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Sample records for caquis diospyrus kaki

  1. Frigoconservação de caquis (Diospyrus kaki, l. das cultivares Fuyu e Rama forte Storage of persimmons (Diospyrus kaki, l. cultivares Fuyu and Rama forte

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    Auri Brackmann

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O trahalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da temperatura e condições de atmosfera modificada (AM e controlada (AC sobre a manutenção da qualidade de caquis cvs Fuyu e Rama Forte. Ambas as cultivares foram armazenadas em AM, sendo a cv. Fuyu armazenada também em condições de armazenamento refrigerado (AR e AC. Em AM foram avaliados os filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade com 10mi e 40mide espessura e temperaturas de 0°C e 1°C com umidade relativa de 97%. Em AC foram avaliadas as concentrações de 10% e 15% de CO2 com 16% de O2, na temperatura de 0°C. Nas condições de AM, anbas as cultivares apresentaram qualidade satisfatória até dois meses de armazenamento, sendo que os frutos armazenados a 0°C e polietileno de 40mi mantiveram maior fimeza de polpa e menores percentuais de escurecimento da epiderme. Após três meses, a cv. Fuyu armazenada com 15% de CO2 e 16% de O2 apresentou firmeza de polpa acima do nível aceitável para o consumo, sem causar escurecimento da epiderme. Após quatro dias de exposição à temperatura ambiente, este tratamento também apresentou os menores percentuais de escurecimento da epiderme.This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature, controlled (CA and modified (MA atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Fuyu' and 'Rama Forte' persimmons. Both cultivars were stored in MA packging and 'Fuyu' was also stored in cold storage and CA conditions. The thickness of MA packging of low density poliethylene were 10mu and 40mu. The storage temperatures were 0°C and 1°C with 97% RH. CA conditions were 10% and 15% CO2 plus 16% O2 at 0°C. In Ma packaging both cultivars showed good quality until two months of storage, however, the fruits at 0°C with 40mu film maintained higher flesh firmness and lower skin browning incidence. After three months of CA storage whith 15% CO2 plus 16% O2 'Fuyu' showed high flesh, firmness without skin browning. After, four days at shelf

  2. Inibição da ação do etileno na conservação de caquis (Diospyrus kaki L. 'Fuyu' Ethylene inhibitor action in the storage of persimmon fruits (Diospyrus kaki L. 'Fuyu'

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    Casiane Salete Tibola

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar o período de conservação e de comercialização do caqui 'Fuyu', foram testadas alternativas para a manutenção da qualidade dos frutos. Realizaram-se três experimentos: 1 os frutos foram armazenados na temperatura de 18 ± 3°C e UR de 80 ± 5%, como ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita aos 7 e aos 14 dias; 2 os frutos foram conservados na temperatura de 0 ± 1,0°C e UR de 95 ± 5%, com ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita e aos 45 + 3 dias de comercialização simulada, e 3 os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera modificada (AM com filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de 80µm de espessura e em temperatura de 0 ± 1,0°C e UR de 95 ± 5%, com ou sem aplicação de 1-MCP, avaliados na colheita, aos 48 + 4 dias e aos 48 + 10 dias de comercialização simulada (CS na temperatura de 18°C. A concentração de 1-MCP utilizada nos tratamentos específicos foi de 500ppb/2h. As principais análises realizadas compreenderam: firmeza da polpa (FP, cor e escurecimento de epiderme (EE. Os caquis do experimento 2 perderam a qualidade de comercialização antes de alcançarem os 30 dias de estocagem. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração manteve frutos com FP acima de 40 N, além de prevenir a ocorrência de EE, após 48 dias de armazenamento mais 10 dias de CS. A obtenção destes índices proporcionou a manutenção da qualidade dos caquis por 48 dias de câmara mais 10 dias de CS no ar ambiente (18°C.With the objective of to extend the conservation period and commercialization of the 'Fuyu' persimmon fruit, alternatives to mantain fruits quality were tested. Tree experiments were accomplished to develop the work: 1 storage at the ambient temperature (AT: Temperature (T of 18 ± 3°C and relative humidity (RH of 80 ± 5%, with or without application of 1-MCP and evaluated in the crop, at 7 and 14 days; 2: cold storaged (CS: T of 0 ± 1,0°C and RH of 95 ± 5%, with or without

  3. Efeito da temperatura e condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de caqui (Diospyrus kaki, L. Effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere conditions on the storage of persimmon (Diospyrus kaki, L.

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    Auri Brackmann

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das temperaturas de armazenamento e condições de atmosfera normal (AN e controlada (AC sobre as qualidades físico-químicas e organolépticas de caquis, foi conduzido um experimento no Núcleo de Pesquisa em Pós-colheita(NPP da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM em 1994 com as cultivares Taubaté, Baurú e Fuyu. Os frutos foram colhidos no ponto de maturação em que possuíam a epiderme verde-amarelada. Os frutos das cvs. Taubaté e Baurú foram armazenados nas temperaturas de - 0,5°C e + 0,5°C, e a cultivar Fuyu somente na temperatura de + 0,5°C. Todas as cultivares foram armazenadas em atmosfera controlada (AC com concentrações de 8% CO2/2% O2 e 4% CO2/1% O2. As cultivares Taubaté e Baurú foram submetidas também a condições de AN. Após 85 dias de armazenamento, foi avaliado a firmeza da polpa, ocorrência de podridões e a qualidade organoléptica dos frutos. Os frutos de AN apresentaram alta firmeza da polpa, devido ao murchamento, e baixo índice de podridões. Em condições de AC, a temperatura de - 0,5°C e 8% CO2/2% O2 proporcionaram maior firmeza da polpa e menor incidência de podridões nas cvs. Taubaté e Baurú. Para a cv. Fuyu, avaliada somente em temperatura de + 0,5°C, a condição de 8% CO2/2% O2 também foi a que proporcionou maior firmeza da polpa e menor incidência de podridões. Após cinco dias em temperatura ambiente, não foi detectado sabor estranho nos frutos armazenados em condições de AC.The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of the temperatures and controlled atmosphere (CA conditions on the quality of persimmons during storage. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria, from March to July, 1994 with the cultivars Taubaté, Baurú and Fuyu. The fruits of all cultivars were harvested with yellow-green epidermis color. Taubaté and Baurú fruits were stored at - 0.5°C and + 0.5°C, Fuyu was stored only at + 0.5

