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Sample records for car following

  1. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  2. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following model is a kind of microscopic simulation model for vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of vehides in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control.Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors and feflects the real traffic sit-uation in a better way. This paper gives a systematic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introducing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disavantages of GHR model, OV model,CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptotic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  3. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following models is a kind of microscopic simulation model f or vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of v ehicles in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control. Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors a nd reflects the real traffic situation in a better way. This paper gives a syste matic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introd u cing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disadvantages of GHR model, OV m odel, CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptot ic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  4. Piecewise linear car-following modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    We present a traffic model which extends the linear car-following model as well as the min-plus traffic model (a model based on the min-plus algebra). A discrete-time car-dynamics describing the traffic on a 1-lane road without passing is interpreted as a dynamic programming equation of a stochastic optimal control problem of a Markov chain. This variational formulation permits to characterize the stability of the car-dynamics and to calculte the stationary regimes when they exist. The model is based on a piecewise linear approximation of the fundamental traffic diagram.

  5. Effects of motivation on car-following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesser, T.

    1982-01-01

    Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

  6. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  7. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  8. Statistical Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hiromasa; Zgonnikov, Arkady; Saito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A fair simple car driving simulator was created based on the open source engine TORCS and used in car-following experiments aimed at studying the basic features of human behavior in car driving. Four subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. The subjects were instructed to drive a car without overtaking and losing sight of a lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed. Based on the collected data the distributions of the headway distance, the car velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with the available experimental data for the real traffic flow. A new model for the car-following is proposed to capture the found properties. As the main result, we draw a conclusion that human actions in car driving should be categorized as generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation. Besides, we hypothesize that the car jerk together with the car acceleration are additional phase variables required for describing the dynamics of car motion g...

  9. Model-based vision for car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Henry; Nashman, Marilyn; Lumia, Ronald

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a vision processing algorithm that supports autonomous car following. The algorithm visually tracks the position of a `lead vehicle' from the vantage of a pursuing `chase vehicle.' The algorithm requires a 2-D model of the back of the lead vehicle. This model is composed of line segments corresponding to features that give rise to strong edges. There are seven sequential stages of computation: (1) Extracting edge points; (2) Associating extracted edge points with the model features; (3) Determining the position of each model feature; (4) Determining the model position; (5) Updating the motion model of the object; (6) Predicting the position of the object in next image; (7) Predicting the location of all object features from prediction of object position. All processing is confined to the 2-D image plane. The 2-D model location computed in this processing is used to determine the position of the lead vehicle with respect to a 3-D coordinate frame affixed to the chase vehicle. This algorithm has been used as part of a complete system to drive an autonomous vehicle, a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) such that it follows a lead vehicle at speeds up to 35 km/hr. The algorithm runs at an update rate of 15 Hertz and has a worst case computational delay of 128 ms. The algorithm is implemented under the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobotic Control System Architecture (NASREM) and runs on a dedicated vision processing engine and a VME-based multiprocessor system.

  10. Following Car Algorithm With Multi Agent Randomized System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Gouiouez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Following Car Algorithm in Microscopic Urban Traffic Models which integrates some real-life factors that need to be considered, such as the effect of random distributions in the car speed, acceleration, entry of lane… Our architecture is based on Multi-Agent Randomized Systems (MARSdeveloped in earlier publications

  11. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  12. A compound compensation method for car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Jun, Du; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-10-01

    A compound compensation mechanism was introduced into the car-following system. Two basic compensation methods were combined to generate a compound control strategy to improve the performance of the traffic flow system. The compensation effect was analyzed with unit step response in time domain and bode diagram in frequency domain, respectively. Two lemmas and one theorem were proved with the use of Routh criteria and small gain theorem. Numerical simulations were conducted in two situations under three types of condition. The simulation results verify the truth that with the increasing compensation parameters the stability of the car-following system is strengthened. It is shown that numerical results are in accordance with analytical results. In general, the performance of car-following model can be improved with an exterior control method.

  13. A Car-Following Theory for Multiphase Vehicular Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H. M.; Kim, T.(Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea)

    2003-01-01

    We present in this paper a new car-following theory that can produce both the so-called capacity drop and traffic hysteresis, two prominent features of multiphase vehicular traffic flow. This is achieved through the introduction of a single variable, driver response time, that depends on both vehicle spacing and traffic phase. By specifying different functional forms of response time, one can obtain not only brand new theories but also some of the well-known old car-following theories, which ...

  14. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-07-01

    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  15. The effect of road tunnel environment on car following behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jian Sheng; Wong, Yiik Diew

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this study, car following data are obtained from traffic video footages of open and tunnel expressways in Singapore. A total of 15,325 car following headways (with car as the follower) are analysed and significant factors affecting headways are found to be speed, and lane. Significant effect of leading vehicle type is only found for tunnel expressway. Headways are generally longer in the tunnel environment. Assessment of collision time measures and safety margins also reveal safer car following behaviour and lower rear-end collision risks in the tunnel expressway. The results are discussed from a behavioural perspective. Overall, the findings show that road tunnels are superior in terms of safety but at reduced traffic capacity . PMID:24713218

  16. Haptic gas pedal feedback for active car-following support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on supporting drivers in the longitudinal control of their vehicle during car-following. The goal of the research is the human-centred development of a haptic gas pedal interface that comfortably supports drivers in maintaining a safe separation wi

  17. Optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter, we present a new optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the full velocity difference model. The linear stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The unrealistically high deceleration does not appear in OVDM. Numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the new model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity occurred at small sensitivity coefficient λ in full velocity difference model by adjusting the coefficient of the optimal velocity difference, which shows that collision can disappear in the improved model. -- Highlights: → A new optimal velocity difference car-following model is proposed. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow have been explored. → The starting and braking process were carried out through simulation. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity.

  18. Optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, G.H., E-mail: pengguanghan@yahoo.com.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Cai, X.H.; Liu, C.Q.; Cao, B.F.; Tuo, M.X. [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China)

    2011-10-31

    In this Letter, we present a new optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the full velocity difference model. The linear stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The unrealistically high deceleration does not appear in OVDM. Numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the new model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity occurred at small sensitivity coefficient λ in full velocity difference model by adjusting the coefficient of the optimal velocity difference, which shows that collision can disappear in the improved model. -- Highlights: → A new optimal velocity difference car-following model is proposed. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow have been explored. → The starting and braking process were carried out through simulation. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity.

  19. Traffic experiment reveals the nature of car-following.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jiang

    Full Text Available As a typical self-driven many-particle system far from equilibrium, traffic flow exhibits diverse fascinating non-equilibrium phenomena, most of which are closely related to traffic flow stability and specifically the growth/dissipation pattern of disturbances. However, the traffic theories have been controversial due to a lack of precise traffic data. We have studied traffic flow from a new perspective by carrying out large-scale car-following experiment on an open road section, which overcomes the intrinsic deficiency of empirical observations. The experiment has shown clearly the nature of car-following, which runs against the traditional traffic flow theory. Simulations show that by removing the fundamental notion in the traditional car-following models and allowing the traffic state to span a two-dimensional region in velocity-spacing plane, the growth pattern of disturbances has changed qualitatively and becomes qualitatively or even quantitatively in consistent with that observed in the experiment.

  20. A new car-following model with two delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei, E-mail: yuleijk@126.com [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China); Shi, Zhong-ke [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China); Li, Tong [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2014-01-17

    A new car-following model is proposed by taking into account two different time delays in sensing headway and velocity. The effect of time delays on the stability analysis is studied. The theoretical and numerical results show that traffic jams are suppressed efficiently when the difference between two time delays decreases and those can be described by the solution of the modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation. Traffic flow is more stable with two delays in headway and velocity than in the case with only one delay in headway. The impact of local small disturbance to the system is also studied.

  1. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  2. The new car following model considering vehicle dynamics influence and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dihua; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the car following model is investigated by considering the vehicle dynamics in a cyber physical view. In fact, that driving is a typical cyber physical process which couples the cyber aspect of the vehicles' information and driving decision tightly with the dynamics and physics of the vehicles and traffic environment. However, the influence from the physical (vehicle) view was been ignored in the previous car following models. In order to describe the car following behavior more reasonably in real traffic, a new car following model by considering vehicle dynamics (for short, D-CFM) is proposed. In this paper, we take the full velocity difference (FVD) car following model as a case. The stability condition is given on the base of the control theory. The analytical method and numerical simulation results show that the new models can describe the evolution of traffic congestion. The simulations also show vehicles with a more actual acceleration of starting process than early models.

  3. Intermittent Control Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2016-01-01

    A rather simple car driving simulator was created based on the available open source engine TORCS and used to analyze the basic features of human behavior in car driving within the car-following setups. Eight subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. They were instructed to drive a virtual car without overtaking the lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed and not to lose sight of it. Moreover, these experiments were conducted with four different speed including 60km/h, 80km/h, 100km/h, and 120km/h. Based on the collected data the distribution of the headway, velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with available experimental data collected previously by the analysis of the real traffic flow. A new model for car-following is proposed capture the found properties. As the main results we draw a conclusion that the human behavior in car driving should be categorized as a generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation of the acti...

  4. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  5. A new car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Tie-Qiao; Huang Hai-Jun; Wong S. C.; Jiang Rui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new car-following model by taking into account the effects of the traffic interruption probability on the car-following behaviour of the following vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway sensitivity space-stable, metastable, and unstable-are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that the traffic interruption probability indeed has an influence on driving behaviour, and the consideration of traffic interruption probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flow.

  6. Simulating train movement in an urban railway based on an improved car-following model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose an improved model for simulating train movement in an urban railway in which the regenerative energy of a train is considered. Here a new additional term is introduced into a traditional car-following model. Our aim is to analyze and discuss the dynamic characteristics of the train movement when the regenerative energy is utilized by the electric locomotive. The simulation results indicate that the improved car-following model is suitable for simulating the train movement. Further, some qualitative relationships between regenerative energy and dynamic characteristics of a train are investigated, such as the measurement data of regenerative energy presents a power-law distribution. Our results are useful for optimizing the design and plan of urban railway systems. (general)

  7. Impact of mobile phone use on car-following behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuzzaman, Mohammad; Haque, Md Mazharul; Zheng, Zuduo; Washington, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Multitasking, such as the concurrent use of a mobile phone and operating a motor vehicle, is a significant distraction that impairs driving performance and is becoming a leading cause of motor vehicle crashes. This study investigates the impact of mobile phone conversations on car-following behaviour. The CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator was used to test a group of young Australian drivers aged 18-26 years on a car-following task in three randomised phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to examine the effect of mobile phone distraction on selected car-following variables such as driving speed, spacing, and time headway. Overall, drivers tended to select slower driving speeds, larger vehicle spacings, and longer time headways when they were engaged in either hands-free or handheld phone conversations, suggesting possible risk compensatory behaviour. In addition, phone conversations while driving influenced car-following behaviour such that variability was increased in driving speeds, vehicle spacings, and acceleration and decelerations. To further investigate car-following behaviour of distracted drivers, driver time headways were modelled using Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE). After controlling for various exogenous factors, the model predicts an increase of 0.33s in time headway when a driver is engaged in hands-free phone conversation and a 0.75s increase for handheld phone conversation. The findings will improve the collective understanding of distraction on driving performance, in particular car following behaviour which is most critical in the determination of rear-end crashes. PMID:26009990

  8. A new car following model from the perspective of visual imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; He, Zhengbing

    2015-12-01

    The paper proposes a car following model from the perspective of visual imaging (VIM), where the visual imaging size of the preceding vehicle on a driver's retina is considered as the stimuli and determines the driving behaviors. NGSIM trajectory data are applied to calibrate and validate the VIM under two scenarios, i.e. following the car and following the truck, whose fitting performance outperforms that of visual angle car following model (VAM). Through linear stability analyses for VIM, it can be drawn that the asymmetry in traffic flow is preserved; the larger vehicle width, vehicle length and vehicle apparent size all benefit enlarging the traffic flow stable region; the traffic flow unstable region when following the car tends to fall in the relatively small distance headway range compared with that when following the truck. After that, numerical experiments demonstrate that the visual imaging information applied in VIM is more contributive to the traffic flow stability than the visual angle information in VAM when following the truck in the relatively large distance headway or involving the driver's perception threshold, i.e. Weber ratio; introducing Weber ratio would break the originally stable traffic flow or deteriorate the traffic fluctuation, which however can be alleviated by increasing drivers' sensitivity, e.g., decreasing Weber ratio. Finally, VIM is verified to be able to satisfy the consistency criteria well from the theoretical aspect.

  9. Numerical analysis on car-following traffic flow models with delay time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the speed relaxation time on the optimal velocity car-following model (OVM) with delay time due to driver reaction time proposed by Bando et al.(1995) were studied by numerical methods. Results showed that the OVM including the delay is not physically sensitive to the speed relaxation times. A modified car-following model is proposed to overcome the deficiency. Analyses of the linear stability of the modified model were conducted. It is shown that coexisting flows appear ifthe initial homogeneous headway of the traffic flow is between critical values. In addition, phase transitions occur on varying the initially homogeneous headway.

  10. Microscopic Calibration and Validation of Car-Following Models -- A Systematic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and validation techniques are crucial in assessing the descriptive and predictive power of car-following models and their suitability for analyzing traffic flow. Using real and generated floating-car and trajectory data, we systematically investigate following aspects: Data requirements and preparation, conceptional approach including local maximum-likelihood and global LSE calibration with several objective functions, influence of the data sampling rate and measuring errors, the effect of data smoothing on the calibration result, and model performance in terms of fitting quality, robustness, parameter orthogonality, completeness and plausible parameter values.

  11. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  12. Vehicles' Sample Generation and Realization in Car-Following Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Danilevičius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the article is the adjustment of car-following mathematical models according to collected traffic data. Here the problem of ineffectively burdened road section is solved by adjusting the speed of vehicles in order to reduce the distance between the cars to a safe distance. The paper analyzes the car-following models to measure the interaction between vehicles in the same lane. Experimental data processed in Matlab and traffic distribution histograms are created using the most appropriate distribution curve. Distribution curve is used to compile congestion scenario of road section. Applicable model uses fundamental diagrams, which are created from the kind of traffic flow measurements. The mathematical model allows to choose the optimal vehicle speed while maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and to make recommendations to improve the traffic as the process.

  13. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  14. Car-following theory of steady-state traffic flow using time-to-collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng JIN; Zhi-yi HUANG; Peng-fei TAO; Dian-hai WANG

    2011-01-01

    The conventional car-following theory is based on the assumption that vehicles will travel along the center line of lanes.However,according to the field survey data,in complex traffic conditions,a lateral separation between the leader and the follower frequently occurs.Accordingly,by taking lateral separation into account,we redefined the equation of time-to-collision (TTC) using visual angle information.Based on the stimulus-response framework,TTC was introduced into the basic General Motors (GM) model as a stimulus,and a non-lane-based car-following model of steady-state traffic flow was developed.The property of flow-density relationship was further investigated after integrating the proposed car-following model with different parameters.The results imply that the property of steady-state traffic flow and the capacity of each lane are highly relevant to the microscopic staggered car-following behavior,and the proposed model significantly enhances the practicality of the human driving behavior model.

  15. Prefered time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van

    1999-01-01

    18 Subjects were tested in a simulator to assess whether choice of time headway in car-following is related to individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Drivers with a larger preferred time headway committed larger steering errors while driving on a winding road and were less accurate in ma

  16. Calibrating Car Following Parameters for Snowy Road Conditions in the Microscopic Traffic Simulator VISSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asamer, J.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Heilmann, B.

    2013-01-01

    Calibrated simulation models taking into account adverse weather conditions can be used to optimise traffic management strategies, such as speed adaptation and signal timing optimisation. On snowy road conditions, car following behaviour changes because drivers tend to accelerate more slowly, increa

  17. The Research of Car-Following Model Based on Real-Time Maximum Deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of real-time maximum deceleration in car-following. The real-time maximum acceleration is estimated with vehicle dynamics. It is known that an intelligent driver model (IDM can control adaptive cruise control (ACC well. The disadvantages of IDM at high and constant speed are analyzed. A new car-following model which is applied to ACC is established accordingly to modify the desired minimum gap and structure of the IDM. We simulated the new car-following model and IDM under two different kinds of road conditions. In the first, the vehicles drive on a single road, taking dry asphalt road as the example in this paper. In the second, vehicles drive onto a different road, and this paper analyzed the situation in which vehicles drive from a dry asphalt road onto an icy road. From the simulation, we found that the new car-following model can not only ensure driving security and comfort but also control the steady driving of the vehicle with a smaller time headway than IDM.

  18. Phase transitions in a new car-following traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Shi Peng-Fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the well-known optimal velocity car-following model(the OVM) with numerical simulation in describing the acceleration process that is induced by the motion of a ldading car with a pre-specifide speed profile. Results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing this process. Modification of the OVM to overcome the deficiency is demonstrated. The linear stability for the modified model is analysed. If the linear stability condition can not be satisfied, phase transitions occur on varying the initial homogeneous headway of the traffic flow.

  19. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  20. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  1. A new car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial has been developed. → We use it to explore the effects of the roadside memorial on traffic system. → Results show that it can describe complex phenomena resulted by roadside memorial. → What's more, considering roadside memorial can improve traffic safety. → The results help us understand effects of roadside memorial on traffic flow. -- Abstract: In this Letter, a car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial is proposed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of roadside memorial on traffic flow and the traffic risk coefficient. It is also shown that roadside memorial can enhance the traffic safety.

  2. A car-following model with the anticipation effect of potential lane changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S. C. Wong; Rui Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is presented, taking into account the anticipation of potential lane changing by the leading vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flow in the headway-sensitivity space, namely stable, metastable and unstable ones, are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that anxiety about lane changing does indeed have an influence on driving behavior and that a consideration of lane changing probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flows. The quantitative relationship between stability improvement and lane changing probability is also investigated.

  3. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  4. A heuristic finite-state model of the human driver in a car-following situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, G. O.; Bekey, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to modeling human driver behavior in single-lane car following which is based on a finite-state decision structure is considered. The specific strategy at each point in the decision tree was obtained from observations of typical driver behavior. The synthesis of the decision logic is based on position and velocity thresholds and four states defined by regions in the phase plane. The performance of the resulting assumed intuitively logical model was compared with actual freeway data. The match of the model to the data was optimized by adapting the model parameters using a modified PARTAN algorithm. The results indicate that the heuristic model behavior matches actual car-following performance better during deceleration and constant velocity phases than during acceleration periods.

  5. A new car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, T.Q., E-mail: tieqiaotang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Curtin University, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Wu, Y.H.; Caccetta, L. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Curtin University, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Huang, H.J. [School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-10-24

    Highlights: → A car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial has been developed. → We use it to explore the effects of the roadside memorial on traffic system. → Results show that it can describe complex phenomena resulted by roadside memorial. → What's more, considering roadside memorial can improve traffic safety. → The results help us understand effects of roadside memorial on traffic flow. -- Abstract: In this Letter, a car-following model with consideration of roadside memorial is proposed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of roadside memorial on traffic flow and the traffic risk coefficient. It is also shown that roadside memorial can enhance the traffic safety.

  6. Cellular Automation Model of Traffic Flow Based on the Car-Following Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a new cellular automation (CA) traffic model that is based on the car-following model. A class of driving strategies is used in the car-following model instead of the acceleration in the NaSch traffic model. In our model, some realistic driver behaviour and detailed vehicle characteristics have been taken into account, such as distance-headway and safe distance, etc. The simulation results show that our model can exhibit some traffic flow states that have been observed in the real traffic, and both of the maximum flux and the critical density are very close to the real measurement. Moreover, it is easy to extend our method to multi-lane traffic.

  7. Comparing Numerical Integration Schemes for Time-Continuous Car-Following Models

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When simulating trajectories by integrating time-continuous car-following models, standard integration schemes such as the forth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) are rarely used while the simple Euler's method is popular among researchers. We compare four explicit methods: Euler's method, ballistic update, Heun's method (trapezoidal rule), and the standard forth-order RK4. As performance metrics, we plot the global discretization error as a function of the numerical complexity. We tested the methods on several time-continuous car-following models in several multi-vehicle simulation scenarios with and without discontinuities such as stops or a discontinuous behavior of an external leader. We find that the theoretical advantage of RK4 (consistency order~4) only plays a role if both the acceleration function of the model and the external data of the simulation scenario are sufficiently often differentiable. Otherwise, we obtain lower (and often fractional) consistency orders. Although, to our knowledge, Heun's met...

