WorldWideScience

Sample records for car distribution railroads

  1. 上海市有轨电车系统布局规划研究%Research on Shanghai Railroad Car System Distribution Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安锋; 李东屹; 马士江

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, the railroad car system plays a role in the rail transport system. Focusing on the railroad car system, the paper analyzes its development history and requirements, functional orientation, technical features, and also its adaptability in urban area. Besides, combining with case studies both inside China and abroad and also according to the idea “3 merge into 1” of the Shanghai Prospective Planning of Rail Transport Network, the planning of railroad car in Shanghai is researched. Thirdly, associated with the railroad network planning in Songjiang, Jiading and Nanqiao new cities, the paper analyzes the development orientation and scale of railroad car system in public transport system in new cities.%现代有轨电车系统是轨道交通系统的组成部分。通过对现代有轨电车的发展历程、发展需求、功能定位以及技术性能特征和在城市中的适应性分析,结合国内外应用案例分析,按照上海市远景轨道交通网络发展规划提出的“三网融合”的规划理念,对全市现代有轨电车布局规划进行研究。并以松江新城、嘉定新城和南桥新城现代有轨电车网络规划和示范线工作为契机,对现代有轨电车在新城公共交通体系中的发展导向和发展规模进行分析。

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  5. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity... operators of rail accidents occurring in railroad rights-of-way where pipelines are present and the need to... 114 cars, 19 of which derailed. All of the derailed cars were tank cars carrying denatured...

  6. The Probability Distribution of Inter-car Spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Jin Guo; Han, Dong

    In this paper, the celluar automation model with Fukui-Ishibashi-type acceleration rule is used to study the inter-car spacing distribution for traffic flow. The method used in complex network analysis is applied to study the spacings distribution. By theoretical analysis, we obtain the result that the distribution of inter-car spacings follows power law when vehicle density is low and spacing is not large, while, when the vehicle density is high or the spacing is large, the distribution can be described by exponential distribution. Moreover, the numerical simulations support the theoretical result.

  7. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  8. On Transport Service Selection in Intermodal Rail/Road Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bierwirth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal rail/road freight transport constitutes an alternative to long-haul road transport for the distribution of large volumes of goods. The paper introduces the intermodal transportation problem for the tactical planning of mode and service selection. In rail mode, shippers either book train capacity on a per-unit basis or charter block trains completely. Road mode is used for short-distance haulage to intermodal terminals and for direct shipments to customers. We analyze the competition of road and intermodal transportation with regard to freight consolidation and service cost on a model basis. The approach is applied to a distribution system of an industrial company serving customers in eastern Europe. The case study investigates the impact of transport cost and consolidation on the optimal modal split.

  9. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  10. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  11. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  12. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  13. Using Seaports in Distribution Logistics of Cars on the Example of the Toyota Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The maritime transport is an element of the intermodal transport, which makes the distribution process of automotive industry more efficient. The article presents possibilities of using the sea transport and seaports in the logistic chain of car distribution on the example of the Toyota company. Toyota is one of the largest car manufacturers in the world, having (among others its logistic centers of distribution in seaports of Grimsby (Grimsby Logistic Centre in North East Lincolnshire – England and Sagunto (Sagunto Logistic Centre in Valencia – Spain.

  14. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  15. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  16. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders.

  17. A dynamic multi-channel speech enhancement system for distributed microphones in a car environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheja, Timo; Buck, Markus; Fingscheidt, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Supporting multiple active speakers in automotive hands-free or speech dialog applications is an interesting issue not least due to comfort reasons. Therefore, a multi-channel system for enhancement of speech signals captured by distributed distant microphones in a car environment is presented. Each of the potential speakers in the car has a dedicated directional microphone close to his position that captures the corresponding speech signal. The aim of the resulting overall system is twofold: On the one hand, a combination of an arbitrary pre-defined subset of speakers' signals can be performed, e.g., to create an output signal in a hands-free telephone conference call for a far-end communication partner. On the other hand, annoying cross-talk components from interfering sound sources occurring in multiple different mixed output signals are to be eliminated, motivated by the possibility of other hands-free applications being active in parallel. The system includes several signal processing stages. A dedicated signal processing block for interfering speaker cancellation attenuates the cross-talk components of undesired speech. Further signal enhancement comprises the reduction of residual cross-talk and background noise. Subsequently, a dynamic signal combination stage merges the processed single-microphone signals to obtain appropriate mixed signals at the system output that may be passed to applications such as telephony or a speech dialog system. Based on signal power ratios between the particular microphone signals, an appropriate speaker activity detection and therewith a robust control mechanism of the whole system is presented. The proposed system may be dynamically configured and has been evaluated for a car setup with four speakers sitting in the car cabin disturbed in various noise conditions.

  18. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... advancements and ergonomic design standards for new car construction and ensure that modern rail equipment... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  19. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, Benjamin [MINES Paris Tech, CERNA (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using disaggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressivity. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  20. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, B.

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using dis-aggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressiveness. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  1. Modal Analysis of the EMU Car-Body in the Preparation Condition Based on Mass Fineness Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Na; Rao, Ben-Teng; Xie, Su-Ming; Ma, Si-Qun

    Analyzing the car-body modal of EMU is the key of assessing EMU dynamic quality at high speed. The car-body modal can be influenced to same degree by the mass fineness distribution and the rationality of coupling stiffness of suspension device. Considering all equipments layout including internal decoration, FEM of the EMU car-body under preparation based on mass fineness distribution was created and the free modal was carried out with FEA software. The vertical bend frequency 10.03Hz, that is closer to the experimental data, satisfies the relative requirement. And on this basis, different vibration frequencies were studied under different elastic hanging stiffness of suspension device. Vibration frequency change is same on three direction with vertical direction stiffness, which indicate vertical stiffness is more important than the other direction stiffness. Thus these results provide some rational references for EMU car-body structural design.

  2. Empirical evidence and stability analysis of the linear car-following model with gamma-distributed memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Pan, Yan; Wang, Haixin; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2016-05-01

    Car-following models, which describe the reactions of the driver of a following car to the changes of the leading car, are essential for the development of traffic flow theory. A car-following model with a stochastic memory effect is considered to be more realistic in modeling drivers' behavior. Because a gamma-distributed memory function has been shown to outperform other forms according to empirical data, in this study, we thus focus on a car-following model with a gamma-distributed memory effect; analytical and numerical studies are then conducted for stability analysis. Accordingly, the general expression of undamped and stability points is achieved by analytical study. The numerical results show great agreement with the analytical results: introducing the effect of the driver's memory causes the stable regions to weaken slightly, but the metastable region is obviously enlarged. In addition, a numerical study is performed to further analyze the variation of the stable and unstable regions with respect to the different profiles of gamma distribution.

  3. 78 FR 54849 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... existing general service tank cars authorized for transportation of denatured fuel ethanol and crude oil in... standard for tank cars used to transport crude oil, denatured alcohol and ethanol/gasoline mixtures as well... Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  4. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  5. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  6. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  7. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  8. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital; (2) The evacuation of a passenger train; (3) Damage to a tank car or container resulting in...) Accidents involving joint operations must be reported by the railroad that controls the track and directs... is required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section occurs in a remote area, the time limits...

  9. Genome-wide mapping of the distribution of CarD, RNAP σA, and RNAP β on the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landick, Robert; Krek, Azra; Glickman, Michael S.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Stallings, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    CarD is an essential mycobacterial protein that binds the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and affects the transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis [6]. We predicted that CarD was directly regulating RNAP function but our prior experiments had not determined at what stage of transcription CarD was functioning and at which genes CarD interacted with the RNAP. To begin to address these open questions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to survey the distribution of CarD throughout the M. smegmatis chromosome. The distribution of RNAP subunits β and σA were also profiled. We expected that RNAP β would be present throughout transcribed regions and RNAP σA would be predominantly enriched at promoters based on work in Escherichia coli [3], however this had yet to be determined in mycobacteria. The ChIP-seq analyses revealed that CarD was never present on the genome in the absence of RNAP, was primarily associated with promoter regions, and was highly correlated with the distribution of RNAP σA. The colocalization of σA and CarD led us to propose that in vivo, CarD associates with RNAP initiation complexes at most promoters and is therefore a global regulator of transcription initiation. Here we describe in detail the data from the ChIP-seq experiments associated with the study published by Srivastava and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science in 2013 [5] as well as discuss the findings from this dataset in relation to both CarD and mycobacterial transcription as a whole. The ChIP-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo (accession no. GSE48164). PMID:25089258

  10. Genome-Wide Mapping of the Distribution of CarD, RNAP σ(A), and RNAP β on the Mycobacterium smegmatis Chromosome using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landick, Robert; Krek, Azra; Glickman, Michael S; Socci, Nicholas D; Stallings, Christina L

    2014-12-01

    CarD is an essential mycobacterial protein that binds the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and affects the transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6). We predicted that CarD was directly regulating RNAP function but our prior experiments had not determined at what stage of transcription CarD was functioning and at which genes CarD interacted with the RNAP. To begin to address these open questions, we performed Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to survey the distribution of CarD throughout the M. smegmatis chromosome. The distribution of RNAP subunits β and σ(A) were also profiled. We expected that RNAP β would be present throughout transcribed regions and RNAP σ(A) would be predominantly enriched at promoters based on work in Escherichia coli (3), however this had yet to be determined in mycobacteria. The ChIP-seq analyses revealed that CarD was never present on the genome in the absence of RNAP, was primarily associated with promoter regions, and was highly correlated with the distribution of RNAP σ(A). The colocalization of σ(A) and CarD led us to propose that in vivo, CarD associates with RNAP initiation complexes at most promoters and is therefore a global regulator of transcription initiation. Here we describe in detail the data from the ChIP-seq experiments associated with the study published by Srivastava and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science in 2013 (5) as well as discuss the findings from this dataset in relation to both CarD and mycobacterial transcription as a whole. The ChIP-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo (accession no. GSE48164).

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  12. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars for the encouragement of intelligent power distribution structures; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2007-11-15

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how plug-in hybrid cars could be used to support the electricity supply in Switzerland. This study explains to what extent hybrid cars would be in a position to provide the services needed to regulate the Swiss electricity mains. Core elements of the concept known as 'Vehicle to Grid' (V2G) are presented. The requirements placed on the cars' equipment, including reversible battery chargers and communication equipment, are reviewed. Mains regulation systems are discussed, as are battery storage and the potential advantages offered by such a system. Challenges and hindrances to implementation are examined and initial feasibility studies are analysed. Questions still to be addressed are noted. A comprehensive appendix rounds off the report.

  13. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'. Data by this publisher are often...

  14. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  15. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  16. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  17. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  18. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  19. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before...

  20. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  1. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... when injected at standard industry rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's..., allergies, head colds, smoking, or the recent use of alcohol or drugs. Colorimetric tube testing and the...

  2. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  3. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  4. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  5. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  6. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  8. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  9. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'....

  10. Railroad Lines, Railroad ROW, Published in 2009, Polk County Assessor's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroad ROW'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Albers...

  11. Railroad Lines, Railroads (vacated also), Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroads (vacated also)'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  12. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  13. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, wherein R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company) seeks to lease from RJC Railroad Property and to operate...

  14. Determining the Contribution of Gas Emissions from Cars and Estimating the Distribution of CO Emissions in Enclosed Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, contribution of exhaust emission and CO distribution was estimated in enclosed residential complex parking. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive - analytical study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the emission contribution of vehicles was determined. In order to determine the contribution of exhaust gas emissions, through gas species, only four species CO, O2, CO2, and N2 were measured. Concentration of CO, O2, and CO2 was estimated using data obtained from the vehicle emissions monitoring system. The amount of N2 was estimated from sum ratio of all species, which equals to 1. Then, using computational methods, the amount of the emission contribution from vehicles. In the second phase, to measure the distribution of CO pollutant, gas sampling and collecting was performed using sampling bags made of inert materials with a volume of 10 l at six points. Sampling was conducted in accordance with the requirements of OSHA ID 210. The Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS Ver.16 software and Pearson statistical test (P > 0.05 means there was no significant difference. Results: Maximum contribution was estimated for Pride with amount of 44.4 g/s and minimum contribution was estimated for Tiba with amount of 0.3 g/s. The minimum and maximum distribution value of CO concentration was achieved 3.6 and 69.48 ppm respectively. It was found that no significant relationship was observed between the values of exhaust emissions and CO distribution. However, the distribution of concentration was associated with locations and the number of openings, the number and type of vehicle, time of operation of the vehicle, the vehicle performance, and environmental factors. Conclusion: Measuring vehicles CO emission indicated  that the concentration was beyond the permissible level recommended by the World Health Organization at some. Moreover, it was indicated that natural air conditioning is an effective

  15. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  16. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  17. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall...