  4. Armazenamento de caqui (Diospyros kaki, L. cv. Quioto, em atmosfera controlada

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    DONAZZOLO JOEL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, com o presente trabalho, o efeito da temperatura e do CO2 no armazenamento em atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de caqui cv. Quioto. Foram avaliadas as temperaturas -1,0 e -0,5ºC, e pressões parciais de CO2 de 0; 5 e 10kPa, com os tratamentos arranjados em um esquema bifatorial. Os frutos foram avaliados após 3 meses de armazenamento mais 3 dias de exposição à temperatura ambiente (18-20ºC. Conforme os resultados, não foi constatada interação entre os fatores, havendo efeito significativo para temperatura somente na firmeza de polpa, em que -1,0ºC apresentou frutos mais firmes. As diferentes pressões parciais de CO2 não influenciaram a perda de peso e a firmeza de polpa. As podridões apresentaram uma resposta linear negativa em relação ao CO2, porém, mantendo elevada ocorrência. Valores de CO2 entre 5 e 10kPa proporcionaram frutos com menor índice de escurecimento de epiderme e com coloração mais amarela e vermelha. O CO2 entre 5 e 10kPa apresentou os melhores resultados, que somados à temperatura de -1,0ºC, foi a melhor condição de armazenamento, que, no entanto, teve o período de conservação inferior a três meses nesta condição, devido às altas perdas por podridões.

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita do caqui ‘Fuyu’ tratado com a promalina = Postharvest quality of “Fuyu” kaki treated with Promalin

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    Luciane Curtes Porfírio-da-Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância comercial do caqui ‘Fuyu’, a pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito da promalina aplicada durante o cultivo do caqui ‘Fuyu’ bem como o uso de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. A utilização da câmara fria (4ºC, uso comercial manteve a boa firmeza dos frutos para a comercialização acima de 16 dias, para os frutos, sem e com a aplicação de promalina no pomar, enquanto que, na temperatura ambiente (20-26ºC, os tempos foram de 16 e oito dias, respectivamente. A promalina contribuiu para a melhoria da firmeza dos frutos armazenados em câmara fria, mas não produziu o mesmo efeito em frutos armazenados em temperatura ambiente. A atividade da enzima poligalacturonase (PG foi coincidente com a alteração de firmeza dos frutos, e o pH diminuiu.Considering the commercial value of the ‘Fuyu’ kaki, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Promalin applied to the orchard as well as the use of different storage temperatures in the quality of postharvest fruits. The cold chamber (4ºC kept the fruit with good firmness quality for commercialization over 16 days, for both treatments, without and with Promalin applied in the orchard; whereas, at room temperature (20-26ºC the periods were 16 and 8 days, respectively. The Promalin contributed to the improvement of firmness in fruits stored in the cold chamber, but it did not have a similar effect in fruits at room temperature. The activity of the polygalacturonase enzyme was coincident with the change in fruitfirmness and the pH decreased.

  6. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo do tomate caqui cultivado em ambiente protegido Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of Kaki tomato cultivated in greenhouse

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    Ligia S. Reis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos de uma cultura cultivada em ambiente protegido podem ser considerados dependentes do nível de radiação global, temperatura do ar e umidade do ar, com base em leis exponenciais. Assim sendo se propôs com este trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultivo da cultura do tomate caqui em ambiente protegido, sob irrigação por gotejamento, utilizando-se o modelo de Penman-Monteith. Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos foram medidos com sensores conectados à estação automática instalada dentro do ambiente protegido. A evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc foi determinada experimentalmente por meio de lisímetros de drenagem e a umidade do solo foi medida através de sensores instalados a uma profundidade de 20 cm. O desempenho do modelo de Penman-Monteith foi comparado aos valores decendiais do balanço hídrico nos lisímetros; já a evapotranspiração de referência foi calculada com dados externos e utilizada para o cálculo do Kc da cultura; enfim, os resultados indicaram que o modelo de Penman-Monteith subestima os valores de evapotranspiração encontrados pelo balanço hídrico nos lisímetros.The aerodynamic parameters of a crop cultivated in greenhouse can be considered dependent upon the level of global radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, based on exponential laws. Consequently, this work intends to estimate the evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient of Kaki tomato in greenhouse, under drip irrigation, using the Penman-Monteith model. The aerodynamic parameters were measured with sensors connected to the automatic station installed inside the greenhouse. The ETc was determined experimentally through drainage lysimeters and the soil water content was measured through sensors installed at a depth of 20 cm. The performance of the Penman-Monteith model was compared to decennial values of the water balance in the lysimeters, while the reference evapotranspiration was calculated

  7. Patogenicidade cruzada de Ceratobasidium spp. do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki e do chá(Camellia sinensis e reação de cultivares de caqui ao patógeno Cross pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. from kaki (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis and reaction of kaki varieties to the pathogen

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    Elaine Costa Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Ceratobasidium spp. é o agente causal da doença mal-do-fio ou queima-do-fio em várias plantas frutíferas, em cafeeiro e em chá. Esta doença ocorre com maior freqüência em zonas de alta precipitação e temperaturas elevadas, típicas de regiões de florestas tropicais como a Amazônica e a Mata Atlântica. Em São Paulo, o primeiro relato do mal-do-fio em caquizeiro ocorreu na região de Mogi das Cruzes. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a patogenicidade cruzada de isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. de caquizeiro e chá para ambas as culturas e também para o cafeeiro e citros. Avaliou-se, também, a reação de oito cultivares de caquizeiro, sob condições controladas, a isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. obtidos da mesma cultura. Constatou-se que os isolados de caquizeiro e de chá, embora filogeneticamente distintos, foram patogênicos para ambas as culturas, além de afetarem cafeeiro e citros. Não foram verificados indícios de reação de resistência aos isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. para as oito cultivares de caquizeiro testadas.The fungus Ceratobasidium spp. causes the white-thread blight disease, which affects several fruit trees, coffee and tea crops. This disease frequently occurs in zones of high precipitation and temperatures, typical of the tropical forest regions such as the Amazon and the Atlantic Forests. In São Paulo State, Brazil, this disease was reported by the first time affecting kaki plants in Mogi das Cruzes county. The objective of this study was to test the cross-pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki and tea to both host plants and also to coffee and citrus. This study also aimed to determine the reaction of local kaki varieties to Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki under controlled conditions. Although phylogenetically distinct, kaki- and tea-infecting isolates were cross-pathogenic to both hosts, besides infecting coffee and citrus. There was no indication of resistance reaction

  8. Diseño y cálculo de una nave hortofrutícola destinada al almacenamiento y procesado del caqui (Diospyros Kaki Thunb.) en el municipio de Algemesí (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    CARBONELL ZARAGOZA, LUIS

    2017-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo final de grado ha sido realizado dentro de la iniciativa de la ETSEAMN para promover la realización de trabajos orientados hacia los proyectos de ingeniería rural. El proyecto desarrolla la ampliación de las instalaciones de la Cooperativa Agrícola de Algemesí COPAL, concretamente el diseño de un almacén con cámaras frigoríficas y de atmosfera controlada especialmente diseñadas para la conservación y el tratamiento de la producción del caqui de la cooperativa. ...