  8. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  9. Staggered car-following induced by lateral separation effects in traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter develops a new staggered car-following model taking into consideration lateral separation effects. Time-to-collision, calculated using visual angle variables, is introduced to describe the lateral separation distance and improve the optimal velocity model. The analytical and numerical results show that the stability of traffic flow can gradually be enhanced with the increase of lateral separation effects. The asymmetry property of traffic flow is also investigated using the new model. The results imply that incorporating lateral separation effects into the car-following model leads to the suppression of traffic jams and greatly enhances the realism of the model. -- Highlights: ► We firstly proposed a staggered car-following model induced by lateral separation effects. ► Time-to-collision is firstly introduced to describe the lateral separation distance. ► The stability of traffic flow is enhanced with the increase of lateral separation effects. ► The asymmetry property of traffic flow is firstly investigated from the proposed model.

  10. Staggered car-following induced by lateral separation effects in traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wang, Dian-hai, E-mail: wangdianhai@sohu.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Xu, Cheng [Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 (China); Huang, Zhi-yi [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-01-02

    This Letter develops a new staggered car-following model taking into consideration lateral separation effects. Time-to-collision, calculated using visual angle variables, is introduced to describe the lateral separation distance and improve the optimal velocity model. The analytical and numerical results show that the stability of traffic flow can gradually be enhanced with the increase of lateral separation effects. The asymmetry property of traffic flow is also investigated using the new model. The results imply that incorporating lateral separation effects into the car-following model leads to the suppression of traffic jams and greatly enhances the realism of the model. -- Highlights: ► We firstly proposed a staggered car-following model induced by lateral separation effects. ► Time-to-collision is firstly introduced to describe the lateral separation distance. ► The stability of traffic flow is enhanced with the increase of lateral separation effects. ► The asymmetry property of traffic flow is firstly investigated from the proposed model.

  11. Modeling Car-Following Dynamics During the Starting and Stopping Process Based on a Spring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 杨少辉; 初连禹

    2004-01-01

    Car-following models describe how one vehicle follows the preceding vehicles. In order to better model and explain car-following dynamics, this paper categorizes the state of a traveling vehicle into three sub-processes: the starting (acceleration) process, the car-following process, and the stopping (deceleration) process. The starting process primarily involves vehicle acceleration behavior. The stopping process involves not only car-following behavior but also deceleration behavior. This paper regards both the stopping process and the starting process as spring systems. The car-following dynamics during the starting process and the stopping process is modeled in this paper. The parameters of the proposed models, which are represented in the form of trigonometric functions, possess explicit physical meaning and definitive ranges. We have calibrated the model of the starting process using data from the Traffic Engineering Handbook, and obtained reasonable results. Compared with traditional stimulus-response car-following models, this model can better explain traffic flow phenomena and driver behavior theory.

  12. Simulating train movement in railway traffic using a car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Guan Li-Jia

    2009-01-01

    Based on a car-following model, in this paper, we propose a new traffic model for simulating train movement in railway traffic. In the proposed model, some realistic characteristics of train movement are considered, such as the distance headway and the safety stopping distance. Using the proposed traffic model, we analyse the space-time diagram of traffic flow, the trajectory of train movement, etc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can be successfully used for simulating the train movement. Some complex phenomena can be reproduced, such as the complex acceleration and deceleration of trains and the propagation of train delay.

  13. A novel car following model considering average speed of preceding vehicles group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dihua; Kang, Yirong; Yang, Shuhong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new car following model is presented by considering the average speed effect of preceding vehicles group in cyber-physical systems (CPS) environment. The effect of this new consideration upon the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation was derived via nonlinear analysis to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the critical point. Good agreement between the simulation and the analytical results shows that average speed of preceding vehicles group leads to the stabilization of traffic systems, and thus can efficiently suppress the emergence of traffic jamming.

  14. Calibrating the Local and Platoon Dynamics of Car-following Models on the Reconstructed NGSIM Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtc, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The NGSIM trajectory data are used to calibrate two car-following models - the IDM and the FVDM. We used the I80 dataset which has already been reconstructed to eliminate outliers, unphysical data, and internal and platoon inconsistencies contained in the original data.We extract from the data leader-follower pairs and platoons of up to five consecutive vehicles thereby eliminating all trajectories that are too short or contain lane changes. Four error measures based on speed and gap deviations are considered. Furthermore, we apply three calibration methods: local or direct calibration, global calibration, and platoon calibration. The last approach means that a platoon of several vehicles following a data-driven leader is simulated and compared to the observed dynamics.

  15. Linear stability analysis of first-order delayed car-following models on a ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Roussignol, Michel; Tordeux, Antoine

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of a line of vehicles on a ring is modeled by means of first-order car-following models. Three generic models describe the speed of a vehicle as a function of the spacing ahead and the speed of the predecessor. The first model is a basic one with no delay. The second is a delayed car-following model with a strictly positive parameter for the driver and vehicle reaction time. The last model includes a reaction time parameter with an anticipation process by which the delayed position of the predecessor is estimated. Explicit conditions for the linear stability of homogeneous configurations are calculated for each model. Two methods of calculus are compared: an exact one via Hopf bifurcations and an approximation by second-order models. The conditions describe stable areas for the parameters of the models that we interpret. The results notably show that the impact of the reaction time on the stability can be palliated by the anticipation process. PMID:23030997

  16. An extended car-following model with consideration of speed guidance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The main motivation of this paper is to analyze the influences of speed guidance strategies on the driving behaviors under four different traffic signalized conditions and to investigate an extended car-following model to explore how the speed guidance affects two different vehicle types that are intelligent vehicles and traditional vehicles during the phase-change periods. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of the speed guidance strategies on vehicle's movement trail including the acceleration strategy, smooth braking strategy, and deceleration strategy. Moreover, the benefits of the speed guidance could be enhanced by lengthening the guiding space range, expanding permitted guiding speed range, and increasing the percentage of the intelligent vehicles.

  17. A control method for congested traffic in the coupled map car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Fei-Ying; Ge Hong-Xia; Zhang Hui; Yu Han-Mei; Lei Li

    2009-01-01

    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al, a new control method is presented to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under an open boundary. A control signal concluding the velocity differences of the two vehicles in front is put forward. The condition under which the traffic jam can be contained is analyzed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al [Phys. Rev. 1999 E 60 4000-4007]. The simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the Konishi's et al. method, although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  18. Impacts of SOC on car-following behavior and travel time in the heterogeneous traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Ding, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Since the SOC (state of charge) of the battery of each electric vehicle directly determines whether the battery should be charged/swapped, the SOC may affect the electric vehicle's driving behavior. In this paper, we introduce the SOC of battery into the electric vehicle's driving behavior model and propose a car-following model for electric vehicles, and then use the proposed model to study the effects of the SOC of battery and battery swap on each vehicle's driving behavior in the heterogeneous traffic system consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles. The numerical results show that the proposed model can reproduce some complex traffic phenomena resulted by the SOC of battery and battery swap and that the influences on each vehicle's driving behavior are directly related to the initial traffic state, the electric vehicle's proportion, and the SOC of battery.

  19. Stabilization effect of multiple drivers' desired velocities in car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Min; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Li, Hua-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of driver's individual behavior on traffic flow more accurately, a new car-following model is proposed with consideration of multiple drives' desired velocities. The stability criterion of the new model is derived through linear stability theory and the results show that the current driver's desired velocity can stabilize traffic flow but the preceding driver's desired velocity can damage traffic stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the traffic jamming transition characteristics near the critical point can be described by the kink-antikink soliton of the mKdV equation. Numerical simulation confirms the analytical results, which shows that the multiple drivers' desired velocities play an important role in traffic evolution.

  20. Modelling and Simulation for Train Movement Control Using Car-Following Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You; TANG Tao

    2011-01-01

    Based on optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose a new railway traffc model for describing the process of train movement control.In the proposed model, we give an improved form of the optimal velocity function Vopt, which is considered as the desired velocity function for train movement control under different control conditions.In order to test the proposed model, we simulate and anaiyze the trajectories of train movements,moreover, discuss the relationship curves between the train allowable velocity and the site of objective point in detail Analysis results indicate that the proposed model can well capture some realistic futures of train movement control.PACS numbers: 02.70.-c, 89.40.-a

  1. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost without late arrival and the corresponding traffic properties using a car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Ziqi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first apply a generalized car-following model to study the commuter trip cost without late arrival from an analytical perspective; and then use the full velocity difference (FVD) model to verify the analytical results and explore the corresponding traffic properties from a numerical perspective. Finally, we explore the evolutions of traffic flow on a road with an open boundary under three traffic situations (i.e., the number of commuters is low, moderate, and high) and find that the evolution of traffic flow is related to the number of commuters. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the analytical results and illustrate that car-following models can be used to study each commuter's trip cost without late arrival and that the car-following model can accurately quantify each commuter's trip cost.

  2. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA networks following the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruixin; Su, Shengzhong; Wan, Yinan; Shen, Frank; Niu, Ben; Coslo, Denise M; Albert, Istvan; Han, Xing; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a xenosensor, serving to regulate xenobiotic detoxification, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism. CAR activation is also a key contributor to the development of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The underlying pathways affected by CAR in these processes are complex and not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of gene expression and appear to impact many cellular pathways, including those involved in chemical detoxification and liver tumor development. In this study, we used deep sequencing approaches with an Illumina HiSeq platform to differentially profile microRNA expression patterns in livers from wild type C57BL/6J mice following CAR activation with the mouse CAR-specific ligand activator, 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP). Bioinformatic analyses and pathway evaluations were performed leading to the identification of 51 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly altered by TCPOBOP treatment, including mmu-miR-802-5p and miR-485-3p. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs revealed altered effector pathways, including those involved in liver cell growth and proliferation. A functional network among CAR targeted genes and the affected microRNAs was constructed to illustrate how CAR modulation of microRNA expression may potentially mediate its biological role in mouse hepatocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:27080131

  3. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA networks following the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruixin; Su, Shengzhong; Wan, Yinan; Shen, Frank; Niu, Ben; Coslo, Denise M; Albert, Istvan; Han, Xing; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a xenosensor, serving to regulate xenobiotic detoxification, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism. CAR activation is also a key contributor to the development of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. The underlying pathways affected by CAR in these processes are complex and not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of gene expression and appear to impact many cellular pathways, including those involved in chemical detoxification and liver tumor development. In this study, we used deep sequencing approaches with an Illumina HiSeq platform to differentially profile microRNA expression patterns in livers from wild type C57BL/6J mice following CAR activation with the mouse CAR-specific ligand activator, 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP). Bioinformatic analyses and pathway evaluations were performed leading to the identification of 51 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly altered by TCPOBOP treatment, including mmu-miR-802-5p and miR-485-3p. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs revealed altered effector pathways, including those involved in liver cell growth and proliferation. A functional network among CAR targeted genes and the affected microRNAs was constructed to illustrate how CAR modulation of microRNA expression may potentially mediate its biological role in mouse hepatocyte proliferation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  4. Multiple phenotypes in adult mice following inactivation of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (Car gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Pazirandeh

    Full Text Available To determine the normal function of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR, a protein found in tight junctions and other intercellular complexes, we constructed a mouse line in which the CAR gene could be disrupted at any chosen time point in a broad spectrum of cell types and tissues. All knockouts examined displayed a dilated intestinal tract and atrophy of the exocrine pancreas with appearance of tubular complexes characteristic of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. The mice also exhibited a complete atrio-ventricular block and abnormal thymopoiesis. These results demonstrate that CAR exerts important functions in the physiology of several organs in vivo.

  5. ONE-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL OF TRAFFIC FLOW BASED ON CAR-FOLLOWING IDEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董力耘; 薛郁; 戴世强

    2002-01-01

    An improved one-dimensional CA (Cellular Automaton) traffic model was proposed to describe the highway traffic under the periodic boundary conditions. This model was based on the idea of the car-following model, which claims that the motion of a vehicle at one time step depends on both its headway and the synchronous motion of the front vehicle,thus including indirectly the influence of its sub-neighboring vehicle. In addition, the socalled safety distance was introduced to consider the deceleration behavior of vehicles and the stochastic factor was taken into account by introducing the deceleration probability.Meanwhile, the conditional deceleration in the model gives a better description of the phenomena observed on highways. It is found that there exists the metastability and hysteresis effect of traffic flow in the neighborhood of critical density under different initial conditions.Since this model gives a reasonable depiction of the motion of a single vehicle, it is easy to be extended to the case of traffic flow under the control of traffic lights in cities.

  6. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    OpenAIRE

    Kaijiang Yu; Junqi Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, us...

  7. The Feedback Control Strategy of the Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Car-Following Model with Two Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the driver’s sensing the headway and velocity the different time-varying delays exist, respectively, and the sensitivity of drivers changes with headway and speed. Introducing the fuzzy control theory, a new fuzzy car-following model with two delays is presented, and the feedback control strategy of the new fuzzy car-following model is studied. Based on the Lyapunov function theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI approach, the sufficient condition that the existence of the fuzzy controller is given making the closed-loop system is asymptotic, stable; namely, traffic congestion phenomenon can effectively be suppressed, and the controller gain matrix can be obtained via solving linear matrix inequality. Finally, the simulation examples verify that the method which suppresses traffic congestion and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions is effective.

  8. The effects of drivers’ aggressive characteristics on traffic stability from a new car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the drivers’ aggressive characteristics. The stable condition and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are obtained by the linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, which show that the drivers’ aggressive characteristics can improve the stability of traffic flow. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the drivers’ aggressive characteristics increase the stable region of traffic flow and can reproduce the evolution and propagation of small perturbation.

  9. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients.

  10. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients. PMID:27019998

  11. MOVING OBJECTS TRAJECTOTY PREDICTION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROXIMATOR BY CONSIDERING INSTANTANEOUS REACTION TIME, CASE STUDY: CAR FOLLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poor Arab Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving

  12. Moving Objects Trajectoty Prediction Based on Artificial Neural Network Approximator by Considering Instantaneous Reaction Time, Case Study: CAR Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor Arab Moghadam, M.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    Car following models as well-known moving objects trajectory problems have been used for more than half a century in all traffic simulation software for describing driving behaviour in traffic flows. However, previous empirical studies and modeling about car following behavior had some important limitations. One of the main and clear defects of the introduced models was the very large number of parameters that made their calibration very time-consuming and costly. Also, any change in these parameters, even slight ones, severely disrupted the output. In this study, an artificial neural network approximator was used to introduce a trajectory model for vehicle movements. In this regard, the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation function and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function were employed as the training and the transfer functions, respectively. One of the important aspects in identifying driver behavior is the reaction time. This parameter shows the period between the time the driver recognizes a stimulus and the time a suitable response is shown to that stimulus. In this paper, the actual data on car following from the NGSIM project was used to determine the performance of the proposed model. This dataset was used for the purpose of expanding behavioral algorithm in micro simulation. Sixty percent of the data was entered into the designed artificial neural network approximator as the training data, twenty percent as the testing data, and twenty percent as the evaluation data. A statistical and a micro simulation method were employed to show the accuracy of the proposed model. Moreover, the two popular Gipps and Helly models were implemented. Finally, it was shown that the accuracy of the proposed model was much higher - and its computational costs were lower - than those of other models when calibration operations were not performed on these models. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for displaying and predicting trajectories of moving objects being

  13. Impacts of the driver's bounded rationality on the traffic running cost under the car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The driver's bounded rationality has significant influences on the micro driving behavior and researchers proposed some traffic flow models with the driver's bounded rationality. However, little effort has been made to explore the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on the trip cost. In this paper, we use our recently proposed car-following model to study the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on his running cost and the system's total cost under three traffic running costs. The numerical results show that considering the driver's bounded rationality will enhance his each running cost and the system's total cost under the three traffic running costs.

  14. Influences of vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost without late arrival under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use car-following model to explore the influences of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter’s trip cost without late arrival on one open road. Our results illustrate that considering the vehicle’s fuel cost and emission cost only enhances each commuter’s trip cost and the system’s total cost, but has no prominent impacts on his optimal time headway at the origin of each open road under the minimum total cost.

  15. Stability analysis in a car-following model with reaction-time delay and delayed feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanfei; Xu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback control in terms of both headway and velocity differences has been proposed to guarantee the stability of a car-following model including the reaction-time delay of drivers. Using Laplace transformation and transfer function, the stable condition is derived and appropriate choices of time delay and feedback gains are designed to stabilize traffic flow. Meanwhile, an upper bound on explicit time delay is determined with respect to the response of desired acceleration. To ensure the string stability, the explicit time delay cannot over its upper bound. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed control method can restraint traffic congestion and improve control performance.

  16. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.

  17. Matrix Solution of Coupled Differential Equations and Looped Car Following Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for the behaviour of how vehicles follow each other along a looped stretch of road is described. The resulting coupled first order differential equations are solved using appropriate matrix techniques and the physical significance of the model is discussed. A number possible classroom exercises are suggested to help…

  18. Supra hepatic inferior vena cava and right atrial thrombosis following a traffic car crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Haghi, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We present a case of nephrotic syndrome associated with right atrial and supra hepatic vein part of inferior vena caval thrombosis. This patient presented with dyspena, lower extremity edema and back pain after a vehicle accident and blunt trauma to the abdomen. Trauma should be considered not only as a thrombophilic pre-disposition, but also as a predisposing factor to IVC endothelium injury and thrombosis formation. Echocardiography revealed supra hepatic vein IVC thrombosis floating to the right atrium. A C-T scan with contrast also showed pulmonary artery emboli to the left upper lobe. With open heart surgery, the right atrial and IVC clot were extracted and the main left and right pulmonary arteries were evaluated for possible clot lodging. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and thrombosis has not reoccurred with periodical follow-up examinations. PMID:26836612

  19. Analytical studies on an extended car following model for mixed traffic flow with slow and fast vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Xu, Xun; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Xu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The car-following model is extended to take into account the characteristics of mixed traffic flow containing fast and slow vehicles. We conduct the linear stability analysis to the extended model with finding that the traffic flow can be stabilized with the increase of the percentage of the slow vehicle. It also can be concluded that the stabilization of the traffic flow closely depends on not only the average value of two maximum velocities characterizing two vehicle types, but also the standard deviation of the maximum velocities among all vehicles, when the percentage of the slow vehicles is the same as that of the fast ones. With increase of the average maximum velocity, the traffic flow becomes more and more unstable, while the increase of the standard deviation takes negative effect in stabilizing the traffic system. The direct numerical results are in good agreement with those of theoretical analysis. Moreover, the relation between the flux and the traffic density is investigated to simulate the effects of the percentage of slow vehicles on traffic flux in the whole density regions.

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Multiple car-following model of traffic flow and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guang-Han; Sun, Di-Hua

    2009-12-01

    On the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model, an improved multiple car-following (MCF) model is proposed by taking into account multiple information inputs from preceding vehicles. The linear stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Through nonlinear analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is constructed and solved. The traffic jam can thus be described by the kink-antikink soliton solution for the mKdV equation. The improvement of this new model over the previous ones lies in the fact that it not only theoretically retains many strong points of the previous ones, but also performs more realistically than others in the dynamical evolution of congestion. Furthermore, numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the proposed model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity that occurs at small sensitivity coefficients λ in the FVD model by adjusting the information on the multiple leading vehicles. No collision occurs and no unrealistic deceleration appears in the improved model.

  1. CARS and SHG microscopy to follow the collagen production in living human corneal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin gel 3D cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Mortati, Leonardo; Sassi, Maria Paola

    2011-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is combined with second harmonic generation (SHG) technique in order to follow the early stage of stem cell differentiation within a 3D scaffold. CARS microscopy can detect lipid membranes and droplet compartments in living cells and SHG microscopy enables a strong imaging contrast for molecules with a non-centrosymmetric ordered structure like collagen. One of the first evidence of hMSCs differentiation is the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) where the collagen protein is its main component. This work demonstrated the multimodal CARS and SHG microscopy as a powerful non-invasive label free technique to investigate the collagen production dynamic in living cell 3D cultures. Its ability to image the cell morphology and the produced collagen distribution on a long term (4 weeks) experiment allowed to obtain important information about the cell-scaffold interaction and the ECM production. The very low limit reached in detecting collagen has permit...

  2. 环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为研究%Car Following Behavior of Roundabout Entrance Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金勇; 刘岩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为,依据实地交通调查的数据,利用线性跟驰模型和回归分析方法对环形交叉口入口道跟驰车辆进行分析,分析结果表明:环形交叉口入口道的车辆跟驰行为是符合线性跟驰模型的,但是有别于普通道路上的车辆跟驰行为,其反应强度系数λ的值在0.2 ~1.0之间,λ值为0.38出现的概率比较大,占40%,进行稳定性分析可知车间距的摆动处于基本稳定和衰减摆动两种状态,是符合局部稳定性的.%The car-following behavior of roundabout entrance lane is studied by using liner car-following and regression models for obtaining the car-following behavior to match the liner car-following behavior. However, it is different from the behavior on the road. The value of reaction intensity factor is between 0. 2 to 1. 0,and the value 0. 38 appears relatively more often and accounting for 40%. The swing of car space headway is between stable status and decay swing with the stability analysis,and it is consistent with local stability.

