelmodel met constante parameters het regelgedrag bij verstoringen adequaat weergeeft, behalve in urgente naderingssituaties.

  14. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  15. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  16. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  17. Numerical simulation of car-following model based on optimal velocity difference between preceding and following vehicles%前后车辆最优速度差跟驰模型与数值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建都; 张俊乐

    2016-01-01

    为了克服经典最优速度(OV)模型仅依据车间距单一因素调整跟驰车最优速度的局限性,在考虑前导车与跟驰车最优速度差信息对交通流稳定性影响的基础上,提出了一种改进的最优速度差(OVD)模型,并通过小振幅摄动法对模型进行了稳定性分析,推导了模型的稳定性条件.最后对改进OVD模型进行了数值仿真.通过线性稳定性分析,发现考虑前后车辆最优速度差后,自由流稳定的临界驾驶员反应灵敏度系数明显减小,稳定区域显著增加.仿真结果表明,与OV跟驰模型相比,在相同初始扰动条件下,改进OVD模型能够明显增强交通流的稳定性.%In order to overcome the deficiency of the classical Optimal Velocity(OV)model adjusting the optimal velocity only by the distance, an improved Optimal Velocity Difference(OVD)model is proposed by taking the effects of the pre-ceding and following vehicle's optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow into account. Then, the model's stability condition is analyzed and deduced using the small vibration amplitude disturbance method. Finally, the simulation analysis of the OVD model is conducted. Through the linear stability analysis, it can be found that the critical drivers' reaction sensitivity coefficient is reduced, obviously the stability region is apparently enlarged after considering the optimal velocity difference between preceding and following vehicles. Simulation results show that compared with the OV model, the improved OVD model is able to notably improve the stability of traffic flow under the same initial disturbance conditions.

  18. 考虑后视效应和速度差信息的跟驰模型%Effect of backward looking and velocity difference in an extended car following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙棣华; 张建厂; 赵敏; 田川

    2012-01-01

    Based on the full velocity difference (FVD) model, an extended car following model is proposed by considering the effect of backward looking and the velocity difference information in the same time. The linear stability condition of the presented model is obtained by employing the linear stability theory. The variation of density wave of traffic flow near the critical point is investigated with the nonlinear analysis method, and then the modified Kortewege-de Vries (mKdV) equation with which the occurrence of traffic jamming transitions can be described is derived. The numerical simulation and corresponding analysis of the extended model shows that by considering the effect of backward-looking and velocity difference information the stability of traffic flow can be enhanced and traffic jam can be suppressed effectively.%考虑后视效应和速度差信息的共同作用,基于全速度差(Full Velocity Difference,FVD)模型,提出了一个扩展的跟驰模型.通过线性稳定性分析,得到了该模型的线性稳定性判据;运用非线性分析方法分析了临界稳定点附近交通流密度波的变化,导出了描述交通阻塞相变时的mKdV方程.对扩展模型进行数值模拟和分析,结果表明考虑后视效应和速度差信息的影响能够增强交通流的稳定性,能有效抑制交通阻塞.

  19. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  20. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  1. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  2. Structural equation model of edge line markings influencing distance headway adjusting behavior in car-following%边缘标线影响跟车车距调节行为的结构方程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁乃侃; 朱顺应; 王红; 焦泥沙

    2016-01-01

    The effects of edge line markings on drivers'adjusting behavior of the distance headway were studied,from the perspective of visual perception like distance perception,speed perception, and collision estimation.Naturalistic vehicle flow data was collected from on-road field observa-tions.Based on the data,the interactive causal relationship of various factors that influence car-fol-lowing behavior was explored with a structural equation model (SEM).The results show that the in-stallation angle of edge line markings,the type of leading vehicle,time frequency,and time-to-col-lision (TTC)can significantly enlarge the following distance headway.The enlargement in distance headway due to these factors can be attributed to the increase of the absolute deceleration (decrease of the actual deceleration)of following vehicles.The distance-related factors can induce a stronger perception of risk,which eventually brings out the most significant changes in distance headway. This study provides a new method for reducing rear-end collisions to improve traffic safety.%从驾驶员距离感知、速度感知以及碰撞估计等视知觉角度,研究了边缘标线对驾驶员跟车车距调节行为的影响。通过开展路上试验,采集真实车流数据,运用结构方程模型探索了多个因素影响跟车行为的交互因果关系。结果显示:边缘标线铺设角度、前车车型、时间频率以及碰撞时间均能显著增大跟车车头间距;这些因素引起的车头间距增大可能是由于它们会导致跟车减速度绝对值的增大(实际值减小);距离因素可以引起更强烈的危险性感知,并呈现为更显著的车头间距变化。本研究为减少追尾碰撞事故和提高道路交通安全水平提供了一种新的方法。

  3. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  4. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  5. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  6. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  7. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  8. 多前车速度差的车辆跟驰模型的稳定性与孤波%Analysis of the stability and solitary waves for multi-velocity difference car-following model of traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁娜; 化存才

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the characteristic of the multiple velocity difference car-following model. We obtain the stability conditions of the model by using the linear stability analysis, and find that the stable region is apparently enlarged by adjusting the information about the multi-velocity difference. We study the nonlinear characteristics of the model by applying the reductive perturbation method. We obtain the Burgers equation and the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mKdV) equation around the critical point and the Korteweg-de- Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line in the stable region and the unstable region and the metastable region. The soliton solution of Burgers equation, the kink-antikink solution of mKdV equation, and the solition solution of KdV equation describe the traffic jams.%通过线性稳定性分析,得到了多前车速度差模型的稳定性条件,并发现通过调节多前车信息,使交通流的稳定区域明显扩大.通过约化摄动方法研究了该模型的非线性动力学特性:在稳定流区域,得到了描述密度波的Burgers方程;在交通流的不稳定区域内,在临界点附近获得了描述车头间距的修正的Korteweg—deVries(modified Korteweg-de Vries,mKdV)方程;在亚稳态区域内,在中性稳定曲线附近获得了描述车头间距的KdV方程.Burgers的孤波解、mKdV方程的扭结一反扭结波解及KdV方程的孤波解描述了交通流堵塞现象.

  9. Car-following model based on the information of the nearest-neighbor leading car’s acceleration%基于最紧邻前车加速度信息的跟驰模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修云; 周桐; 杨智勇

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively enhance the stability performance of traffic flow,based on the optimal velocity difference (OVD)model,an improved model containing acceleration term is deduced with the consideration of the effect of information about the nearest-neighbor leading car’s acceleration to the following car.In the model,a parameter p is introduced,which expresses the consideration of the nearest-neighbor leading car’s acceleration.The linear stable judging condition is obtained by linear stability analysis.Simulation results are compared with those of OVD model.It shows negative velocity under the low sensitivity can be avoided by adjusting the parameter p , and the stability of traffic flow is enhanced.Therefore,the model can not only suppress traffic jam more effectively but describe the actual traffic phenomenon more precisely.It provides theoretical fundaments for cooperative driving.%为了提高车流的稳定性能,考虑最紧邻前车加速度信息的影响,在优化速度差模型(Optimal velocity difference,OVD)的基础上,引入参数 p 表示驾驶人对最紧邻车辆加速度信息的关注程度,提出了含加速度项的跟驰模型。通过线性稳定性分析,得到交通流的临界稳定判据。数值仿真表明新模型与 OVD 模型比较,通过调节参数 p ,可以避免在低敏感系数下 OVD 模型中负速度现象的出现,同时,加速度效应对车流致稳效果更加明显。因此,研究模型能更有效地增强车流稳定性能和更好地描述实际交通流现象,为多车协同驾驶策略提供了先导作用。

  10. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  11. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  12. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  13. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  14. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  15. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, K. Aron, and J. Fendell "N2 and 00 Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CHI/N20 Flames," Proceedings of the Nineteenth...JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CIIA Publication No. 366, 1982, p 123. 21. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , "N and CO Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational...9 6 5 . p 3 8 4 . . . . . 23. J. Fendell , L. E, Harris, and K. Aron, "Theoretical Calculation of 11 CARS S-Branches for Propellant Flames

  16. Ortho-Aminoazotoluene activates mouse Constitutive Androstane Receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-01-01

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car−/−) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car−/− livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. PMID:21672546

  17. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  18. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  19. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  20. Implementation of Fuzzy-PID in Smart Car Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>An unmanued smart car control system and the fuzzy-PID control algorithm are produced.A design scheme of fuzzy-PID controller is put forward.The simulation analysis from matlab indicated that the dynamic performance of fuzzy-PID control algorithm is better than that of usual PID.Experimental result of smart car show that it can follow the black guid line well and fast-stable complete running the whole trip.

  1. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  2. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  3. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006. Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD). Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC Group Tel. 163380 - 164043

  4. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006.Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD).Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC GroupTel. 163380 - 164043

  5. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  6. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  7. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  8. Derivação carótido-carotídea por via retrofaríngea: seguimento tardio Retropharyngeal carotid-carotid crossover bypass: late follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Roech Aerts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversas opções para o tratamento da doença oclusiva dos troncos supra-aórticos, de acordo com a apresentação clínica e a localização das lesões arteriais. As abordagens cervicais são aceitas como alternativas de baixa morbimortalidade, com elevada perviedade em longo prazo. Os autores relatam um caso tratado com sucesso através de derivação carótido-carotídea cruzada por via retrofaríngea associada à endarterectomia da bifurcação carotídea. São discutidos também os aspectos clínicos e as opções cirúrgicas ou endovasculares para o melhor tratamento desses pacientes.A variety of therapeutic options are available to manage the disease of supra-aortic trunks based on clinical presentations and anatomic location of the arterial lesions. The cervical approach is accepted as having low morbidity and mortality with elevated long-term patency. The authors report a successfully treated case of carotid-carotid crossover bypass by the retropharyngeal route associated with endarterectomy of carotid bifurcation. We also discuss clinical aspects, and surgical or endovascular options for the best treatment of these patients.

  9. Company car study 2011. Reduction of environmental impacts by influencing the selection process of company cars; Tyoesuhdeautotutkimus 2011. Ympaeristoehaittojen vaehentaeminen autonvalinnan ohjauksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify: What kinds of operational models directing towards eco-friendlier company car use there are and which are in use. What kinds of practical impacts these operational models have had. What is the demand for company car use and what changes have taken place from the viewpoint of companies and beneficiaries. What factors should the best company car taxation include in terms of directiveness (from the environmental point of view). The main objective is to find directive factors in company car use which would result in smaller environmental impacts and which company car users could commit themselves to. The main target groups of the study were the recipients of company car benefits, and enterprises using company cars. Company cars are mainly used for two reasons: in many organisations, work is carried out where the customer is, in which case company cars are used for reducing travel costs. On the other hand, a company car is a significant means for attracting and motivating employees, especially skilled experts and management staff. Company cars also play a significant role in the replacement rate of Finnish motor vehicles. The car selection rules of organisations determine the roles that entitle an employee to have a company car and how they can choose their car. Factors restricting the choice are usually CO{sub 2} and the price and make of the car. The CO{sub 2} limit is used by about 70% of organisations. According to this study, the average emission limit is 168 g/km, depending on the company and the position of the beneficiary. However, the average CO{sub 2} emissions of new company cars are currently about 140 g/km, and therefore the emission limits of organisations have not followed the development of motor technology. In entrepreneurship, environmental issues will be regarded as very important in the future, and there is also a notion for this to be reflected in the guidelines for selecting company cars. Emissions reduction

  10. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  11. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  12. CAR_Tleukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and young adults (age 1 to age 30) with chemotherapy-resistant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experienced high remission rates following treatment with an experimental immunotherapy. Results demonstrated that the immunotherapy treatmen

  13. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  14. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  15. Mathematical model of convection diathermanous coefficient of refrigerator car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is analyzed that the influence factors on temperature field of refrigerator car. The mathematical model of convection diathermanous coefficient has been put forward. It is considered in the model that the parameters of wind speed, ear speed, temperature of car surface, temperature of surroundings, etc. If the boundary conditions and parameters used in calculation model of convection transmits heat coefficient are confirmed as following: the cold plank car velocity V is 120 km/h, and air temperature is 25℃, and the atmosphere press is 1013250 Pa, and wind velocity V f is 10 m/s, and the length of car bodywork L is 5 m, and body work surface temperature is 25℃. The results were obtained by the model: when the wind velocity direction is the same as car velocity, the coefficient K of convection transmits heat is 51.4 ( W·m-2·K-1) , and when the wind velocity direction is against the car velocity. K is 90.58 ( W·m-2·K-1) .

  16. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  17. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    This paper explores the experiences of different emotions that develop during commuting practices between home and the workplace. In an explorative form, the analyses will elucidate on the various emotional states of the drivers as they drive through different urban and rural landscapes and manages...... different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...

  18. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  19. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  20. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  1. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  2. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  3. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  4. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  5. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  6. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  7. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    .... After the two tank cars were kicked into the yard track by the switchman, he noticed that the knuckle on... adoption of car-handling procedures during flat switching operations at certain locations and to re-emphasize the importance of following procedures when going between rolling equipment due to the...