  19. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... .02 or greater but less than .04. (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must...

  20. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  1. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars in the promotion of intelligent distribution networks; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen (Vorstudie) - Schlussbericht / 2 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2008-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done as part of a preliminary study concerning the use of plug-in hybrid cars as part of a system for the regulation of energy in electricity supply grids. The 'Vehicle to Grid' concept is discussed. This involves hybrid vehicles with higher accumulator capacities, reversible charger units as well as appropriate connector technologies and communication systems. This 'smart grid' concept is looked at and the players involved are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of such a system are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice...

  3. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R... acquisition transaction is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-- Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, in which R....

  4. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  5. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  6. DISTRIBUTING CHARACTER AND DISPOSING PRINCIPLE OF GEOLOGIC HAZARDS ALONG CHONGQING-HUAIHUA RAILROAD%渝怀线地质灾害发育特征及处理原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟定才; 黄润秋; 等

    2001-01-01

    重点介绍渝怀铁路线地质灾害发育分布特征,主要灾害类型包括滑坡、崩坡积层、危岩落石、顺层及软质岩高边坡、岩溶突水、地表水漏失、水库坍岸、软土、膨胀土和煤层瓦斯等,在总结铁路行业对整治地质灾害的经验教训基础上,针对渝怀线的地质灾害提出相应的处理原则,即针对大型地质灾害和地质灾害集中发育地段,采取绕避的方法;无法绕避地段,则采用相应的工程措施。%The Chongqing-Huaihua railway is one of the main railroads of road network in the plan of western exploitation being put in force. The whole road, 624.523 km, goes through all layers from Proterozoic Group to Quaternary (except Carboniferous layer), which are mainly made up of classic rocks, soluble rocks, epimetamorphic rocks and loose sediments. The main geologic structure through which the railway goes is a fold belt being made up of a set of north-north east bundle of fold. The geologic hazards in the Chongqing-Huaihua railway are characterized by section-developing. They include slides, collapse-sloping deposits, bedding and flexible rock slopes, inburst of karst water, leakage of surface water, collapsing of reservoir bank, soft-soil, expanding-soil, gas from coal seams. Based on the experience and lesson of treating with geologic hazards in railroad industry, the authors put forward the principle that different disposing measures are taken according to different geologic hazards in the Chongqing-Huaihua railroad. For example, the authors try their best to avoid sections which develop lots of big geologic hazards. If the road must go through these sections, the related engineering measures ought to be taken.

  7. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad... from R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and operate approximately 42...

  8. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  9. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  10. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  11. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  12. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  13. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  14. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  15. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. Railroad Lines, Railroad-The data set is a line feature representing railroad tracks. It was created to maintain the location of the railroad., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1991. It is described as 'Railroad-The data set is a line feature...

  18. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  19. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  20. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  1. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  2. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  3. Power harvesting for railroad track safety enhancement using vertical track displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl A.; Platt, Stephen R.; Hansen, Sean E.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    A significant portion of railroad infrastructure exists in areas that are relatively remote. Railroad crossings in these areas are typically only marked with reflective signage and do not have warning light systems or crossbars due to the cost of electrical infrastructure. Distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications would be useful in these areas, but the same limitation regarding electrical infrastructure exists. This motivates the search for a long-term, low-maintenance power supply solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes the development of a mechanical device for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic that can be used to supply electrical power to warning light systems at crossings and to remote networks of sensors via rechargeable batteries. The device is mounted to and spans two rail ties such that it directly harnesses the vertical displacement of the rail and attached ties and translates the linear motion into rotational motion. The rotational motion is amplified and mechanically rectified to rotate a PMDC generator that charges a system of batteries. A prototype was built and tested in a laboratory setting for verifying functionality of the design. Results indicate power production capabilities on the order of 10 W per device in its current form. This is sufficient for illuminating high-efficiency LED lights at a railroad crossing or for powering track-health sensor networks.

  4. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2009 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2009 cost...

  5. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  6. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  7. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  8. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  9. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  10. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) at milepost 426.88 in Gurdon, Ark. and milepost 429.5 north of... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland...

  11. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  12. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  13. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lecture presented at the United States Army Russian Institute, 6 December 1979. 39S. Troyan , "Baikal-Amur Railroad, A Road of Courage", Soviet Military...34. (Bridges On The BAM) Tyl i Snabzheniye, No. 9, 1979, pp.27-28. "Transport zimoy". (Transport In Winter) Pravda, 24 January 1978, p.1 . Troyan , S

  14. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  15. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  16. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  17. Statistical Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hiromasa; Zgonnikov, Arkady; Saito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A fair simple car driving simulator was created based on the open source engine TORCS and used in car-following experiments aimed at studying the basic features of human behavior in car driving. Four subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. The subjects were instructed to drive a car without overtaking and losing sight of a lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed. Based on the collected data the distributions of the headway distance, the car velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with the available experimental data for the real traffic flow. A new model for the car-following is proposed to capture the found properties. As the main result, we draw a conclusion that human actions in car driving should be categorized as generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation. Besides, we hypothesize that the car jerk together with the car acceleration are additional phase variables required for describing the dynamics of car motion g...

  18. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  19. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  20. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  1. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  2. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  3. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  4. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  5. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  6. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  7. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  8. Following Car Algorithm With Multi Agent Randomized System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Gouiouez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Following Car Algorithm in Microscopic Urban Traffic Models which integrates some real-life factors that need to be considered, such as the effect of random distributions in the car speed, acceleration, entry of lane… Our architecture is based on Multi-Agent Randomized Systems (MARSdeveloped in earlier publications

  9. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  10. Research on the Optimal Distribution of Passenger Car Oriented to the Open Vehicle Routing%开放式路径下乘用车优化物流配送研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓琰; 周国光

    2016-01-01

    文章对开放式路径下乘用车的优化物流配送问题进行研究。以轿运车行驶路程最小和轿运车总装载能力利用率最大为目标,建立了开放式路径下乘用车物流配送的多目标优化模型。提出求解该优化模型的双层遗传算法,即子遗传算法先行求出满足轿运车最大总装载能力利用率的最优解集合,主遗传算法在该最优解集基础上求出满足轿运车行驶路程最短的最优解,获得开放式路径下乘用车物流运输配送的优化方案。实例研究验证了模型正确性和算法的有效性,为乘用车物流运输计划编制提供了一种可行方法。%This paper studies the optimal distribution of passenger car oriented to the Open Vehicle Routing Problem. The multi-objective optimal model which consists of such objectives as minimizing the marched distance and maximizing the total loading capacity utilization of the car transporter is suggested. Meanwhile, a new algorithm called double genetic algorithm is proposed, which includes the main and secondary genetic algorithm. The secondary genetic algorithm obtains the sets of optimal solution after solving the optimal objective of maximizing the total loading capacity utilization , while the main genetic algorithm solves the optimal objective of minimizing the marched distance based on these solution sets. Then a case study presented shows that the multi-objective optimal model is reliable and the double genetic algorithm is credible. It is shown that the model and algorithm suggested in this paper can guide for drawing up delivery scheme of passenger car in logistic transportation.

  11. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  12. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: FRA is updating its announcement of the RSAC Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR FURTHER...

  13. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  14. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  15. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  16. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  17. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  18. Preparedness of hazardous materials emergencies in railyards: Guidance for railroads and adjacent communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Railroads are a key part of the distribution system for hazardous materials and, thus, much hazardous material passes through railyards en route to intermediate or final consumers. While the vast majority of these materials are shipped without incident, both the number of shipments and the nature of the materials themselves dictate that railyards and surrounding communities be prepared to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. This report contains information on 11 emergency preparedness functions and 150 guidance recommendations.

  19. 49 CFR 1.49 - Delegations to Federal Railroad Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in freight rates and passenger fares for the Alaska Railroad, without power to redelegate authority for general changes in freight rates and passenger fares. (j) Promote and undertake research and... by the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-647) as it relates to a railroad police...

  20. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  1. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  2. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  3. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  4. Finite Element Modeling of the Bulk Magnitization of Railroad Wheels to Improve Test Conditions for Magnetoacoustic Residual Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetoacoustic measurement technique has been used successfully for residual stress measurements in laboratory samples. However, when used to field test samples with complex geometries, such as railroad wheels, the sensitivity of the method declines dramatically. It has been suggested that the decrease in performance may be due, in part, to an insufficient or nonuniform magnetic induction in the test sample. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the test conditions by using finite element modeling to predict the distribution of the induced bulk magnetization of railroad wheels. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain a sufficiently large and uniform bulk magnetization by altering the shape of the electromagnet used in the tests. Consequently, problems associated with bulk magnetization can be overcome, and should not prohibit the magnetoacoustic technique from being used to make residual stress measurements in railroad wheels. We begin by giving a brief overview of the magnetoacoustic technique as it applies to residual stress measurements of railroad wheels. We then define the finite element model used to predict the behavior of the current test configuration along with the nonlinear constitutive relations which we obtained experimentally through measurements on materials typically used to construct both railroad wheels and electromagnets. Finally, we show that by modifying the pole of the electromagnet it is possible to obtain a significantly more uniform bulk magnetization in the region of interest.

  5. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  6. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  7. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  8. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  9. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  10. Impact of permafrost change on the Qinghai-Tibet Railroad engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai; CHENG; Guodong

    2004-01-01

    Permafrost along the Qinghai-Tibet Railroad produces the great change under the influence of climate change, such as the decreasing of permafrost table, the rising of permafrost temperatures, etc. Climate effect on permafrost is the long-term process. Engineering action makes rapidly permafrost the large extent change. On the basis of analyzing the permafrost change under the climate change and engineering action, the thermal regime and spatial distribution of permafrost are predicted for air temperature rising 1℃ and 2℃ after 50 years in this paper. The results show that climate change results in the larger change for the thermal regime and spatial distribution of permafrost. Permafrost change will produce the great effect on the Qinghai-Tibet Railroad engineering, not only resulting in the decreasing of permafrost table beneath the roadbed, but also resulting in thawing settlement due to the thawing of ground ice near permafrost table. The idea of cooling roadbed and active protecting permafrost for the Qinghai-Tibet Railroad engineering could adjust and control the permafrost thermal state, some better methods are provided to ensure the engineering stability in the areas of warm permafrost and high ice content.

  11. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  12. Railroad Lines, Railroads within Sedgwick County. Primary attribute is railroad name. Names are provided as annotation also., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Railroads...

  13. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the...

  15. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  16. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  17. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  18. PTSD in railroad drivers under the Federal employers' liability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Farrell, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Railroad and subway drivers can experience psychological trauma when trains strike or nearly miss other trains, motor vehicles, or persons or become instruments of death. Derailments, collisions, and suicides on the tracks can induce feelings of helplessness, horror, guilt, and anxiety in the drivers. Although some drivers experience acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their conditions are not always acknowledged within the occupational setting. The world literature suggests that PTSD has been an increasing focus of concern, giving rise to detailed intervention protocols. In the United States, the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) governs the adjudication of work-related injuries among railroad employees. In practice, it is difficult for railroad drivers with PTSD to receive benefits if there was no "direct impact" linked to the employer's negligence. In this article, the authors review the literature on PTSD among railroad drivers, discuss relevant case law, and explain how the FELA militates against some employees with PTSD.

  19. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  20. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  1. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  2. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, K. Aron, and J. Fendell "N2 and 00 Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CHI/N20 Flames," Proceedings of the Nineteenth...JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CIIA Publication No. 366, 1982, p 123. 21. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , "N and CO Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational...9 6 5 . p 3 8 4 . . . . . 23. J. Fendell , L. E, Harris, and K. Aron, "Theoretical Calculation of 11 CARS S-Branches for Propellant Flames

  3. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  4. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  5. Railroad Lines, Railroad Lines, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Columbia County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described as...