  9. Effect of the extract of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. ‘Rama Forte’and rosemary oily extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L. on the sensory characteristics and color stability of frozen beef burgersEfeito de extratos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cultivar Rama Forte e do extrato oleoso de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. nas características sensoriais e na estabilidade da cor de hambúrguer de carne bovina congelado

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    Leadir Lucy Martins Fries

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the extract of persimmon cv. ‘Rama Forte’ and rosemary oily extract on the sensory characteristics and color stability of frozen beef burgers. The crude hydroethanolic extract was prepared and subjected to fractionation resulting in the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions as well as residual fraction. For the preparation of the burger samples a basic formulation was prepared and divided into parts: control, standard formulation ( 0.1% of sodium erythorbate, treatment 1 (0.5% of hydroethanolic crude extract, treatment 2 (0.7% of hydroethanolic crude extract, treatment 3 (0.5% of the residual fraction, treatment 4 (0.7% of the residual fraction , treatment 5 ( 0.5% of ethyl acetate fraction, Treatment 6 (0.7% of ethyl acetate fraction and treatment 7 (0.10% of oily extract of rosemary. The beef burger samples were stored at-25° C for 14 months and subjected to sensory analysis (color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the beginning of the experiment and the measurement of color (parameters L a*, b* and h* every two months. The addition of the extracts did not promote changes in the sensory attributes of the beef burgers at time zero of storage. A tendency to decrease a* values and increase of the h* values of the samples of frozen beef burgers occurred over the period of storage. Samples added with ethyl acetate fraction (0.5 and 0.7% and the oily extract of rosemary showed higher a* values than the other samples throughout the storage period and lower h* values than the standard sample at the end of the period evaluated. This indicates that the addition of ethyl acetate fraction and rosemary extract contributed to the retention and stability of the red color of the samples of beef burgers during the storage of the frozen product.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de extratos de caqui cv. Rama Forte e do extrato oleoso de alecrim sobre as características sensoriais e a estabilidade

  10. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

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    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  11. Resistencia mecanica, tasa respiratoria y produccion de etileno de caqui 'Fuyu' durante el almacenamiento

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dussan-Sarria, Saul; Honorio, Sylvio L; de L. Matias, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    .... En este trabajo fue evaluada la alteracion de la resistencia mecanica a la compresion del caqui 'Fuyu', el comportamiento respiratorio y la evolucion de la produccion de etileno durante el almacenamiento...

  12. Productos alimenticios derivados de caqui y método de obtención

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, José Vicente; Navarro Fabra, José Luis; Sentandreu, Enrique; Sendra, José M.

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un método de obtención de productos derivados de caqui, que comprende al menos las etapas de: triturar el caqui, previamente cortado o no, y tamizar hasta conseguir un puré o pasta; someter dicho puré tamizado a incubación enzimática con una mezcla de aditivos que comprende al menos uno o más enzimas con actividad sobre pectinas y hemicelulosas, y opcionalmente otros aditivos como acidulantes, antioxidantes y proteínas hidrosolubles; y someter el producto a ...

  13. Remoção de adstringência de caqui: um enfoque bioquímico, fisiológico e tecnológico Removal of astringency in persimmon fruits: a biochemical, physiological and technological view

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    Fernando Kazuhiro Edagi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Apenas na Ásia, centro de origem do caqui (Diospyros kaki L., existem mais de 2000 cultivares diferentes, das quais, a maioria é adstringente. Diante de tamanha variabilidade, existem diferentes métodos de remoção de adstringência, de tal forma que cada um deve ser adaptado a cada cultivar e local de produção. Tais métodos de destanização objetivam promover um acúmulo de acetaldeído na polpa dos frutos, o qual provoca a polimerização das moléculas de taninos solúveis, responsáveis pela adstringência, transformando-os num composto com consistência de gel, insolúvel e, assim, não adstringente. Entre os métodos mais utilizados estão: aplicação de vapor de álcool etílico, que ativa a enzima álcool dehidrogenase com subseqüente acúmulo de acetaldeído, e a promoção da anaerobiose, que induz a transformação do piruvato em acetaldeído em uma reação catalisada pela enzima piruvato descarboxilase. Neste trabalho de revisão, visa à discussão dos principais fatores a serem observados no processo de remoção da adstringência de caquis, como o método a ser utilizado, a temperatura de destanização, o tempo de exposição ao tratamento e o ponto de maturação dos frutos, entre outros.In Asia, the center of origin of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L., more than 2000 different varieties are present, most of then being astringent. Beyond such variability, there are a lot of different methods to remove the astringency of fruit and each treatment is more approachable for each cultivar and local of production. The different methods to remove the astringency are based, mostly, at the accumulation of acetaldehyde at the flesh fruit that induce the polymerization of the soluble tannin molecules, responsible for the astringency formation, turning them into an insoluble and non astringent substance. The most used methods are: ethanol vapor application which activates alcohol dehydrogenase and increases the acetaldehyde

  14. Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin from young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Kadowaki, Akio; Ozaki, Natsumi; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-04-01

    The bile acid-binding ability of a highly polymerized tannin (kaki-tannin) extracted from dried-young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) was examined. The kaki-tannin was composed mainly of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was examined against cholic acid, glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid and deoxycholic acid in vitro, and its effect on fecal bile acid excretion in mice was also examined. Although the bile acid-binding ability of kaki-tannin was weaker than that of cholestyramine, kaki-tannin adsorbed all the bile acids tested and significantly promoted fecal bile acid excretion in mice when supplied at 1% (w/w) in the diet. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kriteria Lokasi Berdagang Pedagang Kaki Lima Berdasarkan Preferensi Pedagang Kaki Lima di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik

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    Fitri Dwi Agus Maulidiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama PKL di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik adalah banyaknya kegagalan relokasi yang disebabkan kurangnya keterlibatan PKL dalam  menentukan lokasi berdagang PKL. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi pedagang kaki lima berdasarkan preferensi pedagang kaki lima itu sendiri di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik. Tahapan penelitian yang dilakukan adalah mengidentifikasi karakteristik pedagang kaki lima dengan menggunakan teknik analisa statistik desktiptif. Kemudian menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi berdagang berdasarkan preferensi pedagang kaki lima dengan menggunakan content analysis. Maka dari itu hasil dari penelitian adalah faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi berdagang pedagang kaki lima di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik yaitu sebagai berikut: (1 Lokasi berdagang yang strategis; (2 Harga sewa lahan/kios; (3 Dekat dengan kegiatan masyarakat; (4 Visibilitas; (5 Retribusi; (6 Dekat dengan permukiman penduduk; (7 Ketersediaan lahan parkir; (8 Dekat dengan terminal/stasiun; (9 Ketersediaan tempat pembuangan sampah; (10 Dekat dengan tempat tinggal; (11 Ketersediaan transportasi umum (12 Ketersdiaan jaringan air bersih; (13 Memiliki akses keluar dan masuk; (14 Penerimaan produk yang ditawarkan; (15 Ketersediaan drainase; (16 Ketersediaan pelayanan listrik; (17 Pengelompokkan jenis barang dagangan; (18 Luas tempat berdagang.

  16. Caqui cv. 'Mikado': análise de compostos voláteis em frutos adstringentes e destanizados

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    Maristella Martineli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os compostos voláteis em frutos de caqui Mikado adstringentes e destanizados, em dois períodos de armazenamento, utilizando microextração em fase sólida (MEFS, fibra DVB/CAR/PDMS por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. A partir dos resultados foi possível observar diferenças na composição volátil em frutos adstringentes e destanizados de caqui Mikado, com perdas em ambas as amostras. A remoção da adstringência com exposição ao álcool promoveu aumento dos voláteis no 1o dia após a destanização. Os compostos voláteis de caqui Mikado são representados, majoritariamente, por hidrocarbonetos terpênicos, seguidos de ésteres de cadeia linear.

  17. ANTROPOMETRI SENDI PERGELANGAN KAKI ETNIS MINANGKABAU

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    Hafni Marsil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan mengukur antropometri sendi pergelangan kaki etnis Minangkabau. Penelitian cross sectional dilakukan pada 50 orang mahasiswa kedokteran etnis Minangkabau berusia 21-25 tahun di lingkungan RS. dr. M Djamil Padang. Dilakukan pemeriksaan ROM, rontgen ankle proyeksi anteroposterior, lateral dan mortise. Hasil penelitian didapatkan ROM plantarfleksi 48,920±5,820, ROM dorsofleksi 31,300±4,070, inversi 10,320±2,280, eversi 5,940±1,200, talocrural angel anteroposterior 76,530± 2,530 dan mortise 77,380±2,270, tibiofibular overlap anteroposterior 7,51±2,64 mm dan mortise 4,71±2,45 mm, tibiofibular clear space anteroposterior 3,6±1,18 mm dan mortise 3,85±1,09 mm, talar tilt anteroposterior 0,140±0,100 dan mortise 0,190±0,150, medial malleolar length anteroposterior 13,88±1,99 mm dan mortise 14,03±1,69 mm, lateral malleolar length anteroposterior 25,71±2,83 mm dan mortise 26,70±3,40 mm, johnson angle anteroposterior 87,770±1,710 dan mortise 87,570±1,840, medial clear space 2,97±0,75 mm, anteroposterior inclination angle 7,470±2,700, anterior distal tibial angle 82,530± 2,700, dan anteroposterior gap 3,50±1,43 mm.Terdapat perbedaan ukuran antropometri sendi pergelangan kaki mahasiswa kedokteran beretnis Minangkabau di lingkungan RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dengan kepustakaan, namun masih dalam rentang normal.AbstractThis study aimed to measure anthropometric of ankle joint of Minangkabau ethnic group. Cross sectional study has been done in 50 Minangkabau ethnic medical students, aged 21-25 years in RSUP. Dr. M Djamil Padang. ROM, anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise X-ray projections of ankle were examined. ROM plantarflexion was 48.920±5.820, ROM dorsiflexion was 4.070±31.300, inversion was 10.320±2.280, eversion was 5.940±1.200, talocrural angel anteroposterior was 76.530±2.530 and mortise was 77.380±2.270, tibiofibular overlapp anteroposterior was 7.51±2,64 mm and mortise was 4.71±2,45 mm

  18. Uso de cera na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo Use of wax in 'Giombo' persimmon cold stored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Blum

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da cera de carnaúba na conservação pós-colheita do caqui cv. Giombo. Os tratamentos consistiram do tratamento- controle e rápida imersão nas soluções contendo 12,5; 25 e 50 % do produto comercial Meghwax ECF 100®, que é uma emulsão de cera de carnaúba não-iônica a 30 %. Após a secagem, os frutos foram armazenados a 4ºC ± 1ºC e 80 % de umidade relativa. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 15 dias de conservação em câmara fria, seguidos de 4 dias à temperatura de 20 ± 1ºC, simulando o período de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram: firmeza de polpa; sólidos solúveis; acidez titulável; pH; teor de ácido ascórbico, fenóis e perda de massa fresca. O uso de cera de carnaúba, independentemente da concentração utilizada, diminuiu a perda de massa dos frutos em até 7,8 % em armazenagem por 60 dias em câmara fria, seguido de quatro dias em temperatura ambiente. A imersão dos frutos em solução com 12,5% de cera foi eficiente na manutenção do teor de ácido ascórbico e da firmeza, prolongando o tempo de armazenamento por 6 dias. Com o decorrer do armazenamento, houve decréscimo da acidez e aumento do pH.This research had the objective of evaluating the efficiency of the "carnaúba" wax in post-harvest of persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki, cv. Giombo. The treatments were the rapid immersion of fruits into solutions containing 12.5, 25 and 50 % of the commercial product Meghwax ECF 100®, being a 30 % non ionic emulsion of carnaúba wax. After drying, fruits were stored at 4 ºC and 80 % RH. Chemical and physical characteristics of the fruits were measured throughout sixty days, at fifteen day intervals, followed by a 4-day period at 20 ºC simulating commercialization periods. The pulp firmness, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, water loss, tannins and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The use of carnaúba wax, regardless of

  19. In vitro propagation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Edgardo; Naval, Mar; Benelli, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is a temperate fruit tree species diffused in all continents. The traditional propagation method adopted by the nursery industry is based on budding/grafting scion cultivars on seedlings from D. kaki, Diospyros lotus, and Diospyros virginiana, the most important species used as rootstock, reproduced by seeds since they are not easy to root. Furthermore, most of nonastringent cultivars of persimmon are not compatible with D. lotus, a rootstock largely utilized because of its hardiness and frost resistance. The main in vitro tissue culture techniques, developed for persimmon, deal with direct regeneration (from dormant buds and root tips), and indirect regeneration through callus from dormant buds, apexes, and leaves. The bottlenecks of micropropagation are (1) the recalcitrance of many cultivars to in vitro establishment, (2) the low multiplication ratio of D. kaki compared to other fruit tree species, (3) the very low rooting ability of ex novo microcuttings both from direct and indirect regeneration, (4) the high sensitivity to transplant from in vitro to in vivo conditions. The development of reliable in vitro regeneration procedures is likely to play a key role for production of both clonal rootstocks and self-rooted cultivars. The general protocol for micropropagation of persimmon reported here is based on the establishment of winter dormant buds in vitro, shoot development, multiplication and elongation, and shoot rooting, using cytokinins (BA or zeatin) in a MS media along with an auxinic pretreatment for rooting induction.