  8. The Probability Distribution of Inter-car Spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Jin Guo; Han, Dong

    In this paper, the celluar automation model with Fukui-Ishibashi-type acceleration rule is used to study the inter-car spacing distribution for traffic flow. The method used in complex network analysis is applied to study the spacings distribution. By theoretical analysis, we obtain the result that the distribution of inter-car spacings follows power law when vehicle density is low and spacing is not large, while, when the vehicle density is high or the spacing is large, the distribution can be described by exponential distribution. Moreover, the numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

  9. Car-Like Mobile Robot Oriented Positioning by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ouadah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic controllers (FLC are used to implement an efficient and accurate positioning of an autonomous car-like mobile robot, respecting final orientation. To accomplish this task, called "Oriented Positioning", two FLC have been developed: robot positioning controller (RPC and robot following controller (RFC. Computer simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Finally, real-time experiments have been made on an autonomous car-like mobile robot called "Robucar", developed to perform people transportation. Obtained results from experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  11. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  12. The CERN car stickers for 2008 are now available

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2008 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the following documents: the 2007 sticker for the vehicle in question, the "carte grise" registration paper of the vehicle in question (photocopies accepted). If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2008 sticker using the request form on the Web.NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2007. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  13. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  14. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  15. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  16. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  17. Car-following under non-congested and congested conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijker, T.; Bovy, P.H.L.; Vermijs, R.G.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    In traffic flow analysis several regimes are distinguished, such as congested and non-congested flow conditions. Indications exist that driving behavior differs by regime, and that it may change discontinuously between regimes. In contrast, most traffic flow models used today basically assume the sa

  18. MEASURING DRIVING PERFORMANCE BY CAR-FOLLOWING IN TRAFFIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; DEWAARD, D; MULDER, Lambertus J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of impairing effects on driving performance by such external factors as alcohol, medicinal drugs, or mobile telephoning, etc., is extended with a new test. Most existing methods of measuring impairing effects in the actual driving environment have the drawback that, irrespective of h

  19. Analysis of car-following model with cascade compensation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Cascade compensation mechanism was designed to improve the dynamical performance of traffic flow system. Two compensation methods were used to study unit step response in time domain and frequency characteristics with different parameters. The overshoot and phase margins are proportional to the compensation parameter in an underdamped condition. Through the comparison we choose the phase-lead compensation method as the main strategy in suppressing the traffic jam. The simulations were conducted under two boundary conditions to verify the validity of the compensator. The conclusion can be drawn that the stability of the system is strengthened with increased phase-lead compensation parameter. Moreover, the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  20. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  1. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  2. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  3. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  4. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  5. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  6. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  7. High-performance turbocharger for motor sports cars; Motor sports yo turbo ni tsuibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Motor sports car with a turbo-charged gasoline or diesel engine ranges over racing car, prototype car and production cars from light vehicle to large truck. Not only a large output power but also a high torque ranging from a low- revolution region of engines to a high-revolution region are required for turbochargers for racing cars. The turbocharger for racing cars requires the following features: (1) The latest fluid performance for achieving a high pressure ratio, high efficiency and large capacity, (2) a high reliability for bearing high exhaust temperature, (3) a high-response rotation part with low inertia moment, (4) a loss reduction bearing for improving a response and total performance, and (5) the small light-weight turbocharger for balancing a car with an engine. The turbocharger for motor sports cars has developed various advanced technologies concretely for achieving a high running performance and low fuel consumption required for automobiles. Such advanced technologies developed for motor races will also contribute to the growth of an automobile industry in the future. (NEDO)

  8. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  9. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  10. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  11. Evolution of the crashworthiness and aggressivity of the Spanish car fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Méndez, Alvaro; Aparicio Izquierdo, Francisco; Arenas Ramírez, Blanca

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a passenger car's year of registration and its crashworthiness and aggressivity in real-world crashes. Crashworthiness is defined as the ability of a car to protect its own occupants, and has been evaluated in single and two-car crashes. Aggressivity is defined as the ability to protect users travelling in other vehicles, and has been evaluated only in two-car crashes. The dependent variable is defined as the proportion of injured drivers who are killed or seriously injured; following previous research, we refer to this magnitude as injury severity. A decrease in the injury severity of a driver is interpreted as an improvement in the crashworthiness of their car; similarly, a decrease in the injury severity of the opponent driver is regarded as an improvement in aggressivity. Data have been extracted from the Spanish Road Accident Database, which contains information on every accident registered by the police in which at least one person was injured. Two types of regression models have been used: logistic regression models in single-car crashes, and generalised estimating equations (GEE) models in two-car crashes. GEE allow to take account of the correlation between the injury severities of drivers involved in the same crash. The independent variables considered have been: year of registration of the subject car (crashworthiness component), year of registration of the opponent car (aggressivity component), and several factors related to road, driver and environment. Our models confirm that crashworthiness has largely improved in two-car crashes: when crashing into the average opponent car, drivers of cars registered before 1985 have a significantly higher probability of being killed or seriously injured than drivers of cars registered in 2000-2005 (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.61; 2.01). In single-car crashes, the improvement in crashworthiness is very slight (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% confidence interval

  12. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 44 / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  13. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  15. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  16. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  17. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  18. CRISPR Meets CAR T-cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, researchers have devised a method to deliver a CAR gene to a specific locus, TRAC, in T cells. This targeted approach yielded therapeutic cells that were more potent even at low doses; in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, they outperformed CAR T cells created with a randomly integrating retroviral vector.

  19. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  20. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  1. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  2. Application of Freeman Chain Codes: An Alternative Recognition Technique for Malaysian Car Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jusoh, Nor Amizam

    2011-01-01

    Various applications of car plate recognition systems have been developed using various kinds of methods and techniques by researchers all over the world. The applications developed were only suitable for specific country due to its standard specification endorsed by the transport department of particular countries. The Road Transport Department of Malaysia also has endorsed a specification for car plates that includes the font and size of characters that must be followed by car owners. However, there are cases where this specification is not followed. Several applications have been developed in Malaysia to overcome this problem. However, there is still problem in achieving 100% recognition accuracy. This paper is mainly focused on conducting an experiment using chain codes technique to perform recognition for different types of fonts used in Malaysian car plates.

  3. Design and Analysis of Automatic Car Park System with Capacity Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mohammed Gujja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available :The need for an automatic car park gate system has been in increase in recent times following the economic situation in present days. The circuit is aimed at eliminating manual operation of a car park. It incorporate the use of LM741 op-amp and CD4017 decade counter for controlling the number of vehicle that can have access to the parking premises and the circuit is fixed close to the gate with the sensor tragically located where it can sense the presence of a car. The light dependent resistor (LDR senses both entrance and exit of the cars and this followed the maximum of three cars in the case of this design. As a monitoring and control system, when you comes close to the gate the light dependent resistor senses an incoming car which allows the gate to open automatically and closed when done. This process is same for outgoing cars. This module make use of an optical sensor, whose resistance changes with the intensity of light (Horowitz, 1980 the type use is ORP12 and it has a dark resistance of 10MΩ. When light rays are focused on the light dependent resistor (LDR, the resistance becomes very low (0-500Ω but when the rays are interrupted, the increases to its dark resistance (Huiyu, 2010. The variable resistor is used to vary the sensitivity of the light dependent resistor. It is otherwise called dark activated sensor. For the design two conditions are considered. First, when light rays are focused on the ORP12, and second, when the rays are being interrupted. The counter registers and displays the number of vehicle crossing the gate (both entrance and exit and allows maximum of three cars. Once the maximum is reached, the gate entrance remains closed and inaccessible, until another vehicle leaves the park. The car park system comprises of the sensor unit, trigger circuitry, display unit (switching unit and the power supply unit.

  4. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  5. Biology and clinical application of CAR T cells for B cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marco L; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have generated broad interest in oncology following a series of dramatic clinical successes in patients with chemorefractory B cell malignancies. CAR therapy now appears to be on the cusp of regulatory approval as a cell-based immunotherapy. We review here the T cell biology and cell engineering research that led to the development of second generation CARs, the selection of CD19 as a CAR target, and the preclinical studies in animal models that laid the foundation for clinical trials targeting CD19+ malignancies. We further summarize the status of CD19 CAR clinical therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including their efficacy, toxicities (cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and B cell aplasia) and current management in humans. We conclude with an overview of recent pre-clinical advances in CAR design that argues favorably for the advancement of CAR therapy to tackle other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves

  7. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  8. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  9. The Stylistic Analysis of car ads languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟苹

    2014-01-01

    Automotive advertising language is mix of phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and discourse language etc., and owning a strong promotional effect which can functioned as a bridge between language expression and promotion system for es-sential products and consumers. As a kind of the commercial advertising, car advertising with its own unique language features not only for product considerably, but also enriches the advertising language. In order to analysis the car ads, this article draws at-tention from the aspects of the phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric and syntax features, and aims to get a further and better analysis or understanding of the car ads Languages.

  10. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Moffatt, Douglas J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-11-08

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm(-1)-3400 cm(-1)), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm(-1)-2970 cm(-1)) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

  11. Omnidirectional Active Vision for Evolutionary Car Driving

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We describe a set of simulations to evolve omnidirectional active vision, an artificial retina scanning over images taken via an omnidirectional camera, being applied to a car driving task. While the retina can immediately access features in any direction, it is asked to select behaviorally-relevant features so as to drive the car on the road. Neural controllers which direct both the retinal movement and the system behavior, i.e., the speed and the steering angle of the car, are tested in thr...

  12. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  13. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  14. Electric cars for Germany; Deutschland stromert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-09-15

    The German government has defined eight model regions in which electric cars will be funded. Results are not available as yet, but there are experts who criticize the focus on electric-powered vehicles. (orig.)

  15. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  16. The individual car transportation and its aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Alina

    2009-01-01

    Automobile transport is integral part of everyday modern live. On the other hand all the time bigger quantity of cars on roads and motorways slows down the transport speed, road are overloaded, congested, thereby human mobility holds down. Last but not least heavy traffic bears much bad influence above all for environment and landscape. On that ground it's needed to analyze individual car transport, its aspects, usage and problems. Consequences, which have been found from research, are in man...

  17. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  18. Travel Time Estimation Using Floating Car Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sevlian, Raffi

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the use of machine learning techniques to accurately predict travel times in city streets and highways using floating car data (location information of user vehicles on a road network). The aim of this report is twofold, first we present a general architecture of solving this problem, then present and evaluate few techniques on real floating car data gathered over a month on a 5 Km highway in New Delhi.

  19. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  20. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  1. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  2. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  3. Modeling Strategic Interactions to Car and Fuel Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  4. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR expression by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL with CARs directed against a variety of tumor associated antigens. Despite the improvements in the design of CARs and expansion of the number of target antigens, there is no universal flow cytometric method available to detect the expression of CARs on the surface of transduced lymphocytes. Methods Currently anti-fragment antigen binding (Fab conjugates are most widely used to determine the expression of CARs on gene-modified lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The limitations of these reagents are that many of them are not commercially available, generally they are polyclonal antibodies and often the results are inconsistent. In an effort to develop a simple universal flow cytometric method to detect the expression of CARs, we employed protein L to determine the expression of CARs on transduced lymphocytes. Protein L is an immunoglobulin (Ig-binding protein that binds to the variable light chains (kappa chain of Ig without interfering with antigen binding site. Protein L binds to most classes of Ig and also binds to single-chain antibody fragments (scFv and Fab fragments. Results We used CARs derived from both human and murine antibodies to validate this novel protein L based flow cytometric method and the results correlated well with other established methods. Activated human PBLs were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing two human antibody based CARs (anti-EGFRvIII, and anti-VEGFR2, two murine antibody derived CARs (anti-CSPG4, and anti

  5. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  6. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  7. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  8. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  9. Thoracic Injury Risk as a Function of Crash Severity - Car-to-car Side Impact Tests with WorldSID Compared to Real-life Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Rosén, Erik; Boström, Ola; Lechelt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Side airbags reduce the risk of fatal injury by approximately 30%. Due to limited real-life data the risk reducing effect for serious injury has not yet been established. Since side airbags are mainly designed and validated for crash severities used in available test procedures little is known regarding the protective effect when severity increases.The objective of this study was to understand for which crash severities AIS3+ thorax occupant protection in car-to-car nearside collisions need to and can be improved. The aim was fulfilled by means of real life data, for older cars without side airbag, and a series of car-to-car tests performed with the WorldSID 50%-ile in modern and older cars at different impact speeds.The real life data showed that the risk of AIS3+ injury was highest for the thorax followed by the pelvis and head. For both non-senior and senior occupants, most thorax injuries were sustained at lateral delta-v from 20 km/h to 40 km/h. In this severity range, senior occupants were found to have approximately four times higher risk of thoracic injury than non-senior occupants. The crash tests at lateral impact speed 55 km/h (delta-v 32 km/h) confirmed the improved performance at severities represented in current legal and rating tests. The structural integrity of the modern car impacted at 70 km/h showed a potential for improved side impact protection by interior countermeasures.