  6. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  7. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  8. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  9. 四驱混合动力轿车分布式卡尔曼车速估计%Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on Distributed Kalman Filter for Four Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵治国; 杨杰; 吴枭威

    2015-01-01

    The driving mode of hybrid electric car can be two-wheel or four-wheel drive. The speed estimation designed for a specific driving mode can hardly achieve high estimated accuracy in all modes. Focus on the changeable driving mode, a kind of distributed Kalman filter with two levels is proposed, by means of utilize vehicle sensors signals, the driving torque of rear in-wheel motors and the torque of front driving wheels at the given gear state. Considering the strongly nonlinear of the model, UKF is adopted to design the filter, and to improve the filter’s robustness on modeling error and signal noise, measurement noise mean and covariance is self-adaptive. Firstly, based on UniTire Model and recursive equation of slip rate, the sub-filter is developed; secondly, based on the vehicle Kinematics model, the master-filter can be developed; at last, in consideration of different driving modes, a more accurate velocity estimation is obtained by fusing information from each sub-filters. With the help of Carsim and Simulink, the simulation platform about four wheel drive hybrid electric car is developed, and the proposed speed estimation algorithm is tested on this platform under the pure electric drive mode and the hybrid drive mode. The results show that the proposed algorithm has not only high precision, but also strong robustness on modeling error, measurement noise and the changeable driving mode.%四驱混合动力轿车存在两轮/四轮多种驱动模式,针对某一驱动模式所设计的车速估计算法难以满足其他模式下车速估计的精度。考虑车辆不同驱动模式,利用车载传感器信号、后轮毂电机转矩信息以及既定档位下前轮转矩信息,提出两级分布式卡尔曼车速估计方法。考虑模型的强非线性,采用无味卡尔曼滤波(Unscented Kalman filter,UKF)算法设计主/子滤波器。同时为了提高UKF算法对模型误差、信号干扰的鲁棒性,实现了量测噪声均值和方

  10. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  11. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  12. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  13. Sprain of the neck in clinically treated patients in The Netherlands : An inventory of different categories of car accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Different categories of car accidents of victims with sprain of the neck were investigated for both drivers and passengers. The predominant category of the car crash was a collision with another car for drivers as well as for passengers. The second cause was unknown. The distribution of the accident

  14. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  15. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Egba Ubogu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  16. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may...... be large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...... is discussed and the nonlinear aspects are emphasized. The author explains why it is necessary to reformulate the mathematical problem for calculation of the critical speed due to the nonlinear character of the modelling. It is suggested that another critical speed be defined for a railroad vehicle. It can...

  17. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  18. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  19. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  20. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  1. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... requirements, either to remedy perceived shortcomings in the railroads' rules to emphasize the importance of... Railroad Passengers (NARP); National Association of Railway Business Women;* National Conference of Firemen... Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc.; Transport Canada;* Transport Workers Union of...

  2. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  3. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  4. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  5. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  6. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... estimate total project costs and explain how the affected Class II and Class III railroad will finance the... reporting (described in Appendices 1 and 2). 8. For the railroad(s) operating on the infrastructure proposed... estimate site and right(s)-of-way acquisition costs (this includes purchase, lease, and/or easements)....

  7. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  8. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  9. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  10. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings), Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc. (Watco Railroad), and Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc. (Merger Sub), all noncarriers, have filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) for...

  11. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., Attention: Melissa Shurland, Office of Research and Development, Mail Stop 20, Room W36-429, 1200 New Jersey... alternatives to these products. Currently in the railroad industry petroleum-based fuel and lubricants are used... FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...

  12. The Old Railroad Right-of-Way Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom challenge involving an old railroad right-of-way. Using the knowledge gained via research into what others may have done with utilizing old rail lines, along with team creative efforts, students should begin generating ideas for how to use these land areas. The students might suggest the land areas be used for:…

  13. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  14. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... the productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Deduction From Monthly Benefits § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee... benefits or a civil service annuity, or both. (b) Action when benefits are suspended. If the...

  16. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.51 Railroad conveyances... servicing area, toilets shall be kept locked unless means are provided to prevent contamination of the area... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-627), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  18. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  19. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  20. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  1. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  2. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease agreement... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35217, must be filed with...

  3. 76 FR 28850 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption-Mohall Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... milepost 67.5, near Calvin. NPR, MHC, and a third Class III rail carrier, Mohall Railroad, Inc., are... segment of its line between milepost 67.5, near Calvin, N.D., and milepost 72.9, at Sarles) and...

  4. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    This paper explores the experiences of different emotions that develop during commuting practices between home and the workplace. In an explorative form, the analyses will elucidate on the various emotional states of the drivers as they drive through different urban and rural landscapes and manages...... different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...

  5. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  6. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  7. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.; Brouwer, A.S.; Kuramochi, T.; van den Broek, M.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate o

  8. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety of Railroad Bridges A Appendix A to Part 237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS... Railroad Bridges A Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges was originally published...

  10. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  11. Topology Optimization in Electric Car Body Frame Based on Optistruct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of the electric car body frame, the static analysis of the car frame were carried on. For the goal of the frame’s weight minimum, OptiStruct software was used to topology optimization design. And the optimal material distribution program of the frame structure was got. Static strength before and after optimization was comprehensive compared through the stress, deformation. The results showed that the weight of frame after optimization was reduced by 18.96%, and the requirements of the strength and stiffness were ensured.

  12. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  13. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  14. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  15. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  16. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  17. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  18. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also included in this article.

  19. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also incl...

  20. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  1. A new look for the CERN car sharing service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 2 June 2015 onwards, the CERN car sharing service will have a new service provider.   Two information days will be organised with the new provider – Mobility – in the Main Building (501) on 28 and 29 May. This will be an opportunity for us to present to you this new service and to distribute cards to current users. Please make sure you bring along the “Mobility number” that you received by e-mail. After this date, you can still pick up your card at the Car Pool (Building 130). For technical reasons, car sharing will be out of service on 1 June and we apologise for any inconvenience this might cause. New users should contact the Car Pool from 2 June onwards. Please be reminded that this service is available to CERN and contractor personnel in the pursuit of their professional activities, exclusively at CERN. The conditions of use can be consulted at the Car Sharing website. *A 35-strong fleet of ready-to-use CER...

  2. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  3. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  4. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  5. A Concealed Car Extraction Method Based on Full-Waveform LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanrong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concealed cars extraction from point clouds data acquired by airborne laser scanning has gained its popularity in recent years. However, due to the occlusion effect, the number of laser points for concealed cars under trees is not enough. Thus, the concealed cars extraction is difficult and unreliable. In this paper, 3D point cloud segmentation and classification approach based on full-waveform LiDAR was presented. This approach first employed the autocorrelation G coefficient and the echo ratio to determine concealed cars areas. Then the points in the concealed cars areas were segmented with regard to elevation distribution of concealed cars. Based on the previous steps, a strategy integrating backscattered waveform features and the view histogram descriptor was developed to train sample data of concealed cars and generate the feature pattern. Finally concealed cars were classified by pattern matching. The approach was validated by full-waveform LiDAR data and experimental results demonstrated that the presented approach can extract concealed cars with accuracy more than 78.6% in the experiment areas.

  6. 9 CFR 71.6 - Carrier responsible for cleaning and disinfecting of railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate transportation of cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, or other animals affected with, or..., bovine foot rot, brucellosis, ram epididymitis, ringworm, infectious keratitis, and arthritis...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shared facilities. 8. Showering facilities. (a) Showering facilities should be provided in the following.... Consumption of food and beverages on the premises. (a) Application. This paragraph should apply only...

  8. 9 CFR 95.26 - Railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent available chlorine) in the proportion of one pound to three gallons of water; or any one of the... and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers, yards, and premises; cleaning and disinfection... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO...

  9. Research on Probability for Failures in VW Cars During Warranty and Post-Warranty Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Luneckas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the distribution of failures in „Volkswagen“ car during warranty and post-warranty periods. A statistical mathematical model has been developed upon collecting distribution data on car failures. Considering mileage rates, probabilities for a failure in the systems, including suspension and transmission, cooling, electrical, etc., have been determined during warranty and expiration periods. The obtained results of the conducted research have been compared. The reached conclusions have been formulated and summarized.

  10. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  11. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  12. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  13. STUDY OF CAR TRAFFIC FLOW STRUCTURE ON ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE AT THE MARSHALLING YARD X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Nesterenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to analyse the existing car traffic organization at the marshalling yard aimed to reduce downtime of cars. Methodology. The methods of mathematical statistics allowed building the histogram of car traffic flow distribution at the marshalling yard and assessment of their parameters. The key quantitative and qualitative indicators of the station operation were analyzed. In order to analyze the effect of rehandling volume on the rehandled transit car downtime elements at the station we plotted the dependence graph of the car downtime elements on the rehandling volume. The curve variation on the graph clearly shows the effect of rehandling volume on two downtime elements: during formation and in expectation of operations. Findings. The question of reducing the average downtime of all car categories at the station should be solved by reducing unproductive downtime was proved. The correct determination of the average time spent by a rehandled transit car at the station is essential, especially in the conditions of new system of economic incentives. But still there is no separate methodology for determining the car downtime, which would allow to objectively consider the equipment and operation technology and exclude the possibility for subjective decisions. Originality. One of the main kinds of unproductive downtime during the carriage of goods by rail is a downtime on the marshalling yards in expectation of technological operations because of the system congestion. Reduction of this indicator is possible due to rational use of the marshalling yard capacity provided the rational distribution and car – and train flows between the major marshalling yards of Ukrzaliznytsia. Practical value. The analysis of changes in downtime elements, depending on the rehandling volume allows not only to identify the car downtime reduction methods, but also to make a correct assessment of station staff work, as well as to adjust the rate of

  14. Intermittent Control Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2016-01-01

    A rather simple car driving simulator was created based on the available open source engine TORCS and used to analyze the basic features of human behavior in car driving within the car-following setups. Eight subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. They were instructed to drive a virtual car without overtaking the lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed and not to lose sight of it. Moreover, these experiments were conducted with four different speed including 60km/h, 80km/h, 100km/h, and 120km/h. Based on the collected data the distribution of the headway, velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with available experimental data collected previously by the analysis of the real traffic flow. A new model for car-following is proposed capture the found properties. As the main results we draw a conclusion that the human behavior in car driving should be categorized as a generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation of the acti...

  15. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  16. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  17. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  18. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  19. Multi Car Elevator Control by using Learning Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kazuaki; Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori

    We study an adaptive control technique for multi car elevators (MCEs) by adopting learning automatons (LAs.) The MCE is a high performance and a near-future elevator system with multi shafts and multi cars. A strong point of the system is that realizing a large carrying capacity in small shaft area. However, since the operation is too complicated, realizing an efficient MCE control is difficult for top-down approaches. For example, “bunching up together" is one of the typical phenomenon in a simple traffic environment like the MCE. Furthermore, an adapting to varying environment in configuration requirement is a serious issue in a real elevator service. In order to resolve these issues, having an autonomous behavior is required to the control system of each car in MCE system, so that the learning automaton, as the solutions for this requirement, is supposed to be appropriate for the simple traffic control. First, we assign a stochastic automaton (SA) to each car control system. Then, each SA varies its stochastic behavior distributions for adapting to environment in which its policy is evaluated with each passenger waiting times. That is LA which learns the environment autonomously. Using the LA based control technique, the MCE operation efficiency is evaluated through simulation experiments. Results show the technique enables reducing waiting times efficiently, and we confirm the system can adapt to the dynamic environment.

  20. Railroad Bridges and Culverts, All railroad bridges for the state of Michigan, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is...

  1. Railroad Lines, Effingham County Railroad Lines, Published in 1997, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 1997. It is described...

  2. Railroad Lines, Lyon County Railroads, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2010. It is described...

  3. Railroad Lines, Tiger 2000 Railroad layer for the counties we serve., Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Prairie Land Electric COOP, Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described...

  4. 77 FR 24233 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... hold a meeting on May 30, 2012, at 9:30 a.m. at the office of the Chief Actuary of the U.S. Railroad... communications or notices to the RRB Actuarial Advisory Committee, c/o Chief Actuary, U.S. Railroad...

  5. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  6. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  7. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  8. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  9. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  10. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  11. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  12. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  13. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  14. 77 FR 51107 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pocahontas County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pocahontas County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  16. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  17. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines... the employee's supplemental annuity. A private pension for purposes of this subpart is a plan that: (1... pension plan under this section. (d) Effective date of private railroad pension for supplemental...

  18. 76 FR 25588 - Hours of Service Exception for Railroad Signal Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Railroad Signal Employees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final... employees operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in connection with railroad signal work. This is in... statutory exemption applicable to signal employees and eliminate the potential for issuance of...

  19. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  20. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail... or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). LVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that it will...

  1. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... property for restoration or reconstruction of rail service. 49 CFR 1152.29(c)(2), (d)(2); Birt, 90 F.3d at....3d 580, 582-83 (DC Cir. 1996). Under 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), the STB must ``preserve established railroad... that, if such interim use is subject to restoration or reconstruction for railroad purposes,...