  3. 车辆跟驰行为建模的回顾与展望%Review and Outlook of Modeling of Car Following Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿海; 金盛

    2012-01-01

    系统地回顾了跟驰理论60年的发展历程,依据建模思想将跟驰行为模型分为交通工程角度和统计物理角度。交通工程角度的跟驰模型包括刺激-反应类、安全距离类、心理-生理类及人工智能类模型;统计物理角度的跟驰模型包括优化速度模型、智能驾驶模型和元胞自动机模型。针对各类模型分别阐述了其建模思路、模型结构、参数标定及其扩展研究。最后,展望了跟驰行为建模的发展趋势与研究方向,为建立适合中国交通流特点的跟驰模型提供参考。%Authors reviewed the development of car following theory from a system point of view.Based on the modeling ideas,car following models were divided into point of view of traffic engineering and statistical physics.In the point of view of traffic engineering,car following models were classified into stimulus-response models,safety distance models,psycho-physical models and artificial intelligence models.In the point of view of statistical physics,car following models were classified into optimal velocity models,intelligent driver models,and cellular automata models.Then,various types of modeling ideas,model structure,parameter calibration,and related research were elaborated.Finally,development trends and research directions of car following models were proposed.It can provide reference for car following modeling of considering traffic flow characteristics in China.

  4. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  5. Common feature of concave growth pattern of oscillations in terms of speed, acceleration, fuel consumption and emission in car following: experiment and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations by using vehicle trajectory data in a car following experiment. We measured the standard deviation of acceleration, emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle in the car-following platoon. We found that: (1) Similar to the standard deviation of speed, these indices exhibit a common feature of concave growth pattern along vehicles in the platoon; (2) The emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle decrease remarkably when the average speed of the platoon increases from low value; However, when reaches 30km/h, the change of emission and fuel consumption with is not so significant; (3), the correlations of emission and fuel consumption with both the standard deviation of acceleration and the speed oscillation are strong. Simulations show that with the memory effect of drivers taken into account, the improved two-dimensional intelligent driver model is able to reproduce the common feature of traffic oscillation evolution quite well.

  6. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  7. 实时道路条件的跟驰模型研究%Research on car -following model based on real -time road condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙海; 龚节坤; 赵顺

    2016-01-01

    为了研究实时道路条件对车辆跟驰行为的影响,应用车辆动力学结合车载 GPS 和传感器数据实时估算路面与轮胎间的附着系数,并应用附着系数对智能驾驶模型的最小期望跟驰间距进行修正,建立考虑实时道路条件的跟驰模型。对模型的分析表明:考虑实时道路条件的跟驰模型在保证乘客舒适性的基础上能提高道路的服务水平。%For analyzing the effect of real -time road condition on car -following behaviors,the vehicle dynamics is applied to real -time estimate the tire -road friction coefficient combining with vehicular GPS and sensors and the new car -follow-ing model which considers the influence of real -time road condition is established by modifying the minimum desired fol-lowing gap of Intelligent Driver Model.The model analysis shows:which has taken into account the real -time road condi-tion could improve the road service level based on ensuring the comfort of passengers.

  8. Analysis of the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we use car-following theory to study the traditional vehicle’s running cost and the electric vehicle’s running cost. The numerical results illustrate that the traditional vehicle’s running cost is larger than that of the electric vehicle and that the system’s total running cost drops with the increase of the electric vehicle’s proportion, which shows that the electric vehicle is better than the traditional vehicle from the perspective of the running cost.

  9. Car-following model based on artificial potential field%基于人工势能场的跟驰模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏飞; 金盛; 王殿海

    2011-01-01

    For improving the simulation accuracy of car-following model and describing the characteristics of car-following driving behavior, based on the driving experience, the actions in driving process are summarized into the interaction of efficiency and safety. Taking the basic idea of artificial potential fields for reference, these two factors are abstracted to be attraction and repulsion perceived by the driver, and then the car-following model is established. The three types of vehicles running is introduced, I. E. Decelerating state, accelerating state and normal driving state. And the measured data are classified based on this. The classified measured data are used to calibrate the parameters of model in different states, which are then compared with the classical GM (general motor) model. The result shows that the simulation accuracy is improved over ten percents.%为提升跟驰模型的模拟精度,更加有效地刻画跟驰行为特性,从车辆的实际运行规律出发,将行驶过程中的各种行为归纳为效率与安全2种因素的相互作用.借鉴人工势能场的基本思想,将这2种因素抽象为驾驶员受到的驱动力和阻碍力,进而建立相应的跟驰模型.根据普遍的驾驶行为特性,将车辆运行状态分为减速停车、起动加速和常态行驶3类,并据此对实测数据予以划分.利用分类后的实测数据,针对3类行驶状态分别对模型参数加以标定,并将标定后的模型与经典的GM模型进行比较.结果表明,相对于GM模型,模拟精度平均提升10%以上.

  10. Reaction Time and Headway in Car-Following Flow%跟驰车流中的反应时间和车头间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷; 曹世理; 马壮林; 朱彤; 王伟力

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using driving simulator to simulate driving behaviors, car following experiments were conducted in virtual and real road environments using the fourth ring road in Beijing as an example to create simulation scenarios and taking into account the factors such as geometry alignment, traffic equipment, environment condition, and traffic condition. The reaction time and headway of car-following flow in acceleration and deceleration states were compared between driving simulator and real-world environment, and the experimental results were interpreted in terms of monocular depth cues in virtual environment and behavior characteristics of the simulated vehicles. The results show that the reaction time of drivers in car-following acceleration and deceleration states in the virtual situation is slightly larger than that in the real situation. The headway in virtual environment is significantly larger than that in the real environment. When using simulator to study driving behaviors, distance-related parameters need to be modified to obtain consistent results with the actual road environment, and the range of correction coefficient is between 1.5 to 2.0.%为了研究利用驾驶模拟舱研究驾驶行为的效果,考虑道路几何线形、交通设施、环境条件、交通条件等因素,以北京四环道路环境为例搭建模拟场景,在该模拟环境和相应真实道路环境下进行车辆跟驰实验,提取并对比了加减速跟车状态下的反应时间和车头间距数据,从虚拟环境深度线索和仿真车辆行为特性两方面分析了实验结果.研究结果表明,在加速和减速跟驰状态,在仿真环境中的驾驶人反应时间均略大于真实道路环境,但差别不显著;仿真环境下的车头间距显著大于真实环境;采用驾驶模拟舱研究驾驶行为时,需修正与距离相关的参数才能得到与实际道路环境相符的结果,修正系数的取值范围为1.5~2.0.

  11. 时滞车辆跟驰模型及其分岔现象%REVIEW OF TIME-DELAYED CAR FOLLOWING MODELS AND BIFURCATION PHENOMENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鉴; 徐荣改

    2013-01-01

    In car following theory of traffic dynamics, human drivers need a finite period of time to process stimuli of preceding vehicles and make a decision, which is attributed to human physiological factors. Since mechanical devices also need time for sensing, computing and actuating, time delay seems unavoidable even in autonomous cruise control systems. As a result time delays should be considered as an inherent factor in car following theories of traffic dynamics. One of the key problems in need of study is how time delays affect the traffic flow patterns and their evolutions. In this paper, time-delayed car following models which are continuous in both time and space are firstly surveyed. Then the progress in the dynamic behaviors based on bifurcation theory is reviewed. Defects of these models and the corresponding bifurcation research are pointed out in this summary. Finally we conclude that research on dynamic behaviors of time-delayed car following models with traffic flow parameters based on bifurcation theory are of great significance and necessity. By means of such research, the underlying mechanisms of traffic jam formation and evolution can be better understood. Traffic jam patterns can be categorized from a synchronization perspective through classifying dynamic behaviors in parameter plane, and hence, different traffic control strategies can be put forward by traffic management department based on the above jam patterns.%交通流车辆跟驰理论中,由于生理因素,造成司机在处理前方车辆变化信息和采取应对措施之间存在时间滞后.即使是在自动巡航控制系统中,设备在感知信息、计算所需操作并最终作动车辆这一过程中时滞也不可避免.因此交通流跟驰理论的数学模型本质上应包含时滞.时滞的存在对各种交通模式的出现及其相互演化产生怎样的影响?这是值得我们关注的问题.本文首先综述了各类时间和空间连续的时滞车辆跟驰模型.

  12. An Improved Car-Following Dynamic Model%一种改进的车辆跟驰动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宝贵; 杨兆升

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of current car-following models, a novel optimal velocity ( desired velocity) function is proposed and an improved car-following dynamic model is established based on the "stimulus-response" pattern. Then, the stability of this model is analyzed by using the Lyapunov stability theory on motion. Finally, the parameter calibration and application verification of the improved model are performed by using the measured data. The results show that the theoretical results of the improved model accord well with the experimental data in terms of starting acceleration, approximately uniform speed and deceleration, without unrealistic acceleration which occurs in other models.%针对现有跟驰模型存在的不足,文中提出了一种新的优化速度(期望速度)函数,基于“刺激—反应”模式建立了改进的车辆跟驰动力学模型,并运用李亚普诺夫运动稳定性理论对其进行了稳定性分析.最后运用实测数据对模型进行了参数标定和应用性验证.结果表明:改进模型在模拟交通流的启动加速、近似匀速和减速过程方面与实测数据都具有较高的一致性,没有出现已有模型的不切实际的加速度.

  13. Car-to-Car Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stephan; Schroth, Christoph; Eberspächer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Car-to-car communication aims at increased driving comfort and safety. Moreover, it changes the role of vehicles from mere transportation means to "smart objects". Despite many R&D activities in the last years, this technology still poses multiple challenges on the wireless transmission and network protocols. Aspects like efficient message dissemination, network scalability, and information security mechanisms are still major research areas in the area of vehicular ad hoc networks. In this pa...

  14. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  15. Remote controlling and intelligent following car design based on STM 32%基于 STM32的可遥控智能跟随小车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 孙晓菲; 张煜

    2015-01-01

    针对物品搬运时人类双手仍无法完全解放的现状,设计并实现了一种基于STM32、超声波测距以及比例控制算法的可遥控智能跟随小车。小车以STM32为控制核心,有智能跟随和红外遥控2个模式可选。跟随模式下用2个安装在前端的超声波模块分别实时测量小车与目标之间的距离,单片机采用比例控制算法,根据实测距离控制左右电机转速;遥控模式下单片机根据接收到的红外遥控信号控制小车的运动方向。试验结果表明:小车在2m以内准确跟随几率大于95%、响应时间小于250 m s。该设计实现了小车对目标的360°智能跟随以及在必要情况下对小车的遥控操作,系统可靠,较人性化。%Currently human hands are still not liberated when men carry things .This paper designs and implements an remote control and intelligent following car based onSTM 32 ,ultrasonic ranging and proportional control algorithm .The car uses STM32 as its control center ,and the intelligent follower mode and the infrared remote controlling mode are both available for the car .There are two ultrasonicmodulesinstalledon the front to watch thedistance between the car and the targetat each time under the following mode .SCMadopts proportional control algorithm and controls the motor speed on the left and right side according to the watcheddistance .Itcontrols the moving direction of the car according to the received infrared signal under remote controlling mode . Experimental results show the car accurately follow probability greater than 95% and response time less than 250 ms within two meters .This design accomplishes the goal that a intelligent car can automaticallyfollow the targeteven turning 360°and peoplecan control the car remotely when necessary .The system is reliable and convenient to people .

  16. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  17. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  18. Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2010-01-01

    也许你需要一辆天马行空完全按自己心中所设计的车,无论是有太空感还是充满设计性,无论你希望它可以升空还是可以下水,那才是一辆真正的Dream Car!

  19. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  20. A car-following mo del with the consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology%考虑车与车互联通讯技术的交通流跟驰模型∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华雪东; 王炜; 王昊

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the research on traffic flow system based on some classical models, such as cellular automata and car-following models, has attracted much attention. Some meaningful achievements have been obtained in the past few years by scholars from various fields. This paper starts with literature review on traffic flow theory studies. Car-following models, including the initial model proposed by Newell in 1961 (Newell G F 1961 Oper. Res. 9 209) and some later modified ones (e.g. full velocity difference model, or FVD model for short) have been deeply investigated. Based on Newell’s car-following model, an extension of car-following model with consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is then developed. The vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology, which was proposed in the early 2000s, enable vehicles to collect traffic condition information from other vehicles (e.g. speed, headway, position, acceleration, etc.) and provide them for drivers in almost real time. Compared with those without V2V devices, drivers with information from V2V devices can react to traffic flow fluctuation timelier and more precisely. To represent the pre-reaction of drivers to traffic flow information provided by V2V devices, a parameter, α, is newly introduced into Newell’s car-following model. Then by second-order Taylor series expansion, a new car-following model with the influence of V2V (called V2V model) is proposed. Neutral stability condition of V2V model as well as phase diagram is derived theoretically with linear analysis method. The phase diagram of linear stability condition is divided into stable and unstable regions. By analyzing stability performance of the proposed model, it is evident that V2V communication technology can improve the stability of traffic flow system. Numerical simulation is demonstrated to study the influence of V2V devices on traffic flow on the one hand, and to acquire density waves as well as hysteresis loops under different values

  1. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  2. Infarto cerebral secundario a trombosis de la carótida interna por traumatismo cervical Cerebral infarction secondary to internal carotid thrombosis following cervical trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una trombosis postraumática de la arteria carótida interna en un varón de 33 años, tras recibir un golpe con un balón en el cuello. La muerte se produjo 10 días después del golpe como consecuencia de un cuadro de hipertensión intracraneal y herniación cerebral secundaria a infarto isquémico extenso que afectaba a todo el territorio de la arteria cerebral media derecha, tanto superficial como profundo.In this paper, a case of post-traumatic thrombosis in the internal carotid artery after a blow with a ball in the neck of a 33-year-old male is presented. The death came 10 days after the coup as a result of intracranial hypertension and cerebral herniation secondary to ischemic infarction affecting the entire territory of the middle right cerebral artery, both superficial and profound. Macroscopic and microscopic findings that largely explain the mechanism of vascular injury with intimal dissection in the proximity of an atheroma plaque located above the carotid bifurcation are discussed.

  3. 基于延迟估计算法的声音跟随小车%The car used to follow the sound based on delay estimation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震宇

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了基于延迟估计算法的声源定位小车的设计。本系统由音频接收、信号处理、无线收发、电机驱动及液晶显示五个模块构成。根据时间差确定声源位置。具体阐述了相关硬件及软件的设计,实际电路测试表明该系统稳定可靠,对声源的定位有较高的精度。%This article introduces a design the car use to fol ow the sound based on delay estimation algorithm.The system include the audio signal processing,wireless transceivers,motor drives and LCD five modules.Sound source position is determined according to the difference of time.Specifical y addressed the related hardware and software design,the actual circuit tests show that the system is reliable,sound source localization for higher accuracy.

  4. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  5. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  6. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  7. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  8. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  9. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2015-01-01

    The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber). The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be hel...

  10. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  11. Car-following model featured with factors reflecting emergency evacuation situation%基于应急疏散交通特征的车辆跟驰模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红; 魏恒; 刘小明; 杨孝宽

    2008-01-01

    提出了一个应急交通疏散车辆跟驰模型(EECM),模型首次在车辆最小安全间距的动力学推导过程中纳入驾驶员心理行为影响因素,使得跟驰过程更客观地反映在紧急疏散状态下的交通流和疏散驾驶行为特性.通过文献研究分析传统跟驰理论与应急交通疏散跟驰特性的区别,并进一步进行驾驶员问卷调查对应急交通疏散条件下的驾驶心理行为特性进行统计分析,提炼出驾驶员行为差异分布系数和经验判断系数2个参数,并将其纳入车辆安全间距的动力学推导过程,建立了基于驾驶行为特性和最小安全间距的应急交通疏散车辆跟驰模型.应用GPs技术对北京东三环劲松路段高峰小时交通流跟驰数据,对EECM进行了比较验证,结论有力地支持了EECM模型及问卷量化分析的合理性.%A new emergency evacuation car-following model(EECM) is proposed. The model aims to capture the maincharacteristics of traffic flow and driver behavior under anemergency evacuation, and it is developed on the basis ofminimum safety distances with parts of the drivers' abnormalbehavior in a panic emergency situation. A thorough questionnairesurvey is undertaken among drivers of different ages. Based onthe results from the survey, a safety-distance car-following modelis formulated by taking into account two new parameters: adifferential distributing coefficient and a driver' s experientialdecision coefficient, which are used to reflect variations of drivingbehaviors under an emergency evacuation situation whencompared with regular conditions. The formulation and derivationof the new model, as well as its properties and applicability arediscussed. A case study is presented to compare the car-followingtrajectories using observed data under regular peak-hour trafficconditions and theoretical EECM results. The results indicate theconsistency of the analysis of assumptions on the EECM andobservations.

  12. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  13. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  14. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars.

  15. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to thefield measure than that of NaSch model.

  18. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  19. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Monday 30 October until the evening of Tuesday 31 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  20. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 22 October until the evening of Monday 23 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  1. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  2. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  3. Development of a Control Systems Platform for an Autonomous Soft-Car

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Pratish

    2015-01-01

    Balloon Cars (Soft Cars) used for active-system testing are presently statically following one specific path. Autonomous GPS driven balloon cars can be extremely useful if made to be accurate.Volvo group’s long term plan involves usage of such cars to improve active-safety systems. Thisreport presents comprehensive details about the development of the control system of the soft-car.Software development was preceded by purchase of parts. Detailed descriptions of the ballooncar hardware compone...

  4. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  5. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  6. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  7. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  8. Composing for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Adam; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    The authors report on composing a piece for RoadMusic, an interactive music project which generates and manipulates music for the passengers and driver in a car, using sensor information gathered from the surroundings and from the movements of the car. We present a literature review which brings together related works in the diverse fields of Automotive UI, musical mappings, generative music and sonification. We then describe our strategies for composing for this novel system, and the uni...

  9. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  10. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  11. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  12. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  13. The Electric Car Battery. Sustainability in the Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.

    2011-03-15

    This report aims to provide an initial overview of the supply chain of electric car batteries, and to answer the following research question: What effect does the growing demand for electric vehicles have on the social and environmental conditions throughout the electric car battery supply chain? This report will combine various methodologies to be able to create an overall picture of the electric car battery supply chain, and is targeted towards companies, public servants, opinion makers and the general public interested in the electric car.

  14. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  15. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  16. French Professional Car Language

    OpenAIRE

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-01-01

    In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  17. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  18. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  19. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  20. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  1. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  2. New developments in clinical CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  3. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... on a survey undertaken in the Copenhagen area. The study reveals that a relatively low percentage of drivers (10-20%) consider commuting by public transportation in the near future, which is hardly a surprise. A hierarchical analysis, where reported use of public transportation is regressed on intentions...

  4. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  5. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  6. A Family Hitch : Econometrics of the New and the Used Car Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Prado

    2010-01-01

    Everybody knows that the new cars of today are used cars of tomorrow and some people assume a competition between new and used markets. There are numerous, preconceived ideas and academic theories regarding the interactions between primary and secondary markets. To investigate the relations, we provide a macroeconomic analysis of the French, the British and the US car markets. We aim at answering the following questions. What are the interactions between the new and the second-hand car market...