  10. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  11. Human CAR T cells with cell-intrinsic PD-1 checkpoint blockade resist tumor-mediated inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Leonid; Morello, Aurore; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Jones, David R; Sadelain, Michel; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2016-08-01

    Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1-mediated (PD-1-mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB-based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication. CAR-mediated CD28 and 4-1BB costimulation resulted in similar levels of T cell persistence in animals treated with low T cell doses; however, PD-1 upregulation within the tumor microenvironment inhibited T cell function. At lower doses, 4-1BB CAR T cells retained their cytotoxic and cytokine secretion functions longer than CD28 CAR T cells. The prolonged function of 4-1BB CAR T cells correlated with improved survival. PD-1/PD-1 ligand [PD-L1] pathway interference, through PD-1 antibody checkpoint blockade, cell-intrinsic PD-1 shRNA blockade, or a PD-1 dominant negative receptor, restored the effector function of CD28 CAR T cells. These findings provide mechanistic insights into human CAR T cell exhaustion in solid tumors and suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade may be an effective strategy for improving the potency of CAR T cell therapies.

  12. Intelligent car guidance system (parking support system); Chiteki sharyo yudo system (chusha shien system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This system enables a driver to park the car at a predetermined spot without the driver seeing the outside scene. The system shows on a driver seat display the steps that the driver is to follow and thereby supports the driver when visibility is poor, when the parking space is difficult to approach, when the driver is a novice, or when the driver is aged. The system ensures accurate positioning of the car by showing the steering direction and angle, the car speed, and the force of braking to the driver. For this purpose, the system knows the absolute car position by the use of an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag which is a kind of IC (Integrated Circuit) card and D-GPS (Differential-Global Positioning System), grasps the relative car position by the use of a gyroscope, and collects data from plural sensors, which are complementary to each other, such as a car-speed sensor and a steering sensor. (translated by NEDO)

  13. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  14. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats Metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos durante as lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were determined. RESULTS: Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0. The highest brain ketone bodies (ACT+BHB concentration was verified at 5min of reperfusion, decreasing after 10min of recirculation. Systemic ketone bodies levels increased similarly between test and sham groups. Group S demonstrated a significant increase in cerebral and systemic ACT and BHB concentrations mainly after 40-45min of study. CONCLUSIONS: The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. There was an increased cerebral uptake of ketone bodies following brain ischemia, reaffirming these metabolites as alternative energy substrates under conditions of cerebral metabolic stress as well as its potential role on neuroprotection. The greatest changes in ketone bodies metabolism were verified at initial minutes of recirculation as a result of the reperfusion injury phenomenon.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações in vivo no metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia cerebral induzido pela simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (CCAs em ratos Wistar. M

  15. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  16. Toward brain-actuated car applications: Self-paced control with a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-01

    This study presented a paradigm for controlling a car using an asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and presented the experimental results of a simulation performed in an experimental environment outside the laboratory. This paradigm uses two distinct MI tasks, imaginary left- and right-hand movements, to generate a multi-task car control strategy consisting of starting the engine, moving forward, turning left, turning right, moving backward, and stopping the engine. Five healthy subjects participated in the online car control experiment, and all successfully controlled the car by following a previously outlined route. Subject S1 exhibited the most satisfactory BCI-based performance, which was comparable to the manual control-based performance. We hypothesize that the proposed self-paced car control paradigm based on EEG signals could potentially be used in car control applications, and we provide a complementary or alternative way for individuals with locked-in disorders to achieve more mobility in the future, as well as providing a supplementary car-driving strategy to assist healthy people in driving a car.

  17. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  18. Avaliação metabólica das lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns: estudo experimental em ratos Metabolic evaluation of ischemic and reperfusion brain injury following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Franklin Muniz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as alterações no metabolismo energético após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia global reversível por simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (ACCs em ratos da linhagem Wistar. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (C - Controle; T - Teste e cada um deles redistribuídos em quatro tempos de estudos. Após oclusão bilateral das ACCs por 30min, permitiu-se reperfusão aos animais do grupo T nos tempos 0, 5, 10 e 15min. Foram coletadas amostras de tecido cerebral e sangue arterial sistêmico e quantificados os metabólitos D-glicose (GLI, piruvato (PRV, lactato (LCT e adenosina trifosfato (ATP. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento nos níveis sangüíneos de GLI e PRV de, respectivamente, 85,00% (pPURPOSE: To describe alterations on the energy metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, through an experimental model of reversible global ischemia, by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in rats of Wistar lineage. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (C - Control; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites D-glucose (GLI, pyruvate (PRV, lactate (LCT and adenosine triphosphate (ATP quantified. RESULTS: Increases of GLI and PRV blood values of, respectively, 85,00% (p<0,05 and 51,72% (p<0,01 were observed at 5min of reperfusion, which reflect a systemic response to the cerebral ischemia. The brain's LCT remained stable despite a reduction of 52,66% (p<0,05 in its blood concentration at 15min of reperfusion. The cerebral concentrations of ATP decreased 85,40% (p<0,05 after ischemia, followed by an augmentation of 3.033,40% (p<0,05 at 5min

  19. Studies of clobazam and car-driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, B

    1979-01-01

    1 The methodology used in studies to assess the effects of drugs on car-driving performance is reviewed. 2 Clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg or placebo were administered daily for 3 d to 24-male students with a high neuroticism score (on the Cattell Personality Factors Questionnaire). 3 Car driving performance was assessed on the second day in real traffic conditions; tests of attention and concentration and subjective assessments were made on the third day. 4 Diazepam 10 mg significantly impaired braking reaction time in comparison with clobazam 20 mg and placebo (P less than 0.01). Subjects also reported feeling more 'depressed' and lethargic after diazepam.

  20. Audi cars Sponsored to Summer Davos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong

    2009-01-01

    @@ During the upcoming Summer Davos in Asia this year,it is not only the grand affair to Dalian city,but also for the Audi cars,as the exclusive vehicle sunnlier for the event The Vehicle Handover Ceremony of the Faw Volkswagen Audi was held at Xinghai Square,Dalian,China,September 3,2009. Faw Volkswa,vehicle sponsor of the Summer Davos 2009,provides a total of 85 new Audi cars to be running for the distinguished guests during the meeting.

  1. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  2. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  3. Scientists Explain Catalysis Neutralizing Car's Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The neutralization of the car's tail gas is a problem of practical importance in the eyes of both experimental and theoretical physicists. Recently, a group of CAS scientists join hands with the Queen's University of Belfast in the UK to make advances in exploring the process of CO oxidation in a bid to reduce the air pollution caused by the car's exhaust gas. The work has been supported by the "National 973Program" and the CAS Foundation for Overseas Studies. On March 4,its result was published by the Internet edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

  4. Differentiation of car rental services in the Croatian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Karlo Marijanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of service companies focus on service differentiation nowadays. The companies that manage to deliver superior service are winners and may serve as an example of how the growth of services has changed business. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the Croatian car rental services market. The theoretical part of the paper provides an insight into the characteristics of services in general, followed by an overview of the characteristics and features of the companies operating in the local market. The second part of the paper deals with the work of Porter and his three generic strategies, and with his differentiation strategy in particular. Subsequently, all possibilities of differentiation strategies that are appropriate to the car rental services are analyzed. Beside global recession, the Croatian market is currently also struggling with huge competition and companies cannot generate profit without continuous differentiation of all elements of service. In the third chapter the following hypothesis is set: By a continuous differentiation of all elements of the services marketing mix small businesses can compete with large international companies. Acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is shown by the research conducted among users of the specific service. Its results fully confirm the set hypothesis. The fact that, despite global recession, the majority of respondents believes the survival of small- and medium-sized companies which continuously differentiate their business activities to be unquestionable is indeed encouraging.

  5. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  6. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  7. Picasso, Car Classics, and the Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosk, Julie H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a college course which introduces engineering and business students to abstract art. Students study the relationships between abstract styles in painting and abstract styles in twentieth-century architecture and industrial design. The relevance of abstract design principles is shown by referring students to "Car and Driver" magazine. (AM)

  8. Business Class in a race car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    It's not a car, it's not a bus, it's not a truck, and it's not even a super stretch limousine. What is being built in Delft is the much-discussed Superbus, which is to travel from door to door, reaching speeds of 250 kilometres per hour. This summer this new form of public transport is to enter serv

  9. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  10. The second French car; Der zweite Franzose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    The Flence Z.E. is the second electric-powered car that French manufacturer Renault presented within a short period of time. The limousine has a roomy passenger compartment but little space for luggage. Refuelling is possible by battery exchange within just a few minutes, but not in Germany.

  11. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...

  12. Design And Development of Aerosolar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someswara Rao K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and development of aerosolar car. A aerosolar car is a vehicle, which is powered by wind and sun’s energy. This car is a light weight, low power vehicle designed. They have limited seating (two people, they have very little cargo capacity, and they can be driven during the days and Nights also by using dynamo motor attachment on the front of the vehicle. It does, however, offer an excellent opportunity to develop future technologies that can be applied to practical applications. The main components of an Aerosolar car are its solar arrays & alternators which collect the energy from the sun & wind respectively and convert it into electrical energy. The process of combining these mechanical and electrical components is not an easy task especially at the design stage because of the individual part specific characteristic and function. Since the development cost is one of the major constraints for this project, the sustainable design concept was implemented. Suitable parts which can be easily recycled and re-used, with desired functions that contribute to vehicle optimum performance are properly selected.

  13. Costimulation Engages the Gear in Driving CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abken, Hinrich

    2016-02-16

    In this issue of Immunity,Kawalekar et al. (2016) find that costimulation by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can control T cell metabolism and balance the response toward long-lived memory or short-lived effector cells. The results provide a rationale of how to tune cancer immunotherapy more effectively in a hostile tumor environment.

  14. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  15. What Are Behind The Electric Car Heat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Is the world's auto industry going to change greatly in the future 3-5 years so that ICEs will fade out?Will this electric car heat repeat itselfjust like it did in the history? The Chinese government issued pro- grams in Jan 2009 to cheer up the auto industrv.The plans include enacting new energy vehicle strategy,industrializing

  16. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  17. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium...

  18. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public ... throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion and disorientation. READ IN SUMMER Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal ...

  19. Opioids No Better Than Ibuprofen for Pain After Car Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Car Crash: Study But more patients prescribed powerful painkillers were still taking them 6 weeks later To ... persistent pain after a car crash, prescription opioid painkillers such as oxycodone (Oxycontin) are no more effective ...

  20. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  1. Study concerning the loads over driver's chests in car crashes with cars of the same or different generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Năstăsoiu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing occupant injuries for cars involves in traffic accidents is a main target of today cars designers. Known as active or passive safety, many technological solutions were developing over the time for an actual better car's occupant safety. In the real world, in traffic accidents are often involved cars from different generations with various safety historical solutions. The main aim of these papers are to quantify the influences over the car driver chest loads in cases of same or different generation of cars involved in side car crashes. Both same and different cars generations were used for the study. Other goal of the paper was the study of in time loads conformity for diver's chests from both cars involved in crash. The paper's experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2015 PC-Crash Seminar”. In all crashes we obtaining results from both dummy placed in impacted and hits car. The novelty of the paper are the comparisons of data set from each of driver (dummy) of two cars involved in each of six experimental crashes. Another novelty of this paper consists in possibilities to analyse the influences of structural historical cars solutions over deformation and loads in cases of traffic accidents involved. Paper's conclusions can be future used for car passive safety improvement.

  2. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  3. Stand-off detection of alcohol vapours in moving cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Kubicki, Jan; Młyńczak, Jaroslaw; Mierczyk, Jadwiga; Hackiewicz, Klaudia

    2016-12-01

    In this article we present the research on optoelectronic system for stand-off detection of alcohol vapours in moving cars. The idea of using commercially available cascade lasers was presented. Special attention was paid to the optical characteristics of the car windowpanes. It was shown that using 3.45 μm and 3.59 μm wavelengths the alcohol vapours inside a car can be successfully detected even for cars with different windows

  4. An Unusual Os Trigonum Syndrome Case Secondary to Car Accident: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The os trigonum syndrome is a common cause of posterior ankle pain, often affecting ballet dancers, soccer players, runners and gymnasts who frequently force the ankle into plantar flexion. In rare cases, onset of the os trigonum syndrome followed an acute injury. Case Presentation A 62-year-old female patient was admitted with load depended ankle pain and swelling, lasting for five years which promptly started after a car accident. We incidentally discovered os trigonum on plain radiography on a lateral view of the right ankle. Conclusions The os trigonum syndrome should take in consideration in elderly subject who had posterior ankle pain starting after a car accident.

  5. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification... 1941 are not authorized. (2) For each tank car conforming to and used under an exemption issued...

  6. CarD: a new RNA polymerase modulator in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christina L; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria CarD is an essential RNAP binding protein that regulates many transcripts including rRNA. This article will review our present state of knowledge regarding CarD and compare the known functions of CarD with other RNAP binding proteins in E. coli, emphasizing how this information can guide future investigations.