  2. 78 FR 46682 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Joint Use-Louisville & Indiana Railroad Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... jointly use the Line with L&I, CSXT seeks to acquire and use a perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad... perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad operating easement over the Line. In order to accomplish this... arrangement is perpetual and is based on the Transaction Agreement. L&I would also be charged for...

  3. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family..., has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for a corporate family transaction in which Rogue Valley will transfer ownership of track and right-of-way of a line of railroad...

  4. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  5. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  6. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  7. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  8. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  9. Santa Fe Indian Camp, House 21, Richmond, California: Persistence of Identity among Laguna Pueblo Railroad Laborers, 1945-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    In 1880 the Laguna people and the predecessor of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad reached an agreement giving the railroad unhindered right-of-way through Laguna lands in exchange for Laguna employment "forever." Discusses the Laguna-railroad relationship through 1982, Laguna labor camps in California, and the persistence of…

  10. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco...

  11. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp....

  12. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and...

  13. 76 FR 13272 - Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC (CLC) and Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (Woods... corporate family. CLC seeks to lease and operate all of Woods' lines of railroad consisting of...

  14. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of..., list, or data compiled or collected for the purpose of evaluating, planning, or implementing a...

  15. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis, Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division, Fortress... Company of Indianapolis (CERA); Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division (CFE); Fortress Investment... Louis E. Gitomer, Esq., Law Offices of Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore Avenue, Suite 301, Towson,...

  16. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  17. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  18. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  19. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  20. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 44 / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  1. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  3. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  4. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  5. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  6. CRISPR Meets CAR T-cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, researchers have devised a method to deliver a CAR gene to a specific locus, TRAC, in T cells. This targeted approach yielded therapeutic cells that were more potent even at low doses; in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, they outperformed CAR T cells created with a randomly integrating retroviral vector.

  7. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  8. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building.

  9. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  10. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  11. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  12. Stochastic Car-Following Model for Explaining Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Song, Tao; Dong, Liyun; Dai, Shiqiang

    There is a common time parameter for representing the sensitivity or the lag (response) time of drivers in many car-following models. In the viewpoint of traffic psychology, this parameter could be considered as the perception-response time (PRT). Generally, this parameter is set to be a constant in previous models. However, PRT is actually not a constant but a random variable described by the lognormal distribution. Thus the probability can be naturally introduced into car-following models by recovering the probability of PRT. For demonstrating this idea, a specific stochastic model is constructed based on the optimal velocity model. By conducting simulations under periodic boundary conditions, it is found that some important traffic phenomena, such as the hysteresis and phantom traffic jams phenomena, can be reproduced more realistically. Especially, an interesting experimental feature of traffic jams, i.e., two moving jams propagating in parallel with constant speed stably and sustainably, is successfully captured by the present model.

  13. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  14. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  15. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  16. DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves

  17. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  18. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  19. The Stylistic Analysis of car ads languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟苹

    2014-01-01

    Automotive advertising language is mix of phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and discourse language etc., and owning a strong promotional effect which can functioned as a bridge between language expression and promotion system for es-sential products and consumers. As a kind of the commercial advertising, car advertising with its own unique language features not only for product considerably, but also enriches the advertising language. In order to analysis the car ads, this article draws at-tention from the aspects of the phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric and syntax features, and aims to get a further and better analysis or understanding of the car ads Languages.

  20. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Moffatt, Douglas J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-11-08

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm(-1)-3400 cm(-1)), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm(-1)-2970 cm(-1)) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

  1. Omnidirectional Active Vision for Evolutionary Car Driving

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We describe a set of simulations to evolve omnidirectional active vision, an artificial retina scanning over images taken via an omnidirectional camera, being applied to a car driving task. While the retina can immediately access features in any direction, it is asked to select behaviorally-relevant features so as to drive the car on the road. Neural controllers which direct both the retinal movement and the system behavior, i.e., the speed and the steering angle of the car, are tested in thr...

  2. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  3. Vehicles' Sample Generation and Realization in Car-Following Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Danilevičius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the article is the adjustment of car-following mathematical models according to collected traffic data. Here the problem of ineffectively burdened road section is solved by adjusting the speed of vehicles in order to reduce the distance between the cars to a safe distance. The paper analyzes the car-following models to measure the interaction between vehicles in the same lane. Experimental data processed in Matlab and traffic distribution histograms are created using the most appropriate distribution curve. Distribution curve is used to compile congestion scenario of road section. Applicable model uses fundamental diagrams, which are created from the kind of traffic flow measurements. The mathematical model allows to choose the optimal vehicle speed while maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and to make recommendations to improve the traffic as the process.

  4. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-09-29

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0.

  5. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  6. THE EXPERIMENT OF THE COMPLEX INSPECTION OF THE RAILROAD BRIDGE PIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Usachenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure and results of a visual inspection and vibrosonic diagnostics of the railroad bridge pier are described. The spatial model of the pier with an arrangement of large cracks is presented.

  7. Railroad Lines, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. Data by this publisher are...

  8. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  9. 77 FR 73114 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY:...

  10. 76 FR 50327 - Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-North Louisiana & Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Railroad--Abandonment Exemption--in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., AB 384 (Sub-No. 3X) (STB served Mar... Village, in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., subject to environmental and standard employee...

  11. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are...

  12. Railroad Lines, Published in 1992, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1992. Data by this publisher are...

  13. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  15. Railroad Lines, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. Data by this publisher are...

  16. Railroad Lines, Published in 1995, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Greenwood County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1995. Data by this publisher are...

  17. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Sauk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this...

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  19. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative in the tags, power required for transmission of position information to the reader is harvested by the tags from the power wirelessly transferred from the reader. Basic mechanism in wireless power transfer is magnetic induction and power transfer efficiency according to the relative location of the reader to a tag is discussed with simulation results. Since power transfer efficiency is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic material (steel) at the bottom of the railroad vehicle and the track, magnetic beam shaping b...

  20. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Allegheny Portage Railroad NHS. Two separate photomosaics (final_alpo_a.img and final_alpo_b.img) were produced...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  2. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: 130 Italian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Carnuccio, R; Valenti, D; Lodi, P; Amaducci, E

    1995-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and particularly on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. One hundred and thirty cases of mesothelioma (122 pleural, 1 pericardial, 6 peritoneal and 1 pleuro-peritoneal), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were reported. Fifty-three of these cases (among which 49 reported in the Emilia Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Seventy-seven cases of mesothelioma occurred among occupationally exposed FS workers, in particular machinists; 45 cases occurred among rolling-stock machinists and workers engaged in the repair and demolition of the rails of workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock, not belonging to the FS; and 5 cases were found in family members (1 daughter, 3 wives and 1 sister) of railroad workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, and the automatic compensation for tumours following the exposure to the asbestos used in railroads.

  3. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  4. Empirical Analysis on the Structural Changes in Railroad Logistics in China (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In China, with its vast land area, railroad transportation plays the most important role in forming an extensive basic logistics structure and logistics system. However, since 1949, railroad logistics has not been used freely as it has been managed under the centralized control of the Ministry of Railways, which is a semi-military organization in nature under a national strategy. Since shifting to reform and opening-up policies in 1978, economic resources have been mobilized as a result of th...

  5. Electric cars for Germany; Deutschland stromert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-09-15

    The German government has defined eight model regions in which electric cars will be funded. Results are not available as yet, but there are experts who criticize the focus on electric-powered vehicles. (orig.)

  6. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following model is a kind of microscopic simulation model for vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of vehides in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control.Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors and feflects the real traffic sit-uation in a better way. This paper gives a systematic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introducing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disavantages of GHR model, OV model,CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptotic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  7. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  8. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following models is a kind of microscopic simulation model f or vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of v ehicles in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control. Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors a nd reflects the real traffic situation in a better way. This paper gives a syste matic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introd u cing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disadvantages of GHR model, OV m odel, CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptot ic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  9. [Health risk railroad noise - prognosis of potential health risks subsequent to night-time exposure to railroad noise in the German part of the Transversal Rotterdam Genova].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, E

    2014-12-01

    Based on risk coefficients for cardiovascular and psychiatric disease derived from a case-control study in the vicinity of a major German airport, statistics on persons exposed to night-time railroad noise in the vicinity of the Rotterdam-Genova Transversal, and on health expenditure calculations by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany a prognosis on effects of railroad noise was performed. It resulted for 1 10-year period in nearly 75 000 excess cases of diseases, nearly 30 000 excess deaths and health expenditures of 3.8 billion euros.

  10. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Monday 30 October until the evening of Tuesday 31 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  11. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 22 October until the evening of Monday 23 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  12. The individual car transportation and its aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Alina

    2009-01-01

    Automobile transport is integral part of everyday modern live. On the other hand all the time bigger quantity of cars on roads and motorways slows down the transport speed, road are overloaded, congested, thereby human mobility holds down. Last but not least heavy traffic bears much bad influence above all for environment and landscape. On that ground it's needed to analyze individual car transport, its aspects, usage and problems. Consequences, which have been found from research, are in man...

  13. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  14. Travel Time Estimation Using Floating Car Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sevlian, Raffi

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the use of machine learning techniques to accurately predict travel times in city streets and highways using floating car data (location information of user vehicles on a road network). The aim of this report is twofold, first we present a general architecture of solving this problem, then present and evaluate few techniques on real floating car data gathered over a month on a 5 Km highway in New Delhi.

  15. Automated Recognition of Railroad Infrastructure in Rural Areas from LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Arastounia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing automated methods to recognize railroad infrastructure from 3D LIDAR data. Railroad infrastructure includes rail tracks, contact cables, catenary cables, return current cables, masts, and cantilevers. The LIDAR dataset used in this study is acquired by placing an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system on a railcar, operating at 125 km/h. The acquired dataset covers 550 meters of Austrian rural railroad corridor comprising 31 railroad key elements and containing only spatial information. The proposed methodology recognizes key components of the railroad corridor based on their physical shape, geometrical properties, and the topological relationships among them. The developed algorithms managed to recognize all key components of the railroad infrastructure, including two rail tracks, thirteen masts, thirteen cantilevers, one contact cable, one catenary cable, and one return current cable. The results are presented and discussed both at object level and at point cloud level. The results indicate that 100% accuracy and 100% precision at the object level and an average of 96.4% accuracy and an average of 97.1% precision at point cloud level are achieved.

  16. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  17. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  18. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  19. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  20. Modeling Strategic Interactions to Car and Fuel Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  1. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  2. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  3. Effect of Scatterering on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signals

    CERN Document Server

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; Piazza, Vincenzo; Potma, Eric O; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2016-01-01

    We develop a computational framework to examine the factors responsible for scattering-induced distortions of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in turbid samples. We use the Huygens-Fresnel Wave-based Electric Field Superposition (HF-WEFS) method combined with the radiating dipole approximation to compute the effects of scattering-induced distortions of focal excitation fields on the far-field CARS signal. We analyze the effect of spherical scatterers, placed in the vicinity of the focal volume, on the CARS signal emitted by different objects (2{\\mu}m diameter solid sphere, 2{\\mu}m diameter myelin cylinder and 2{\\mu}m diameter myelin tube). We find that distortions in the CARS signals arise not only from attenuation of the focal field but also from scattering-induced changes in the spatial phase that modifies the angular distribution of the CARS emission. Our simulations further show that CARS signal attenuation can be minimized by using a high numerical aperture condenser. Moreover, unlike...

  4. THE ROLE OF RAILROAD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN WEST--Railroad, Migration and Urban Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of geographical expansion of railroads, one of the most important Fransportation vehicles, in the history of American west development, analyses its implication on the unprecedentedmigration movement and the resulted urbanization in the west and concludes with the fact that the appropriate interference by the governmnet, especially in the early period, is vital to regional development practice, because of market failure at the initial stage, infrastructure construction conducted by the government always plays as the first impetus to any regional development process. Only through this bridge, can some physical factors, such as population, be attracted to feed the backward area. As a result, cities grow fast and the region develops well. The experience can be shared by all countries. Besides reviewing the history of west development in America, focusing on the relationship between railroadsexpansion and urban growth, which was realized through population migration. A comparison on the particular pattern of regional development between U. S and China is made as well at the end. It is noted that despite of the common first impetus, government subsidies and the common final result, urbanization, the path for the America is bottom-up, whereas that for China is topdown, that is to say, development should originate from big cities, then to towns, and finally radiate into rural areas.