  7. 基于跟驰模型的列车运行优化控制模拟研究%Simulation of optimal control of train movement based on car-following mo del

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晶晶; 李克平; 金新民

    2014-01-01

    列车运行的优化控制是降低运输成本,提高运输服务质量以及实现轨道交通可持续发展的重要方式.本文在传统优化速度跟驰模型的基础上,以能量节约为目标提出了一种改进的模拟模型,用以模拟分析城市轨道交通系统中列车运行的优化控制.所提出的模型是通过在经典的优化速度跟驰模型(见 Phys. Rev. E 511035 Bando等,1995)中引入新的目标优化速度函数来实现在复杂限速条件下列车运行的优化控制.数值模拟则是以北京市地铁亦庄线为例,利用亦庄线实测数据开展研究.结果表明,所提出的模型能够很好地描述复杂限速条件下列车运行的动态特性,模拟测量得到的结果和亦庄线的实测数据较为符合,由此说明所提出模型的有效性.进一步,通过分析列车运行时空图,列车运行的速度变化及运行时间等,讨论了复杂环境下列车流的时空演化特性.%Optimal control of train movement is an important way to reduce transport cost, enhance service level, and realize sustainable development. In this paper, based on traditional optimal velocity car-following model, an improved simulation model is presented, it is used to optimize the velocity control of train movement in urban railway system. The proposed model is established by introducing a new function of objective optimal velocity into the classical optimal velocity model (See Phys. Rev. E 51, 1035, Bando et al, 1995) to realize the optimal control of train movement in complicated conditions. Numerical simulation takes the Beijing City Metro Yi Zhuang line as an example. Here some reality measurement data is used. Results show that the proposed model can well describe the dynamic characteristics of train movement under the complex limited condition. Simulation results are close to reality measurement data. This demonstrates that the proposed model is valid. Further, by analyzing the space-time graph, the change of

  8. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  9. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  10. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  11. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  12. Ortho-Aminoazotoluene activates mouse Constitutive Androstane Receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-01-01

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car−/−) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car−/− livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. PMID:21672546

  13. A broken heart in a broken car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossbauer, Susanne Anna; Ghadri, Jelena-Rima; Cammann, Victoria Lucia; Maier, Willibald; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is still a relatively understudied and often undetected disease. It is usually preceded by emotional or physical triggers. We here report a case of TTS following a car accident. Typical apical ballooning with moderate reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and increased level of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as well as slightly increased creatine kinase and troponin T values were found in this 76-year-old female patient, 6 h after a car accident. At 10 weeks follow-up, we observed a normalization of regional wall motion, LVEF, electrocardiogram and pro-BNP. TTS is an acute heart failure syndrome and an important differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27377800

  14. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  15. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  16. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  17. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  18. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  19. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  20. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG). First, we describe the competition regulations and the software framework. Then, the five best teams describe the methods of computational intelligence they used to develop their drivers and the lessons they learned from the participation in the championship......In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  1. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006.Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD).Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC GroupTel. 163380 - 164043

  2. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006. Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD). Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC Group Tel. 163380 - 164043

  3. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  4. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  5. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  6. Derivação carótido-carotídea por via retrofaríngea: seguimento tardio Retropharyngeal carotid-carotid crossover bypass: late follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Roech Aerts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversas opções para o tratamento da doença oclusiva dos troncos supra-aórticos, de acordo com a apresentação clínica e a localização das lesões arteriais. As abordagens cervicais são aceitas como alternativas de baixa morbimortalidade, com elevada perviedade em longo prazo. Os autores relatam um caso tratado com sucesso através de derivação carótido-carotídea cruzada por via retrofaríngea associada à endarterectomia da bifurcação carotídea. São discutidos também os aspectos clínicos e as opções cirúrgicas ou endovasculares para o melhor tratamento desses pacientes.A variety of therapeutic options are available to manage the disease of supra-aortic trunks based on clinical presentations and anatomic location of the arterial lesions. The cervical approach is accepted as having low morbidity and mortality with elevated long-term patency. The authors report a successfully treated case of carotid-carotid crossover bypass by the retropharyngeal route associated with endarterectomy of carotid bifurcation. We also discuss clinical aspects, and surgical or endovascular options for the best treatment of these patients.

  7. Future cars: the electric option

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Avery, NR; Muddle, BC

    1999-01-01

    Global economic, environmental and political issues are pushing car manufacturers to consider electric power systems as an alternative to the current spark ignition engine. In this article, we analyse the power and energy requirements of a modern car and conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor or battery bank to supply additional sho...

  8. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  9. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  10. Company car study 2011. Reduction of environmental impacts by influencing the selection process of company cars; Tyoesuhdeautotutkimus 2011. Ympaeristoehaittojen vaehentaeminen autonvalinnan ohjauksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify: What kinds of operational models directing towards eco-friendlier company car use there are and which are in use. What kinds of practical impacts these operational models have had. What is the demand for company car use and what changes have taken place from the viewpoint of companies and beneficiaries. What factors should the best company car taxation include in terms of directiveness (from the environmental point of view). The main objective is to find directive factors in company car use which would result in smaller environmental impacts and which company car users could commit themselves to. The main target groups of the study were the recipients of company car benefits, and enterprises using company cars. Company cars are mainly used for two reasons: in many organisations, work is carried out where the customer is, in which case company cars are used for reducing travel costs. On the other hand, a company car is a significant means for attracting and motivating employees, especially skilled experts and management staff. Company cars also play a significant role in the replacement rate of Finnish motor vehicles. The car selection rules of organisations determine the roles that entitle an employee to have a company car and how they can choose their car. Factors restricting the choice are usually CO{sub 2} and the price and make of the car. The CO{sub 2} limit is used by about 70% of organisations. According to this study, the average emission limit is 168 g/km, depending on the company and the position of the beneficiary. However, the average CO{sub 2} emissions of new company cars are currently about 140 g/km, and therefore the emission limits of organisations have not followed the development of motor technology. In entrepreneurship, environmental issues will be regarded as very important in the future, and there is also a notion for this to be reflected in the guidelines for selecting company cars. Emissions reduction

  11. Plastic cars for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plastic automobiles may have passed a milestone on the long road to commercial reality with the development of Composite Concept Vehicle (CCV) from Chrysler Corp. in Auburn Hills, Mich. This basic compact car--so basic it could be called bare bones--is built by attaching an injection-molded thermoplastic polyester body onto a tubular steel chassis. The 1,200-pound CCV, which is expected to require one-third the labor and investment needed to build a conventional small car, was designed for new buyers in the emerging economies of China, India, and Southeast Asia. If commercialized, the car would likely cost about $6,000--halfway between a motorcycle and an entry-level auto. The small car was unveiled in September 1996 at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Germany.

  12. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  13. Cars Are Hot in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    MANY Chinese have long dreamedabout the joy of driving. However, in thepast only professional drivers had theopportunity as most cars were stateowned and it was too expensive forindividuals to buy their own.

  14. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  15. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  16. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  17. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  18. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  19. Mathematical model of convection diathermanous coefficient of refrigerator car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is analyzed that the influence factors on temperature field of refrigerator car. The mathematical model of convection diathermanous coefficient has been put forward. It is considered in the model that the parameters of wind speed, ear speed, temperature of car surface, temperature of surroundings, etc. If the boundary conditions and parameters used in calculation model of convection transmits heat coefficient are confirmed as following: the cold plank car velocity V is 120 km/h, and air temperature is 25℃, and the atmosphere press is 1013250 Pa, and wind velocity V f is 10 m/s, and the length of car bodywork L is 5 m, and body work surface temperature is 25℃. The results were obtained by the model: when the wind velocity direction is the same as car velocity, the coefficient K of convection transmits heat is 51.4 ( W·m-2·K-1) , and when the wind velocity direction is against the car velocity. K is 90.58 ( W·m-2·K-1) .

  20. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  1. CAR_Tleukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and young adults (age 1 to age 30) with chemotherapy-resistant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experienced high remission rates following treatment with an experimental immunotherapy. Results demonstrated that the immunotherapy treatmen

  2. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  3. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles. PMID:25076137

  4. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  5. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  6. One smart card, one less car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, B.

    2003-06-30

    A system of car-sharing in Bremen, Germany, a membership-based structure of car-sharing that gives members access to a network of cars stationed throughout the city on a pay-per-trip basis, and without the hassles of car ownership, is discussed. The car-sharing scheme is combined with the city's transit system by means of a smart card that serves both as a pass for the city's transit system and as an electronic key to the cars in the car-sharing system. Future plans include to use the card also as a method of payment for taxis, and organizers are also working with the municipal government to get support for having car-sharing included in the city's official plan. At present, car-sharing stations are simply reserved parking spots for one or more cars, however, future stations are envisaged to include parking for up to five cars, a computer to book cars, direct access to keys using the smart card, parking for bicycles, and information about car-sharing stations, bus, trams, as well as bike and walking routes. Similar, if somewhat more modest, car-sharing schemes are also available in several cities in Canada, including Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver.

  7. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  8. Car car cars:车库梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    在曾经关于南京摇滚大集合的专题中我们介绍过这支年轻而有趣的乐队,当时他们刚刚开始,最令人印象深刻是男吉他+女鼓手的车库摇滚乐队配置,今年,他们在近一年的辗转与坚持中,越来越多地参与到南京、北京和更多城市的演出中,同时独立发行了乐队的首张同名EP。Car Car Cars的名字和他们热衷的车库风格鲜明地联系在一起,而除了对于风格上的暗示,这个名字与他们最初组建时一直在一间废弃的驾校模拟器教室排练有很大关系。“里面有很多那种模驾练习机嘛,当时就想取一个和“车”有关的乐队名字应该很酷,就叫CAR CAR CARS吧!”酷的不只有名字,Car Car Cars由兄妹二人组成,主唱兼吉他手小汤是年轻的哥哥。鼓手是漂亮的妹妹,这种无意间造就的话题性让人有意无意地联系统The White Stripes。除了外型、配置上的天生抢眼,Car Car Cars这一年中的数场演出,也展示了他们凌厉的台风与属于车库的狂野,首张EP一上来就使用了同期录音的方式,展示了很多惊喜,虽然也不可避免地了一些些遗憾。在进一步的发展中。克服了创作、表现力的一些进阶困难之后,Car Car Cars完全有实力为风格趋于过份统一的国内年轻摇滚圈添上与众不同的一笔。

  9. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  10. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  11. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  12. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  13. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  14. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  15. Car-Like Mobile Robot Oriented Positioning by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ouadah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic controllers (FLC are used to implement an efficient and accurate positioning of an autonomous car-like mobile robot, respecting final orientation. To accomplish this task, called "Oriented Positioning", two FLC have been developed: robot positioning controller (RPC and robot following controller (RFC. Computer simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Finally, real-time experiments have been made on an autonomous car-like mobile robot called "Robucar", developed to perform people transportation. Obtained results from experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  16. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  19. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Document Server

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  20. The CERN car stickers for 2008 are now available

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2008 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the following documents: the 2007 sticker for the vehicle in question, the "carte grise" registration paper of the vehicle in question (photocopies accepted). If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2008 sticker using the request form on the Web.NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2007. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  1. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  2. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  3. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  4. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  5. MEASURING DRIVING PERFORMANCE BY CAR-FOLLOWING IN TRAFFIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; DEWAARD, D; MULDER, Lambertus J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of impairing effects on driving performance by such external factors as alcohol, medicinal drugs, or mobile telephoning, etc., is extended with a new test. Most existing methods of measuring impairing effects in the actual driving environment have the drawback that, irrespective of h

  6. Analysis of car-following model with cascade compensation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Cascade compensation mechanism was designed to improve the dynamical performance of traffic flow system. Two compensation methods were used to study unit step response in time domain and frequency characteristics with different parameters. The overshoot and phase margins are proportional to the compensation parameter in an underdamped condition. Through the comparison we choose the phase-lead compensation method as the main strategy in suppressing the traffic jam. The simulations were conducted under two boundary conditions to verify the validity of the compensator. The conclusion can be drawn that the stability of the system is strengthened with increased phase-lead compensation parameter. Moreover, the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  7. A speed feedback control strategy for car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2014-11-01

    A speed feedback control mechanism was introduced into the system to improve the dynamical performance of the traffic flow. The modern control theory was used to analyze the stability of the system. It is found that the stability region varies with the feedback coefficient proportionally. In addition, the unit step responses in time domain and phase-frequency curves in frequency domain were given with different feedback coefficients in step response diagram and Bode diagram respectively. The overshoot and phase margins are inversely proportional to the speed feedback coefficients in an underdamped condition. The simulations were conducted to verify the validity of the improvement. The conclusion can be drawn that the analytical result and the simulation result are in good agreement with each other.

  8. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Mariner混合动力车是一款豪华紧凑型SUV,它采用混合动力发动机,无级变速和全驱动驾驶,续航里程达640公里。如果您是一位不喜欢走寻常路的人,那么这款车型先进的导航系统以及出色的稳定性控制定会给带来惊喜。

  9. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车 10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  10. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  11. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  12. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  13. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  14. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  15. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  16. Evolution of the crashworthiness and aggressivity of the Spanish car fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Méndez, Alvaro; Aparicio Izquierdo, Francisco; Arenas Ramírez, Blanca

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a passenger car's year of registration and its crashworthiness and aggressivity in real-world crashes. Crashworthiness is defined as the ability of a car to protect its own occupants, and has been evaluated in single and two-car crashes. Aggressivity is defined as the ability to protect users travelling in other vehicles, and has been evaluated only in two-car crashes. The dependent variable is defined as the proportion of injured drivers who are killed or seriously injured; following previous research, we refer to this magnitude as injury severity. A decrease in the injury severity of a driver is interpreted as an improvement in the crashworthiness of their car; similarly, a decrease in the injury severity of the opponent driver is regarded as an improvement in aggressivity. Data have been extracted from the Spanish Road Accident Database, which contains information on every accident registered by the police in which at least one person was injured. Two types of regression models have been used: logistic regression models in single-car crashes, and generalised estimating equations (GEE) models in two-car crashes. GEE allow to take account of the correlation between the injury severities of drivers involved in the same crash. The independent variables considered have been: year of registration of the subject car (crashworthiness component), year of registration of the opponent car (aggressivity component), and several factors related to road, driver and environment. Our models confirm that crashworthiness has largely improved in two-car crashes: when crashing into the average opponent car, drivers of cars registered before 1985 have a significantly higher probability of being killed or seriously injured than drivers of cars registered in 2000-2005 (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.61; 2.01). In single-car crashes, the improvement in crashworthiness is very slight (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% confidence interval

  17. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses. PMID:18606288

  18. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  19. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  20. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  1. The market for used cars : new evidence of the lemons phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand; Sheldon, George

    2009-01-01

    The lemons model assumes that owners of used cars have an information advantage over potential buyers with respect to the quality of their vehicles. Owners of bad cars try to sell them to ill-informed buyers while owners of good cars hold on to theirs. Consequently, the quality of traded automobiles tends to be sub-average. In contrast to previous empirical work, the following paper investigates both the behavior of buyers and sellers, testing for adverse selection by sellers and for quality ...

  2. Application of Freeman Chain Codes: An Alternative Recognition Technique for Malaysian Car Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jusoh, Nor Amizam

    2011-01-01

    Various applications of car plate recognition systems have been developed using various kinds of methods and techniques by researchers all over the world. The applications developed were only suitable for specific country due to its standard specification endorsed by the transport department of particular countries. The Road Transport Department of Malaysia also has endorsed a specification for car plates that includes the font and size of characters that must be followed by car owners. However, there are cases where this specification is not followed. Several applications have been developed in Malaysia to overcome this problem. However, there is still problem in achieving 100% recognition accuracy. This paper is mainly focused on conducting an experiment using chain codes technique to perform recognition for different types of fonts used in Malaysian car plates.

  3. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  4. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  6. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  7. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  8. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors. PMID:27454296

  9. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel effi

  10. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  11. Evidence for significant C-5 alkene emissions from car traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, G. W.; Park, C.

    2010-12-01

    We present evidence from urban flux tower measurements in Houston, Texas, that a five carbon alkene, likely isoprene, is emitted from car traffic. Our GC-dual FID instrument setup measures VOC concentrations at 60 m above ground level from a lattice flux tower, and determines fluxes via a novel relaxed eddy accumulation technique. C-5 2-alkenes and isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, are not chromatographically separated by our method, but past VOC measurements suggest that isoprene, a biogenic hydrocarbon, generally dominates during the growing season. Our measured 2008 summertime C-5 alkene fluxes generally followed the expected, light and temperature driven emission pattern of isoprene from a significant density of oak trees in the tower’s footprint area. However, nighttime fluxes were significantly different from an expected zero biogenic flux, and morning rush hour fluxes were significantly higher than modeled biogenic fluxes. Wintertime measurements in January 2009 confirmed a small flux during the morning rush-hour was maintained, suggesting either an isoprene or C-5 2-alkene emission from car exhaust. While isoprene emissions from car traffic have been found several times before, emission rates have been found negligibly small compared to biogenic emissions. A quantitative comparison of our data to simultaneously measured toluene and benzene emissions however suggests that these C-5 alkene emissions may have increased relative to aromatics by a factor of ten since the 1990s. This notion is supported both by recent direct car exhaust measurements in Europe and Japan, and airborne isoprene measurements over Houston. Car exhaust measurements show that (i) the isoprene to toluene emission ratio for the newest car models is now around 1:10, similar to the ratio obtained from our data, and (ii) cold start alkene emissions are still an order of magnitude higher than regular emissions, consistent with a more prominent morning rush hour peak. If the identity of our

  12. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  13. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti8c12+, while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  14. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  15. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  16. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  17. Study Finds Hybrid Cars Greener Than Hydrogen Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励蓓蓓

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:最近,我也加入了“驾车一族”,我的小别克让我饱尝“飞驰”之乐。因此,我也更关心汽车的前景。本文向我们透露了许多研发新型汽车的最新消息。美国布什政府对研发氢燃料电池驱动的汽车的费用投入达12亿美元。但是,此消息刚刚宣布,MIT的研究就提出氢燃料电池驱动的汽车的不足:…uses sub-stantial energy and emits greenhouse gases.一种更环保更科学的汽车(hybrid cars/复合车)在日本的丰田和本田公司已经被投入生产。

  18. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  19. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  20. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  1. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  2. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  3. The Stylistic Analysis of car ads languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟苹

    2014-01-01

    Automotive advertising language is mix of phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and discourse language etc., and owning a strong promotional effect which can functioned as a bridge between language expression and promotion system for es-sential products and consumers. As a kind of the commercial advertising, car advertising with its own unique language features not only for product considerably, but also enriches the advertising language. In order to analysis the car ads, this article draws at-tention from the aspects of the phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric and syntax features, and aims to get a further and better analysis or understanding of the car ads Languages.

  4. DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves

  5. On the visual binary υ Car and the chemical composition of its brighter component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, Z. A.

    On the basis of the method for studying the composite spectrum of a double system, the following values of effective temperatures and surface gravities are obtained for the components of the visual binary υ Car: Teff = 7600±350K, lg g = 1.1±0.3 for the brighter component υ Car A, Teff = 23000±1600K, lg g = 3.3±0.1 for the fainter component υ Car B. By comparing the evolutionary calculations the author has found masses, radii, luminosities; the age is 107years. Using spectroscopic data, the microturbulent velocity and the chemical composition are studied in the atmosphere of υ Car A. The analysis of Ti II, Fe II, Cr II lines showed higher values in comparison with Fe I lines. The element abundances are defined using relatively weak lines, on average it is close to that of the Sun.

  6. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Davila, Marco L

    2016-01-01

    T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application. PMID:27231717

  7. Ultrafast CARS with Improved Spectral Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochbrunner S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular vibrations are investigated by time and frequency resolved CARS applying ultrafast excitation and picosecond probing for high spectral resolution. Enhanced spectral structure and beating phenomena are demonstrated for coalescing Raman bands.

  8. Binarity of the LBV HR Car

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; de Wit, W J; Mehner, A; Martayan, Ch; Guieu, S; Bouquin, J -B Le

    2014-01-01

    VLTI/AMBER and VLTI/PIONIER observations of the LBV HR Car show an interferometric signature that could not possibly be explained by an extended wind, more or less symmetrically distributed around a single object. Instead, observations both in the Br$\\gamma$ line and the H-band continuum are best explained by two point sources (or alternatively one point source and one slightly extended source) at about 2 mas separation and a contrast ratio of about 1:5. These observations establish that HR Car is a binary, but further interpretation will only be possible with future observations to constrain the orbit. Under the assumption that the current separation is close to the maximum one, the orbital period can be estimated to be of the order of 5 years, similar as in the $\\eta$ Car system. This would make HR Car the second such LBV binary.

  9. Humanitarian reform: a view from CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Humanitarian Coordinator in the Central AfricanRepublic (CAR, it is my job to ensure that the UN andhumanitarian organisations work together to meet needsas efficiently as we can.

  10. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  11. Red, Yellow, and Green: A psychological perspective on car purchase and implications for subsequent car use

    OpenAIRE

    Nayum, Alim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Red, Yellow, and Green: A psychological perspective on car purchase and implications for subsequent car use - Research on consumer behaviors having high impact on natural resources and the environment is considered important for developing measures for a sustainable future. This thesis focuses on one of such consumer behaviors – purchases and use of new passenger cars. The primary aim of the thesis is to examine the effects of socio-psychological factors in ...

  12. Post-Car World: Why Laugh at Change? Definitions of the Car and Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rigal, Alexandre; Rudler, Jade

    2014-01-01

    Far from the sirens of Modernism and the models founded on a standard vision of humanity, the scope of the Post-Car World research project is pluralistic. This project, funded by the Fonds National (Synergia), aims to create urban planning scenarios, focusing on the role of the car. Originally based on our investigation of people’s relationship with the car, the plurality of practices and their possible (and desired) alternatives will likewise enhance these scenarios. This plurality of views ...