  7. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  8. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  9. Analysis of motion of the body of a motor car hit on its side by another passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewski, M.; Prochowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Based on an analysis of the course of a few experimental crash tests, a physical model and afterwards a mathematical model were prepared to describe the motion of bodies of the vehicles involved during the phase of impact. The motion was analysed in a global coordinate system attached to the road surface. Local coordinate systems were also adopted with their origins being placed at the centres of mass of the vehicles. Equations of motion of the model were derived. The calculation results enabled defining the influence of the location of the point of impact against the vehicle side on e.g. the following: - time history of the impact force exerted by the impacting car (A) on the impacted car (B) as well as characteristic values of this force and of the impulse of the impact force; - time histories showing changes in the velocity of the centre of vehicle mass and in the angle of deviation of the velocity vector from the direction of motion of the impacted vehicle before the collision; - trajectory of the centre of mass and angle of rotation of the body of the impacted vehicle. The calculations were focused on the initial period of motion of the body of the impacted vehicle, up to the instant of 200 ms from the start of the collision process. After this time, the vehicles separate from each other and move independently. The results obtained from the calculations covering this initial period make it possible to determine the starting-point values of the parameters to be taken for further calculations of the free post-impact motion of the cars.

  10. CD19 CAR immune pressure induces B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia lineage switch exposing inherent leukaemic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Elad; Nguyen, Sang M; Fountaine, Thomas J; Welp, Kathryn; Gryder, Berkley; Qin, Haiying; Yang, Yinmeng; Chien, Christopher D; Seif, Alix E; Lei, Haiyan; Song, Young K; Khan, Javed; Lee, Daniel W; Mackall, Crystal L; Gardner, Rebecca A; Jensen, Michael C; Shern, Jack F; Fry, Terry J

    2016-07-27

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T cells targeting the CD19 B lineage receptor has demonstrated marked success in relapsed pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Persisting CAR-T cells generate sustained pressure against CD19 that may drive unique mechanisms of resistance. Pre-B ALL originates from a committed pre-B cell or an earlier progenitor, with potential to reprogram into other hematopoietic lineages. Here we report changes in lineage markers including myeloid conversion in patients following CD19 CAR therapy. Using murine ALL models we study the long-term effects of CD19 CAR-T cells and demonstrate partial or complete lineage switch as a consistent mechanism of CAR resistance depending on the underlying genetic oncogenic driver. Deletion of Pax5 or Ebf1 recapitulates lineage reprogramming occurring during CD19 CAR pressure. Our findings establish lineage switch as a mechanism of CAR resistance exposing inherent plasticity in genetic subtypes of pre-B-cell ALL.

  11. In vivo hyperspectral CARS and FWM microscopy of carotenoid accumulation in H. Pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Barlow, Aaron M.; Ridsdale, Andrew; McGinn, Patrick J.; Stolow, Albert

    2014-02-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and four-wave-mixing (FWM) microscopy are a related pair of powerful nonlinear optical characterization tools. These techniques often yield strong signals from concentrated samples, but because of their quadratic dependence on concentration, they are not typically employed for imaging or identifying dilute cellular constituents. We report here that, depending on the excitation wavelengths employed, both CARS and degenerate-FWM signals from carotenoid accumulations in alga cysts can be exceptionally large, allowing for low-power imaging of astaxanthin (AXN) deposits in Haematococcus pluvialis microalga. By use of a broadband laser pulse scheme for CARS and FWM, we are able to simultaneously collect strong intrinsic two-photon-excitation fluorescence signals from cellular chlorophyll in vivo. We show that CARS signals from astaxanthin (AXN) samples in vitro strictly follow the expected quadratic dependence on concentration, and we demonstrate the collection of wellresolved CARS spectra in the fingerprint region with sensitivity below 2mM. We suggest that multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy is sufficiently sensitive to AXN and chlorophyll concentrations that it will allow for non-invasive monitoring of carotenogenesis in live H. pluvialis microalgae.

  12. Quarter Car Suspension System With One Degree Of Freedom Simulated Using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereteu, L.; Perescu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulate the behavior of a quarter car suspension system with Simulink®. Consider only vertical movement of the car, neglecting roll and pitch. All movements of the car axes are modeled as having equal amplitude. The characteristic equations that describe the behavior of dynamical systems based on FBD (Free Body Diagram) of automotive suspension. We make the simulation model in six steps. In simulation we consider the damping coefficient, c, variable. The rest of parameters are constant (mass, speed and stiffness). The simulation parametrs are defined in Mathlab®. We follow the final signal created on the oscilloscope. At the end of the study, we concluded the effect of damping coefficient changes over the comfort.

  13. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front suspension is built and analyzed. With correlation theory, the correlation for the hardpoints of the suspension is studied and discussed. Through all the testing, not only a lot of four wheel alignment parameter variations can be obtained, but also the rational designing for hardpoints which can provide an useful reference for vehicle designing.

  14. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  15. P3 and P4 car parksat Geneva Airport

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has asked us to remind the persons concerned of the following rules, laid down by the Geneva Diplomatic Committee (http://www.eda.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/role/cdgen.p.html), concerning the facilities granted for the parking of vehicles with diplomatic number plates at Geneva International Airport (see the Official News section of Bulletin No. 45/2001): a) P3 car park on the Departures level Vehicles bearing Swiss or French diplomatic number plates are authorised to park in Car Park P3 for one hour free of charge. The white entrance ticket entitles the holder to 15 minutes' free parking. If the period of stay is between 15 minutes and one hour, the persons concerned should go to the 'Centre de Contrôle? on the Arrivals level, which is open 24 hours a day, where they will be able to exchange their white entrance ticket for a pink exit ticket free of charge; they will be required to present their B or C-type carte de légitimation or, if they do not enjoy diplomatic...

  16. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  17. I Go to School by Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Story: The class is talking about how they go to school every day. Kathy says, "I go to school by car." Leo says, "I go to school on foot." Phoebe answers, "I go to school by subway with my dad." And the class asks Miss Grant, "How do you go to school?" Miss Grant answers, "I go to school by motorcycle." The class says, "Wow, so cool!"

  18. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  20. Effect of consumer behaviour and perception on car purchase decision: Empirical Evidence from Lagos - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Samuel Taiwo Akinyele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days Nigeria is witnessing a change in consumerism. The market is now predominantly consumer driven. The focus is shifting for product based marketing to need based marketing. Consumer is given many options to decide. Passenger car segment is no exception to this general trend. An effective market communication is imperative for reaching the target audience. So it is important that we study the consumer perceptions and behaviour of the car owners which will give us feedback on how marketing strategies can be worked. Victoria Island in Lagos State, which is in the Southern part of Nigeria, has a progressive and growing market for cars. This area was selected for this study.Pre-testing was done by an interview schedule which was developed and administered to a convenient sample of twenty five car owners. A simple random sampling technique was adopted in the study to select the sample respondents. As the size of the universe is restricted, the study has been conducted on the respondents who are the owners of all the segments of passenger cars. A total of 350 interview schedules were prepared and out of this, only 327 interview schedules were filled up and collected. Data were collected through an interview schedule regarding reception of the respondents on the usage of cars. The following tools were used in testing the hypotheses and in the analysis of data. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentage, mean, median and standard deviation have been used to describe the profiles of consumers, preferred product attributes and level of satisfaction. ANOVA, T- Test and F- test have been used to test the significant differences between the groups of respondents in their perception and satisfaction for selected independent variable like age, sex and income. Chi-square test has been used to test the association between the consumer demographic characteristics and preferred product attributes and satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis has

  1. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ziyuan; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and adapt their behavior much earlier than regular cars. We propose proactive algorithms for merging different streams of sensor-enabled cars into a single stream. A proactive merging algorithm decouples the decision point from the actual merging point. Sensor-enabled cars allow us to decide where and when a car merges before it arrives at the actual merging point. This leads to a significant improvement in traffic flow as velocities can be adjusted appropriately. We compare proactive merging algorithms against the conventio...

  3. Context-aware smart car: from model to prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SUN; Zhao-hui WU; Gang PAN

    2009-01-01

    Smart cars are promising application domain for ubiquitous computing. Context-awareness is the key feature of a smart car for safer and easier driving. Despite many industrial innovations and academic progresses have been made, we find a lack of fully context-aware smart cars. This study presents a general architecture of smart cars from the viewpoint of contextawareness. A hierarchical context model is proposed for description of the complex driving environment. A smart car prototype including software platform and hardware infrastructures is built to provide the running environment for the context model and applications. Two performance metrics were evaluated: accuracy of the context situation recognition and efficiency of the smart car. The whole response time of context situation recognition is nearly 1.4 s for one person, which is acceptable for non-time critical applications in a smart car.

  4. Detection of chemical interfaces in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Dk-CARS. I. Axial interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, David; Rigneault, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    We develop a full vectorial theoretical investigation of the chemical interface detection in conventional coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In Part I, we focus on the detection of axial interfaces (i.e., parallel to the optical axis) following a recent experimental demonstration of the concept [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213905 (2010)]. By revisiting the Young's double slit experiment, we show that background-free microscopy and spectroscopy is achievable through the angular analysis of the CARS far-field radiation pattern. This differential CARS in k space (Dk-CARS) technique is interesting for fast detection of interfaces between molecularly different media. It may be adapted to other coherent and resonant scattering processes.

  5. Car speed estimation based on cross-ratio using video data of car-mounted camera (black box).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Inhwan

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes several methods for using footages of car-mounted camera (car black box) to estimate the speed of the car with the camera, or the speed of other cars. This enables estimating car velocities directly from recorded footages without the need of specific physical locations of cars shown in the recorded material. To achieve this, this study collected 96 cases of black box footages and classified them for analysis based on various factors such as travel circumstances and directions. With these data, several case studies relating to speed estimation of camera-mounted car and other cars in recorded footage while the camera-mounted car is stationary, or moving, have been conducted. Additionally, a rough method for estimating the speed of other cars moving through a curvilinear path and its analysis results are described, for practical uses. Speed estimations made using cross-ratio were compared with the results of the traditional footage-analysis method and GPS calculation results for camera-mounted cars, proving its applicability.

  6. ADULTEROUS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CAR-OWNER COUPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis PAPON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among approximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purposes?” KQ2: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” Here are the main findings. Renting households are mainly working, high income households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have two wage-sheets and two cars, one of which is generally a recent, high power, high quality car. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit. Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Household car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Household car sharing is mainly a regular practice. Finally, without diminishing the merits of innovative transport solutions proposed here and there, it is not a waste of time to give some insight on self established behaviour within households. This reveals that complex patterns have been built over time by the people themselves, to cope with diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Household car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  8. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  9. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  10. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: functional characterization of the ECF sigma factor CarQ and antisigma factor CarR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Douglas F; Whitworth, David E; Hodgson, David A

    2003-04-01

    Illumination of dark-grown Myxococcus xanthus with blue light leads to the induction of carotenoid synthesis. Central to this response is the activation of the light-inducible promoter, PcarQRS, and the transcription of three downstream genes, carQ, carR and carS. Sequence analysis predicted that CarQ is a member of the ECF (extracytoplasmic function) subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors, and that CarR is an inner membrane protein. Genetic analysis strongly implied that CarR is an antisigma factor that sequesters CarQ in a transcriptionally inactive complex. Using in vitro transcription run-off assays, we present biochemical evidence that CarQ functions as a bacterial sigma factor and is responsible for transcription initiation at PcarQRS. Similar experiments using the crtI promoter failed to implicate CarQ in direct transcription of the crtI gene. Experiments using the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated a protein-protein interaction between CarQ and CarR, providing evidence of a CarQ-CarR complex. The yeast two-hybrid system data also indicated that CarR is capable of oligomerization. Fractionation of M. xanthus membranes with the detergent sarkosyl showed that CarR was associated with the inner membrane. Furthermore, CarR was found to be unstable in illuminated stationary phase cells, providing a possible mechanism by which the CarR-CarQ complex is disrupted.

  11. Development paths of multi-car elevators

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    While the world’s population moves to cities and the height of the building base rises, the limitations of elevator technology become more significant. The greatest problem of the modern elevator is the required space. Related to this is the majority of the hoistway volume, which is not in active use on a traditional single-car elevator. This inefficiency results in a large loss of usable floor space, especially in high-rise buildings. This thesis discusses attempts to solve the inefficie...

  12. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  13. CARS Studies of Nitramine Lova Propellant Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, and J. Fendell , "N2 and CO Vibratioi A.RS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CH -N 0 Flames," Technical Report ARLCD-TR- 83033, ARRADCOM...Dover, NJ, August 1981. I. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. 11. A. C. Eckbreth, Applied Physics Letters, vol...Conference, 1980, p 668. d K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. e Observed frequency iii this work differs by more

  14. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  15. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles; Percepties en attitudes van autobezitters over innovatieve auto's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [Dutch] Om de nadelige effecten van vervoer (automobiliteit in het bijzonder) te beperken, wordt een transitie voorzien van conventionele auto's, rijdend op fossiele brandstoffen, naar duurzame

  16. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  17. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y.