  5. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  6. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  8. An improved car-following model with multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lantian; Zhao, Xiangmo; Yu, Shaowei; Li, Xiuhai; Shi, Zhongke

    2017-04-01

    In order to explore and evaluate the effects of velocity variation trend of multiple preceding cars used in the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) strategy on the dynamic characteristic, fuel economy and emission of the corresponding traffic flow, we conduct a study as follows: firstly, with the real-time car-following (CF) data, the close relationship between multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback and the host car's behaviors is explored, the evaluation results clearly show that multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation with different time window-width are highly correlated to the host car's acceleration/deceleration. Then, a microscopic traffic flow model is proposed to evaluate the effects of multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the CACC strategy on the traffic flow evolution process. Finally, numerical simulations on fuel economy and exhaust emission of the traffic flow are also implemented by utilizing VT-micro model. Simulation results prove that considering multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the control strategy of the CACC system can improve roadway traffic mobility, fuel economy and exhaust emission performance.

  9. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  10. 75 FR 26838 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van Trump, AVP Engineering -- Signal/Comm/TCO, 1400 Douglas..., near Chilcoot, California. The modification consists of the discontinuance and removal of...

  11. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  12. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  13. THE RAILROAD CAPACITY CRISIS: After Cutting to the Bone and More, Trains Are Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Stone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Era of Railroad building (primarily the last half of the 19th century, it was far more profitable to lay track than to operate railroads due to the subsidiesfrom various levels ofgovernment and the competition between cities to be located on as many lines as possible, and the overcharging of the railroads by the construction companies. Railroads compensated for this glut by cross-subsidizing the unprofitable branch lines with revenues from the main lines. But as competition from other modes took hold, this was increasingly difficult to do. Therefore, by the early 20th century, railroads began to slowly shed some of the lightly trafficked lines. Regulatory changes in the 1980s made abandonment easier, and wholesale discarding of lines, including former mainlines, became common. But by the turn of the century,foreign imports put a greater demand on rail transportation, and lack of capacity caused many of the remaining lines to become very congested, in turn, causing extensive delays.

  14. Studies of clobazam and car-driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, B

    1979-01-01

    1 The methodology used in studies to assess the effects of drugs on car-driving performance is reviewed. 2 Clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg or placebo were administered daily for 3 d to 24-male students with a high neuroticism score (on the Cattell Personality Factors Questionnaire). 3 Car driving performance was assessed on the second day in real traffic conditions; tests of attention and concentration and subjective assessments were made on the third day. 4 Diazepam 10 mg significantly impaired braking reaction time in comparison with clobazam 20 mg and placebo (P less than 0.01). Subjects also reported feeling more 'depressed' and lethargic after diazepam.

  15. Audi cars Sponsored to Summer Davos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong

    2009-01-01

    @@ During the upcoming Summer Davos in Asia this year,it is not only the grand affair to Dalian city,but also for the Audi cars,as the exclusive vehicle sunnlier for the event The Vehicle Handover Ceremony of the Faw Volkswagen Audi was held at Xinghai Square,Dalian,China,September 3,2009. Faw Volkswa,vehicle sponsor of the Summer Davos 2009,provides a total of 85 new Audi cars to be running for the distinguished guests during the meeting.

  16. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  17. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  18. Scientists Explain Catalysis Neutralizing Car's Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The neutralization of the car's tail gas is a problem of practical importance in the eyes of both experimental and theoretical physicists. Recently, a group of CAS scientists join hands with the Queen's University of Belfast in the UK to make advances in exploring the process of CO oxidation in a bid to reduce the air pollution caused by the car's exhaust gas. The work has been supported by the "National 973Program" and the CAS Foundation for Overseas Studies. On March 4,its result was published by the Internet edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

  19. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  20. INTERLINE, a railroad routing model: program description and user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B.E.

    1985-11-01

    INTERLINE is an interactive computer program that finds likely routes for shipments over the US railroad system. It is based on a shortest path algorithm modified both to reflect the nature of railroad company operations and to accommodate computer resource limitations in dealing with a large transportation network. The first section of the report discusses the nature of railroad operations and routing practices in the United States, including the tendency to concentrate traffic on a limited number of mainlines, the competition for traffic by different companies operating in the same corridors, and the tendency of originating carriers to retain traffic on their systems before transferring it to terminating carriers. The theoretical foundation and operation of shortest path algorithms are described, as well as the techniques used to simulate actual operating practices within this framework. The second section is a user's guide that describes the program operation and data structures, program features, and user access. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  1. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  2. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: the Italian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. Eighty-five cases of mesothelioma (80 pleural, 4 peritoneal, and 1 pericardial), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were then reported. Twenty-eight of these cases (among which 27 reported in the Emilia-Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Fifty cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 30 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; and 2 cases were found in family members (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actually health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, and, finally, more emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors, to be used for reducing the effect of exposure, and therefore for contrasting the onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although healthy, are potentially at high risk.

  3. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  4. Picasso, Car Classics, and the Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosk, Julie H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a college course which introduces engineering and business students to abstract art. Students study the relationships between abstract styles in painting and abstract styles in twentieth-century architecture and industrial design. The relevance of abstract design principles is shown by referring students to "Car and Driver" magazine. (AM)

  5. Business Class in a race car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    It's not a car, it's not a bus, it's not a truck, and it's not even a super stretch limousine. What is being built in Delft is the much-discussed Superbus, which is to travel from door to door, reaching speeds of 250 kilometres per hour. This summer this new form of public transport is to enter serv

  6. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  7. The second French car; Der zweite Franzose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    The Flence Z.E. is the second electric-powered car that French manufacturer Renault presented within a short period of time. The limousine has a roomy passenger compartment but little space for luggage. Refuelling is possible by battery exchange within just a few minutes, but not in Germany.

  8. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...

  9. Design And Development of Aerosolar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someswara Rao K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and development of aerosolar car. A aerosolar car is a vehicle, which is powered by wind and sun’s energy. This car is a light weight, low power vehicle designed. They have limited seating (two people, they have very little cargo capacity, and they can be driven during the days and Nights also by using dynamo motor attachment on the front of the vehicle. It does, however, offer an excellent opportunity to develop future technologies that can be applied to practical applications. The main components of an Aerosolar car are its solar arrays & alternators which collect the energy from the sun & wind respectively and convert it into electrical energy. The process of combining these mechanical and electrical components is not an easy task especially at the design stage because of the individual part specific characteristic and function. Since the development cost is one of the major constraints for this project, the sustainable design concept was implemented. Suitable parts which can be easily recycled and re-used, with desired functions that contribute to vehicle optimum performance are properly selected.

  10. Costimulation Engages the Gear in Driving CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abken, Hinrich

    2016-02-16

    In this issue of Immunity,Kawalekar et al. (2016) find that costimulation by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can control T cell metabolism and balance the response toward long-lived memory or short-lived effector cells. The results provide a rationale of how to tune cancer immunotherapy more effectively in a hostile tumor environment.

  11. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  12. What Are Behind The Electric Car Heat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Is the world's auto industry going to change greatly in the future 3-5 years so that ICEs will fade out?Will this electric car heat repeat itselfjust like it did in the history? The Chinese government issued pro- grams in Jan 2009 to cheer up the auto industrv.The plans include enacting new energy vehicle strategy,industrializing

  13. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  14. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium...

  15. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  16. 49 CFR 266.13 - Distribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of funds. 266.13 Section 266.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.13 Distribution of funds. (a) Formula. Funds appropriated for or reallocated in...

  17. Raising a highway and a railroad track during intensive mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, W.

    1986-02-01

    In a mine subsidence area, a highway and a railroad track had to be raised by 7,50 m. In order to not exceed a maximum slope in both tracks, the raising operations were carried out in several steps, in accordance with the onset of ground subsidence. At the same time, the operations were not to interfere with the traffic on the four-track autobahn and the two-track railroad line. Simultaneously with the raising operations, the autobahn was enlarged from 4 tracks to 6 + 2 tracks. A local road was destroyed and replaced by a pedestrian and cyclist lane.

  18. THE TRANS-MISSOURI CASE: DOES THE SHERMAN ACT APPLY TO THE RAILROADS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1887, in answer to railroad abuses of monopoly power, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act, which created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC. In the next decade the Commission’s powers were considerably diminished by a series of Supreme Court decisions in cases in which the railroads appealed ICC rulings. In only one case during this period, the United States v. Trans-Missouri Freight Association, did the Court uphold an ICC decision. This case was primarily about collaborative ratemaking in rate bureaus but covered several larger issues, especially the possibly conflicting jurisdictions of the Sherman Act and the Interstate Commerce Act.

  19. Railroad Anti-Monopoly Act of 1985, S. 447 and H. R. 1140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeever, I.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the points and proposals for the Railroad Anti-Monopoly Act of 1985. S. 447 and H.R. 1140, and the impacts it will have on the railroads, consumers, and producers. It discusses the advantages of competition over monopolizing and the protection of captive shippers. Other relevant aspects of this bill include the positive influence on abandonments, provision of adequate compensation for use of tracks, the nationalization of differential pricing and the current status of the effort. Emphasis is on the transport of coal.

  20. 75 FR 11991 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in... under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from O'Riley Family Trust (O'Riley), and to operate 773 feet of rail line... lease and operate the railroad trackage owned by O'Riley. ABC & D states that it has and intends...

  1. Historische Technikakzeptanz – als kontextualisierende Technikzukunftsforschung am Fallbeispiel der T1-Duplexklasse der Pennsylvania Railroad, 1942–1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the brief history of the last technological development of the steam age on US railroad tracks: the T1 duplex class of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1942–1951. Referring to the methods of today’s technological assessment, the article is questioning a teleological interpretation of the last US passenger tratin steam locomotive as a failing innovation.

  2. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... modified certificate of public convenience and necessity in STB Finance Docket No. 35383, Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-- ] Modified Rail Certificate, wherein EBGR seeks to lease and operate... Railroad Company (EWGR). BNGR operates approximately 35 miles of rail line between Wellington, Kan.,...

  3. 77 FR 3840 - Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.-Lease Exemption-Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.--Lease Exemption--Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY.... 10902 for Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS), a Class II rail carrier, to lease and operate 8.4...

  4. 75 FR 32839 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC (WTNN) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) \\1\\...

  5. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to...

  6. 75 FR 74768 - Madison Terminal Railway, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Madison Terminal Railway, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI Madison Terminal Railway, LLC (MTR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice... Pacific Railroad Company's (UP) Cottage Grove Industrial Lead at milepost 78.02 in Madison, WI, and...

  7. 75 FR 80894 - Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company-Lease Renewal Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company--Lease Renewal Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company (WTJR) has filed a verified notice of... segments: \\1\\ (1) The Western Branch, owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP),\\2\\ extending...

  8. 76 FR 75602 - Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. (HAL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and...

  9. 75 FR 61817 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Under 49 CFR 1011.7(b)(10), the Director of the Office of Proceedings (Director... & Lansing Railroad Company (JAIL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  10. 76 FR 22745 - Three Notch Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Three Notch Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Three Notch Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Three Notch Railroad Co., Inc. Three Notch Railway, LLC (TNRW), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Three Notch Railroad Co., Inc. (TNHR) and to operate...

  11. 76 FR 12224 - Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C. (ANRR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire by lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company...

  12. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  13. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  14. 20 CFR 364.3 - Publication of missing children information in the Railroad Retirement Board's in-house...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the Railroad Retirement Board's in-house publications. 364.3 Section 364.3 Employees' Benefits... the Railroad Retirement Board's in-house publications. (a) All-A-Board. Information about missing... publication. (b) Other in-house publications. The Board may publish missing children information in other...

  15. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). N&BE states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  16. 77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation... on Draft Scope. SUMMARY: On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC) filed a... Miles City, Montana, and two termini located near Ashland, Montana, a proceeding known as Tongue River...

  17. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public ... throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion and disorientation. READ IN SUMMER Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal ...

  18. Opioids No Better Than Ibuprofen for Pain After Car Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Car Crash: Study But more patients prescribed powerful painkillers were still taking them 6 weeks later To ... persistent pain after a car crash, prescription opioid painkillers such as oxycodone (Oxycontin) are no more effective ...

  19. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  20. Numerical and experimental investigations of drag force on scaled car model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Nallusamy Selvaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment were involved to observe the aerodynamic characteristics of car model. The investigation of aerodynamic characteristics on car model were difficult by using wind tunnel. It provides more comprehensive experimental data as a reference to validate the numerical simulation. In the wind tunnel experiments, the pressures on various ports over the car model were measured by using pressure scanner (64 bit channels. The drag force was calculated based on experimental and computational results. The realizable k-e model was employed to compute the aerodynamic drag and surface pressure distribution over a car model simulated at various wind velocity. The tetrahedron mesh approach was used to discretize the computational domain for accuracy. The computational results showed a good agreement with the experimental data and the results revealed that the induced aerodynamic drag determines the best car shape. In order to reveal the internal connection between the aerodynamic drag and wake vortices, the turbulent kinetic, re-circulation length, position of vortex core, and velocity profile in the wake were investigated by numerical analysis.