  20. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiação gama na conservação de caqui 'Giombo', destanizado e frigoarmazenado

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    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O caqui apresenta uma safra curta, sendo necessário estender seu período de comercialização utilizando técnicas adequadas de armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso da radiação gama na qualidade pós-colheita de caquis 'Giombo' destanizados. Frutos colhidos meio-maduros e com aproximadamente 50 % da coloração verde, foram destanizados, acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (EPS, revestidas por filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e submetidos à radiação gama (60Co. Os frutos foram armazenados durante 35 dias, sob refrigeração (0±0,5 ºC e 85 ± 0,5% UR. Os tratamentos realizados foram: T1 - 0,0 kGy; T2 - 0,3 kGy; T3 - 0,6 kGy; T4 - 0,9 kGy; T5 - 1,2 kGy. As análises realizadas a cada 7 dias foram: perda de massa, atividade respiratória, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, ácido ascórbico, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. Os frutos submetidos à dose de 0,6 kGy apresentaram o menor percentual de perda de massa e produção de CO2 ao longo do período experimental. Os teores de SS e AT permaneceram estáveis e sem diferenças devido às doses de irradiação aplicadas. Os tratamentos com 0,3 KGy e 0,6 KGy foram os mais eficazes na manutenção da firmeza nos caquis. Nos teores de ácido ascórbico, observou-se redução ao longo do período experimental, sendo os menores valores apresentados para a maior dose de irradiação (1,2 KGy.

  2. Utjecaj obrade visokim hidrostatskim tlakom na reološka i mehanička svojstva soka iz voća kaki (Diospyros kaki)

    OpenAIRE

    Poturica, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    U ovom radu ispitivan je utjecaj obrade visokim hidrostatskim tlakom na reološka i mehanička svojstva soka iz voća kaki (Diospyros kaki). Određivani parametri su pH, gustoća, viskoznost, raspodjela veličine čestica, boja i tekstura. Nakon mjesec dana mjerenja su ponovljena, kako bi potvrdili upotrebu tlaka kao alternativnu metodu sterilizaciji temperaturom. Pripremljeni uzorci tretirani su visokim hidrostatskim tlakom od 200, 300 i 400MPa u trajanju od 4 i 8 minuta. Ispitivanjem utjecaja viso...

  3. Qualidade de caquis Fuyu tratados com cálcio em pré-colheita e armazenados sob atmosfera modificada

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    FERRI VALDECIR CARLOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência do cálcio (CaCl2 na conservação de caquis Fuyu armazenados em temperatura ambiente (TA, atmosfera refrigerada (AR e modificada (AM. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os caquizeiros foram tratados com 1% de CaCl2, em pulverizações de cobertura total, a cada 15 dias, a partir de 90 dias antes da data prevista para a colheita. Para a testemunha, pulverizaram-se as plantas com água destilada. As frutas foram colhidas com 65-75mm de diâmetro, coloração verde-amarelada e armazenadas em: 1 - TA (23±3ºC e 75±5%; 2 - AR (0±0,5ºC e 90±5% de umidade relativa; e 3 - AM (filme de polietileno de baixa densidade 33µm, 29x46cm, 0±0,5ºC e umidade relativa 90±5%, durante 80 dias. As frutas foram submetidas a avaliações de perda de peso, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais e escurecimento da epiderme. As avaliações foram efetuadas 24 e 96 horas após as frutas serem retiradas da câmara. Para as frutas armazenadas em TA, as análises foram realizadas a cada 4 dias, durante 20 dias. A aplicação de CaCl2 em pré-colheita melhorou o potencial de armazenamento, e a AM teve efeito sinérgico ao CaCl2 na melhoria do potencial de conservação dos caquis.

  4. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

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    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  5. FUNGSI DAN PERAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN BAGI PEJALAN KAKI Sebuah Studi Banding Terhadap Fungsi Pedestrian

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    Lily Mauliani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian pada sebuah kota adalah bagian yang sangat penting, baik sebagai kelengkapan (amenity kota maupun sebagai tempat orang berjalan kaki dengan aman dan nyaman. Namun untuk kota Jakarta, dan mungkin juga kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, pedestrian seringkali mengalami perubahan fungsi tidak hanya sekedar sebagai jalur pejalan kaki namun juga bisa menjadi jalur kendaraan bermotor, area berjualan para pedagang kaki lima yang bersifat mobile, tetapi bisa juga menjadi “ruko” alias rumah toko. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana nasib para pejalan kaki, dimana mereka dapat berjalan kaki dengan aman, tanpa takut tertabrak pengendara sepeda motor, tersenggol bajay, mikrolet atau mobil pribadi? Pembahasan tentang pedestrian ini dilakukan dengan cara mengamati dan membandingkan antara pedestrian yang ada di Jakarta dan di Singapura, dilihat dari segi fungsi dan penataannya.   Kata kunci : pedestrian, fungsi, pejalan kaki   ABSTRACT. Pedestrian path within the city has been regarded as an important element, either as a city amenity which contribute an aesthetic of city space or as a space for people or pedestrian to walk safely and comfort. Jakarta as one of a big city in Indonesia, has many pedestrian paths within it, but there are many pedestrian paths which have been changed in function. The pedestrian paths are not as a space for people to walk but have been accommodated as motorcycle lines as well as mobile shop or shop-house which has been known as RUKO or rumah toko. The main problem is how people could walk safely and comfort. This discussion of pedestrian paths will be explored in this paper by comparing the function and the design as well as the plan of pedestrian paths in Jakarta and Singapore.   Keywords : pedestrian path, function, pedestrian.