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  19. Car Crash Fatalities Associated With Fire in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. Methods: The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. Results: In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and mi...

  20. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, S.; De Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based car insurance services for which the insurance fee is adapted to measured mileage and driving behaviour. A conjoint experiment shows that consumers prefer their current insurance products to usage ...

  1. MAG ONE novel energy storage for high tech sports car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1993-03-01

    A solar-powered car, the MAG ONE, is discussed. Photovoltaic cells would cover 100 square feet of the car`s body. Solar cells would cover the entire vehicle to intake as much solar energy as possible. By using computerized series-parallel switching of the solar cell system should yield 2-3 horsepower per-hour on a sunny day. An important concept is the proprietary continuously variable hydrostatic transmission capable of 90 percent efficiency.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  3. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of visual car expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Expertise in non-visual domains such as musical performance is associated with differences in gray matter volume of particular regions of the human brain. Whether this is also the case for expertise in visual object recognition is unknown. Here we tested whether individual variability in the ability to recognize car models, from novice performance to high level of expertise, is associated with specific structural changes in gray matter volume. We found that inter-individual variability in expertise with cars was significantly and selectively correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex. Inter-individual differences in the recognition of airplanes, that none of the participants had expertise with, were correlated with structural variability of regions bordering the visual cortex. These results highlight the role of prefrontal regions outside the visual cortex in accessing and processing visual knowledge about objects from the domain of expertise and suggest that expertise in visual object recognition may entail structural changes in regions associated with semantic knowledge.

  5. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  6. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  7. Una variante del carácter cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Aguilar Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo trata de la construcción de una variante del carácter cultural con base en la teoría de las necesidades psicológicas de Erich Fromm y en el carácter social por él desarrollado. Se describen algunas diferencias entre carácter y personalidad y, luego de revisar brevemente la teoría frommiana sobre el tema, se mencionan los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales necesarios para la elaboración del carácter cultural. Este será una herramienta para estudiar las necesida...

  8. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  9. Experimental cross-correlation nitrogen Q-branch CARS thermometry in a spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ball, D.; Robertson, G. N.

    2013-07-01

    A purely experimental technique was employed to derive temperatures from nitrogen Q-branch Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) spectra, obtained in a high pressure, high temperature environment (spark ignition Otto engine). This was in order to obviate any errors arising from deficiencies in the spectral scaling laws which are commonly used to represent nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectra at high pressure. The spectra obtained in the engine were compared with spectra obtained in a calibrated high pressure, high temperature cell, using direct cross-correlation in place of the minimisation of sums of squares of residuals. The technique is demonstrated through the measurement of air temperature as a function of crankshaft angle inside the cylinder of a motored single-cylinder Ricardo E6 research engine, followed by the measurement of fuel-air mixture temperatures obtained during the compression stroke in a knocking Ricardo E6 engine. A standard CARS programme (SANDIA's CARSFIT) was employed to calibrate the altered non-resonant background contribution to the CARS spectra that was caused by the alteration to the mole fraction of nitrogen in the unburned fuel-air mixture. The compression temperature profiles were extrapolated in order to predict the auto-ignition temperatures.

  10. Optimising the noise of future passenger car diesel engines; Geraeuschoptimierung kuenftiger PKW-Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Florian; Schaub, Joschka [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Steffens, Christoph; Kolbeck, Andreas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Pkw-Dieselmotoren

    2013-02-01

    The Institute for Combustion Engines Aachen (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and FEV have examined technical possibilities for improving the noise and comfort characteristics of future passenger car diesel engines. In the following article, the two research partners describe methods for acoustic optimisation by means of cylinder pressure-guided combustion control and design modifications to the engine. Subsequent engine tests confirmed a significant reduction in noise emissions. (orig.)

  11. A forgotten episode of the $\\eta ~Car$ light curve in 1860-1865

    CERN Document Server

    Polcaro, V F

    1993-01-01

    We have found previously unreported observations of the galactic Luminous Blue Variable $\\eta ~Car$ covering the period 1860-1865. Contrary to the current belief, these data suggest that the star reached the first magnitude in 1860-1862, with possible large luminosity fluctuations, followed by a steep fading in 1865. A revised historical light curve of this most interesting object is given. Paper in press in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  12. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Svante [VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO{sub 2} emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run. (author)

  13. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  14. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  15. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  16. Resonant CARS Spectroscopy of s-Tetrazine Vapour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsma, Thijs J.; Hesselink, Wim H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1980-01-01

    CARS experiments on s-tetrazine vapour show that the eletronic resonance enhancement in the Q-branch is most effective for the lower J values. This suggests that the radiationless relaxation rate in the excited state increases with rotational quantum number. Delayed picosecond CARS experiments indic

  17. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street, SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  18. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  19. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing above for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  20. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing below for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  1. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  2. Should the Car Free Day Initiative Be Compulsory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When the Central Government decided to cut down on pollution by calling for a Car Free Day in September,many thought it was a flash in the pan.But on October 27,Kunming,in southwest China’s Ynnnan Province,continued with the practice when private cars were banned from city streets.Now the last Saturday of every month

  3. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...

  4. Trial of car-sharing scheme at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    On 6 July, a sample group of approximately 500 users started a six-month trial of a new car-sharing scheme. The project is an initiative of the General Infrastructure Services Department (GS), in collaboration with the Physics Department (PH) and Hertz car rentals.

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF MOTOR CAR COERCION COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    О. Denysenko; A. Filimonova

    2010-01-01

    A short review of motor car coercion coefficient determination is presented. The models designed for the determination of motor car queues time intervals at the stop line is presented. The estimation of modeling results according to experimental data is carried out.

  6. 49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... over the car or tank. (f) The valve rod handle or control in the dome must be operated several times to... or at a remote location within the facility, such as a control room. The signaling system must— (i... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car unloading. 174.67 Section...

  7. Regulating CAR T Cells: A Remote Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have synthesized small organic molecules called adaptors that have a tumor-specific ligand on one end and FITC on the other. Instead of engineering a different chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T cells for each unique tumor antigen, these antigen-specific adaptors can be used to bridge FITC-binding CAR T and tumor cells.

  8. Child restraint system for children in cars - CREST results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.; Cassan, F.; Trosseille, X.

    2001-01-01

    Child restraint systems (CRS) for cars are intended to protect children in the case of a car accident. Unfortunately their effectiveness is still too low: in the range 30-50% when it would be expected to be much higher. The low effectiveness of child restraint systems can partly be explained for the

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF MOTOR CAR COERCION COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Denysenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A short review of motor car coercion coefficient determination is presented. The models designed for the determination of motor car queues time intervals at the stop line is presented. The estimation of modeling results according to experimental data is carried out.

  10. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, S.; De Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based

  11. Second-Hand Car Market:Restructuring Or Salvation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's second-hand car market is like an unhealthy man.If remains unchanged,he will lose the life power. 11 years in the industry,the Beijing -based Lin Yifeng is among the first agents doing second-hand cars in the city.Lin understands local consumers and has witnessed the grow-

  12. Urban Life: The First Car in Belogradchik [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an example of a small-scale research. The study is grounded on an oral history, presented by D. Ignatova (1893-1982 in 1974. It is a narrative about the first car in Belogradchik, purchased by her husband – Matej Ignatov (1885-1957 in 1921. The car was Ford – T.

  13. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  14. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  15. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Samoškienė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Car sunshade-induced craniofacial injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardoli Mojtaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a man who sustained a craniofacial injury after spontaneous lateral airbag deployment resulting in his face being struck by a car sunshade. This highlights the potential damage that can be caused by any object placed between a lateral airbag and a car occupant. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian man who was the driver in a frontal collision. He had opened the car sunshade and turned it 90° towards the left. As he was driving, he struck a bus, causing the driver's lateral airbag to spontaneously deploy. The airbag pushed the sunshade against his face and injured him. Conclusions Car sunshades can cause significant craniofacial injury. We suggest that sunshade design must be improved to reduce the risk of potential injuries to car occupants. We recommend a new, safer sunshade design.

  17. Modeling the number of car theft using Poisson regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Malina; Ling, Agnes Beh Yen; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis is the most popular statistical methods used to express the relationship between the variables of response with the covariates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors that influence the number of car theft using Poisson regression model. This paper will focus on the number of car thefts that occurred in districts in Peninsular Malaysia. There are two groups of factor that have been considered, namely district descriptive factors and socio and demographic factors. The result of the study showed that Bumiputera composition, Chinese composition, Other ethnic composition, foreign migration, number of residence with the age between 25 to 64, number of employed person and number of unemployed person are the most influence factors that affect the car theft cases. These information are very useful for the law enforcement department, insurance company and car owners in order to reduce and limiting the car theft cases in Peninsular Malaysia.

  18. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyse the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction forces on the wheels. In usual cars, with front-wheel drive, when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this article we also study thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled with the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters in the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion taking into account the dragging forces is also discussed.

  19. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  20. Development of aerodynamics for solar cars; Solar Car no kuryoku kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Ozawa, H.; Higashida, D.; Arai, S.; Ozawa, K.; Aoki, T. [Honda Research and Development Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    In the worldwide attempts for environmental problem, various researches and developments have also been executed on vehicles used the new energies. Among them solar cars using solar cell activated effectively solar energy thought to be unlimited for their energy source are also given many attentions for one of the future cars. In this paper, transition of aerodynamic development of Honda`s `Dream` joined since 1990 to the World solar challenge held in Australia in each three year, ranged to 3,000 km of running distance and positioned at the biggest race in the world was introduced. The `Dream` of `96 could be won a victory of the 4th solar car race in 1996 with new record of the race as aimed. The last aerodynamic resistance of the `Dream` of `96 was promoted 11% in C{sub D}{times}A value in comparison with that of the `Dream` of `93, which also established its aim of performance. In shape of vehicle at super low air resistance, shape improvement around tires and finish accuracy of the body surface became also an important point for improvement of aerodynamic features. 2 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  2. An Intelligent Line Follower Using Ldr Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hannan1

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Line follower robot is a robo car that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black line on the white surface (or vice-verse. It is an integrated design from the knowledge of Mechanical, Electrical and Computer engineering. This paper presents a 700gm weight of a 9W LDR sensor based line follower robot design and fabrication procedure which always directs along the black mark on the white surface.

  3. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with

  4. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  5. Formation of Los Angeles's low density and high car dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Te-qi; JIN Feng-jun

    2009-01-01

    As a typical car-dependent city, Los Angeles (LA) is extensively used as an example in research to illustrate car influences on city form. Focusing on the features of LA's geologic conditions and civil circumstances, we argued that the relationship between LA's low-density pattern and car dependence is more involved than previously deemed simple causality. The low density should be primarily credited to the spacious requirement of the mining industry, frequent earthquakes and multiethnic population of the city. Oil reserves in LA fueled its economic boom and fast urbanization that coincided with the start of mass production of cheap cars, and cars became medium-priced consumables for average families. Politicians preference for short construction-peried projects enabled fast establishment of LA's highway infrastructure. The popularity of car use in return faciliatated further development of the low-density pattern of the city. The low-density urban form and car dependence created environmental and social problems for LA. Looking at P. R. China's motorization and urban development, we found that the trajectory of Beijing's motorization between 1978 and 2003 coincides with that of the U.S. in the 1910s and 1920s. Lessons from LA's urban and transportation development should be suggestive to China's urban and transportation planning.

  6. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  7. Advantages and Applications of CAR-Expressing Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eGlienke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.

  8. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  9. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  10. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  11. Expression of Human CAR Splicing Variants in BAC-Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a key regulator for drug metabolism in liver. Human CAR (hCAR) transcripts are subjected to alternative splicing. Some hCAR splicing variants (SVs) have been shown to encode functional proteins by reporter assays. However, in vivo research on the activity of these hCAR SVs has been impeded by the absence of a valid model. This study engineered an hCAR-BAC-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mouse model by integrating the 8.5-kbp hCAR gene as wel...