  1. Driving with Intuition: A Preregistered Study about the EEG Anticipation of Simulated Random Car Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Gian Marco; Mento, Giovanni; Manari, Tommaso; Martinelli, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    The study of neural pre-stimulus or “anticipatory” activity opened a new window for understanding how the brain actively constructs the forthcoming reality. Usually, experimental paradigms designed to study anticipatory activity make use of stimuli. The purpose of the present study is to expand the study of neural anticipatory activity upon the temporal occurrence of dichotomic, statistically unpredictable (random) stimuli within an ecological experimental paradigm. To this purpose, we used a simplified driving simulation including two possible, randomly-presented trial types: a car crash end trial and a no car crash end trial. Event Related Potentials (ERP) were extracted -3,000 ms before stimulus onset. We identified a fronto-central negativity starting around 1,000 ms before car crash presentation. By contrast, a whole-scalp distributed positivity characterized the anticipatory activity observed before the end of the trial in the no car crash end condition. The present data are in line with the hypothesis that the brain may also anticipate dichotomic, statistically unpredictable stimuli, relaying onto different pre-stimulus ERP activity. Possible integration with car-smart-systems is also suggested. PMID:28103303

  2. Study concerning the loads over driver's chests in car crashes with cars of the same or different generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Năstăsoiu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing occupant injuries for cars involves in traffic accidents is a main target of today cars designers. Known as active or passive safety, many technological solutions were developing over the time for an actual better car's occupant safety. In the real world, in traffic accidents are often involved cars from different generations with various safety historical solutions. The main aim of these papers are to quantify the influences over the car driver chest loads in cases of same or different generation of cars involved in side car crashes. Both same and different cars generations were used for the study. Other goal of the paper was the study of in time loads conformity for diver's chests from both cars involved in crash. The paper's experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2015 PC-Crash Seminar”. In all crashes we obtaining results from both dummy placed in impacted and hits car. The novelty of the paper are the comparisons of data set from each of driver (dummy) of two cars involved in each of six experimental crashes. Another novelty of this paper consists in possibilities to analyse the influences of structural historical cars solutions over deformation and loads in cases of traffic accidents involved. Paper's conclusions can be future used for car passive safety improvement.

  3. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  4. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Sheng Yang; Yao Yu; De-Xin Yu; Hu-Xing Zhou; Xiang-Lun Mo

    2013-01-01

    Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF). Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in...

  5. Stand-off detection of alcohol vapours in moving cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Kubicki, Jan; Młyńczak, Jaroslaw; Mierczyk, Jadwiga; Hackiewicz, Klaudia

    2016-12-01

    In this article we present the research on optoelectronic system for stand-off detection of alcohol vapours in moving cars. The idea of using commercially available cascade lasers was presented. Special attention was paid to the optical characteristics of the car windowpanes. It was shown that using 3.45 μm and 3.59 μm wavelengths the alcohol vapours inside a car can be successfully detected even for cars with different windows

  6. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification... 1941 are not authorized. (2) For each tank car conforming to and used under an exemption issued...

  7. CarD: a new RNA polymerase modulator in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christina L; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria CarD is an essential RNAP binding protein that regulates many transcripts including rRNA. This article will review our present state of knowledge regarding CarD and compare the known functions of CarD with other RNAP binding proteins in E. coli, emphasizing how this information can guide future investigations.

  8. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  9. Classification of the road surface condition on the basis of vibrations of the sprung mass in a passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prażnowski, K.; Mamala, J.

    2016-09-01

    In order to identify the state of the wheel balance in a passenger car on the basis of vibrations of the car body under actual conditions of its operation, it is necessary to determine the impact of random interferences resulting from a changing environment. For this purpose, the criterion for the evaluation of the road surface condition was developed on the basis of longitudinal vibrations of the car body of the tested car in the speed range from 50 km/h to 110 km/h. Selected functions such as: probability distribution and methods in the frequency domain: short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and power spectral density (PSD) were used to analyse recorded signals.

  10. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  11. Design of Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channel Models Based on the Geometrical Street Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurilla Avazov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO car-to-car (C2C channel model based on the geometrical street scattering model. Starting from the geometrical model, a MIMO reference channel model is derived under the assumption of single-bounce scattering in line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS propagation environments. The proposed channel model assumes an infinite number of scatterers, which are uniformly distributed in two rectangular areas located on both sides of the street. Analytical solutions are presented for the space-time-frequency cross-correlation function (STF-CCF, the two-dimensional (2D space CCF, the time-frequency CCF (TF-CCF, the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOCs channel simulator is derived from the reference model. It is shown that the temporal ACF and the FCF of the SOC channel simulator fit very well to the corresponding correlation functions of the reference model. To validate the proposed channel model, the mean Doppler shift and the Doppler spread of the reference model have been matched to real-world measurement data. The comparison results demonstrate an excellent agreement between theory and measurements, which confirms the validity of the derived reference model. The proposed geometry-based channel simulator allows us to study the effect of nearby street scatterers on the performance of C2C communication systems.

  12. 78 FR 41993 - Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-RSL Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--RSL Railroad, LLC Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. (THS), has filed a verified notice of exemption...

  13. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... between specified points in Fayette and Westmoreland Counties, Pa. under the agency's offer of financial assistance procedures. In Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of..., 1995), SPRC was authorized to lease and operate that rail line. SPRC states that on August 25,...

  14. Transformational Effects of Museum Exhibits upon Their Patrons: The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso-Woolard, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research was on the affective learning experienced at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center--a museum that tells the history of slavery in the United States, the courage, cooperation, and perseverance enacted by many who overcame the challenges and consequences of the unfreedoms once practiced in America. Such a study…

  15. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tangible asset or as an intangible asset. See, for example, § 1.263(a)-4(d)(8), which requires... taxpayer. The basis of the tangible asset or intangible asset includes the capitalized amount of the QRTME... to be capitalized into the qualifying railroad structure or an intangible asset. The adjusted...

  16. 76 FR 67774 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... hold a meeting on November 14, 2011, at 9:30 a.m. at the office of the Chief Actuary of the U.S... experience on which the recommendations are based will have been sent by the Chief Actuary to the Committee... Advisory Committee, cio Chief Actuary, U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street,...

  17. 75 FR 47650 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... hold a meeting on September 23, 2010, at 9:30 a.m. at the office of the Chief Actuary of the U.S... experience on which the recommendations are based will have been sent by the Chief Actuary to the Committee... Advisory Committee, c/o Chief Actuary, U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street,...

  18. 75 FR 12329 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial revocation of exemption... Railway Company (BNSF) to extend to December 18, 2010, the expiration date of the local trackage...

  19. 78 FR 48224 - Lac-Mégantic Railroad Accident Discussion and DOT Safety Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    .... 13-13] Lac-M[eacute]gantic Railroad Accident Discussion and DOT Safety Recommendations AGENCY... their destinations safely and without incident. In calendar year 2011, for example, out of the... might also travel. Human Factors Finally, Transport Canada's emergency directive and order...

  20. Theory and practice of the assessment and valuation of noise from roads and railroads in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis took the policy-analysis framework of Marchau and Walker (2005) as a starting point for assessment and valuation of road and railroad noise impacts and its consequences for noise policy. Four research questions were answered. To what extent can international data on noise, often produced

  1. 76 FR 74585 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... the larger rulemaking that would need to undergo internal review and approval and public notice and... to visualize the factual scenarios. Given the importance of an on-track safety job briefing in..., maintenance or repair of railroad track, bridges, roadway, signal and communication systems, electric...

  2. Penal Reform and Construction of the Western North Carolina Railroad 1875-1892

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Homer S., III

    2005-01-01

    On March 13, 1879, the "Salisbury Carolina Watchman" noted that the longest and most difficult tunnel in the struggle to lay a railroad line across the Blue Ridge Mountains has been opened. Convicts from North Carolina's new penitentiary built this transportation system and solved the state's need for a cheap labor force as well as the…

  3. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications consistent with federal... Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.43 Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a...

  4. 75 FR 22436 - Michael Williams-Control Exemption-St. Maries River Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michael Williams-Control Exemption-St. Maries River Railroad, Inc. Michael Williams (applicant),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control of St... from STMA's parent, Potlatch Land & Lumber, LLC, by Williams Group, Inc. (WG).\\2\\ Applicant...

  5. Wheat Fields, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    By 1860 much of the beauty of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis (Minnesota) had been destroyed, as mills on both sides of the river used the power of the falls to turn millions of bushels of wheat into flour. Steel rails linked bonanza farms hundreds of miles to the west to the mills. The mills, the farms, and the railroads depended on each other…

  6. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Tennessee Southern Railroad Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail... days after the notice of exemption was filed). TSRR is a rail carrier. PRL, PRH, and Patriot are... TSRR, PRL, PRH, and Patriot; (2) the continuance in control of KTRR is not intended to connect with...

  7. 75 FR 70076 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH), and Patriot... after December 21, 2010. PRL and its subsidiaries, including CLC, DQE, GTRA, MSV, PAW, and TOE, entered... subsidiary of PRL, PRH, and Patriot and does not control any other railroad subsidiaries. PRL is a...

  8. 20 CFR 220.13 - Establishment of permanent disability for work in regular railroad occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and mental demands of the employee's regular railroad occupation. In determining the job demands of... determine the employee's residual functional capacity. The Board will then compare the job demands of the... of his or her job; (2) Evaluate whether the claimant is disabled as follows: (i) The Board...

  9. 75 FR 7303 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon .20 miles of a line of railroad on the Ankeny Industrial Lead from milepost 10.50 in Ankeny to milepost 10.70 in Ankeny, in Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 50021. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for...

  10. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ..., in Dallas County, Tex. (the Line).\\1\\ The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 75210, 75227, and 75217. \\1\\ The Line is owned by Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART). DGNO acquired by assignment... Service to discontinue trackage rights over an approximately 6.04-mile line of railroad known as the...

  11. 75 FR 7302 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 50317, 50032, 50021, 50009, and 50035. UP has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least 2 years...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon a portion of its line of railroad known as the Bondurant Industrial...

  12. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a 0.58-mile line of railroad on its Menomonie Industrial Lead from milepost 0.32 near Cedar Falls Road to the end of the line at milepost 0.90 near Oak Avenue, in Menomonie, Dunn County, Wis. (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 54751. UP...

  13. 78 FR 77791 - Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Scott County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... 0.66-mile line of railroad referred to as Blackhawk Spur, between milepost 0.33+/- and milepost 0.99 +/- in Scott County, Iowa (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 52802. DM&E has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for at least two years; (2)...

  14. 75 FR 35514 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Abandonments to abandon a 0.8-mile line of railroad, on the Yakima Industrial Lead, from milepost 62.75 to milepost 63.55 near Midvale, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... over the line for at least 2 years; (2) there is no overhead traffic on the line; (3) no...

  15. 78 FR 41994 - RSL Railroad LLC-Operation Exemption-Massillon Energy & Technology Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board RSL Railroad LLC--Operation Exemption--Massillon Energy & Technology Park On... milepost 1.27 (the Line), pursuant to an agreement with Massillon Energy & Technology Park (Massillon),...

  16. 75 FR 7303 - Drake Cement, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Drake Cement, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, LLC Drake Cement, LLC (DC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150... Docket No. 35351, Drake Switching Company, LLC --Operation Exemption-- Drake Cement, LLC. DC...

  17. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail..., extending between milepost 0.0 and milepost 2.0 in Berwick, Columbia County, Pa. The line is leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA- COG). NSRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an...

  18. 78 FR 69141 - 2014 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... 2014 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations... experience-based employer contribution rates for the following year. The RRB is further required by section 8... under the Act cannot be considered subsidiary remuneration if the employee's base year compensation...

  19. 76 FR 6163 - Public Availability of Railroad Retirement Board FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... actions over $25,000 that were made in FY 2010. The information is organized by function to show how... with guidance issued on November 5, 2010 by the Office of Management and Budget's Office of Federal..., in the Division of Acquisition Management, Railroad Retirement Board, at (312) 751-7130 or...

  20. 76 FR 50359 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Friday, No. 156 August 12, 2011 Part III Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 228...; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 156 / Friday, August 12, 2011 / Rules and...

  1. 76 FR 16199 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Tuesday, No. 55 March 22, 2011 Part IV Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 228...; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 55 / Tuesday, March 22, 2011 / Proposed...

  2. 76 FR 77890 - Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.-Operation Exemption-Swan Industrial Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.--Operation Exemption--Swan Industrial Park Swan... located within the Swan Industrial Park, in Cheyenne, Wyo. The track over which SRR will operate...