  6. DAMPAK SOSIAL EKONOMI PENATAAN LINGKUNGAN BAGI PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA (PKL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Bakhirnudin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedagang kaki lima identik dengan kesan buruk, kotor dan tidak tertib. Penempatan sarana perda­gangan yang tidak teratur dan tidak tertata serta sering menempati tempat yang menjadi tempat umum dianggap sebagai penyebab kondisi tersebut. Tingginya minat konsumsi masyarakat menyebabkan pedagang kaki lima menjadi semakin banyak, terutama masyarakat kelas bawah. Melalui Perda Nomor 11 Tahun 2000, Pemerintah Kota Semarang sudah berusaha menata PKL. Namun pada kenyataannya belum ditemukan solusi yang komprehensif untuk mengatasi permasalahan PKL. Populasi penelitian ini adalah PKL Perumnas Tlogosari Kota Semarang berjumlah 173 pedagang. Sampel yang digunakan berjumlah 100 orang sebagian besar berasal dari luar kawasan Perumnas Tlogosari. Model PKL di PerumTlogosari mengunakan Pola Penyebaran Memanjang (Linier Concentration. Hasil penelitian menunjuk­kan bahwa sebelum ada penataan tidak ada paguyuban. Namun setelah penataan terdapat sebuah paguyuban pedagang dan jasa (PPJ, dalam bentuk arisan. Dampak sosial selain paguyuban adalah agenda rutin arisan, serta peraturan lainnya sehingga meninimalkan konflik yang timbul. Dari sisi ekonomi, sebagian besar pedagang mengalami peningkatan pendapatan yang diperoleh per bulan. Oleh karena itu, untuk menjaga keberlanjutan dari dampak positif yang timbul, diharapkan PKL mampu menjaga dan melaksanakan aturan yang telah disepakati bersama, sekaligus melakukan inovasi-inovasi agar barang yang dijual lebih bervariatif untuk memperoleh keuntungan berkesinambungan.Street vendors usually have bad impression because they are dirty and disorderly. It is because they are disorganized and they often occupy public places. The high interest of consumers, especially from the lower class has made more and more street vendors. By issuing Perda of 2000 No. 11, the local government of Semarang has tried to organize them. However, it is not a comprehensive solution to overcome the problems of street vendors. The population of

  7. Firmeza de caqui 'Giombo' submetido à aplicação pós-colheita de cloreto de cálcio

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    Maria Rosa de Moraes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação pós-colheita do cloreto de cálcio na firmeza de caquis 'Giombo', destanizados ou não. Os frutos foram colhidos manualmente com aproximadamente 50% da coloração verde, transportados para o Laboratório, onde foram selecionados, higienizados e imersos em água (T1= controle, e em solução de cloreto de cálcio, por 10 minutos, nas seguintes concentrações: T2 =0,5% CaCl2; T3 =1,0% CaCl2; T4 =2,0% CaCl2; e T5 =3,0% CaCl2. Em seguida, foram acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas por filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD. O armazenamento foi a 0 ºC e 85-90% UR, por 35 dias, com análise a cada 7 dias quanto à perda de massa, firmeza e atividade das enzimas poligalacturonase (PG e pectinametilesterase (PME. Os frutos da testemunha do caqui não destanizado apresentaram, em média, a menor perda de massa e a maior manutenção da firmeza. Os frutos submetidos às diferentes concentrações de cálcio apresentaram as maiores atividades de PME no final do período de avaliação, sem diferença entre os tratamentos. Frutos não destanizados apresentaram menores atividades de PG quando comparados aos destanizados. A aplicação do cloreto de cálcio não apresentou incremento positivo na manutenção da qualidade e da firmeza dos caquis 'Giombo'.

  8. Controle da maturação de caqui 'Fuyu' com aplicação de aminoetoxivinilglicina e 1-metilciclopropeno

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    Auri Brackmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento de caquis é uma ferramenta importante na manutenção da qualidade e no prolongamento da oferta do fruto após a colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de AVG em pré-colheita, e do 1-MCP, em pré e pós-armazenamento, sobre a manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita e seu efeito na incidência de distúrbios em caquis 'Fuyu' armazenados em atmosfera controlada a -0,5 ºC e transferidos a condição de ambiente (20 ºC por 6 dias. Os tratamentos foram: [1] controle; [2] aplicação de AVG (123 g ha-1; [3] aplicação de 1-MCP (1,0 µL L-1 em pré-armazenamento; [4] aplicação de AVG e 1-MCP em pré-armazenamento; [5] aplicação de 1-MCP em pós-armazenamento; [6] aplicação de AVG e 1-MCP em pós-armazenamento. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à qualidade na ocasião da colheita, visando à caracterização do lote e, após quatro meses de armazenamento a -0,5 ºC e mais seis dias a 20 ºC, quanto à firmeza da polpa, pH, coloração da casca, índices de amaciamento e de escurecimento, teores de sólidos solúveis e de acidez titulável, respiração, produção de etileno, além da atividade da enzima ACC oxidase. Os resultados indicaram que a aplicação de 1-MCP em pré ou em pós-armazenamento foi eficiente em conter o amaciamento da polpa de caquis 'Fuyu' previamente armazenados em atmosfera controlada a -0,5 ºC e mantidos a 20 ºC por seis dias. Todavia, o uso deste fitorregulador em pré-armazenamento ocasionou maior escurecimento da epiderme. O uso de AVG em pré-colheita não retardou a maturação de caquis 'Fuyu' armazenados na mesma condição.

  9. Senam Kaki Diabetik Efektif Meningkatkan Ankle Brachial Index Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

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    Aria Wahyuni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas senam kaki diabetik terhadap Ankle Brachial Index pada pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2. Desain yang digunakan adalah Quasi eksperimen dengan pendekatan one-group pre-test – post-test. Populasi penelitian ini adalah pasien DM tipe 2 yang ada di salah satu wilayah kerja puskesmas yang ada di kota Payakumbuh sebanyak 77 orang. Sampel diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling  sebanyak 10 orang sampel yang memenuhi kriteria yaitu pasien DM tipe 2 tanpa penyakit penyerta. Rata-rata ABI sebelum dilakukan senam kaki diabetik adalah 0.62 dan rata-rata ABI setelah dilakukan senam kaki diabetik adalah 0.93. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan ada perbedaan nilai ABI yang signifikan antara sebelum dan setelah dilakukan senam kaki diabetik (p value = 0,005. Disimpulkan bahwa pelaksanaan senam kaki diabetik dapat meningkatkan ABI pada pasien DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan bahwa pasien DM tipe 2 diharapkan untuk dapat memanfaatkan senam kaki diabetik sebagai senam alami yang praktis dalam meningkatkan perfusi ke perifer serta sebagai pencegahan komplikasi pada pasien DM tipe 2 khususnya ke daerah kaki. Rekomendasi untuk penelitian selanjutnya adalah membandingkan efektifitas senam kaki diabetik terhadap gula darah, sensitifitas kak, nilai ABI, dan waktu pengisian kapiler Kata Kunci : Ankle Brachial Index; Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2; Senam Kaki Diabetik. AbstractThis study aims to determine the effect of diabetic foot exercise on Ankle Brachial Index (ABI in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. A design used quasy experiment with one-group pre-test –post-test. The population in this study were patients DM type 2 in one of health public centre in Payakumbuh city. The sample was recruited with purposive sampling technique as many as 10 samples that satisfies the criteria of patient namely DM type 2 without comorbidities. The average ABI before diabetic foot exercise is 0.77 and