  13. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR expression by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL with CARs directed against a variety of tumor associated antigens. Despite the improvements in the design of CARs and expansion of the number of target antigens, there is no universal flow cytometric method available to detect the expression of CARs on the surface of transduced lymphocytes. Methods Currently anti-fragment antigen binding (Fab conjugates are most widely used to determine the expression of CARs on gene-modified lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The limitations of these reagents are that many of them are not commercially available, generally they are polyclonal antibodies and often the results are inconsistent. In an effort to develop a simple universal flow cytometric method to detect the expression of CARs, we employed protein L to determine the expression of CARs on transduced lymphocytes. Protein L is an immunoglobulin (Ig-binding protein that binds to the variable light chains (kappa chain of Ig without interfering with antigen binding site. Protein L binds to most classes of Ig and also binds to single-chain antibody fragments (scFv and Fab fragments. Results We used CARs derived from both human and murine antibodies to validate this novel protein L based flow cytometric method and the results correlated well with other established methods. Activated human PBLs were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing two human antibody based CARs (anti-EGFRvIII, and anti-VEGFR2, two murine antibody derived CARs (anti-CSPG4, and anti

  14. Issue 5: High Interest in Hybrid Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Paul M.; Haselhoff, Kim

    2005-01-01

    This SCS Fact Sheet provides information on the level of interest in purchasing hybrid automobiles—vehicles that combine gasoline and electric motors to increase fuel mileage and reduce air pollution. A significant minority stated that they are willing to pay more for such a car, with the proportion varying by income and ethnicity. Not surprisingly, those drivers who commute to work and those with environmental concerns are more likely to pay the additional cost for a hybrid car.

  15. Travel Time Estimation Using Floating Car Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sevlian, Raffi

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the use of machine learning techniques to accurately predict travel times in city streets and highways using floating car data (location information of user vehicles on a road network). The aim of this report is twofold, first we present a general architecture of solving this problem, then present and evaluate few techniques on real floating car data gathered over a month on a 5 Km highway in New Delhi.

  16. Without wheels: alternatives to the private car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Alternatives to private cars are examined in a response to the need for new transportation strategies. It is believed that there is no single panacea for the problem, and both existing technologies (trains, buses, taxis, bicycles, and cars) and new technologies (driverless vehicles, electronic guidance systems, and moving sidewalks) are considered. New concepts in town planning and life style that could reduce travel needs are examined, and various current urban experiments are detailed. (PMA)

  17. Tunable narrow band filter for CARS microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter we present an approach to CARS microscopy, which compromises between fast acquisition rates and the amount of chemical information obtained. By using a light modulator as tunable filter in concert with narrowband pump and broadband Stokes pulses, we demonstrate an experimental arrangement, which allows for fast electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances without the need for any optical adjustment

  18. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  19. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  20. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  1. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  2. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  3. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  4. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  5. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  6. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  7. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  8. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  9. Glaucoma secundário à fístula carótido-cavernosa espontânea com resolução após a embolização da fístula: relato de caso Secondary glaucoma following carotid cavernous fistula resolved after fistula's embolization: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Jarczun Kac; Sansão Isaac Kac; Arlete Gonçalves dos Santos Martins

    2010-01-01

    Fístulas carótido-cavernosas espontâneas são raras e ocorrem mais frequentemente em mulheres de meia-idade. Os autores relatam um caso de uma fístula carótido-cavernosa espontânea em mulher idosa evoluindo com glaucoma de difícil controle. Após a embolização cirúrgica da fístula a paciente apresentou regressão da sintomatologia e normalização da pressão intraocular.Spontaneous carotid cavernous fistulas are a rare entity occurring more frequently in middle aged women. The authors report a cas...

  10. Glaucoma secundário à fístula carótido-cavernosa espontânea com resolução após a embolização da fístula: relato de caso Secondary glaucoma following carotid cavernous fistula resolved after fistula's embolization: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jarczun Kac

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fístulas carótido-cavernosas espontâneas são raras e ocorrem mais frequentemente em mulheres de meia-idade. Os autores relatam um caso de uma fístula carótido-cavernosa espontânea em mulher idosa evoluindo com glaucoma de difícil controle. Após a embolização cirúrgica da fístula a paciente apresentou regressão da sintomatologia e normalização da pressão intraocular.Spontaneous carotid cavernous fistulas are a rare entity occurring more frequently in middle aged women. The authors report a case of a spontaneous carotid cavernous fistula in an elderly woman resulting in glaucoma of hard management. After surgical embolization of the fistula, the symptoms regressed and the intraocular pressure moved back to regular levels.

  11. REMOTE CONTROLLED CAR HEATER USING A RASPBERRY PI

    OpenAIRE

    Loukola, Petrik

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the goal was to design and implement a technology with which the user can control the car heaters and monitor the car temperature via Wi-Fi network and web browser. The idea for this project came from the Finnish cold climate. Winters in Finland can be very cold and if the car owners want to drive their cars, it is recommended to preheat the car engine and interior before driving the car. This will make driving safer, the car will make less pollution, better for the engines li...

  12. Human CAR T cells with cell-intrinsic PD-1 checkpoint blockade resist tumor-mediated inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Leonid; Morello, Aurore; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Jones, David R; Sadelain, Michel; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2016-08-01

    Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1-mediated (PD-1-mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB-based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication. CAR-mediated CD28 and 4-1BB costimulation resulted in similar levels of T cell persistence in animals treated with low T cell doses; however, PD-1 upregulation within the tumor microenvironment inhibited T cell function. At lower doses, 4-1BB CAR T cells retained their cytotoxic and cytokine secretion functions longer than CD28 CAR T cells. The prolonged function of 4-1BB CAR T cells correlated with improved survival. PD-1/PD-1 ligand [PD-L1] pathway interference, through PD-1 antibody checkpoint blockade, cell-intrinsic PD-1 shRNA blockade, or a PD-1 dominant negative receptor, restored the effector function of CD28 CAR T cells. These findings provide mechanistic insights into human CAR T cell exhaustion in solid tumors and suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade may be an effective strategy for improving the potency of CAR T cell therapies.

  13. Human CAR T cells with cell-intrinsic PD-1 checkpoint blockade resist tumor-mediated inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Leonid; Morello, Aurore; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Jones, David R; Sadelain, Michel; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2016-08-01

    Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1-mediated (PD-1-mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB-based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication. CAR-mediated CD28 and 4-1BB costimulation resulted in similar levels of T cell persistence in animals treated with low T cell doses; however, PD-1 upregulation within the tumor microenvironment inhibited T cell function. At lower doses, 4-1BB CAR T cells retained their cytotoxic and cytokine secretion functions longer than CD28 CAR T cells. The prolonged function of 4-1BB CAR T cells correlated with improved survival. PD-1/PD-1 ligand [PD-L1] pathway interference, through PD-1 antibody checkpoint blockade, cell-intrinsic PD-1 shRNA blockade, or a PD-1 dominant negative receptor, restored the effector function of CD28 CAR T cells. These findings provide mechanistic insights into human CAR T cell exhaustion in solid tumors and suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade may be an effective strategy for improving the potency of CAR T cell therapies. PMID:27454297

  14. Thoracic Injury Risk as a Function of Crash Severity - Car-to-car Side Impact Tests with WorldSID Compared to Real-life Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Rosén, Erik; Boström, Ola; Lechelt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Side airbags reduce the risk of fatal injury by approximately 30%. Due to limited real-life data the risk reducing effect for serious injury has not yet been established. Since side airbags are mainly designed and validated for crash severities used in available test procedures little is known regarding the protective effect when severity increases.The objective of this study was to understand for which crash severities AIS3+ thorax occupant protection in car-to-car nearside collisions need to and can be improved. The aim was fulfilled by means of real life data, for older cars without side airbag, and a series of car-to-car tests performed with the WorldSID 50%-ile in modern and older cars at different impact speeds.The real life data showed that the risk of AIS3+ injury was highest for the thorax followed by the pelvis and head. For both non-senior and senior occupants, most thorax injuries were sustained at lateral delta-v from 20 km/h to 40 km/h. In this severity range, senior occupants were found to have approximately four times higher risk of thoracic injury than non-senior occupants. The crash tests at lateral impact speed 55 km/h (delta-v 32 km/h) confirmed the improved performance at severities represented in current legal and rating tests. The structural integrity of the modern car impacted at 70 km/h showed a potential for improved side impact protection by interior countermeasures.

  15. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  16. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  17. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter for a DOT-113C120W tank car apply to a DOT-113D120W tank car. (49 U.S.C. 1803, 1804, 1808; 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not...

  18. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats Metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos durante as lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were determined. RESULTS: Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0. The highest brain ketone bodies (ACT+BHB concentration was verified at 5min of reperfusion, decreasing after 10min of recirculation. Systemic ketone bodies levels increased similarly between test and sham groups. Group S demonstrated a significant increase in cerebral and systemic ACT and BHB concentrations mainly after 40-45min of study. CONCLUSIONS: The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. There was an increased cerebral uptake of ketone bodies following brain ischemia, reaffirming these metabolites as alternative energy substrates under conditions of cerebral metabolic stress as well as its potential role on neuroprotection. The greatest changes in ketone bodies metabolism were verified at initial minutes of recirculation as a result of the reperfusion injury phenomenon.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações in vivo no metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia cerebral induzido pela simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (CCAs em ratos Wistar. M

  19. Paralleled comparison of vectors for the generation of CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Di-Yuan; Huang, Yong; Li, Dan; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-09-01

    T-lymphocytes genetically engineered with the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) have shown great therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. A variety of preclinical researches and clinical trials of CAR-T therapy have been carried out to lay the foundation for future clinical application. In these researches, several gene-transfer methods were used to deliver CARs or other genes into T-lymphocytes, equipping CAR-modified T cells with a property of recognizing and attacking antigen-expressing tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner. Here, we summarize the gene-transfer vectors commonly used in the generation of CAR-T cell, including retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, the transposon/transposase system, the plasmid-based system, and the messenger RNA electroporation system. The following aspects were compared in parallel: efficiency of gene transfer, the integration methods in the modified T cells, foreground of scale-up production, and application and development in clinical trials. These aspects should be taken into account to generate the optimal CAR-gene vector that may be suitable for future clinical application. PMID:27333595

  20. Toward brain-actuated car applications: Self-paced control with a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-01

    This study presented a paradigm for controlling a car using an asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and presented the experimental results of a simulation performed in an experimental environment outside the laboratory. This paradigm uses two distinct MI tasks, imaginary left- and right-hand movements, to generate a multi-task car control strategy consisting of starting the engine, moving forward, turning left, turning right, moving backward, and stopping the engine. Five healthy subjects participated in the online car control experiment, and all successfully controlled the car by following a previously outlined route. Subject S1 exhibited the most satisfactory BCI-based performance, which was comparable to the manual control-based performance. We hypothesize that the proposed self-paced car control paradigm based on EEG signals could potentially be used in car control applications, and we provide a complementary or alternative way for individuals with locked-in disorders to achieve more mobility in the future, as well as providing a supplementary car-driving strategy to assist healthy people in driving a car.

  1. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  2. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  3. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  4. The ARTEMIS European driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, M

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, various work has been undertaken to collect data on the actual driving of European cars and to derive representative real-world driving cycles. A compilation and synthesis of this work is provided in this paper. In the frame of the European research project: ARTEMIS, this work has been considered to derive a set of reference driving cycles. The main objectives were as follows:- to derive a common set of reference real-world driving cycles to be used in the frame of the A...

  5. Avaliação metabólica das lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns: estudo experimental em ratos Metabolic evaluation of ischemic and reperfusion brain injury following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Franklin Muniz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as alterações no metabolismo energético após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia global reversível por simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (ACCs em ratos da linhagem Wistar. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (C - Controle; T - Teste e cada um deles redistribuídos em quatro tempos de estudos. Após oclusão bilateral das ACCs por 30min, permitiu-se reperfusão aos animais do grupo T nos tempos 0, 5, 10 e 15min. Foram coletadas amostras de tecido cerebral e sangue arterial sistêmico e quantificados os metabólitos D-glicose (GLI, piruvato (PRV, lactato (LCT e adenosina trifosfato (ATP. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento nos níveis sangüíneos de GLI e PRV de, respectivamente, 85,00% (pPURPOSE: To describe alterations on the energy metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, through an experimental model of reversible global ischemia, by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in rats of Wistar lineage. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (C - Control; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites D-glucose (GLI, pyruvate (PRV, lactate (LCT and adenosine triphosphate (ATP quantified. RESULTS: Increases of GLI and PRV blood values of, respectively, 85,00% (p<0,05 and 51,72% (p<0,01 were observed at 5min of reperfusion, which reflect a systemic response to the cerebral ischemia. The brain's LCT remained stable despite a reduction of 52,66% (p<0,05 in its blood concentration at 15min of reperfusion. The cerebral concentrations of ATP decreased 85,40% (p<0,05 after ischemia, followed by an augmentation of 3.033,40% (p<0,05 at 5min

  6. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nano-optics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ultrafast energy and electron transfer dynamics in real space with nanometre resolution. (paper)

  7. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  8. Parametric design of air powered car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, T.M.; Kumar, B.P.; Suresh, R. [Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An air-powered car was described with particular reference to its thermodynamic properties. The car was based on an external combustion engine. Air suction occurred in a piston and cylinder assembly through an air vent, where it was then compressed to higher pressures. The compressed air then entered a multi-stage reciprocating single-acting air compressor where the air was further compressed. Power for the compressor was provided by a double-battery system and a relay circuit to trigger the battery connection. Compressed air was stored in a compressed air tank and controlled by valves. The valves were controlled by a contour profile of an overhead camshift. Design specifications were included for the cylinder and cylinder liner; the pistons; the connecting rod; crank; valve gear mechanism; and the compressor. Results of the thermodynamic analysis indicated that the air-powered car is technologically feasible. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn;

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  10. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  11. Event marketing in car industry : case: Carfest

    OpenAIRE

    Häme, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Car importer companies compete on the pages of newspapers and magazines with who has the nicest and most clever advertisement on their new car models. The industry uses quite basic means of marketing – including TV and Radio. Event marketing means to have an event and market your product through that. It needs involvement from the potential customer – not only browsing the magazine or listening to the radio. The main objective in this thesis was to find out whether a SMB can organize...

  12. Islamic Mobility : Car Culture in Modern Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In a modern and respectable middle-class suburb outside Kuala Lumpur, the overtness of cars evokes intense speculation about the nature of the make-up of covert middle-class homes and the formation of Malay Muslim identities more generally. I argue that the more ‘Islamic’ cultures of consumption assert themselves in modern Malaysia, the more the growing Malay Muslim middle class is split between desiring cars as positional commodities, on the one hand, and claims for piety through consumption...

  13. ANALYSIS OF TOWING HOOKS OF CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut YÜKSEL

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Towing hooks generally are assembled to vehicles as accessory. They are used to tow caravans and trailers having no engine, which provide accommodation and haulage of loads, respectively. So, the transport capacity of cars is increased safely. Towing hooks require different constructive structures due to different chassis or monocoque body of each car type; hence they are to be manufactured and assembled in small- or middle-size factories as per order. In this study, three different constructions of towing hook are modelled and structurally analysed. The results obtained are compared with each other to improve the structural strength.

  14. Audi cars Sponsored to Summer Davos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong

    2009-01-01

    @@ During the upcoming Summer Davos in Asia this year,it is not only the grand affair to Dalian city,but also for the Audi cars,as the exclusive vehicle sunnlier for the event The Vehicle Handover Ceremony of the Faw Volkswagen Audi was held at Xinghai Square,Dalian,China,September 3,2009. Faw Volkswa,vehicle sponsor of the Summer Davos 2009,provides a total of 85 new Audi cars to be running for the distinguished guests during the meeting.

  15. Scientists Explain Catalysis Neutralizing Car's Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The neutralization of the car's tail gas is a problem of practical importance in the eyes of both experimental and theoretical physicists. Recently, a group of CAS scientists join hands with the Queen's University of Belfast in the UK to make advances in exploring the process of CO oxidation in a bid to reduce the air pollution caused by the car's exhaust gas. The work has been supported by the "National 973Program" and the CAS Foundation for Overseas Studies. On March 4,its result was published by the Internet edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

  16. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  17. Car Age, Taxation, Scrappage Premiums and the ELV Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, F. Mikael

    2003-01-01

    A chain of replacement model is used to examine the effects of automobile taxes and of a scrappage premium on the life length of cars, and on the size of the car fleet. The predictions of the model are tested on data on the scrappage of cars in Sweden 1989-2002. The theoretical model predicts that increased taxes on the purchase of cars should increase the life length of cars, and reduce the number of cars. A scrappage premium would have the opposite effects. Changes in periodic taxes would h...

  18. Differentiation of car rental services in the Croatian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Karlo Marijanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of service companies focus on service differentiation nowadays. The companies that manage to deliver superior service are winners and may serve as an example of how the growth of services has changed business. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the Croatian car rental services market. The theoretical part of the paper provides an insight into the characteristics of services in general, followed by an overview of the characteristics and features of the companies operating in the local market. The second part of the paper deals with the work of Porter and his three generic strategies, and with his differentiation strategy in particular. Subsequently, all possibilities of differentiation strategies that are appropriate to the car rental services are analyzed. Beside global recession, the Croatian market is currently also struggling with huge competition and companies cannot generate profit without continuous differentiation of all elements of service. In the third chapter the following hypothesis is set: By a continuous differentiation of all elements of the services marketing mix small businesses can compete with large international companies. Acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is shown by the research conducted among users of the specific service. Its results fully confirm the set hypothesis. The fact that, despite global recession, the majority of respondents believes the survival of small- and medium-sized companies which continuously differentiate their business activities to be unquestionable is indeed encouraging.

  19. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) expression by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhili; Chinnasamy Nachimuthu; Morgan Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymp...

  20. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  1. Picasso, Car Classics, and the Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosk, Julie H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a college course which introduces engineering and business students to abstract art. Students study the relationships between abstract styles in painting and abstract styles in twentieth-century architecture and industrial design. The relevance of abstract design principles is shown by referring students to "Car and Driver" magazine. (AM)

  2. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  3. What Are Behind The Electric Car Heat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Is the world's auto industry going to change greatly in the future 3-5 years so that ICEs will fade out?Will this electric car heat repeat itselfjust like it did in the history? The Chinese government issued pro- grams in Jan 2009 to cheer up the auto industrv.The plans include enacting new energy vehicle strategy,industrializing

  4. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  5. The second French car; Der zweite Franzose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    The Flence Z.E. is the second electric-powered car that French manufacturer Renault presented within a short period of time. The limousine has a roomy passenger compartment but little space for luggage. Refuelling is possible by battery exchange within just a few minutes, but not in Germany.

  6. The Hottest Craze of Private Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DougLubbes; 王赣湘

    2004-01-01

    Automobile is, I suppose, the hottest craze in China nowadays: one has only to go to one of the important exhibitions of cars in Shanghai,Beijing and Guangzhou or any other large city,to see this. Rich and poor, young and old, one can see them all there, enquiring and watching

  7. Attention-Grabbing Train Car Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Ogura,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Younger people have changed the way they access information in recent years, increasing the number of opportunities to take advantage of transit advertising. Train car advertising in particular boasts a high contact rate and extended length of contact. This study seeks to understand the correlations between passenger information and riding conditions when it comes to train car advertising (hanging posters, above-window posters, and sticker ads in order to discover the ideal way to advertise inside passenger trains. Specifically, the study first tries to find the correlations among three factors: (1 whether or not passengers pay attention to train car advertisements, (2 basic passenger information (age and gender, and (3 riding conditions (riding time, average number of trips, etc.. Once data on riding conditions is collected, it is then grouped using a cluster analysis and Quantification Theory Type III in order to establish the relationship of the data to passenger attention towards train advertisements once again. Then, in order to conduct an in-depth analysis, a Categorical Automatic Interaction Detector (CAID analysis is done on each group, using passengers pay attention to train advertisements as the objective variable and basic passenger information as the explanatory variable. The results of the CAID analysis are then used to study the format of existing and future train car advertisements.

  8. Design And Development of Aerosolar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someswara Rao K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and development of aerosolar car. A aerosolar car is a vehicle, which is powered by wind and sun’s energy. This car is a light weight, low power vehicle designed. They have limited seating (two people, they have very little cargo capacity, and they can be driven during the days and Nights also by using dynamo motor attachment on the front of the vehicle. It does, however, offer an excellent opportunity to develop future technologies that can be applied to practical applications. The main components of an Aerosolar car are its solar arrays & alternators which collect the energy from the sun & wind respectively and convert it into electrical energy. The process of combining these mechanical and electrical components is not an easy task especially at the design stage because of the individual part specific characteristic and function. Since the development cost is one of the major constraints for this project, the sustainable design concept was implemented. Suitable parts which can be easily recycled and re-used, with desired functions that contribute to vehicle optimum performance are properly selected.