  3. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton...

  4. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006. Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD). Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC Group Tel. 163380 - 164043

  5. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of the two HF CMS detectors between Hall 186 and Point 5 (a convoy measuring 64 metres in length and weighing 440 tonnes) will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181 south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route OPPENHEIMER The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 2 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from Sunday 9 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July 2006.Route FEYNMAN is also expected to be closed to traffic from mid-morning on Monday 3 July until the evening of Tuesday 4 July and from mid-morning on Monday 10 July until the evening of Tuesday 11 July (possible deviation via route FERMI and route RUTHERFORD).Thank you for your cooperation. TS-IC GroupTel. 163380 - 164043

  6. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  7. Real-time monitoring of brake shoe keys in freight cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZOU; Zhen-ying XU; Jin-yang LI; Fu-qiang ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring ensures the safety of freight railroad operations. With the development of machine vision technology, visual inspection has become a principal means of condition monitoring. The brake shoe key (BSK) is an important component in the brake system, and its absence will lead to serious accidents. This paper presents a novel method for automated visual inspection of the BSK condition in freight cars. BSK images are first acquired by hardware devices. The subsequent in-spection process is divided into three stages:first, the region-of-interest (ROI) is segmented from the source image by an im-proved spatial pyramid matching scheme based on multi-scale census transform (MSCT). To localize the BSK in the ROI, cen-sus transform (CT) on gradient images is developed in the second stage. Then gradient encoding histogram (GEH) features and linear support vector machines (SVMs) are used to generate a BSK localization classifier. In the last stage, a condition classifier is trained by SVM, but the features are extracted from gray images. Finally, the ROI, BSK localization, and condition classifiers are cascaded to realize a completely automated inspection system. Experimental results show that the system achieves a correct inspection rate of 99.2%and a speed of 5 frames/s, which represents a good real-time performance and high recognition accuracy.

  8. I Go to School by Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Story: The class is talking about how they go to school every day. Kathy says, "I go to school by car." Leo says, "I go to school on foot." Phoebe answers, "I go to school by subway with my dad." And the class asks Miss Grant, "How do you go to school?" Miss Grant answers, "I go to school by motorcycle." The class says, "Wow, so cool!"

  9. Preliminary characterization of the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Historical information about the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile is limited. The unit is believed to have been a borrow area for earth fill that began receiving railroad crossties during the 1960s. The number of crossties at the unit began to increase significantly in 1984 when major repair of the SRS rail system was initiated. An estimated 100,000 used railroad crossties have accumulated at the unit since 1984. In an effort to determine the impact of the railroad crossties on the environment a total of 28 soil samples were collected from four test borings in March of 1991. Sample depths ranged from ground surface to 21.5 feet. Three of the borings were extended to the water table and groundwater samples were collected, one in an upgradient background'' area, and two downgradient from the unit. Few analytes were reported above detection limits. Test results are summarized in Section 4.0 and analytes not detected are summarized in Appendix A to this report. In three soil samples collected from depths between 10 and 21.5 feet, copper occurred at levels slightly above background. These copper values were detected in the sidegradient test boring and in the two downgradient test borings. Three organic analytes, acetone, pyridine, and Toluene, were reported above detection limits but well below drinking water standards (DWS) in all test borings, including the upgradient boring. Radionuclide activities were reported above background in both soil and water samples from all test borings. There do not appear to be any statistically significant trends in radionuclide activities with depth, or between upgradient or downgradient borings. The analytes detected in the test borings downgradient from the unit cannot be attributed to the railroad crosstie pile as they are not significantly different than the values reported for the upgradient, background test boring.

  10. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Optimization method of frictional braking force distribution for integrated system of electromagnetic and frictional braking of car%轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统摩擦制动力分配优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 赵强; 胡东海

    2015-01-01

    分析了轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统的结构与工作原理,推导了轿车前后轴利用附着系数的计算公式。以 ECE R13制动法规与电磁制动器设计要求为约束条件,以轿车前后轴实际利用附着系数与理想状态制动强度差值的平方和最小为目标函数,以 MATLAB 优化工具箱为计算工具,建立了轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统摩擦制动力分配优化方法,计算了不同工况下的摩擦制动力分配最优值。计算结果表明:当制动强度分别为0.1、0.2、0.3、0.4、0.5、0.6、0.7、0.8时,优化前的目标函数值分别为0.03、0.05、0.07、0.07、0.08、0.07、0.06、0.04,优化后的的目标函数值分别为0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.01、0.01,优化后,目标函数值明显减小,轿车前后轴利用附着系数曲线更靠近理想曲线,且均在 ECE R13制动法规控制曲线的下方,因此,提出的优化方法满足ECE R13制动法规的要求,轿车制动稳定性得到提高。%The structure and working principle of integrated system of the electromagnetic and frictional braking for car were analyzed.The calculation formula of utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles was derived.The ECE R13 braking regulation and the design requirement of electromagnetic braking were taken as constraint conditions,the minimum square sum of differences between the actual curve of utilization adhesion coefficient and the braking strength of ideal condition for front and rear axles was taken as objective function,MATLAB optimization toolbox was employed,the optimization method of frictional braking force distribution for the integrated system of electromagnetic and frictional braking was established,and the optimal values of frictional braking force distribution under different conditions were calculated. Calculation result indicates when the braking strength is 0

  12. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ziyuan; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2009-01-01

    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and adapt their behavior much earlier than regular cars. We propose proactive algorithms for merging different streams of sensor-enabled cars into a single stream. A proactive merging algorithm decouples the decision point from the actual merging point. Sensor-enabled cars allow us to decide where and when a car merges before it arrives at the actual merging point. This leads to a significant improvement in traffic flow as velocities can be adjusted appropriately. We compare proactive merging algorithms against the conventio...

  14. Context-aware smart car: from model to prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SUN; Zhao-hui WU; Gang PAN

    2009-01-01

    Smart cars are promising application domain for ubiquitous computing. Context-awareness is the key feature of a smart car for safer and easier driving. Despite many industrial innovations and academic progresses have been made, we find a lack of fully context-aware smart cars. This study presents a general architecture of smart cars from the viewpoint of contextawareness. A hierarchical context model is proposed for description of the complex driving environment. A smart car prototype including software platform and hardware infrastructures is built to provide the running environment for the context model and applications. Two performance metrics were evaluated: accuracy of the context situation recognition and efficiency of the smart car. The whole response time of context situation recognition is nearly 1.4 s for one person, which is acceptable for non-time critical applications in a smart car.

  15. CARS microscopy for the monitoring of lipid storage in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Åkeson, Madeleine; Pilon, Marc

    2008-02-01

    After several years of proof-of-principle measurements and focus on technological development, it is timely to make full use of the capabilities of CARS microscopy within the biosciences. We have here identified an urgent biological problem, to which CARS microscopy provides unique insights and consequently may become a widely accepted experimental procedure. In order to improve present understanding of mechanisms underlying dysfunctional metabolism regulation reported for many of our most wide-spread diseases (obesity, diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases etc.), we have monitored genetic and environmental impacts on cellular lipid storage in the model organism C. elegans in vivo in a full-scale biological study. Important advantages of CARS microscopy could be demonstrated compared to present technology, i.e. fluorescence microscopy of labelled lipid stores. The fluorescence signal varies not only with the presence of lipids, but also with the systemic distribution of the fluorophore and the chemical properties of the surrounding medium. By instead probing high-density regions of CH bonds naturally occurring in the sample, the CARS process was shown to provide a consistent representation of the lipid stores. The increased accumulation of lipid stores in mutants with deficiencies in the insulin and transforming growth factor signalling pathways could hereby be visualized and quantified. Furthermore, spectral CARS microscopy measurements in the C-H bond region of 2780-2930 cm -1 provided the interesting observation that this accumulation comes with a shift in the ordering of the lipids from gel- to liquid phase. The present study illustrates that CARS microscopy has a strong potential to become an important instrument for systemic studies of lipid storage mechanisms in living organisms, providing new insights into the phenomena underlying metabolic disorders.

  16. Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR) Ensemble Modeling System:Overall Accuracy and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng ZHANG; Xin-Zhong LIANG; ZENG Qingcun; Yu GU; Shenjian SU

    2013-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR) ensemble modeling system has recently been built to better understand cloud/aerosol/radiation processes and determine the uncertainties caused by different treatments of cloud/aerosol/radiation in climate models.The CAR system comprises a large scheme collection of cloud,aerosol,and radiation processes available in the literature,including those commonly used by the world's leading GCMs.In this study,detailed analyses of the overall accuracy and efficiency of the CAR system were performed.Despite the different observations used,the overall accuracies of the CAR ensemble means were found to be very good for both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation calculations.Taking the percentage errors for July 2004 compared to ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project)data over (60°N,60°S) as an example,even among the 448 CAR members selected here,those errors of the CAR ensemble means were only about-0.67% (-0.6 W m-2) and-0.82% (-2.0 W m-2) for SW and LW upward fluxes at the top of atmosphere,and 0.06% (0.1 W m-2) and-2.12% (-7.8 W m-2) for SW and LW downward fluxes at the surface,respectively.Furthermore,model SW frequency distributions in July 2004 covered the observational ranges entirely,with ensemble means located in the middle of the ranges.Moreover,it was found that the accuracy of radiative transfer calculations can be significantly enhanced by using certain combinations of cloud schemes for the cloud cover fraction,particle effective size,water path,and optical properties,along with better explicit treatments for unresolved cloud structures.

  17. Car speed estimation based on cross-ratio using video data of car-mounted camera (black box).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Inhwan

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes several methods for using footages of car-mounted camera (car black box) to estimate the speed of the car with the camera, or the speed of other cars. This enables estimating car velocities directly from recorded footages without the need of specific physical locations of cars shown in the recorded material. To achieve this, this study collected 96 cases of black box footages and classified them for analysis based on various factors such as travel circumstances and directions. With these data, several case studies relating to speed estimation of camera-mounted car and other cars in recorded footage while the camera-mounted car is stationary, or moving, have been conducted. Additionally, a rough method for estimating the speed of other cars moving through a curvilinear path and its analysis results are described, for practical uses. Speed estimations made using cross-ratio were compared with the results of the traditional footage-analysis method and GPS calculation results for camera-mounted cars, proving its applicability.

  18. ADULTEROUS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CAR-OWNER COUPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis PAPON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among approximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purposes?” KQ2: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” Here are the main findings. Renting households are mainly working, high income households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have two wage-sheets and two cars, one of which is generally a recent, high power, high quality car. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit. Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Household car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Household car sharing is mainly a regular practice. Finally, without diminishing the merits of innovative transport solutions proposed here and there, it is not a waste of time to give some insight on self established behaviour within households. This reveals that complex patterns have been built over time by the people themselves, to cope with diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Household car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car

  19. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  20. Railroad Lines, This Layer contains railway features including railroads, rail yards, and public transit rail lines., Published in 1996, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1996. It is described as 'This Layer...

  1. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  2. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    Full Text Available Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%.

  3. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Song, Li; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Yang; Tan, Huachun

    2016-01-01

    Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%.

  4. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: functional characterization of the ECF sigma factor CarQ and antisigma factor CarR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Douglas F; Whitworth, David E; Hodgson, David A

    2003-04-01

    Illumination of dark-grown Myxococcus xanthus with blue light leads to the induction of carotenoid synthesis. Central to this response is the activation of the light-inducible promoter, PcarQRS, and the transcription of three downstream genes, carQ, carR and carS. Sequence analysis predicted that CarQ is a member of the ECF (extracytoplasmic function) subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors, and that CarR is an inner membrane protein. Genetic analysis strongly implied that CarR is an antisigma factor that sequesters CarQ in a transcriptionally inactive complex. Using in vitro transcription run-off assays, we present biochemical evidence that CarQ functions as a bacterial sigma factor and is responsible for transcription initiation at PcarQRS. Similar experiments using the crtI promoter failed to implicate CarQ in direct transcription of the crtI gene. Experiments using the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated a protein-protein interaction between CarQ and CarR, providing evidence of a CarQ-CarR complex. The yeast two-hybrid system data also indicated that CarR is capable of oligomerization. Fractionation of M. xanthus membranes with the detergent sarkosyl showed that CarR was associated with the inner membrane. Furthermore, CarR was found to be unstable in illuminated stationary phase cells, providing a possible mechanism by which the CarR-CarQ complex is disrupted.