  12. Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Diagnosed 13 Years after a Car Accident: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Acar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blunt chest traumas mostly occur due to car accidents and can cause many cardiac complications such as septal rupture, free-wall rupture, coronary artery dissection or thrombosis, heart failure, arrhythmias, and chordae and papillary muscle rupture. One of the most serious complication is tricuspid regurgitation (TR, which can be simply diagnosed by physical examination and confirmed by echocardiography. We describe a 48-year-old female patient, diagnosed with severe TR 13 years after a blunt chest trauma due to a car accident. TR was diagnosed with transthoracic echocardiography and three dimensional transthoracic echocardiography had defined the exact pathology of the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent successful surgery with bioprosthetic valve implantation and was discharged at 6th postoperative day without any complication. The patient had no problem according to the follow-up one month and six months after operation

  13. A rental car strategy for commercialization of hydrogen in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Avenue, Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Kuby, Michael; Clancy, James [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This article proposes a hydrogen rental-car strategy for transitioning from fleets to consumers in Orlando, Florida. Orlando is the No. 1 tourist destination in the United States, but most car renters visit only a few destinations. A hydrogen rental-car fleet serving this cluster of destinations could provide visitors with a positive first exposure to hydrogen vehicles with minimal commitment, creating hydrogen advocates and potential early adopters in their home regions. The rental-car business combines the logistical advantages of a fleet operation with outreach to many consumers. A hydrogen-powered rental-car fleet at the Orlando International Airport could provide guaranteed demand, supporting an initial rollout of refueling stations. We surveyed 435 rental-car customers in Orlando to understand the idea from the consumer point of view. We analyzed the bundles of destinations visited by the respondents and found that only three stations - an existing station at the Orlando International Airport plus new stations near the theme parks and in downtown Orlando - could serve 64% of renters. Half of all respondents indicated a willingness to pay more to rent a hydrogen car, and this subset of customers ranked the ability to use a pollution-free car as the most important factor in their decision. We then identify the major barriers to a hydrogen rental-car business model from the corporate point of view and propose a number of potential solutions. The most significant barrier appears to be the fleet purchase costs, which we think can be offset by the benefits of free media coverage and contained by beginning with converted internal-combustion vehicles and converting eventually to fuel-cell vehicles. We also outline possible synergies with NASA, Disney, refueling stations, manufacturers and state government. (author)

  14. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  15. Entropie analysis of floating car data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gössel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the actual traffic state is a basic prerequisite of modern traffic telematic systems. Floating Car Data (FCD systems are becoming more and more important for the provision of actual and reliable traffic data. In these systems the vehicle velocity is the original variable for the evaluation of the current traffic condition. As real FCDsystems are operating under conditions of limited transmission and processing capacity the analysis of the original variable vehicle speed is of special interest. Entropy considerations are especially useful for the deduction of fundamental restrictions and limitations. The paper analyses velocity-time profiles by means of information entropy. It emphasises in quantification of the information content of velocity-time profiles and the discussion of entropy dynamic in velocity-time profiles. Investigations are based on empirical data derived during field trials. The analysis of entropy dynamic is carried out in two different ways. On one hand velocity differences within a certain interval of time are used, on the other hand the transinformation between velocities in certain time distances was evaluated. One important result is an optimal sample-rate for the detection of velocity data in FCD-systems. The influence of spatial segmentation and of different states of traffic was discussed.

  16. De Finetti Theorem on the CAR Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismale, Vitonofrio; Fidaleo, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend the De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self-containing interest.

  17. De Finetti theorem on the CAR algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Crismale, Vito

    2012-01-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self--containing interest.

  18. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  19. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  20. Joining three car body steel sheets by clinching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaščák, Ľuboš; Spišák, Emil; Majerníková, Jana

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of a car body in terms of cost can be achieved by using different materials in various positions of the car in order to utilize specific properties of each different material. Resistance spot welding is the most used method of joining in car body production, but it is not always easy or even possible to join some combination of materials by this method. Clinching is an alternative method to spot welding, as a combination of drawing and forming. The research is focused on the evaluation of clinched joints' properties using shearing test and metallographic observation of material structure.

  1. Car park mapping with simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    voir basilic : http://emotion.inrialpes.fr/bibemotion/2004/Tay04/ type: Mémoire de Diplôme d'Études Approfondies institution: Inst. Nat. Polytechnique de Grenoble; One of the challenges in the automation of vehicles takes place in the car park. Automatic vehicles must be able to localize itself accurately and build a map of the car park in real time. This capability will be able to extend the range of possible applications including the tracking of car park lots availability, automatic naviga...

  2. The Formation of Usage Intention of Electric Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbarossa, Camilla; de Pelsmacker, Patrick; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we propose a model in which green self-identity (GSI) is an antecedent of both environmental concern (EC) and moral obligation (MO), which in turn influence the attitude towards electric cars (ATT). GSI is also assumed to have a direct effect on ATT. The attitude towards...... the electric car then determines the intention to adopt it. The model is empirically tested in three culturally different European countries: Denmark, Belgium and Italy. Results show that the three countries differ in the way they develop positive attitudes and intentions towards the electric car on the basis...

  3. Finding η Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer. I. Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby (lsim 4 Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs. We find 34 candidates with a flat or rising mid-IR spectral energy distributions toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths that emit >105 L ⊙ in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 μm) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 ± 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of η Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like η Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M ⊙ star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 μm, allowing identification of η Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  4. The Fast Follower: Coming Up Behind Development Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    their sponsor’s investment. In the commercial technical marketplace, this tale also is com- mon. Alta Vista, not Google , was credited with creating...competitive advantage by finding unique innovative applications of these leading-edge technologies to solve problems for its customers. Like the stock- car ...racer, the fast follower drafts behind the first mover, allowing the lead car to absorb all the resistance while conserving its own resources. Then

  5. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  6. Project CarGO tram at Dresden; Projekt CarGo Tram in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Eberstein, F.; Franke, M. [Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Next year, the Glassen Volkswagen Factory, which is currently under construction, will commence the production of luxury class automobiles. Already buying a car is meant to be a special event; thus the factory is set in a baroque environment, near the famous Semper Opera and Picture Gallery. This arrangement, hitherto without example, will be accompanied by another, equally remarkable project. The factory, which is situated in a central city area being very sensitive in terms of urban development and traffic installations, will be delivered raw materials and parts using a CarGo Tram. Two bi-directionally operated, 60 metres long five-car trains will transport the parts from the railway cargo hub at Dresden Friedrichstadt to the factory in cycles of 40 minutes. There and at the Glassen Factory in Grosser Garten, separate track terminals will be built. In addition to the historic past and the charming scenery of the Elbe metropolis Dresden and its environs, soon also the CarGo Tram and the Glassen Factory will attract guests from all over the world to visit this innovative and culturally important city in the centre of Europe. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2001 beginnt die Produktion von Automobilen der Oberklasse in der derzeit noch im Bau befindlichen Glaesernen Manufaktur der Volkswagen Automobil-Manufaktur Dresden GmbH. In einem barocken Umfeld, mit raeumlicher Naehe zur Semperoper und Gemaeldegalerie, soll bereits der Verkauf dieser Fahrzeuge zu einem Erlebnis werden. Dieses bisher einmalige Vorhaben wird von einem zweiten, ebenso einzigartigen Vorhaben begleitet. Die Belieferung der in einem staedtebaulich und verkehrlich sensiblen Innenstadtbereich gelegenen Manufaktur erfolgt mit einer Gueterstrassenbahn. Zwei 60 Meter lange, fuenfteilige Zweirichtungsfahrzeuge werden ab Maerz 2001 etwa im 40-Minutentakt die Anlieferung der Zulieferteile aus dem Gueterverkehrszentrum Dresden-Friedrichstadt uebernehmen. Hier und an der Glaesernen Manufaktur im Grossen Garten werden

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPENSION BRACKET AND TIRES ON LOADING OF WHEELS OF THE CAR WHEN MOVING ON A MULCH BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing settlement modes of loading of wheels of cars are defined for the conditions which are closest to road service conditions and are reflected in the existing standards. However these standards can't be applied to an assessment of functional qualities of systems of cushioning the cars which are operated in the conditions of agricultural production. The small step of roughnesses, change the cushioned characteristics under the influence of operational factors lead to emergence of the off-design modes of the movement. The purpose of the work was the research of loading of wheels of the car when moving on mulch of grains. For the purpose of obtaining characteristics of the roughnesses influencing car wheels we have recorded a smoothed microprofile of the field and got the statistics, rated autocorrelated function, spectral density of influence of a microprofile. For carrying out the researches the known mathematical model of a car road system was accepted. Influence of speed of the movement, normal rigidity of springs and tires, coefficients of damping of a suspension bracket and tires on vertical fluctuations and loading of wheels of forward and back axes of the car is investigated. The executed researches showed that the movement of the car is followed by fluctuations of indicators of loading of running system with obviously expressed periodic components. The change of the coefficient of damping of a passive suspension bracket and tires in possible limits has no essential impact on loading of wheels. Values of normal roughness of springs of forward and back axes of the car, normal rigidity of tires at which dynamic load of wheels of the car is minimum are established

  8. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  9. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  10. Una variante del carácter cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Aguilar Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de la construcción de una variante del carácter cultural con base en la teoría de las necesidades psicológicas de Erich Fromm y en el carácter social por él desarrollado. Se describen algunas diferencias entre carácter y personalidad y, luego de revisar brevemente la teoría frommiana sobre el tema, se mencionan los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales necesarios para la elaboración del carácter cultural. Este será una herramienta para estudiar las necesidades psicoculturales de algunos grupos étnicos en Chiapas.

  11. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vehicle’s window will act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in direct sunlight can reach up to 131 degrees inside while ...

  12. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  13. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be performed in accordance with either APTA Standard SS-M-005-98, “Code of Tests for Passenger Car... FRA pursuant to § 238.21. The incorporation by reference of this APTA standard was approved by...

  14. Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James P R; Domke, Katrin F; Rago, Gianluca; Kano, Hideaki; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Vartiainen, Erik M; Bonn, Mischa

    2011-06-23

    The ability to observe samples qualitatively at the microscopic scale has greatly enhanced our understanding of the physical and biological world throughout the 400 year history of microscopic imaging, but there are relatively few techniques that can truly claim the ability to quantify the local concentration and composition of a sample. We review coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) as a quantitative, chemically specific, and label-free microscopy. We discuss the complicating influence of the nonresonant response on the CARS signal and the various experimental and mathematical approaches that can be adopted to extract quantitative information from CARS. We also review the uses to which CARS has been employed as a quantitative microscopy to solve challenges in material and biological science.

  15. Hydroelectric power drives a sports car; Wasserkraft treibt Sportwagen an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabotin, Norbert

    2009-07-01

    The first electrically powered sports car from Germany, the so-called eRUF Concept Model A 2008 has been proposed previously. The basic idea for this concept was initiated by Alois Ruf (Pfaffhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) in the form of a new vision of a simple energy transfer concept: His hydroelectric power plants feed 35 million kWh of electrical energy annually into the German energy network. These hydroelectric power plans also could drive modern cars more or less directly. The annually produced amount of electrical energy (35 million kWh) nearly is in accordance with that amount of electrical energy which enables a single car (eRUF, model A 2008) to drive 3,500 times around the globe. The author of this paper describes the prototype of this car.

  16. A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Learning of Car Driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Pinkwart, Niels; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Miao, Y., Pinkwart, N., and Hoppe, H.U. (2006). "A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Learning of Car Driving". International Journal on Advanced Technology for Learning (ATL), 3(4), 233-240.

  17. Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162675.html Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline It's possible that these state ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Marijuana Motor Vehicle Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  18. Wide-Field Detected Fourier Transform CARS Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alex Soares; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    We present a wide-field imaging implementation of Fourier transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (wide-field detected FT-CARS) microscopy capable of acquiring high-contrast label-free but chemically specific images over the full vibrational ‘fingerprint’ region, suitable for a large field of view. Rapid resonant mechanical scanning of the illumination beam coupled with highly sensitive, camera-based detection of the CARS signal allows for fast and direct hyperspectral wide-field image acquisition, while minimizing sample damage. Intrinsic to FT-CARS microscopy, the ability to control the range of time-delays between pump and probe pulses allows for fine tuning of spectral resolution, bandwidth and imaging speed while maintaining full duty cycle. We outline the basic principles of wide-field detected FT-CARS microscopy and demonstrate how it can be used as a sensitive optical probe for chemically specific Raman imaging.

  19. CARS and non-linear microscopy imaging of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Tamosaityte, Sandra; Geiger, Kathrin; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Koch, Edmund; Kirsch, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy offers a series of techniques that have the potential to be applied in vivo, for intraoperative identification of tumor border and in situ pathology. By addressing the different content of lipids that characterize the tumors with respect to the normal brain tissue, CARS microscopy enables to discern primary and secondary brain tumors from healthy tissue. A study performed in mouse models shows that the reduction of the CARS signal is a reliable quantity to identify brain tumors, irrespective from the tumor type. Moreover it enables to identify tumor borders and infiltrations at a cellular resolution. Integration of CARS with autogenous TPEF and SHG adds morphological and compositional details about the tissue. Examples of multimodal CARS imaging of different human tumor biopsies demonstrate the ability of the technique to retrieve information useful for histopathological diagnosis.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.

  1. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Emergency Phycisians Toggle navigation Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Emergency Care or Urgent Care? When ... being left alone in a hot vehicle. “Putting it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car ...

  2. Toxicity and management in CAR T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Challice L; Jackson, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J; Curran, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    T cells can be genetically modified to target tumors through the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Most notably, CAR T cells have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies with more modest responses when targeting solid tumors. However, CAR T cells also have the capacity to elicit expected and unexpected toxicities including: cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity, "on target/off tumor" recognition, and anaphylaxis. Theoretical toxicities including clonal expansion secondary to insertional oncogenesis, graft versus host disease, and off-target antigen recognition have not been clinically evident. Abrogating toxicity has become a critical step in the successful application of this emerging technology. To this end, we review the reported and theoretical toxicities of CAR T cells and their management.