  10. Frutificação alternada em caqui cultivar Pomelo (IAC 6-22 Alternate bearing in persimmon - cv. Pomelo

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    Mário Ojima

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivar Pomelo (IAC 6-22, mercê de sua bela aparência, elevada produtividade, facilidade de destanização e maturação precoce dos frutos, vem-se constituindo num dos principais híbridos de caquis taninosos lançados pelo Instituto Agronômico ao plantio comercial. No entanto, em lotes experimentais, tem-se constatado com freqüência irregularidade de frutificação, isto é, a presença de plantas pouco produtivas, ao lado de outras com grandes produções. A fim de estudar as causas dessas frutificações irregulares e, ao mesmo tempo, verificar a possibilidade de selecionar clones superiores desse cultivar, efetuou-se o controle da produção individual de 54 plantas, no período 1971-80, em um lote instalado em 1961, no Centro Experimental de Campinas (SP. Quarenta e oito das plantas controladas apresentaram produções marcantemente alternantes, embora a alternância das produções altas e baixas nem sempre ocorresse concomitantemente. Enquanto um grupo de plantas mostrava produções altas, outro, no mesmo ano, apresentava baixa frutificação, verificando-se comportamento inverso no ano seguinte. Apenas seis plantas não acompanharam a mesma tendência, constatando-se, no entanto, que nelas a alternância de produção ocorria dentro de uma mesma planta, porém em ramos distintos. Não foi possível, portanto, selecionar qualquer planta capaz de proporcionar altas produções sem alternância, em condições naturais. Observou-se, entretanto, em um experimento preliminar, que o desbaste precoce dos frutos, efetuado em plantas bem carregadas, além do aumento do peso dos caquis remanescentes, teve um efeito notável na quebra do hábito de frutificação alternante, proporcionando alta produção no ano agrícola subseqüente. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a alternância de produção, característica do caqui 'Pomelo', pode ser controlada, por meio da poda drástica de ramos no inverno e do desbaste precoce dos frutos em

  11. ANALYSIS OF MAIN QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSIMMON (DIOSPYROS KAKI L.) FRUITS.

    OpenAIRE

    Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi; Qingzhong Bu; Boxue Ge; Chao Cao; Chunhua Zhou.

    2017-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) is an important commercial and deciduous fruit tree with lots of cultivars. It is grown in various countries and is increasingly appreciated for its nutritional value, health benefits and rich flavor. In this research, persimmon fruits were used as plant materials to evaluate the main fruit quality characteristics of 34 different cultivars and to study the effect of ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) in main quality characteristic of two persimmon cultivars, namely...

  12. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.

  13. An overview of dermatological and cosmeceutical benefits of Diospyros kaki and its phytoconstituents

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    Muhammad Kashif

    Full Text Available Abstract Diospyros kaki L.f. belonging to family Ebenaceae, commonly known as persimmon is used as a medicinal plant in Chinese traditional medicine since many years for different ailments including cosmetics and dermatologic applications. Traditionally this plant is used to treat different skin conditions including pimples, skin eruptions and eczema. Present interest has been focused toward use of natural bioactive compounds in various curative and beautifying applications in dermatological and cosmeceutical disciplines. The objective of this article is to present cumulative data on potential use of D. kaki for its possible role in dermatologic and cosmetic applications. Scientific data has revealed an excellent position of D. kaki in both dermatology and cosmetic discipline making it a valuable choice in respective field. Active principles from different plant parts have shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, photo-protective, and anti-wrinkle effects with appreciable activities against tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase enzymes. Promising antioxidant activity and skin whitening potential, augmented by reduction in sebum contents, and reduction in size and number of skin pores make it a suitable choice as cosmetic ingredient. Data has been summarized and presented on available molecular mechanism that can contribute toward phytoconstituents usage in cosmetics and dermatology mediated by different cellular pathways. Crude extracts and some of phytochemical obtained from this plant such as isoquercitrin and hyperin have better reported activities than well-known cosmetic ingredients viz., arbutin, kojic acid and hydroquinone with possibility of having no side effects. Photo protection against degenerative effects of UVA, UVB and gamma radiation can help skin to fight well against oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. Further investigation need to be directed toward human subjects for evaluation of these reported activities

  14. PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERKAIT PENYAKIT KAKI GAJAH DAN PROGRAM PENGOBATAN MASSAL DI KECAMATAN PEMAYUNG KABUPATEN BATANGHARI, JAMBI

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    Lasbudi P. Ambarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular bersumber binatang yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk pembawa parasit cacing filaria. Upaya yang dilakukan di tingkat global maupun nasional dalam program eliminasi filariasis,  yaitu  pengobatan  massal.  Penelitian  ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengetahui  perilaku  masyarakat terkait penyakit kaki gajah dan program pengobatan massal sebelum dilaksanakan pengobatan tahun ketiga di Kecamatan Pemayung Kabupaten Batanghari Propinsi Jambi. Metode penelitian non-intervensi dengan rancangan potong lintang. Unit sampel adalah kepala keluarga dengan total sampel 380orang yang  ditentukan  secara  stratified  sampling.  Instrumen  yang  digunakan  adalah  kuesioner  terstruktur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 45,5% responden sering keluar rumah pada malam hari dengan berbagai jenis aktivitas, sebagian besar (99,5% menggunakan alat pelindung diri dari gigitan nyamuk. Sebanyak 7,5%  responden  menyatakan  pernah  diperiksa  sediaan  darah  jari  terkait  penyakit  kaki  gajah,  5,4% pernah mengalami gejala demam berulang. Sebagian besar (86,6% tahu ada pembagian obat massal di wilayahnya, 69,1% mengetahui ada sosialisasi pengobatan massal dan 86,1% pernah mendapat obat. Dari 324 responden yang menyatakan pernah diberi obat, 76% menyatakan minum obat yang diberikan dan 41% minum obat 2 kali, 24% tidak meminum obat yang diberikan yang sepertinya dengan alasan  utama  takut  efek  samping  obat  (50,8%.  Diperoleh  hubungan  bermakna  antara  umur,  jenis kelamin, informasi pengobatan, sosialisasi dan distribusi obat terhadap kepatuhan minum obat pada program pengobatan massal penyakit kaki gajah.Kata kunci : Penyakit kaki gajah, Perilaku, Pengobatan massal, Kecamatan PemayungAbstractLymphatic filariasis (LF is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes that carries parasitic filarial worms. One of the efforts made at the national and global levels in the filariasis