  5. Dust Scattering in Miras R Car and RR Sco resolved by optical interferometric polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, M J; Davis, J; Tango, W

    2005-01-01

    We present optical interferometric polarimetry measurements of the Mira-like variables R Car and RR Sco, using the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer. By making visibility measurements in two perpendicular polarisations, the relatively low-surface brightness light scattered by atmospheric dust could be spatially separated from the bright Mira photospheric flux. This is the first reported successful use of long-baseline optical interferometric polarimetry. Observations were able to place constraints on the distribution of circumstellar material in R Car and RR Sco. The inner radius of dust formation for both stars was found to be less than 3 stellar radii: much closer than the expected innermost stable location for commonly-assumed astrophysical ``dirty silicate'' dust in these systems (silicate dust with a significant iron content). A model with the dust distributed over a shell which is geometrically thin compared to the stellar radius was preferred over an outflow. We propose dust components whose che...

  6. Development paths of multi-car elevators

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    While the world’s population moves to cities and the height of the building base rises, the limitations of elevator technology become more significant. The greatest problem of the modern elevator is the required space. Related to this is the majority of the hoistway volume, which is not in active use on a traditional single-car elevator. This inefficiency results in a large loss of usable floor space, especially in high-rise buildings. This thesis discusses attempts to solve the inefficie...

  7. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  8. CARS Studies of Nitramine Lova Propellant Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, and J. Fendell , "N2 and CO Vibratioi A.RS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CH -N 0 Flames," Technical Report ARLCD-TR- 83033, ARRADCOM...Dover, NJ, August 1981. I. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. 11. A. C. Eckbreth, Applied Physics Letters, vol...Conference, 1980, p 668. d K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , Applied Optics, to be published. e Observed frequency iii this work differs by more

  9. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  10. Railroad Lines, Published in 2003, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, North Georgia Regional Development Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. Data by this publisher are...

  11. Railroad Lines, Rail Corridors, Published in 2014, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2014. It is described as 'Rail...

  12. 75 FR 41277 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-Newton County, GA; Great...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... discontinue operating rights under a lease, over a 14.90-mile line of railroad between milepost E 65.80 at... expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA) has been received, these exemptions...

  13. Railroad Lines, vacant railways, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Barber County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'vacant...

  14. Railroad Lines, County railways, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'County...

  15. Railroad Lines, St James Railways, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, St James Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'St...

  16. Railroad Lines, vacant railways, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Lane County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'vacant...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... previous conference. Thus, in terms of the negotiating time of both sides, economies of scale are achieved... intended to reach as far as the Commerce Clause of the Constitution (i.e., to all railroads that...

  18. 77 FR 67863 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The Surface Transportation Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA... Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in....gov . By the Board. Victoria Rutson, Director, Office of Environmental Analysis. Jeffrey...

  19. 77 FR 66663 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The Surface Transportation Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA... Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in..., Victoria Rutson, Director, Office of Environmental Analysis. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. BILLING...

  20. 77 FR 43146 - Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company, the Estate of Douglas M. Head, and the DMH Trust fbo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... acquisition from Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. (SMRR) and SLA Property Management Limited Partnership (SLA.... \\1\\ See Sisseton Milbank R.R.--Acquis. & Operation Exemption-- SLA Prop. Mgmt. Ltd. P'ship, FD...

  1. 75 FR 80894 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Chicot Counties, Ark. On December 6, 2010, Delta Southern Railroad, Inc. (DSR), filed with the Surface... or near Lake Village, in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark. The line traverses United States...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  3. 62 FR 28104 - Union Pacific Railroad CompanyAbandonment Exemptionin Malheur County, OR and Owyhee County, ID...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-22

    ... and Owyhee County, ID (Homedale Branch) On May 2, 1997, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed with..., and Owyhee County, ID, and includes the non-agency stations of Napton, OR-- milepost 16.90;...

  4. Railroad Lines, vacant railways, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harper County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'vacant...

  5. Energy use, cost and CO{sub 2} emissions of electric cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Vliet, Oscar [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Kuramochi, Takeshi; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km{sup -1} (using renewables) and 155 g km{sup -1} (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO{sub 2} {sub eq} km{sup -1}. We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year{sup -1}. TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh{sup -1}, even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh{sup -1} in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug

  6. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability wer...

  7. An analysis on investments of transnational corporation in China’s car industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The transnational corporations began investing directly in China’s passenger car sector more than 2 decades ago, featuring characters unique in the world. This article, based on a case analysis, fully displays the characters of the transnational corporations in the process of entering the Chinese market, in regard to timing, partner choice, model distribution among different partners and the supplying system under the domination of their subsidiaries, and management of the networks and channels, and others.

  8. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  9. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y.

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  11. Car Crash Fatalities Associated With Fire in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. Methods: The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. Results: In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and mi...

  12. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, S.; De Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based car insurance services for which the insurance fee is adapted to measured mileage and driving behaviour. A conjoint experiment shows that consumers prefer their current insurance products to usage ...

  13. MAG ONE novel energy storage for high tech sports car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1993-03-01

    A solar-powered car, the MAG ONE, is discussed. Photovoltaic cells would cover 100 square feet of the car`s body. Solar cells would cover the entire vehicle to intake as much solar energy as possible. By using computerized series-parallel switching of the solar cell system should yield 2-3 horsepower per-hour on a sunny day. An important concept is the proprietary continuously variable hydrostatic transmission capable of 90 percent efficiency.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  15. Neuroanatomical correlates of visual car expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Expertise in non-visual domains such as musical performance is associated with differences in gray matter volume of particular regions of the human brain. Whether this is also the case for expertise in visual object recognition is unknown. Here we tested whether individual variability in the ability to recognize car models, from novice performance to high level of expertise, is associated with specific structural changes in gray matter volume. We found that inter-individual variability in expertise with cars was significantly and selectively correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex. Inter-individual differences in the recognition of airplanes, that none of the participants had expertise with, were correlated with structural variability of regions bordering the visual cortex. These results highlight the role of prefrontal regions outside the visual cortex in accessing and processing visual knowledge about objects from the domain of expertise and suggest that expertise in visual object recognition may entail structural changes in regions associated with semantic knowledge.

  16. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  17. Application of Template Matching for Improving Classification of Urban Railroad Point Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arastounia, Mostafa; Oude Elberink, Sander

    2016-12-12

    This study develops an integrated data-driven and model-driven approach (template matching) that clusters the urban railroad point clouds into three classes of rail track, contact cable, and catenary cable. The employed dataset covers 630 m of the Dutch urban railroad corridors in which there are four rail tracks, two contact cables, and two catenary cables. The dataset includes only geometrical information (three dimensional (3D) coordinates of the points) with no intensity data and no RGB data. The obtained results indicate that all objects of interest are successfully classified at the object level with no false positives and no false negatives. The results also show that an average 97.3% precision and an average 97.7% accuracy at the point cloud level are achieved. The high precision and high accuracy of the rail track classification (both greater than 96%) at the point cloud level stems from the great impact of the employed template matching method on excluding the false positives. The cables also achieve quite high average precision (96.8%) and accuracy (98.4%) due to their high sampling and isolated position in the railroad corridor.

  18. Reconsidering the Underground Railroad: Slavery and Racialization in the Making of the Canadian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bakan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Railroad is commonly understood as a defining moment in the ideology of the Canadian state regarding the legacy of racism and anti-racism. This paper attempts to recast the narrative of the Underground Railroad through the lens of an anti-imperialist, anti-racist political economy, departing from the view of Canada’s anti-racist rescue of fugitive slaves from racist America. The Underground Railroad was in fact the product primarily of the struggle for self-emancipation of American black slaves. The central place of these actors as agents of their own freedom struggle needs to be recognized and restored, taken as a theoretical and historical starting point in explaining the pre-history of Confederation. The British North American colonies served as a safe space for fugitive slaves as a result of realpolitik; racism and a culture of hegemonic whiteness were endemic to the early origins of the Canadian state. This analysis is placed in the context of current and historical discussions of anti-racism and anti-imperialism.

  19. Una variante del carácter cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Aguilar Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo trata de la construcción de una variante del carácter cultural con base en la teoría de las necesidades psicológicas de Erich Fromm y en el carácter social por él desarrollado. Se describen algunas diferencias entre carácter y personalidad y, luego de revisar brevemente la teoría frommiana sobre el tema, se mencionan los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales necesarios para la elaboración del carácter cultural. Este será una herramienta para estudiar las necesida...

  20. 76 FR 4276 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... opportunity to speak at the meeting, any person wishing to present an oral statement should notify Mr. Karl...; jacket, tank car shell, or head damage; stub sill weld cracks; failures of heater coils or...

  1. A study on the actual situation of private car commuting in a local university, and the parking area arrangement and allocation plans

    OpenAIRE

    大西, 隆; 川合, 貢生

    1988-01-01

    The present study, focusing on the campus parking area arrangement problems in the Technological University of Nagaoka, surveyed the statistics of car parking registrations, and found out that the parking areas are not enough in quantity and that the preference of the parking areas is unevenly distributed. Secondly, to solve the shortage of parking areas, after considering three measures : the stimulation of public bus commuting, the regulation of car use by the students and the staff living ...

  2. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  3. The Comparison Of Characteristics Among Injured Pedestrians And Car Occupants (Tehran, 1996-97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaghegh M H

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is to verify mortality rate, cause of death, severity of injury (ISS,GCS, patient fate in hospital, pattern of specific organ injuries and some other characteristics among injured pedestrians and car occupants referred to three trauma centers in Tehran (Sina hospital, Shohada Tajrich hospital, Fayazbakhsh hospital from May 1996 until May 1997."nMaterials and Methods: 57367 patients were admitted to emergency department of these centers among which, 6027 victims of motor-vehicle accidents were included in this study."nResults: 71% of cases were pedestrians and rest was car occupants. M/F ratio was 1.8/5. Mean age was 29y. Motor vehicle accidents occurred most commonly during nights. The patients' GCS at arrival in emergency department had similar distribution in both groups. The most commonly injured organs in both groups were: integument, head and neck, extremities and bony pelvis. Thoracic and spinal injuries were more common among car occupants. Extremities and boney pelvis injuries were more common among pedestrians. The mortality rate was the same between both groups. Mortality rate was affected by GCS at arrival and severity of injury. Mortality rate among the old was 4 times the rate among the children. The accidents most commonly occurred on metropolitan roads and streets. The most common cause of death between both groups was head injury. Surprisingly head injury was a more common cause of death among the car occupants."nConclusion: Pattern of specific organ injuries was different form the pattern in previous studies as the pattern was virtually the same between both groups except for spinal and thoracic injuries were more common among the car occupants.

  4. Cars, corporations, and commodities: consequences for the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-02-21

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest.

  5. The car following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Peng-jun; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Based on optimal velocity car following model, a new model considering traffic jerk is proposed to describe the jamming transition in traffic flow on a highway. Traffic jerk means the sudden braking and acceleration of vehicles, which has a significant impact on traffic movement. The nature of the model is researched by using linear and nonlinear analysis method. A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point and the traffic jam. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations are also given.

  6. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Svante [VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO{sub 2} emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run. (author)

  7. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  8. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  9. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  10. An extended car-following model at signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2014-08-01

    To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.

  11. Resonant CARS Spectroscopy of s-Tetrazine Vapour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsma, Thijs J.; Hesselink, Wim H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1980-01-01

    CARS experiments on s-tetrazine vapour show that the eletronic resonance enhancement in the Q-branch is most effective for the lower J values. This suggests that the radiationless relaxation rate in the excited state increases with rotational quantum number. Delayed picosecond CARS experiments indic

  12. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street, SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  13. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington, DC... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  14. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing above for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  15. Extension of the car park of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Work to extend the car park of Building 40 will begin on 16 November 2009 and is scheduled to last until 18 December 2009. See the drawing below for details. 47 additional car parking spaces will be available from the start of 2010. CERN - Civil Engineering Section

  16. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  17. Should the Car Free Day Initiative Be Compulsory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When the Central Government decided to cut down on pollution by calling for a Car Free Day in September,many thought it was a flash in the pan.But on October 27,Kunming,in southwest China’s Ynnnan Province,continued with the practice when private cars were banned from city streets.Now the last Saturday of every month

  18. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...

  19. Trial of car-sharing scheme at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    On 6 July, a sample group of approximately 500 users started a six-month trial of a new car-sharing scheme. The project is an initiative of the General Infrastructure Services Department (GS), in collaboration with the Physics Department (PH) and Hertz car rentals.

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF MOTOR CAR COERCION COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    О. Denysenko; A. Filimonova

    2010-01-01

    A short review of motor car coercion coefficient determination is presented. The models designed for the determination of motor car queues time intervals at the stop line is presented. The estimation of modeling results according to experimental data is carried out.