  3. Adoptive therapy with CAR redirected T cells for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Yang, Zhi; Shen, Junjie; Shan, Juanjuan; Qian, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The survival of patients with hematological malignancies has been significantly improved due to the development of new therapeutic agents. However, relapse remains a major matter for concern. Recently, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) were reported to show unprecedented responses in a range of hematological malignancies. The persistence of the CAR-T cell can last for years and tends toward long-term antitumor memory by which relapses can be effectively prevented. The primary side effects that appear in most clinical trials are cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. However, these symptoms can be treated and reversed. In this review, we describe CAR structure and function and summarize recent advances in CAR-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies.

  4. MODAL ANALYSIS OF QUARTER CAR MODEL SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath. K. Allamraju *

    2016-01-01

    Suspension system is very important for comfort driving and travelling of the passengers. Therefore, this study provides a numerical tool for modeling and analyzing of a two degree of freedom quarter car model suspension system. Modal analysis places a vital role in designing the suspension system. In this paper presented the modal analysis of quarter car model suspension system by considering the undamped and damped factors.  The modal and vertical equations of motions describing the su...

  5. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  6. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  7. Remote Controlled CARs: Towards a Safer Therapy for Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Carl H

    2016-08-01

    Genetic engineering of patient T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) provides a powerful tool for inducing remissions in patients with various cancers derived from B cells. Challenges stemming from the inability to control the CAR T cells once given pose significant safety concerns. An article in Cancer Immunology Research presents an approach to circumvent this issue. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(8); 643. ©2016 AACRSee article by Sakemura et al., p. 658.

  8. Modelling of Security Principles Within Car-to-Car Communications in Modern Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Durech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS bring advanced applications that provide innovative services for various transportation modes in the area of traffic control, and enable better awareness for different users. Communication connections between intelligent vehicles with the use of wireless communication standards, so called Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, require ensuring verification of validity of provided services as well as services related to transmission confidentiality and integrity. The goal of this paper is to analyze secure mechanisms utilised in VANET communication within Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS with a focus on safety critical applications. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks via OPNET Modeler tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library for authentication protocol realisation based on digital signature schemes. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication for several traffic scenarios with recommended Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES. The obtained results of the throughput and delay in the simulated network are compared for secured and no-secured communications in dependence on the selected digital signature schemes and the number of mobile nodes. The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of digital signature schemes based on RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman, DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for different key-lengths suitable for real time VANET communications for safety-critical applications of C-ITS.

  9. CERN car sharing scheme now open to everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The CERN car sharing service is a self-service scheme providing a pool of 30 CERN cars available for pick-up free of charge from 13 points around the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. From Thursday, 1st December 2011, the service will be open to all members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel, in the framework of their professional activities at CERN only. The conditions of use can be consulted at: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/Mobility/Car_sharing To be able to use the service, members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel must: have a contractual link to CERN, possess an e-mail address registered in the CERN databases; hold an RFID access card, which can be obtained from the CERN Car Pool on presentation of a valid CERN access card. Car Pool, Building 130-R-012, open Monday-Friday, 8.00 a.m.-12.00 noon/1.00 p.m.-5.00 p.m. https://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/car-pool GS-IS

  10. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1 all vents opened, (2 only central vents closed (3 only central vents opened and (4 all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  11. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  12. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  13. Greater dependence on cars leads to more pollution in world's cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, W

    1999-12-01

    This article discusses the findings of the Household Transportation Use and Urban Air Pollution study prepared by the Population Reference Bureau and researched by experts in Bangkok, Mexico City, and Washington. The overall result of this multiurban study on public attitudes toward urban air pollution indicate that people are not willing to give up their cars to stop air pollution and potential health hazards. The WHO estimates that up to 700,000 premature deaths per year worldwide could be prevented in developing countries if suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead were brought down to safer levels. It is noted in the report that cars are some of the worst air polluters, contributing to at least 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the researchers found out that many citizens ignore the health hazards; population growth led to the rise in the number of cars; and educated people tend to be greater polluters than less educated people. The following three policy recommendations were made in the report: 1) encourage alternatives to transportation, such as walking, cycling, and telecommuting; 2) tailor policies by socioeconomic group and gender to combat specific polluting behaviors; and 3) educate the public about the impact of air pollution.

  14. Discovery of Fast, Large-amplitude Optical Variability of V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Masetti, N.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of ~520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  15. CAR-associated vesicular transport of an adenovirus in motor neuron axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Sara; Bilsland, Lynsey G; Henaff, Daniel; Weston, Anne E; Keriel, Anne; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J

    2009-05-01

    Axonal transport is responsible for the movement of signals and cargo between nerve termini and cell bodies. Pathogens also exploit this pathway to enter and exit the central nervous system. In this study, we characterised the binding, endocytosis and axonal transport of an adenovirus (CAV-2) that preferentially infects neurons. Using biochemical, cell biology, genetic, ultrastructural and live-cell imaging approaches, we show that interaction with the neuronal membrane correlates with coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) surface expression, followed by endocytosis involving clathrin. In axons, long-range CAV-2 motility was bidirectional with a bias for retrograde transport in nonacidic Rab7-positive organelles. Unexpectedly, we found that CAR was associated with CAV-2 vesicles that also transported cargo as functionally distinct as tetanus toxin, neurotrophins, and their receptors. These results suggest that a single axonal transport carrier is capable of transporting functionally distinct cargoes that target different membrane compartments in the soma. We propose that CAV-2 transport is dictated by an innate trafficking of CAR, suggesting an unsuspected function for this adhesion protein during neuronal homeostasis.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  17. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  18. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical, mechanic

  19. Emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons from cars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the exhaust emission of non-methane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) from cars in China at the Beijing driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer.The emission factor average of NMHCs was 0.9 g/km,which was over twice that from the Australian car fleet and 2-4 times that of the American car emission in the 1990s-2000s.The emission profile of Beijing cars showed higher fractions of aromatics and C4?C7 HCs,and lower percentages of C2?C3 HCs,compared with those of the US car fleet.The average ratio of benzene/toluene for cars tested was 0.5,the average benzene/toluene/ethyl benzene/xylenes(BTEX) ratios were 1/2.2/0.1/1.8,which were consistent with those of the Tanyugou tunnel located in the suburb of Beijing.α-pinene and β-pinene were detected from the exhaust gas on dynamometer for the first time,and had likely similar exhaust emission characteristics with C2?C3 HCs and styrene,giving an evidence that air pinenes may be related to human activities.Isoprene was also detected directly.These observations suggest that the procedure regarding pinenes and isoprene as coming from biologic sources of VOCs in the atmosphere should be applied with great care,especially in the core of the big city like Beijing.The specific reactivity of NMHCs was higher than that of cars of US,and the specific reactivity of volatile aromatic compounds was higher than that of the US SPECIATE database.

  20. An IoT Based Predictive Connected Car Maintenance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Dhall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is fast emerging and becoming an almost basic necessity in general life. The concepts of using technology in our daily life is not new, but with the advancements in technology, the impact of technology in daily activities of a person can be seen in almost all the aspects of life. Today, all aspects of our daily life, be it health of a person, his location, movement, etc. can be monitored and analyzed using information captured from various connected devices. This paper discusses one such use case, which can be implemented by the automobile industry, using technological advancements in the areas of IoT and Analytics. ‘Connected Car’ is a terminology, often associated with cars and other passenger vehicles, which are capable of internet connectivity and sharing of various kinds of data with backend applications. The data being shared can be about the location and speed of the car, status of various parts/lubricants of the car, and if the car needs urgent service or not. Once data are transmitted to the backend services, various workflows can be created to take necessary actions, e.g. scheduling a service with the car service provider, or if large numbers of care are in the same location, then the traffic management system can take necessary action. ’Connected cars’ can also communicate with each other, and can send alerts to each other in certain scenarios like possible crash etc. This paper talks about how the concept of ‘connected cars’ can be used to perform ‘predictive car maintenance’. It also discusses how certain technology components, i.e., Eclipse Mosquito and Eclipse Paho can be used to implement a predictive connected car use case.

  1. A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishn A. Goyal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy specific brand of Car is shaped over a long period of time. The period between recognition of need to buy a car and the actual purchase may run into many weeks or even months. Considerable research has focussed on conceptually and operationally defining various factors that lead to a purchase decision. However, because of the inherent difficulties in deciphering consumer behaviour coupled with exponential changes in consumer aspirations, there is a need to constantly re-define our perceptions about consumer behaviour. Revealed Preference Theory of Samuelson & Bounded rationality Theory of Herbert Simon and many others have provided a conceptual analysis of Consumer Behaviour from the perspective of economics, we have still not been able to pinpoint whether consumers are Rational or Emotional when it comes to buying Cars. “ According to some early economic theorists (e.g., Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Alfred Marshall, man’s/woman’s desire for goods and services exceed his/her ability to pay. Therefore, buying decisions are made through a rational process during which we assign a value to each desired product or service offering based upon our assessment of the ability of that offering to satisfy our needs and desires. This want satisfying ability is termed “utility.” As different offerings possess different levels of utility, rational behavior dictates that one seek to maximize utility.

  2. Health Cars Robotics: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, P.; Ali, K.; Seraji, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the approach followed in the design of a service robot for health care applications. This paper describes the architecture of the subsystem, the features of the manipulator arm, and the operator interface.

  3. Coupling Mechanism and Decoupled Suspension Control Model of a Half Car

    OpenAIRE

    Hailong Zhang; Ning Zhang; Fuhong Min; Subhash Rakheja; Chunyi Su; Enrong Wang

    2016-01-01

    A structure decoupling control strategy of half-car suspension is proposed to fully decouple the system into independent front and rear quarter-car suspensions in this paper. The coupling mechanism of half-car suspension is firstly revealed and formulated with coupled damping force (CDF) in a linear function. Moreover, a novel dual dampers-based controllable quarter-car suspension structure is proposed to realize the independent control of pitch and vertical motions of the half car, in which ...

  4. Price discrimination and tax incidence: Evidence from gasoline and diesel cars

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The existing tax policies towards gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and implied tax incidence. We develop an econometric framework for the demand and pricing of gasoline and diesel cars. Consumers choose a gasoline or a diesel car based on their annual mileage. Manufacturers set gasoline and diesel car prices. Our empirical results show that the relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars is consistent wi...

  5. Car taxes and energy consumption. Impact on energy consumption from tax reductions on passenger cars; Bilafgifter og energiforbrug. Energimaessige effekter af afgiftslempelser for personbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedebye, H.; Engelund, P.; Gravesen, R.; Vestergaard, L. (Tetraplan A/S (DK))

    2008-03-15

    The report describes results from the project 'Impact on energy consumption from tax reductions on specific types of passenger cars. The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities for reducing energy consumption, and hereby the CO2 emissions, for transport through differentiated purchase tax on passenger cars. Two schemes have been studied, which respectively favour energy efficient cars and passenger cars converted into vans. The study includes interviews, a questionnaire and analyses of register data. (BA)

  6. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  7. RNA-Seq reveals common and unique PXR- and CAR-target gene signatures in the mouse liver transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-09-01

    entire hepatic transcriptome correlated with a marked change in the expression of many DNA and histone epigenetic modifiers. In conclusion, the present study has revealed known and novel, as well as common and unique targets of PXR and CAR in mouse liver following pharmacological activation using their prototypical ligands. Results from this study will further support the role of these receptors in regulating the homeostasis of xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism in the liver, and aid in distinguishing between PXR and CAR signaling at various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  8. Who are the early adopters of car sharing? A brief history and an analysis of the early adoption of car sharing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Norre, Lise

    1999-01-01

    After briefly outlining the context, focusing primarily on the economic conditions for car sharing and on the history of the first car sharing initiatives in Denmark, this paper presents results from a study of the early adopters of the car sharing idea in Denmark and some speculations about the ...

  9. The budding yeast amphiphysin complex is required for contractile actin ring (CAR assembly and post-contraction GEF-independent accumulation of Rho1-GTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Cundell

    Full Text Available The late events of the budding yeast cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, require the assembly of a contractile actomyosin ring (CAR, primary and secondary septum formation followed by enzymatic degradation of the primary septum. Here we present evidence that demonstrates a role for the budding yeast amphiphysin complex, a heterodimer comprising Rvs167 and Rvs161, in CAR assembly and cell separation. The iqg1-1 allele is synthetically lethal with both rvs167 and rvs161 null mutations. We show that both Iqg1 and the amphiphysin complex are required for CAR assembly in early anaphase but cells are able to complete assembly in late anaphase when these activities are, respectively, either compromised or absent. Amphiphysin dependent CAR assembly is dependent upon the Rvs167 SH3 domain, but this function is insufficient to explain the observed synthetic lethality. Dosage suppression of the iqg1-1 allele demonstrates that endocytosis is required for the default cell separation pathway in the absence of CAR contraction but is unlikely to be required to maintain viability. The amphiphysin complex is required for normal, post-mitotic, localization of Chs3 and the Rho1 GEF, Rom2, which are responsible for secondary septum deposition and the accumulation of GTP bound Rho1 at the bud neck. It is concluded that a failure of polarity establishment in the absence of CAR contraction and amphiphysin function leads to loss of viability as a result of the consequent cell separation defect.