  9. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  10. Business Class in a race car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    It's not a car, it's not a bus, it's not a truck, and it's not even a super stretch limousine. What is being built in Delft is the much-discussed Superbus, which is to travel from door to door, reaching speeds of 250 kilometres per hour. This summer this new form of public transport is to enter serv

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Mask Production CAR Development Process with Stepwise Defect Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Gun; Lee, Jung-Kwan; Park, Dong-Il; Park, Eu-Sang; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Seo, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Dong-Heok; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo-Hong

    2002-12-01

    Chemically amplified resist (CAR) provides superior lithographic performance compared to traditional e-beam resists in production maskmaking. Parameters benefiting the most are contrast, resolution, and sensitivity. In spite of CAR's advantages, defect control and tighter 50KeV e-beam CAR process restrictions are significantly more critical thanks to smaller geometries, tighter CD specifications, and optical proximity correction (OPC) for 90nm node mask technology. Among defect root causes, resist development is considered to be the one of the most important steps because post-development residue can generate printable defects on finished masks. We investigated the CAR development process across different resist development methods, such as binary and fan-type nozzle spin spray, and puddle development. Several high density binary and embedded-attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs) with 70% clear area in the main pattern field were evaluated in an effort to identify and contain post-develop defects in a typical mask production flow. Development step process residue was examined at the after-develop inspection (ADI) step and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for individual defect review. The KLA-Tencor SLF77 TeraStar inspection tool was used to inspect patterns after the development, Cr/MoSiON layer dry etch, and clean steps. The effectiveness of the various CAR development methods has been also studied following development, dry etch, and cleaning inspection by using identical binary and EAPSM masks from production. The mechanism and defect source during the stepwise process and inspections were scrutinized and discussed. Experimental results showed that stepwise process inspection was effective in identifying defects and their sources to prevent defects, and in optimizing each process step. It was found that CAR development and dry etch processes are the most important process steps to control defects in CAR-based mask production. Suggested optimized

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  13. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  14. Effect of interferences on indoor visible light car-to-car communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Young; Park, Bong-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, So Eun; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Chung Ghiu

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of interferences on visible light car-to-car communication system. The interferences from floor reflections and fluorescent lamps are taken into account for indoor car-to-car visible light communication (VLC) systems. The system is composed of a white LED lamp as a VLC transmitter and a photo-receiver with an appropriate optical filter as a VLC receiver. The signal power distribution patterns are measured and analyzed at a transmission distance, considering the positions of the transmitter and receiver. Generally, the light from fluorescent lamps in indoor environment affects the DC level of the received signal power, which is more significant at higher receiver positions. The measurements show that the indoor VLC communication performance can be varied depending on floor reflections. Also, the fluorescent ceiling illuminations affect the DC level change of the received VLC signal waveforms.

  15. Study concerning the loads over driver's chests in car crashes with cars of the same or different generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Năstăsoiu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing occupant injuries for cars involves in traffic accidents is a main target of today cars designers. Known as active or passive safety, many technological solutions were developing over the time for an actual better car's occupant safety. In the real world, in traffic accidents are often involved cars from different generations with various safety historical solutions. The main aim of these papers are to quantify the influences over the car driver chest loads in cases of same or different generation of cars involved in side car crashes. Both same and different cars generations were used for the study. Other goal of the paper was the study of in time loads conformity for diver's chests from both cars involved in crash. The paper's experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2015 PC-Crash Seminar”. In all crashes we obtaining results from both dummy placed in impacted and hits car. The novelty of the paper are the comparisons of data set from each of driver (dummy) of two cars involved in each of six experimental crashes. Another novelty of this paper consists in possibilities to analyse the influences of structural historical cars solutions over deformation and loads in cases of traffic accidents involved. Paper's conclusions can be future used for car passive safety improvement.

  16. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  17. An Unusual Os Trigonum Syndrome Case Secondary to Car Accident: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The os trigonum syndrome is a common cause of posterior ankle pain, often affecting ballet dancers, soccer players, runners and gymnasts who frequently force the ankle into plantar flexion. In rare cases, onset of the os trigonum syndrome followed an acute injury. Case Presentation A 62-year-old female patient was admitted with load depended ankle pain and swelling, lasting for five years which promptly started after a car accident. We incidentally discovered os trigonum on plain radiography on a lateral view of the right ankle. Conclusions The os trigonum syndrome should take in consideration in elderly subject who had posterior ankle pain starting after a car accident.

  18. Vertical Marketing as a Model of Cooperation Between Car Manufacturers and Car Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Sudaric

    2011-01-01

    The last element of the marketing mix is the distribution and marketing channels in the automotive industry, which determine how cars will arrive at customers and end users through sales and distribution activities. Car manufacturers, regardless of how their product was excellent, must provide this value to its customers carefully selecting partners in the channel, because if its agents have poor sales in comparison to the competition the value of the product is irrelevant and unworthy. For t...

  19. Customer Relationship Management In Car Service Industry With Reference To Car Dealers In Coimbatore

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish, M; Balamurugan, R N; Sharma, Surinder Nath; Karthikeyan, Dr.P.

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the car is based on the customers expectation. The expectation is not only up to the purchase of the car, it continues in after sales service. Some of the general expectations of every customer include being reminded for periodical service, pick up & drop, nominal charges, etc. It indicates that for retaining customer, it would be necessary to fulfill his maximum expectations.With structured questionnaire, the co-ordinal discussions were done with the personnels managing the...

  20. CD19 CAR immune pressure induces B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia lineage switch exposing inherent leukaemic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Elad; Nguyen, Sang M; Fountaine, Thomas J; Welp, Kathryn; Gryder, Berkley; Qin, Haiying; Yang, Yinmeng; Chien, Christopher D; Seif, Alix E; Lei, Haiyan; Song, Young K; Khan, Javed; Lee, Daniel W; Mackall, Crystal L; Gardner, Rebecca A; Jensen, Michael C; Shern, Jack F; Fry, Terry J

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T cells targeting the CD19 B lineage receptor has demonstrated marked success in relapsed pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Persisting CAR-T cells generate sustained pressure against CD19 that may drive unique mechanisms of resistance. Pre-B ALL originates from a committed pre-B cell or an earlier progenitor, with potential to reprogram into other hematopoietic lineages. Here we report changes in lineage markers including myeloid conversion in patients following CD19 CAR therapy. Using murine ALL models we study the long-term effects of CD19 CAR-T cells and demonstrate partial or complete lineage switch as a consistent mechanism of CAR resistance depending on the underlying genetic oncogenic driver. Deletion of Pax5 or Ebf1 recapitulates lineage reprogramming occurring during CD19 CAR pressure. Our findings establish lineage switch as a mechanism of CAR resistance exposing inherent plasticity in genetic subtypes of pre-B-cell ALL. PMID:27460500

  1. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  2. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  3. The importance of timing for breaking commuters’ car driving habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2012-01-01

    A large sample of Copenhagen car drivers were randomly assigned to either receive a free month travel card for public transportation or serve as a control group. As predicted, the free travel card neutralized the negative effect of car driving habits and made the use of public transportation more...... alternatives to car-driving....

  4. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  5. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  6. 49 CFR 238.413 - End structures of trailer cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End structures of trailer cars. 238.413 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.413 End structures of trailer cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  8. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative...

  9. CarD: a new RNA polymerase modulator in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christina L; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria CarD is an essential RNAP binding protein that regulates many transcripts including rRNA. This article will review our present state of knowledge regarding CarD and compare the known functions of CarD with other RNAP binding proteins in E. coli, emphasizing how this information can guide future investigations.

  10. Quarter Car Suspension System With One Degree Of Freedom Simulated Using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereteu, L.; Perescu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulate the behavior of a quarter car suspension system with Simulink®. Consider only vertical movement of the car, neglecting roll and pitch. All movements of the car axes are modeled as having equal amplitude. The characteristic equations that describe the behavior of dynamical systems based on FBD (Free Body Diagram) of automotive suspension. We make the simulation model in six steps. In simulation we consider the damping coefficient, c, variable. The rest of parameters are constant (mass, speed and stiffness). The simulation parametrs are defined in Mathlab®. We follow the final signal created on the oscilloscope. At the end of the study, we concluded the effect of damping coefficient changes over the comfort.

  11. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front suspension is built and analyzed. With correlation theory, the correlation for the hardpoints of the suspension is studied and discussed. Through all the testing, not only a lot of four wheel alignment parameter variations can be obtained, but also the rational designing for hardpoints which can provide an useful reference for vehicle designing.

  12. Analysis of motion of the body of a motor car hit on its side by another passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewski, M.; Prochowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Based on an analysis of the course of a few experimental crash tests, a physical model and afterwards a mathematical model were prepared to describe the motion of bodies of the vehicles involved during the phase of impact. The motion was analysed in a global coordinate system attached to the road surface. Local coordinate systems were also adopted with their origins being placed at the centres of mass of the vehicles. Equations of motion of the model were derived. The calculation results enabled defining the influence of the location of the point of impact against the vehicle side on e.g. the following: - time history of the impact force exerted by the impacting car (A) on the impacted car (B) as well as characteristic values of this force and of the impulse of the impact force; - time histories showing changes in the velocity of the centre of vehicle mass and in the angle of deviation of the velocity vector from the direction of motion of the impacted vehicle before the collision; - trajectory of the centre of mass and angle of rotation of the body of the impacted vehicle. The calculations were focused on the initial period of motion of the body of the impacted vehicle, up to the instant of 200 ms from the start of the collision process. After this time, the vehicles separate from each other and move independently. The results obtained from the calculations covering this initial period make it possible to determine the starting-point values of the parameters to be taken for further calculations of the free post-impact motion of the cars.

  13. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  14. P3 and P4 car parksat Geneva Airport

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has asked us to remind the persons concerned of the following rules, laid down by the Geneva Diplomatic Committee (http://www.eda.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/role/cdgen.p.html), concerning the facilities granted for the parking of vehicles with diplomatic number plates at Geneva International Airport (see the Official News section of Bulletin No. 45/2001): a) P3 car park on the Departures level Vehicles bearing Swiss or French diplomatic number plates are authorised to park in Car Park P3 for one hour free of charge. The white entrance ticket entitles the holder to 15 minutes' free parking. If the period of stay is between 15 minutes and one hour, the persons concerned should go to the 'Centre de Contrôle? on the Arrivals level, which is open 24 hours a day, where they will be able to exchange their white entrance ticket for a pink exit ticket free of charge; they will be required to present their B or C-type carte de légitimation or, if they do not enjoy diplomatic...

  15. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  16. Detection of chemical interfaces in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Dk-CARS. I. Axial interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, David; Rigneault, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    We develop a full vectorial theoretical investigation of the chemical interface detection in conventional coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In Part I, we focus on the detection of axial interfaces (i.e., parallel to the optical axis) following a recent experimental demonstration of the concept [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213905 (2010)]. By revisiting the Young's double slit experiment, we show that background-free microscopy and spectroscopy is achievable through the angular analysis of the CARS far-field radiation pattern. This differential CARS in k space (Dk-CARS) technique is interesting for fast detection of interfaces between molecularly different media. It may be adapted to other coherent and resonant scattering processes.

  17. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  18. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...... succeeds in making some of these car dealings visible. This article draws inspiration from interpretative tax studies that consider taxation as an organisational, institutional, social and cultural phenomenon. Complementing those studies’ approaches, the present study draws both on Latour’s concept...... of the oligopticon and on Foucault’s notion of the panopticon. The analysis shows that tax inspectors produce oligoptic and panoptic visions when they account for taxpayers’ economic activities and that tax inspectors’ visions are received differently by the represented taxpayers. Some taxpayers fall out of sight...

  19. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  1. Parametric optimization of hybrid car engines

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnans, J. Frederic; Guilbaud, Thérèse; Ketfi-Cherif, Ahmed; Von Wissel, Dirk; Sagastizábal, Claudia; Zidani, Hasnaa

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal design of hybrid car engines which combine thermic and electric power. The optimal configuration of the different motors composing the hybrid system involves the choice of certain design parameters. For a given configuration, the goal is to minimize the fuel consumption along a trajectory. This is an optimal control problem with one state variable. The simultaneous optimization of design parameters and trajectories can be formulated as a bilevel optimization...

  2. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisner V.; Zemčík R.

    2009-01-01

    The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs) methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the ...

  3. I Go to School by Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Story: The class is talking about how they go to school every day. Kathy says, "I go to school by car." Leo says, "I go to school on foot." Phoebe answers, "I go to school by subway with my dad." And the class asks Miss Grant, "How do you go to school?" Miss Grant answers, "I go to school by motorcycle." The class says, "Wow, so cool!"

  4. Archetypes and Mythical Narratives in Car Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara LÄMMLEIN

    2014-01-01

    This article represents an excerpt of the PhD thesis Branding & Advertising and Communication Strategies by the author. Within this thesis inter - disciplinary approaches for deciphering messages of selected car advertising were used. Multiple methods and paradigms such as cultural studies, media communication, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, were applied in order to analyze TV spots and print advertisements from a variety of angles. The purpose of this strategy was to...

  5. Acute neuromuscular responses to car racing

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jani

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine racing car drivers’ acute neuromuscular responses to race driving. The secondary purpose was to compare the cardiovascular loading of driving to that of maximal rowing action. Methods: The subjects of the present cross-sectional study (n = 9) were international level karting drivers. The study was performed in two parts; the laboratory tests and driving test. All subjects took part to the laboratory tests and five of the subjects per...

  6. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ziyuan; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and adapt their behavior much earlier than regular cars. We propose proactive algorithms for merging different streams of sensor-enabled cars into a single stream. A proactive merging algorithm decouples the decision point from the actual merging point. Sensor-enabled cars allow us to decide where and when a car merges before it arrives at the actual merging point. This leads to a significant improvement in traffic flow as velocities can be adjusted appropriately. We compare proactive merging algorithms against the conventio...

  7. CARS 2009. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-06-15

    The CARS 2009 proceedings include contributions and poster sessions concerning different conferences and workshops: computer assisted radiology, 23rd international congress and exhibition, CARS clinical day, 13th annual conference of the international society for computer aided surgery, 10th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, 11th international workshop on computer-aided diagnosis, 15th computed maxillofacial imaging congress, CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery, 1st EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT, JICARS - Japanese institutes of CARS, 1st EuroNotes/CTAC/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge, 13th annual conference for computer aided surgery, 27th international EuroPACS meeting.

  8. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26965523

  9. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Context-aware smart car: from model to prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SUN; Zhao-hui WU; Gang PAN

    2009-01-01

    Smart cars are promising application domain for ubiquitous computing. Context-awareness is the key feature of a smart car for safer and easier driving. Despite many industrial innovations and academic progresses have been made, we find a lack of fully context-aware smart cars. This study presents a general architecture of smart cars from the viewpoint of contextawareness. A hierarchical context model is proposed for description of the complex driving environment. A smart car prototype including software platform and hardware infrastructures is built to provide the running environment for the context model and applications. Two performance metrics were evaluated: accuracy of the context situation recognition and efficiency of the smart car. The whole response time of context situation recognition is nearly 1.4 s for one person, which is acceptable for non-time critical applications in a smart car.

  11. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  13. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  14. External exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, JNES has estimated the effective external exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area. JNES investigated the contamination of the cars from the risk cautionary area and of the average cars at Fukushima city cooperated by the Japan Automobile Dealers Association. Data of screed cars by the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters is also considered in. Effective external exposure dose of car mechanics treating the cars screened with the emergency situation screening level is estimated to be less than 1 mSv/y under the conservative conditions. This result shows that particular health concern isn't necessary for them. (author)

  15. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  16. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  17. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  18. Eco-efficiency of car-sharing at risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Georg; Bongardt, Daniel [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Until now, car-sharing is a mobility service with positive ecological effects (especially regarding CO2). But ongoing system transformations in numerous German car-sharing organisations could jeopardize these positive effects on a medium term. The system transforming of car-sharing is, at the same time , the precondition and the result of the aspired diffusion of car-sharing on the transport market. Many car-sharing providers who started as civic self-help projects turn to profit oriented business corporations. New car-sharing companies as Shelldrive or the DB CarSharing interpret their services as an offer for a flexible short-term car hire. This change results from the activities of mainly commercially oriented providers to canvass new customers. The intention is to reach customers from outside the initial car-sharing milieus. The original service was an ecological innovation and the majority of customers still adheres to this origin. But if this strategy proves to be successful, it is possible that not only new customers can be acquired but that the general use and, consequently, the eco-balance of car-sharing could change. In this respect, intermediate results from a current research project on the future of car-sharing in Germany are presented. Based on systematic reflections on the ecological effects of car-sharing, the results of theoretical and empiric examinations of the change on the supply- and demand-side show that it will be necessary to give the current research perspective another direction and to amend the image of car-sharing.

  19. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles; Percepties en attitudes van autobezitters over innovatieve auto's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [Dutch] Om de nadelige effecten van vervoer (automobiliteit in het bijzonder) te beperken, wordt een transitie voorzien van conventionele auto's, rijdend op fossiele brandstoffen, naar duurzame

  20. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  1. RXRα, PXR and CAR xenobiotic receptors mediate the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol in mouse hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwa, E; Rzemieniec, J; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in the apoptotic and toxic effects of nonylphenol in mouse primary neuronal cell cultures. Our study demonstrated that nonylphenol activated caspase-3 and induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in hippocampal cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the mRNA expression and protein levels of RXRα, PXR and CAR. Nonylphenol stimulated Rxra, Pxr, and Car mRNA expression. These effects were followed by increase in the protein levels of particular receptors. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed the cellular distribution of RXRα, PXR and CAR in hippocampal neurons in response to nonylphenol, shortening of neurites and cytoplasmic shrinking, as indicated by MAP2 staining. It also showed NP-induced translocation of receptor-specific immunofluorescence from cytoplasm to the nucleus. The use of specific siRNAs demonstrated that Rxra-, Pxr-, and Car-siRNA-transfected cells were less vulnerable to nonylphenol-induced activation of caspase-3 and LDH, thus confirming the key involvement of RXRα/PXR/CAR signaling pathways in the apoptotic and neurotoxic actions of nonylphenol. These new data give prospects for the targeting xenobiotic nuclear receptors to protect the developing nervous system against endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:26643981

  2. Risk-minimal routes for emergency cars

    OpenAIRE

    Woelki, Marko; Nippold, Ronald; Bonert, Michael; Ruppe, Sten

    2013-01-01

    The computation of an optimal route for given start and destination in a static transportation network is used in many applications of private route planning. In this work we focus on route planning for emergency cars, such as for example police, fire brigade and ambulance. In case of private route planning typical quantities to be minimized are travel time or route length. However, the idea of this paper is to minimize the risk of a travel time exceeding a certain limit. This is inspired by ...

  3. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  4. Battery management system for electric racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Joaquim Alexandre da Silva

    2013-01-01

    With the introduction of the electrics cars into the market new technologies regarding the battery are being developed and new problems to be solved, one of them the battery management system because each type of cell requires a specific way of handling. This research is done using the active research method to find out the actual problem on this subject and features a BMS should have, understand how they work and how to develop them applied to the purpose on this work. Once the features the ...

  5. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  6. Thermal analysis of car air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzebiński, Daniel; Szczygieł, Ireneusz

    2010-10-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of car air cooler is presented in this paper. Typical refrigerator cycles are studied. The first: with uncontrolled orifice and non controlled compressor and the second one with the thermostatic controlled expansion valve and externally controlled compressor. The influence of the refrigerant decrease and the change of the air temperature which gets to exchangers on the refrigeration efficiency of the system; was analysed. Also, its effectiveness and the power required to drive the compressor were investigated. The impact of improper refrigerant charge on the performance of air conditioning systems was also checked.

  7. Car Carrier 5.800 TPM

    OpenAIRE

    López de Rojas, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Tipo de Buque: Car Carrier. Capacidad de carga: carga 1: 3000 coches sin trailers. Carga 2: Carga combinada para 1500 ml de trailers y coches en el resto de las cubiertas del buque no ocupadas por los trailers. Peso muerto 5800 TPM. Capacidad de conductores: 100 personas en camarotes dobles. Sociedad de clasificación: Det Norske Veritas. Reglamentos: Solas, Marpol, Convenio de líneas de carga. Velocidad: 19 nudos al 85% MCR en pruebas. Autonomía: 4500 millas al 80% MCR y 15% al margen de mar....

  8. Quantitative High-Throughput Luciferase Screening in Identifying CAR Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Wang, Hongbing; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is responsible for the transcription of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. There are two possible methods of activation for CAR, direct ligand binding and a ligand-independent method, which makes this a unique nuclear receptor. Both of these mechanisms require translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Interestingly, CAR is constitutively active in immortalized cell lines due to the basal nuclear location of this receptor. This creates an important challenge in most in vitro assay models because immortalized cells cannot be used without inhibiting the high basal activity. In this book chapter, we go into detail of how to perform quantitative high-throughput screens to identify hCAR1 modulators through the employment of a double stable cell line. Using this line, we are able to identify activators, as well as deactivators, of the challenging nuclear receptor, CAR. PMID:27518621

  9. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  10. Potential demand and cost-benefit analysis of electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Pietro; Salerno, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    In this study an analysis of electric family car performances is carried out. In particular, the aim of this research is to appraise the possibility of introducing electric cars in urban mobility and the evaluation of its economic feasibility. First of all, we determined the potential electric car demand, which was forecasted using a stated preference (SP) analysis. The survey was carried out at the University of Palermo considering a particular target of consumer: “the hybrid hou...

  11. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ziyuan; Kulik, Lars; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and...

  12. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  13. Femtosecond spectral phase shaping for CARS spectroscopy and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Sytse; Rhijn, van, J.A.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Corkum, P.; Silvestri, S.; Nelson, K.A.; Riedle, E.; Schoenlein, R W

    2009-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) is a third-order non-linear optical process that provides label-free, chemically selective microscopy by probing the internal vibrational structure of molecules. Due to the resonant enhancement of the CARS process, faster imaging is possible compared to Raman microscopy. CARS is unaffected by background fluorescence, but the inherent non-resonant background signal can overwhelm the resonant signal. We demonstrate how simple phase shapes on the pump...

  14. Simulation of an electric racing car using energetic macroscopic representation

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Fontán Tebar, Cristian; Vidal Salvia, Humbert

    2014-01-01

    Formula Student is a university competition around the world where students are required to design, construct and compete with a race car in static and dynamic tests. Since few years ago, this competition has moved to electric propulsion. ETSEIB Motorsport Team at Barcelona, Spain has develop an electric race car and this paper presents the EMR and IBC developed for that in order to analyze the car and further improve the braking and traction system.

  15. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelija Samoškienė

    2011-01-01

    The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the ...

  16. In situ dissolution analysis using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and hyperspectral CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Andrew; Garbacik, Erik; Offerhaus, Herman; Kleinebudde, Peter; Strachan, Clare

    2013-11-01

    The solid-state form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an oral dosage form plays an important role in determining the dissolution rate of the API. As the solid-state form can change during dissolution, there is a need to monitor the oral dosage form during dissolution testing. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy provides rapid, spectrally selective imaging to monitor the oral dosage form during dissolution. In this study, in situ CARS microscopy was combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy to monitor the solid-state change in oral dosage forms containing theophylline anhydrate undergoing dissolution and to correlate the solid-state change with a change in dissolution rate. The results from in situ CARS microscopy showed that theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution resulting in a reduction in the dissolution rate. The addition of methyl cellulose to the dissolution medium was found to delay the theophylline monohydrate growth and changed the morphology of the monohydrate. The net effect was an increased dissolution rate for theophylline anhydrate. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring oral dosage forms undergoing dissolution and correlating changes in solid-state form with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:23994672

  17. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.314... and for mounting of fittings designed (for temperature, application, media, pressure, and size) to... customer that the tank car was filled based on winter reference temperatures. The tank must be unloaded...

  18. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  19. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  20. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  1. Composition and crystal structure of perovskite films attained from electrodes of used car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiaputra, Ilham; Permana, Bayu; Maulana, Yusep; Inayatie, Yuniar Dwi; Purba, Yonatan R.; Bahtiar, Ayi

    2016-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solid-state solar cells. Perovskite based-lead materials are commonly used as active material for high power conversion efficiency solar cells. Herein, we report our study on the development of used electrodes car battery as a cheap raw lead material to be converted into lead (II) iodide PbI2 by using simple chemical method. We have successfully obtained PbI2 material with purity higher than 85% and its crystal structure is comparable with that of commercial product. The perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film was prepared by spin-coating of PbI2 solution and followed by spin-coating two-times of methylamonium iodide (MAI) solution. In this paper, the crystal structure of perovskite film attained from used car battery is shown and compared with that of prepared from commercial PbI2. By utilizing the used car battery into perovskite valuable material for high performance solar cells, we can not only improve the economical value (added-value) of wasted car battery but also we can simultaneously save the environment.

  2. Product declaration for cars; Warendeklaration fuer Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO{sub 2}-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed.

  3. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  4. Molecular emission from GG Car's circumbinary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela; Nickeler, Dieter; Muratore, Florencia; Fernandes, Marcelo Borges; Aret, Anna; Cidale, Lydia; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of the B[e] phenomenon in evolved massive stars such as B[e] supergiants is still a mystery. While these stars are generally found to have disks that are cool and dense enough for efficient molecule and dust condensation, the origin of the disk material is still unclear. We aim at studying the kinematics and origin of the disk in the eccentric binary system GG Car, whose primary component is proposed to be a B[e] supergiant. Based on medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra we analyzed the CO-band emission detected from GG Car. The complete CO-band structure delivers information on the density and temperature of the emitting region, and the detectable 13CO bands allow us to constrain the evolutionary phase. In addition, the kinematics of the CO gas can be extracted from the shape of the first 12CO band head. We find that the CO gas is located in a ring surrounding the eccentric binary system, and its kinematics agrees with Keplerian rotation with a velocity, projected to the line of si...

  5. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with another important aspect of car-sales; comfort. In this PhD thesis five experiments are presented proving that weight reduction and comfort improvement can go hand in hand. In these studies specif...

  6. Optimising the noise of future passenger car diesel engines; Geraeuschoptimierung kuenftiger PKW-Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Florian; Schaub, Joschka [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Steffens, Christoph; Kolbeck, Andreas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Pkw-Dieselmotoren

    2013-02-01

    The Institute for Combustion Engines Aachen (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and FEV have examined technical possibilities for improving the noise and comfort characteristics of future passenger car diesel engines. In the following article, the two research partners describe methods for acoustic optimisation by means of cylinder pressure-guided combustion control and design modifications to the engine. Subsequent engine tests confirmed a significant reduction in noise emissions. (orig.)

  7. 49 CFR 179.4 - Changes in specifications for tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes in specifications for tank cars. 179.4... TANK CARS Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.4 Changes in specifications for tank cars. (a...—Tank Car Safety, AAR, for consideration by its Tank Car Committee. An application for construction...

  8. Emission consequences of introducing bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Mentz; Møller, Flemming; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2012-01-01

    tests using primarily the European NEDC and ARTEMIS driving cycles. The E0-E5 test vehicles (nine cars) represent today’s gasoline car traffic well where most of the driving is being made with cars certified as Euro 3+. The FFV test cars (25 cars) are all certified according to the Euro 4 emission...

  9. Adulterous behaviour within the car-owner couple : some analyses from French panel data on car rental and car sharing within households.

    OpenAIRE

    PAPON, F; HIVERT, L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet) database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among pproximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: During the last 12 months, did...

  10. Panorama 2015 - The global market for compact cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for fuel-saving solutions has led to a trend for acquiring smaller and lighter cars. Small compact cars, whether powered by internal combustion or electric engines, have gained and are continuing to gain market share, in both mature automobile markets such as Europe or Japan and emerging markets such as India. (authors)

  11. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. PMID:21376858

  12. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  13. First Auto Works Revs Up Car Sales in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    Two Mazda M6 cars rolled off the assembly line at the First Automotive Works (FAW).China's largest car maker, on January 21. The last May in Japan and has since won worldwide acclaim. FAW and Mazda said they aim to sell 15,000 units in China this year. The M6 will bring the number

  14. Trial of car-sharing scheme at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    On 6 July, a sample group of approximately 500 users started a six-month trial of a new car-sharing scheme. The project is an initiative of the General Infrastructure Services Department (GS), in collaboration with the Physics Department (PH) and Hertz car rentals.

  15. 78 FR 20597 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... self-driving vehicles. At this time, it is too soon to know how quickly these various advances in crash...- driving cars. So, ] the agency has been carefully monitoring the progress of research programs that are on... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)...

  16. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  17. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application examples are described where the discrete or continuous head movements in combination with the driver......’s visual attention can be used for controlling the objects inside the car....

  18. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  19. Regulating CAR T Cells: A Remote Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have synthesized small organic molecules called adaptors that have a tumor-specific ligand on one end and FITC on the other. Instead of engineering a different chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T cells for each unique tumor antigen, these antigen-specific adaptors can be used to bridge FITC-binding CAR T and tumor cells. PMID:27412488

  20. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing below for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  1. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing above for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF MOTOR CAR COERCION COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Denysenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A short review of motor car coercion coefficient determination is presented. The models designed for the determination of motor car queues time intervals at the stop line is presented. The estimation of modeling results according to experimental data is carried out.

  3. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  4. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street, SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  5. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  6. Femtosecond spectral phase shaping for CARS spectroscopy and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Sytse; Rhijn, van Alexander C.W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Corkum, P.; Silvestri, S.; Nelson, K.A.; Riedle, E.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) is a third-order non-linear optical process that provides label-free, chemically selective microscopy by probing the internal vibrational structure of molecules. Due to the resonant enhancement of the CARS process, faster imaging is possible compared to R

  7. Child restraint system for children in cars - CREST results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.; Cassan, F.; Trosseille, X.

    2001-01-01

    Child restraint systems (CRS) for cars are intended to protect children in the case of a car accident. Unfortunately their effectiveness is still too low: in the range 30-50% when it would be expected to be much higher. The low effectiveness of child restraint systems can partly be explained for the

  8. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  9. 49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... over the car or tank. (f) The valve rod handle or control in the dome must be operated several times to... or at a remote location within the facility, such as a control room. The signaling system must— (i... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car unloading. 174.67 Section...

  10. Regulating CAR T Cells: A Remote Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have synthesized small organic molecules called adaptors that have a tumor-specific ligand on one end and FITC on the other. Instead of engineering a different chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T cells for each unique tumor antigen, these antigen-specific adaptors can be used to bridge FITC-binding CAR T and tumor cells.

  11. Cars applications in chemical reactors, combustion and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, D. A.; Porter, F. M.

    1986-08-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the CARS technique in the fields of Chemical Reactor engineering, combustion and Heat Transfer. Examples of recent results from a catalytic chemical reactor, an operating production petrol engine and an oil spray furnace are given. The experimentally determined accuracy of CARS nitrogen thermometry for both mean and single pulse measurements is presented.

  12. Investigation of vibrational characteristics in BBO crystals by femtosecond CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuanqin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Sheng; Dong, Zhiwei; Chen, Deying; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2012-10-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is utilized to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics in BBO crystals at room temperature. Time-resolved two-beam and three-beam CARS are detected. The vibrational dephasing time is analyzed and the changes of vibrational mode intensities with the polarization of pump pulses are observed.

  13. Second-Hand Car Market:Restructuring Or Salvation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's second-hand car market is like an unhealthy man.If remains unchanged,he will lose the life power. 11 years in the industry,the Beijing -based Lin Yifeng is among the first agents doing second-hand cars in the city.Lin understands local consumers and has witnessed the grow-

  14. Investigation of the contamination induced by the cars travelling in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of the evacuation area and the restricted one. The purpose of this investigation is to study on the contamination induced by cars travelling in the current restricted area. This study focuses on the police cars patrolling all over the restricted area, whose total number is up to 101 cars. The measurement issues are shown as the following, 1. Background contamination, 2. Initial contamination of a car, regarding a radiator, a tire and a tire-house in the front and the rear, just before going into the restricted area, 3. Subsequent contamination of the same parts just after leaving the area, 4. Question about the travelling routes, the districts, and the environmental conditions of every car. Each background contamination at 1cm, 30cm and 1.0m height shows about 200 cpm and keeps stable. The histogram of the contamination difference between the initial and the subsequent one corresponds to normal distribution, whose mean value lies about zero in the measurement cases of the radiators and the front and rear tires of all the cars. It means that no additional contamination by travelling in the restricted area has occurred on such parts. On other hands, the possibility of additional contamination which exceeds 500 cpm per day has been suggested particulary on the tire-houses. The contamination difference of the car travelling on roads between with and without pavements has not been identified as well as in weather conditions at least based on the obtained histograms. Eventually, patrolling around the restricted area or passing mountainous zones in the area has been recognized as a common factors which increases additional contamination to more than 500 cpm per day, but in such a case the accumulated contamination trend with daily travelling has not been identified. The average contamination level basically remains low against the screening one, 13,000 cpm, defined in the regulation. However, much attention should be

  15. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  16. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Svante [VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO{sub 2} emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run. (author)

  17. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  18. Analysis of composite car bumper reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleisner V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented work summarizes the present state of car passive safety testing according to European methodologies. The main objective is to analysis a bumper reinforcement made of composite materials. The bumper is tested according to RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs methodology using numerical simulation. Individual proposed variants are compared with the existing steel construction which does not comply with manufacturers specifications. The PAM-Crash software is used for the simulation. The numerical model is using shell elements and the Ladevèze model for the description of behaviour of composite materials. The methodology for the set-up of the numerical model in PAM-crash is firstly validated by comparison of experiment and analytical results.

  19. Trajectory generation for car-like robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous robots or remotely operated vehicles have raised high hopes in the military and industrial communities because of the potential safety improvement and gain of productivity they may provide. Waste management on nuclear sites, pallet manipulation in factories, interventions on battlefields, etc., are actively studied. A lot of these applications require powerful four-wheel vehicles, the kinematics of which is similar to that of a car. Such vehicles have three degrees of freedom: the (x,y) positions in a plane and the orientation of the vehicle. Path planning is often understood as only changing the position of the vehicle, whereas the tasks performed by this kind of robot require a perfect orientation of the vehicle: forklifting a pallet or docking at a loading or unloading station requires accuracy in the orientation of the vehicle. It is this requirement and the kinematic constraints of the motion mode that have led to the path-planning algorithm presented in this paper

  20. Do Traffic Controllers Dream of Electric Cars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Taylor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is not a modern phenomenon, but the growth of motor traffic driven by the supply of petroleum is. This coincides with concern about climate change caused by carbon emissions to which transport makes a substantial and increasing contribution. It seems that private cars in particular cannot be useful without coming to dominate human activity and even whole economies, creating dependence, congestion and severance which paradoxically negate many of the benefits of mobility. Electrification may reduce carbon emissions, but is unlikely to support the same weight of motor traffic, and will not reduce its other effects. It is doubtful that sustainability, however defined, is compatible with current high and increasing levels of motorised movement, so a culture change will be needed.

  1. Who are the early adopters of car sharing? A brief history and an analysis of the early adoption of car sharing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Norre, Lise

    1999-01-01

    After briefly outlining the context, focusing primarily on the economic conditions for car sharing and on the history of the first car sharing initiatives in Denmark, this paper presents results from a study of the early adopters of the car sharing idea in Denmark and some speculations about...... the future of car sharing in this country....

  2. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  3. The car and fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on a review of the technical literature on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and discussions with experts in vehicle technology and energy analysis. It is derived from analysis provided to the bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy. The urgent need to reverse the business-as-usual growth path in global warming pollution in the next two decades to avoid serious if not catastrophic climate change necessitates action to make our vehicles far less polluting. In the near-term, by far the most cost-effective strategy for reducing emissions and fuel use is efficiency. The car of the near future is the hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle, because it can reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions 30 to 50% with no change in vehicle class and hence no loss of jobs or compromise on safety or performance. It will likely become the dominant vehicle platform by the year 2020. Ultimately, we will need to replace gasoline with a zero-carbon fuel. All AFV pathways require technology advances and strong government action to succeed. Hydrogen is the most challenging of all alternative fuels, particularly because of the enormous effort needed to change our existing gasoline infrastructure. The most promising AFV pathway is a hybrid that can be connected to the electric grid. These so-called plug-in hybrids or e-hybrids will likely travel three to four times as far on a kilowatt-hour of renewable electricity as fuel cell vehicles. Ideally these advanced hybrids would also be a flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on a blend of biofuels and gasoline. Such a car could travel 500 miles on 1 gal of gasoline (and 5 gal of cellulosic ethanol) and have under one-tenth the greenhouse gas emissions of current hybrids

  4. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  5. Dynamic absorption coefficients of CAR and non-CAR resists at EUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several CAR and non-CAR EUV photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the XIL beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called Chemical Sensitivity to account for all the post-absorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which is also predicts a quantitative clearing volume, and respectively clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help in deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of EUV concept of clearing volume and clearing radius are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  6. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  7. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. PMID:27068944

  8. University of Calgary solar car set for American solar challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article described a solar car designed by a team from the University of Calgary for the 2010 American Solar Challenge, a 1100 mile race that starts in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ends 5 days later in Chicago, Illinois. The Shulich Axiom car is comprised of 2000 solar cells with batteries that can store enough power to drive the car for a 4-hour period. The car has a top speed of 140 km per hour and is totally powered by solar energy. The team has taken the car on a 5-day tour of Alberta, stopping in 7 communities across the province before heading back to Calgary. The team is one of only 2 Canadian teams competing in the challenge this year. 1 fig.

  9. Car sunshade-induced craniofacial injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardoli Mojtaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a man who sustained a craniofacial injury after spontaneous lateral airbag deployment resulting in his face being struck by a car sunshade. This highlights the potential damage that can be caused by any object placed between a lateral airbag and a car occupant. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian man who was the driver in a frontal collision. He had opened the car sunshade and turned it 90° towards the left. As he was driving, he struck a bus, causing the driver's lateral airbag to spontaneously deploy. The airbag pushed the sunshade against his face and injured him. Conclusions Car sunshades can cause significant craniofacial injury. We suggest that sunshade design must be improved to reduce the risk of potential injuries to car occupants. We recommend a new, safer sunshade design.

  10. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyse the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction forces on the wheels. In usual cars, with front-wheel drive, when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this article we also study thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled with the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters in the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion taking into account the dragging forces is also discussed.

  11. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  12. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with

  13. Análisis genético y molecular del fenotipo carS en Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ortiz, Luis Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Esta Tesis se plantea dos objetivos principales: 1. Investigar el fenotipo carS mediante el análisis de sus efectos sobre la producción de metabolitos secundarios y sobre el transcriptoma. Para ello se emplearán varios mutantes de fenotipo similar, gener

  14. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  15. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  16. Expression of Human CAR Splicing Variants in BAC-Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a key regulator for drug metabolism in liver. Human CAR (hCAR) transcripts are subjected to alternative splicing. Some hCAR splicing variants (SVs) have been shown to encode functional proteins by reporter assays. However, in vivo research on the activity of these hCAR SVs has been impeded by the absence of a valid model. This study engineered an hCAR-BAC-transgenic (hCAR-TG) mouse model by integrating the 8.5-kbp hCAR gene as wel...

  17. Driver steering dynamics measured in car simulator under a range of visibility and roadmaking conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    A simulation experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reduced visibility on driver lateral (steering) control. The simulator included a real car cab and a single lane road image projected on a screen six feet in front of the driver. Simulated equations of motion controlled apparent car lane position in response to driver steering actions, wind gusts, and road curvature. Six drivers experienced a range of visibility conditions at various speeds with assorted roadmaking configurations (mark and gap lengths). Driver describing functions were measured and detailed parametric model fits were determined. A pursuit model employing a road curvature feedforward was very effective in explaining driver behavior in following randomly curving roads. Sampled-data concepts were also effective in explaining the combined effects of reduced visibility and intermittent road markings on the driver's dynamic time delay. The results indicate the relative importance of various perceptual variables as the visual input to the driver's steering control process is changed.

  18. Consumer support for environmental policies. An application to purchases of green cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coad, Alex; Woersdorfer, Julia Sophie [Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena (Germany); De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, CHN J73.2, Universitaetstr. 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on how consumer motivation can be tapped in order to encourage the adoption of cleaner technologies. Consumers are heterogeneous - they may be guided by intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. While information provision policies (such as the energy label for cars) may be effective in encouraging certain consumers to adopt green cars, financial incentive schemes (such as subsidies or fines) may be more persuasive for extrinsically-motivated consumers. We develop a dynamic theory of adoption of environmental innovations, in which information-provision policies are followed by financial incentives (first 'carrot', then 'stick' incentives). Analysis of a survey dataset of Swiss households observes considerable heterogeneity in terms of support of information-provision or financial incentive policies, in line with our conjectures. Our results will be of particular interest to policymakers interested in guiding consumers towards cleaner technologies. (author)

  19. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26906544

  20. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  1. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  2. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  3. Advantages and Applications of CAR-Expressing Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eGlienke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.