  10. MODEL CAR TRAFFIC ON SECTIONS OF ROADS WITH LIMITED VISIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Existing theoretical calculations speeds in areas of horizontal and vertical curves designed for the needs of construction and calculation of cars and can not be used for valuation. When calculating the value of the coefficient of friction velocity determined at full wheel lock that does not correspond to the actual conditions of braking stability conditions of the car within its lane. The article proposes to calculate the permissible vehicle speed for the sites of horizontal and vertical curves on forest roads from the requirement car stop within the zone of visibility without buckling considering assumptions: during braking movement remains manageable, the driver keeps the car in the outside lane; magnitude of the angular velocity of the steering wheel is small; fully utilized inhibitory properties least loaded wheel; cornering power coefficient of resistance of tires depends little on the change of loads on the bus; low rolling resistance. Studied are normal reactions to the vehicle wheels when braking, namely found that if the friction coefficient on the road for less than the calculated optimal braking, the restriction on the braking occurs danger of losing control of the car skidding due to the front wheels. If the coefficient of friction on the road more than the calculated optimal braking, the braking force limitation occurs for blocking the rear axle. When comparing full stopping distance with the existing area of visibility is determined permissible speed.

  11. Neural correlates of culturally familiar brands of car manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Berens, Harald; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Brands have a high impact on people's economic decisions. People may prefer products of brands even among almost identical products. Brands can be defined as cultural-based symbols, which promise certain advantages of a product. Recent studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be crucial for the processing of brand knowledge. The aim of this study was to examine the neural correlates of culturally based brands. We confronted subjects with logos of car manufactures during an fMRI session and instructed them to imagine and use a car of these companies. As a control condition, we used graphically comparable logos of car manufacturers that were unfamiliar to the culture of the subjects participating in this study. If they did not know the logo of the brand, they were told to imagine and use a generic car. Results showed activation of a single region in the medial prefrontal cortex related to the logos of the culturally familiar brands. We discuss the results as self-relevant processing induced by the imagined use of cars of familiar brands and suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role for processing culturally based brands.

  12. Research On Android Intelligent Phones Controlling the Car to Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The system finished the android smart mobile phone to control the intelligent car to avoid the obstacles wirelessly based on the bluetooth communication protocol. The android system is popular. But researches on applying it in the wireless sensors are very few. This paper allowed the bluetooth-enabled android phones to communicate with sensors wirelessly through our designed software. The software is installed simplely on the phones.The operator can run the software and touch the screen on the intelligent phones to drive the car. When he/she presses the front / the back/the left/the right on the LCD screen of the phones, the car can move forward / backward / the left or / the right. In addition, the gravity sensing of the smart telephone can also control the motion of the car wirelessly in the same way. The car itself can avoid the obstacle intelligently. The ultrasonic sensor can finish the rotation of the 180 degrees to detect the obstacle with the help of the steering gear. And the system also designed the PCB and made the hardware by ourself. The system has advantages of low-cost, convenience and feasibility

  13. A new look for the CERN car sharing service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 2 June 2015 onwards, the CERN car sharing service will have a new service provider.   Two information days will be organised with the new provider – Mobility – in the Main Building (501) on 28 and 29 May. This will be an opportunity for us to present to you this new service and to distribute cards to current users. Please make sure you bring along the “Mobility number” that you received by e-mail. After this date, you can still pick up your card at the Car Pool (Building 130). For technical reasons, car sharing will be out of service on 1 June and we apologise for any inconvenience this might cause. New users should contact the Car Pool from 2 June onwards. Please be reminded that this service is available to CERN and contractor personnel in the pursuit of their professional activities, exclusively at CERN. The conditions of use can be consulted at the Car Sharing website. *A 35-strong fleet of ready-to-use CER...

  14. Finding {\\eta} Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer: I. Candidate Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Kochanek, C S

    2012-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {\\eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {\\eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of 7 nearby (= 40 M_sun star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude.

  15. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  16. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver.

  17. Knowledge Template Based Multi-perspective Car Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem due to the vehicle-oriented society such as traffic jam or traffic accident, intelligent transportation system(ITS is raised and become scientist’s research focus, with the purpose of giving people better and safer driving condition and assistance. The core of intelligent transport system is the vehicle recognition and detection, and it’s the prerequisites for other related problems. Many existing vehicle recognition algorithms are aiming at one specific direction perspective, mostly front/back and side view. To make the algorithm more robust, our paper raised a vehicle recognition algorithm for oblique vehicles while also do research on front/back and side ones. The algorithm is designed based on the common knowledge of the car, such as shape, structure and so on. The experimental results of many car images show that our method has fine accuracy in car recognition.

  18. Design and Fem Analysis of Car Alloy Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for improved stiffness, reliability, fatigue life and increased efficiency involves challenges of developing innovative design solutions. The present work mainly focus on the design of car alloy wheel, where the analytical and FEM analysis approach was implemented to analyze baseline design. Initially static analysis was performed to obtain total deformation, strain and the stress of car alloy wheel. Three Dimensional model was created using CATIA and FE software ANSYS was used for discretization and analysis to obtain expected solution. The results were obtained through linear static analysis in terms of Total deformation while Minimum principal stress, Max Principal stress were found to be nearly equal for both 6 arms wheel and 4 arms wheel and 22.16 % of reduction in weight was observed and hence overall weight of the car alloy wheel was optimized.

  19. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  20. Application of operational car crew universal speed stenogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Gradusov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimentally to check up possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews. Materials and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. In research took part 20 professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate, in all 40 persons, up-diffused on 2 groups for 10 crews: experimental and control. Results: application of methods of universal speed shorthand record of СД an experimental group allowed to shorten time-of-flight of segment of control distance on 7,37%. Conclusion: the results of pedagogical experiment at participation of professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate on official cars in the contention terms of the real route testify to possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of the special setting of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews during their professional activity.

  1. A method for achieving super-resolved widefield CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Kim M; Littleton, Brad; Turk, Douglas; McIntyre, Timothy J; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2010-08-30

    We propose a scheme for achieving widefield coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy images with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. This approach adds structured illumination to the widefield CARS configuration [Applied Physics Letters 84, 816 (2004)]. By capturing a number of images at different phases of the standing wave pattern, an image with up to three times the resolution of the original can be constructed. We develop a theoretical treatment of this system and perform numerical simulations for a typical CARS system, which indicate that resolutions around 120 nm are obtainable with the present scheme. As an imaging system, this method combines the advantages of sub-diffraction-limited resolution, endogenous contrast generation, and a wide field of view.

  2. The European New Car Assessment Programme: A historical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiel van Ratingen; Aled Williams; Anders Lie; Andre Seeck; Pierre Castaing; Reinhard Kolke; Guido Adriaenssens

    2016-01-01

    Established in 1997,the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) provides consumers with a safety performance assessment for the majority of the most popular cars in Europe.Thanks to its rigorous crash tests,Euro NCAP has rapidly become an important driver safety improvement to new cars.After ten years of rating vehicles,Euro NCAP felt that a change was necessary to stay in tune with rapidly emerging driver assistance and crash avoidance systems and to respond to shifting priorities in road safety.A new overall rating system was introduced that combines the most important aspects of vehicle safety under a single star rating.The overall rating system has allowed Euro NCAP to continue to push for better fitment and higher performance for vehicles sold on the European market.In the coming years,the safety rating is expected to play an important role in the support of the roll-out of highly automated vehicles.

  3. Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoll, Jan; Müller, Julian F

    2016-07-14

    The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting (MES) for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting (PES). While the consensus view seems to be that people would not be willing to use an automated car that might sacrifice themselves in a dilemma situation, we will defend the somewhat contra-intuitive claim that this would be nevertheless in their best interest. The reason is, simply put, that a PES regime would most likely result in a prisoner's dilemma.

  4. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nagayoshi, H.; Kamisako, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-11-25

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide 'best' car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm.

  6. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  7. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S paradigm.

  8. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FLOW FIELD OF WAGON-SHAPED CAR AT THE MOMENT OF PASSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhengqi; HE Yibin; ZHOU Wei; JIANG Bo

    2008-01-01

    In the course of studying on aerodynamic change and its effect on steering stability and controllability of an automobile in passing, because of multi interaction streams, it is difficult to use traditional methods, such as wind tunnel test and road test. If the passing process of an automobile is divided into many time segments, so as to avoid the use of moving mesh which takes large calculation resource and CPU processing time in calculating, the segments are simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, then the approximate computational results about external flow field will be obtained. On the basis of the idea, the change of external flow field of wagon-shaped car at the moment of passing is simulated through solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible N-S equations with finite volume method. Numerical simulation analysis of side force coefficient, stream lines, body surface pressure distribution of wagon-shaped car are presented and a preliminary discussion of aerodynamic characteristics of correlative situations is obtained. Finally, the Cs -x/l curve of side force coefficient(Cs) of car following relative distance (x/l) between cars is obtained. By comparison, the curve is coincident well with the experimental data,which shows creditability of numerical simulation methods presented.Key words: External flow field Passing Numerical simulation Side force coefficient

  10. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm. PMID:25429416

  11. Local stability conditions and calibrating procedure for new car-following models used in driving simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtc, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike, and addresses the latest developments at the intersection of physics, engineering and computational science. These involve complex systems, in which multiple simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena. The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic; granular matter; biological transport; transport networks; data acquisition; data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e., modeling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations are considered.    

  12. Safety distance about car-following%跟随车安全距离的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 杜文; 孙宏

    2002-01-01

    通过对驾驶员的反应能力的量化、速度判断过程的分析和对诸如饮酒、服药、电话干扰及疲劳驾驶等外部因素影响下驾驶员行为与跟随车与引导车行驶一致性的研究,计算与分析行车时的安全距离,寻求既可避免发生追尾碰撞事故,又不影响道路通行能力的安全距离恰当值:当驾驶员和车辆状况良好时,行车距离保持在速度(以m/s为单位)的1/2以上时,才可能安全;当驾驶员和车辆状况不良时,行车距离保持在速度的二倍以上时,才安全.

  13. KdV and kink antikink solitons in car-following models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. X.; Cheng, R. J.; Dai, S. Q.

    2005-11-01

    The jams in the congested traffic are related with various density waves, which might be governed by the nonlinear wave equations, such as the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mKdV) equation. Three different versions of optimal velocity models are examined. The stability conditions of the models are obtained by using the linear stability theory. The KdV equation near the neutral stability line and the mKdV equation around the critical point are derived by applying the reductive perturbation method, respectively. The traffic jams could be thus described by the KdV and kink-antikink soliton solutions for the two kinds of equations. The general solutions are given for, which can lead to specific solutions in previous work. Moreover, they are applied to solve a new model-the full velocity difference model and the corresponding KdV and kink-antikink soliton solutions could be quickly obtained, which demonstrates the general solutions presented herein are useful.

  14. A velocity-difference-separation model for car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a velocity-difference-separation model that modifies the previous models in the literature. The improvement of this new model over the previous ones lies in that it not only theoretically retains many strong points of the previous ones, but also performs more realistically than others in the dynamical evolution of congestion. Furthermore, the proposed model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods, with the finding that it can demonstrate some complex physical features observed in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jam; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; and traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the synchronized flow.

  15. A velocity-difference-separation model for car-following theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi-Peng; Liu Yun-Cai

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a velocity-difference-separation model that modifies the previous models in the literature. The improvement of this new model over the previous ones lies in that it not only theoretically retains many strong points of the previous ones, but also performs more realistically than others in the dynamical evolution of congestion. Furthermore,the proposed model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods, with the finding that it can demonstrate some complex physical features observed in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jam; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; and traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the synchronized flow.

  16. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-11-01

    The spatial assessment of short time-step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from manual wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity, while the automatic wiper adjustment show weaker performance. Also the sensor readings from optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  17. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought.

  18. Experimental determination of force and displacement of a car suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Aleksandra; Đukić, Rade

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a dynamical laboratory testing of experimental car body connection with real elastic suspension system (ESS) is described. During the experiment a horizontal force in longitudinal direction was applied, in order to simulate an acceleration and deceleration regime of a vehicle. The experiment was carried out on the example of two car bodies, with identical geometric behavior but implemented engine compartment was made of different materials: in one case it was made of steel and in another one of Al-alloys. The obtained displacement results were compared.

  19. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a mutant CAR-DI-binding adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have a significantly weakened binding affinity for CAR-DI relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type.

  20. Design and Construction of a Remote Control Car Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S Agu and J.E Igwe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A remote control car jack which will be affordable, simple to maintain and easy to operate was designed and fabricated with locally available materials. Results of the performance test of the car jack conducted with Toyota Camry of weight1359kg, BMW (5series of 1685kg, Mercedes jeep of weight 2355kg and Toyota prado of weight 2555kg showed credible performance by lifting and sustaining the vehicles to heights of 14cm under 1.7mins; 13cm under 2mins; 11cm under 2.2mins and 10cm under 2.4mins respectively.