  4. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  5. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO2-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  6. A rental car strategy for commercialization of hydrogen in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Avenue, Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Kuby, Michael; Clancy, James [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This article proposes a hydrogen rental-car strategy for transitioning from fleets to consumers in Orlando, Florida. Orlando is the No. 1 tourist destination in the United States, but most car renters visit only a few destinations. A hydrogen rental-car fleet serving this cluster of destinations could provide visitors with a positive first exposure to hydrogen vehicles with minimal commitment, creating hydrogen advocates and potential early adopters in their home regions. The rental-car business combines the logistical advantages of a fleet operation with outreach to many consumers. A hydrogen-powered rental-car fleet at the Orlando International Airport could provide guaranteed demand, supporting an initial rollout of refueling stations. We surveyed 435 rental-car customers in Orlando to understand the idea from the consumer point of view. We analyzed the bundles of destinations visited by the respondents and found that only three stations - an existing station at the Orlando International Airport plus new stations near the theme parks and in downtown Orlando - could serve 64% of renters. Half of all respondents indicated a willingness to pay more to rent a hydrogen car, and this subset of customers ranked the ability to use a pollution-free car as the most important factor in their decision. We then identify the major barriers to a hydrogen rental-car business model from the corporate point of view and propose a number of potential solutions. The most significant barrier appears to be the fleet purchase costs, which we think can be offset by the benefits of free media coverage and contained by beginning with converted internal-combustion vehicles and converting eventually to fuel-cell vehicles. We also outline possible synergies with NASA, Disney, refueling stations, manufacturers and state government. (author)

  7. FINDING {eta} CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S., E-mail: khan@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby ({approx}< 4 Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs. We find 34 candidates with a flat or rising mid-IR spectral energy distributions toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths that emit >10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 {+-} 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of {eta} Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like {eta} Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M{sub Sun} star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 {mu}m, allowing identification of {eta} Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPENSION BRACKET AND TIRES ON LOADING OF WHEELS OF THE CAR WHEN MOVING ON A MULCH BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing settlement modes of loading of wheels of cars are defined for the conditions which are closest to road service conditions and are reflected in the existing standards. However these standards can't be applied to an assessment of functional qualities of systems of cushioning the cars which are operated in the conditions of agricultural production. The small step of roughnesses, change the cushioned characteristics under the influence of operational factors lead to emergence of the off-design modes of the movement. The purpose of the work was the research of loading of wheels of the car when moving on mulch of grains. For the purpose of obtaining characteristics of the roughnesses influencing car wheels we have recorded a smoothed microprofile of the field and got the statistics, rated autocorrelated function, spectral density of influence of a microprofile. For carrying out the researches the known mathematical model of a car road system was accepted. Influence of speed of the movement, normal rigidity of springs and tires, coefficients of damping of a suspension bracket and tires on vertical fluctuations and loading of wheels of forward and back axes of the car is investigated. The executed researches showed that the movement of the car is followed by fluctuations of indicators of loading of running system with obviously expressed periodic components. The change of the coefficient of damping of a passive suspension bracket and tires in possible limits has no essential impact on loading of wheels. Values of normal roughness of springs of forward and back axes of the car, normal rigidity of tires at which dynamic load of wheels of the car is minimum are established

  9. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the car and the dimensions of the bicycle/cyclist on the severity of the impacts. It is known that the speed of the car at impact is an important parameter in the resulting injury severity of the cyclis...

  10. Scheme for efficient fiber-based CARS probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Potma, Eric O.

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based probe for maximum collection of the Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signal in biological tissues. We discuss the design challenges including capturing the back-scattered forward generated CARS signal in the sample and the effects of fiber nonlinearities on the propagating pulses. Three different biological tissues were imaged in vitro in order to assess the performance of our fiberdelivered probe for CARS imaging, a tool which we consider an important advance towards label-free, in vivo probing of superficial tissues.

  11. The Car Resequencing Problem with Pull-Off Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car sequencing problem determines sequences of different car models launched down a mixed-model assembly line. To avoid work overloads of workforce, car sequencing restricts the maximum occurrence of labor-intensive options, e.g., a sunroof, by applying sequencing rules. We consider this problem in a resequencing context, where a given number of buffers (denoted as pull-off tables is available for rearranging a stirred sequence. The problem is formalized and suited solution procedures are developed. A lower bound and a dominance rule are introduced which both reduce the running time of our graph approach. Finally, a real-world resequencing setting is investigated.

  12. The Formation of Usage Intention of Electric Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbarossa, Camilla; de Pelsmacker, Patrick; Beckmann, Suzanne C.;

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we propose a model in which green self-identity (GSI) is an antecedent of both environmental concern (EC) and moral obligation (MO), which in turn influence the attitude towards electric cars (ATT). GSI is also assumed to have a direct effect on ATT. The attitude towards...... the electric car then determines the intention to adopt it. The model is empirically tested in three culturally different European countries: Denmark, Belgium and Italy. Results show that the three countries differ in the way they develop positive attitudes and intentions towards the electric car on the basis...

  13. Demand for luxury cars in China: development, trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis was to investigate what is demand for luxury cars in People's Republic of China and how it has developed, what trends there are and what direction development is going currently. The topic of this thesis was selected based on how interesting it is and how current the topic is at the moment. Objective was to find out what is the demand of luxury cars in China, what kind of buyers Chinese consumers are in field of luxury cars, what trends there are and what are the charac...

  14. An energy efficient breakdown cover service for electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Vispoel, Stijn; Van Maerhem, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A typical breakdown cover service unit in Belgium has to assist up to 5 cars a day that end up with an empty fuel tank. As the range of today’s battery electric cars is lower than what people are used to have today, breakdown cover services expect that massive introduction of electric cars will lead to a multiple of EVs ending up with an empty battery. This paper reports about a research project, initiated by a Belgian breakdown cover service, that aimed to design and build a prot...

  15. Femtosecond spectral phase shaping for CARS spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Sytse; van Rhijn, Alexander C. W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) is a third-order non-linear optical process that provides label-free, chemically selective microscopy by probing the internal vibrational structure of molecules. Due to the resonant enhancement of the CARS process, faster imaging is possible compared to Raman microscopy. CARS is unaffected by background fluorescence, but the inherent non-resonant background signal can overwhelm the resonant signal. We demonstrate how simple phase shapes on the pump (and probe) beam reduce the background signal and enhance the resonant signal. We demonstrate chemically selective microscopy using these shaped pulses on plastic beads.

  16. FreedomCAR and Fuel Cells: Toward the Hydrogen Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    FreedomCAR is the Bush administration's bid to reduce our reliance on oil. A successor to the Clinton administration's Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), FreedomCAR is a research initiative designed to promote greater coordination between federal agencies and U.S. carmakers. In marked contrast to its predecessor, FreedomCAR shifts the research focus away from technologies close at hand to fuel cells, a family of products further down the road with far greater promise to redu...

  17. Online Car Selling Application Using PayPal

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Ripon

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis was to develop an Online Car Selling Application Using PayPal Technology which is an ASP.NET application developed with a built-in Visual Studio environment. This application is basically organized in a bipartite in terms of functions: products (cars) and customers. Online Car Selling Application Using PayPal Technology was devised to offer large opportunities to customers, case of selling and managing. So, the customer’s data are available in terms of payment or...

  18. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car tran...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  19. The Engine Immobilizer: A Non-Starter for Car Thieves

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence for a beneficial welfare impact of a crime policy that is targeted at strenghtening victim precaution. Regulation made application of the electronic engine immobilizer, a simple and low-cost anti-theft device, mandatory for all new cars sold within the European Union as of 1998. We exploit the regulation as source of exogenous variation in use of the device by year of manufacture of cars. Based on detailed data at the level of car models, we find that uniform application o...

  20. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  1. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  2. De Finetti theorem on the CAR algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Crismale, Vito

    2012-01-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self--containing interest.

  3. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  4. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society. PMID:25077890

  5. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  6. Project CarGO tram at Dresden; Projekt CarGo Tram in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Eberstein, F.; Franke, M. [Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Next year, the Glassen Volkswagen Factory, which is currently under construction, will commence the production of luxury class automobiles. Already buying a car is meant to be a special event; thus the factory is set in a baroque environment, near the famous Semper Opera and Picture Gallery. This arrangement, hitherto without example, will be accompanied by another, equally remarkable project. The factory, which is situated in a central city area being very sensitive in terms of urban development and traffic installations, will be delivered raw materials and parts using a CarGo Tram. Two bi-directionally operated, 60 metres long five-car trains will transport the parts from the railway cargo hub at Dresden Friedrichstadt to the factory in cycles of 40 minutes. There and at the Glassen Factory in Grosser Garten, separate track terminals will be built. In addition to the historic past and the charming scenery of the Elbe metropolis Dresden and its environs, soon also the CarGo Tram and the Glassen Factory will attract guests from all over the world to visit this innovative and culturally important city in the centre of Europe. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2001 beginnt die Produktion von Automobilen der Oberklasse in der derzeit noch im Bau befindlichen Glaesernen Manufaktur der Volkswagen Automobil-Manufaktur Dresden GmbH. In einem barocken Umfeld, mit raeumlicher Naehe zur Semperoper und Gemaeldegalerie, soll bereits der Verkauf dieser Fahrzeuge zu einem Erlebnis werden. Dieses bisher einmalige Vorhaben wird von einem zweiten, ebenso einzigartigen Vorhaben begleitet. Die Belieferung der in einem staedtebaulich und verkehrlich sensiblen Innenstadtbereich gelegenen Manufaktur erfolgt mit einer Gueterstrassenbahn. Zwei 60 Meter lange, fuenfteilige Zweirichtungsfahrzeuge werden ab Maerz 2001 etwa im 40-Minutentakt die Anlieferung der Zulieferteile aus dem Gueterverkehrszentrum Dresden-Friedrichstadt uebernehmen. Hier und an der Glaesernen Manufaktur im Grossen Garten werden

  7. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... odorant during the transportation cycle (commonly known as ``odorant fade''). This safety advisory... odorization standards and procedures, and take appropriate actions to guard against odorant fade in...

  8. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and ... get out. If your infant or young child travels in a rear-facing car seat or the ...

  9. Una variante del carácter cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Aguilar Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de la construcción de una variante del carácter cultural con base en la teoría de las necesidades psicológicas de Erich Fromm y en el carácter social por él desarrollado. Se describen algunas diferencias entre carácter y personalidad y, luego de revisar brevemente la teoría frommiana sobre el tema, se mencionan los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales necesarios para la elaboración del carácter cultural. Este será una herramienta para estudiar las necesidades psicoculturales de algunos grupos étnicos en Chiapas.

  10. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  11. Vieweg manual of motor car engineering; Vieweg Handbuch Kraftfahrzeugtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braess, H.H.; Seiffert, U. [eds.

    2000-10-01

    Contents: Requirements on motor cars; conflicting goals and their integration; innovative technologies; interdisciplinary aspects like mechanics, aerodynamics, vibrations/acoustics, thermal engineering/air conditioning, ergonomics/comfort, safety, economical fuel supply. Motor car design: Package, design. Drive aggregates, energy sources, fuelling systems. Car bodies and travelling gear. Electrical/electronic systems. Materials, production technologies, recycling. Production processes (calculation/simulation, measurements and experiments, simultaneous engineering, quality assurance). The motor car and the future of traffic. [German] Der Inhalt: Anforderungen an Automobile, Zielkonflikte und deren Bewaeltigung, innovative Technologien. Fahrzeuguebergreifende Disziplinen, wie Fahrmechanik, Aerodynamik, Schwingungen/Akustik, Waermetechnik/Klimatisierung, Ergonomie/Komfort, Sicherheit, Kraftstoffwirtschaftlichkeit. Fahrzeugauslegung: Package, Design. Antriebsaggregate, Antriebsenergien, Kraftstoffsysteme. Karosserie und ihre Bauweisen. Fahrwerk, mit allen Teilgebieten. Elektrik/Elektronik. Werkstoffe, Fertigungstechnologien, Recycling. Methoden des Produktentstehungsprozesses (Berechnung/Simulation, Mess- und Versuchstechnik, Simultaneous Engineering, Qualitaetssicherung). Das Automobil und der Verkehr der Zukunft. (orig.)

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get out. If your infant or young child travels in a rear-facing car seat or the ... Safe Memorial Day Weekend Emergency Physicians Offer Summer Travel Safety Tips Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring ...

  13. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  14. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in ... brain and other vital organs, as well as heat stroke, dehydration, and seizures among other things. Prevention ...

  15. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  16. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  17. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  18. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vehicle’s window will act like a greenhouse, trapping sunlight and heat inside with no ventilation. A car parked in direct sunlight can reach up to 131 degrees inside while ...

  19. A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Learning of Car Driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Pinkwart, Niels; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Miao, Y., Pinkwart, N., and Hoppe, H.U. (2006). "A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Learning of Car Driving". International Journal on Advanced Technology for Learning (ATL), 3(4), 233-240.

  20. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.

  2. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  3. Car companies look to generate power from waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirber, Michael

    2008-04-01

    You might think that the steam engine is an outdated technology that had its heyday centuries ago, but in fact steam is once again a hot topic with vehicle manufacturers. Indeed, the next generation of hybrid cars and trucks may incorporate some form of steam power. Honda, for example, has just released details of a new prototype hybrid car that recharges its battery using a steam engine that exploits waste heat from the exhaust pipe.

  4. MODAL ANALYSIS OF QUARTER CAR MODEL SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath. K. Allamraju *

    2016-01-01

    Suspension system is very important for comfort driving and travelling of the passengers. Therefore, this study provides a numerical tool for modeling and analyzing of a two degree of freedom quarter car model suspension system. Modal analysis places a vital role in designing the suspension system. In this paper presented the modal analysis of quarter car model suspension system by considering the undamped and damped factors.  The modal and vertical equations of motions describing the su...

  5. International Trade in Used Cars and Problems of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Grubel, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides a price-theoretic explanation of the well-known phenomenon that automobiles in developing countries depreciate less rapidly and are scrapped at a greater age than they are in industrial countries. This paper then argues that the renewal of barriers to free trade in used cars would lead to substantial welfare gains for developing countries through both capital gains implicit in the arbitrage and positive externalities from car repair industries. Negative externalities from ...

  6. A Model for Passenger Car Gasoline Demand in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nagy Eltony

    1991-01-01

    A model for motor gasoline demand in Canada is developed by household. The model identifies and separates effects of several responses by the household to a change in gasoline prices such as driving fewer miles, purchasing fewer cars, and buying more fuel efficient cars. It also estimates the manufacturers’ response of improving the technology of new automobiles. The size and the composition of the fleet according to the interior volume of four classes of automobiles rather than their natural...

  7. Interaction between cars and their drivers in twenty years time

    OpenAIRE

    Pijoan i Forcada, Meritxell

    2009-01-01

    Today, the word automobile means much more than what used to mean some years ago. Nowadays, cars have more values than just offering the possibility of travelling from the point X until the point Y. Automobiles have an added value of safety, comfort, aesthetics and, why not, socialization. Cars are highly technologically complex. Despite the built-in driver information systems permits the drivers get as much information as they want, the drivers have to select the most suitable information...

  8. Driving the Internet: Mobile Internets, Cars, and the Social

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Goggin

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the tandem technologies of cars and the Internet, and the new ways that they are assembling the social with the mobile Internet. My argument is two-fold: firstly, the advent of mobile Internet in cars brings together new, widely divergent trajectories of Internet; secondly, such developments have social implications that vary widely depending on whether or not we recognize the broader technological systems and infrastructures, media practices, flows, and mobilities in whic...

  9. Remote Controlled CARs: Towards a Safer Therapy for Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Carl H

    2016-08-01

    Genetic engineering of patient T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) provides a powerful tool for inducing remissions in patients with various cancers derived from B cells. Challenges stemming from the inability to control the CAR T cells once given pose significant safety concerns. An article in Cancer Immunology Research presents an approach to circumvent this issue. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(8); 643. ©2016 AACRSee article by Sakemura et al., p. 658.

  10. RENTQUAL: a new measurement scale for car rental services

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan H.Ekiz; Bavik, Ali; Arasli, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Service quality perception is one of the key determinants of customer satisfaction and repeat purchase. As such, it has received considerable attention in the marketing literature. Quality issues in the car rental industry, however, have received less attention. Furthermore, there is lack of a scale developed to measure service quality in car rental services. This paper aims to develop a measurement scale in accordance with the procedure recommended by Churchill (1979) and Parasuraman, Zeitha...

  11. GENERATION AND DEPARTABILITY OF GVG FOR CAR-LIKE ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm, based on conventional GVG that enables a car-like robot find a collision free path from depart configuration to some goal position in an environment containing some convex obstacles. Prior research on GVG prescribed path for a circular robot. The circular robot is holonomic system, but this time GVG is used in nonholonomic system. The proposed algorithm enables the car-like robot depart the GVG to the goal position with the nonholonomic path.

  12. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  13. DISCOVERY OF FAST, LARGE-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, R. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Di Mille, F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, The University of Sydney, 44-70 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Ferreira Lopes, C. E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-970 Natal/RN (Brazil); Masetti, N., E-mail: rangelon@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: fdimille@aao.gov.au, E-mail: carlos_eduardo@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: masetti@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of {approx}520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  14. The effect of dieselization in passenger cars emissions for Spanish regions: 1998–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the goal of improving on-road fuel efficiency, the Spanish Government engaged in an active policy called the dieselization between 1998 and 2006, which was intended primarily for light duty vehicle (mostly passenger cars and SUV’s). However, the effect of the dieselization on controlling emissions has been questioned by many authors. At the Spanish national level, we first provide descriptive evidence of the effects of dieselization on passenger cars emissions. Second, we use a panel data set for 16 Spanish regions between 1998 and 2006, and estimate a dynamic panel data model that relates CO2 emissions generated by passenger cars with a set of variables related to the dieselization process, fuel efficiency and other control variables. Combining both analysis, we find the existence of a significant indirect, negative effect on CO2 emissions caused by the dieselization, which is more important than the direct, positive technology-efficiency impact. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect on road transport CO2 emissions of the dieselization process in Spain between 1998 and 2006. ► We estimate a dynamic panel data model that relates CO2 emissions and dieselization. ► We find the overall impact of dieselization on emissions is positive, though small. ► The ‘rebound’ effect on emissions has been more important than its direct, technology-efficiency impact. ► This result is highly robust to alternative econometric methods.

  15. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1 all vents opened, (2 only central vents closed (3 only central vents opened and (4 all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  16. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  17. Black and beyond—colour and the mass-produced motor car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Deborah; Nieuwenhuis, Paul; Ewing, Paul D.

    2006-06-01

    Colour is a highly visible and impressive feature of all products and has long been used to complement and enhance their form and that of motor cars in particular. Automotive colour is usually applied as paint, which also protects the car and maintains its value. However the significance of automotive colour far exceeds that as an aesthetic and cosmetic feature. This paper begins with a brief history of automotive manufacture. A description of the current automotive manufacturing process, the reasons how and why this process became predominant and the role of paint technology within these developments are then discussed. The means that established and maintain colour and gloss surface finish as important automotive design details are then described followed by an overview of changes in colour application processes and paint technologies, the use of plastics in automotive bodies and the implications thereof. The paper concludes that, even though there is potential for change, the impact of this apparently secondary aspect of the car is so significant that it is limiting the adoption of alternative materials and inhibiting the introduction of new manufacturing paradigms.

  18. CERN car sharing scheme now open to everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The CERN car sharing service is a self-service scheme providing a pool of 30 CERN cars available for pick-up free of charge from 13 points around the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. From Thursday, 1st December 2011, the service will be open to all members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel, in the framework of their professional activities at CERN only. The conditions of use can be consulted at: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/Mobility/Car_sharing To be able to use the service, members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel must: have a contractual link to CERN, possess an e-mail address registered in the CERN databases; hold an RFID access card, which can be obtained from the CERN Car Pool on presentation of a valid CERN access card. Car Pool, Building 130-R-012, open Monday-Friday, 8.00 a.m.-12.00 noon/1.00 p.m.-5.00 p.m. https://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/car-pool GS-IS

  19. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  20. Modelling of Security Principles Within Car-to-Car Communications in Modern Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Durech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS bring advanced applications that provide innovative services for various transportation modes in the area of traffic control, and enable better awareness for different users. Communication connections between intelligent vehicles with the use of wireless communication standards, so called Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, require ensuring verification of validity of provided services as well as services related to transmission confidentiality and integrity. The goal of this paper is to analyze secure mechanisms utilised in VANET communication within Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS with a focus on safety critical applications. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks via OPNET Modeler tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library for authentication protocol realisation based on digital signature schemes. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication for several traffic scenarios with recommended Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES. The obtained results of the throughput and delay in the simulated network are compared for secured and no-secured communications in dependence on the selected digital signature schemes and the number of mobile nodes. The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of digital signature schemes based on RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman, DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for different key-lengths suitable for real time VANET communications for safety-critical applications of C-ITS.