  15. PENGEMBANGAN KURSI RODA SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN RUANG GERAK PENDERITA CACAT KAKI

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    I Made Londen Batan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the survey to the wheelchair users in Surabaya, it is found that 70% of the respondents want to have activities inside or outside their home independently. Therefore, a wheelchair that can satisfy their requirements is on demand. In this research we used an integrated product development to design a wheelchair. We simulated the ergonomic design by a method so called RULA for static load 150 kg. This proposed wheelchair is an ergonomic wheelchair. It is a wheelchair, that satisfies the safety regulations. By using a joystick, a user can control the wheelchair to move forward and backward, to set the seat up and down as convenience as they want to. We hope that this wheelchair can help the physical handicaps to move more freely and have more activities than before. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Hasil kuisioner yang disebarkan ke pemakai kursi roda di kota Surabaya pada akhir 2005 dan awal 2006 menunjukkan bahwa 70% reponden tidak menginginkan lagi didampingi oleh seorang pemandu para saat mereka beraktifitas di dalam maupun di luar rumah. Sehingga, sebagai transportasi yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh penderita cacat kaki, kursi roda perlu untuk dikembangkan berdasarkan permintaan dan keinginan mereka. Pada makalah ini akan dipaparkan metode pengembangkan kursi roda yang didasarkan pada metode pengembangan produk terintegrasi. Melalui analisa kekuatan material pada beban statis 150 kg dan simulasi kenyamanan dengan metode RULA, dapat dirancang sebuah kursi roda yang aman dan nyaman, dapat bergerak maju mundur, tempat duduk dapat naik turun serta seluruh gerakannya dikontrol sendiri oleh pemakai kursi roda. Pengembangan kursi roda ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan ruang gerak penderita cacat kaki dalam beraktifitas. Kata kunci: kursi roda, transportasi, aman, nyaman, simulasi, RULA.

  16. Resistencia mecánica, tasa respiratoria y producción de etileno de caqui 'Fuyu' durante el almacenamiento Mechanical resistance, respiratory rate and the ethylene production of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' during storage

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    Saul Dussán-Sarria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El caqui 'Fuyu' presenta escasa revisión de literatura en lo que respecta a propiedades mecánicas y comportamiento fisiológico. En este trabajo fue evaluada la alteración de la resistencia mecánica a la compresión del caqui 'Fuyu', el comportamiento respiratorio y la evolución de la producción de etileno durante el almacenamiento. Las frutas fueron cosechadas con dos índices de cosecha: Índice 1, frutas cosechadas 15 a 20 días antes de la madurez comercial y, Índice 2, frutas cosechadas con madurez comercial. Las frutas fueron seleccionadas, empacadas en empaque comercial (caja de cartón y almacenadas bajo dos condiciones de conservación: 1. Con refrigeración (0 ± 1 ºC y 65 ± 1% de HR; 2. Sin refrigeración (22 ± 3 ºC y 71 ± 6% de HR. El módulo de elasticidad del caqui disminuye durante el periodo postcosecha independiente de las condiciones de conservación. El módulo de elasticidad varió entre 3.695,3 y 968,2 kPa. El grado de madurez del caqui 'Fuyu' en el momento de la cosecha, influencia los valores del módulo de elasticidad durante el almacenamiento. El caqui 'Fuyu' presenta comportamiento respiratorio característico de fruto climatérico y el pico de evolución de etileno coincide con el pico climatérico.The Fuyu persimmon fruit presents little literature review of mechanical properties and physiological behavior. In this paper the alteration of mechanical resistance to compression of persimmon fruit 'Fuyu' the respiratory behavior and the evolution of ethylene production during storage were evaluated. The fruits were harvested with two harvest indexes: Index 1, fruits with 15 to 20 days before the commercial index, and Index 2, known as the commercial index. The fruits were selected, packed (commercial carton boxes and stored in two conservation conditions, with refrigeration (0 ± 1 ºC and 65 ± 1% RH and without refrigeration (22 ± 3 ºC and 71 ± 6% RH. The Young's modulus of persimmon fruit decreases

  17. Regimes de atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento de caqui ‘Kyoto’ Controlled atmosphere conditions for ‘Kyoto’ persimmon storage

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    Auri Brackmann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de regimes de atmosfera controlada associados ou não com o uso de baixa umidade relativa e com a aplicação pós-colheita de fungicida sobre a conservação da qualidade de caqui ‘Kyoto’. Após o período de dois meses de armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5°C mais cinco dias a 20ºC, a firmeza de polpa manteve-se mais elevada nos frutos submetidos a 0,5kPa de O2 e 5kPa de CO2. A maior incidência de podridões ocorreu nos frutos armazenados a 2kPa de O2 + 10kPa de CO2. Baixa umidade relativa (90% ou pressões parciais elevadas de CO2 (10 a 15kPa aumentaram o escurecimento da epiderme.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different partial pressures of O2 and CO2, combined or not with the use of low relative humidity (RH and the postharvest fungicide application, on the quality of ‘Kyoto’ persimmons during controlled atmosphere (CA storage. After two months of storage at -0.5°C plus five days at 20ºC, the highest flesh firmness was obtained in fruits stored in CA conditions of 0.5kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2. The highest rot incidence was observed in fruits stored at 2kPa O2 + 10kPa CO2. Low RH (90% or high CO2 levels (10 to 15kPa led to increased skin blackening.

  18. Extraction, purification and anti-radiation activity of persimmon tannin from Diospyros kaki L.f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhide; Huang, Yong; Liang, Jintao; Ou, Minglin; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Guiyin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, persimmon tannin was extracted from Diospyros kaki L.f. using ultrasound-assisted extraction and purified by D101 macroporous resin column chromatography and polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane. The tannin content of the final persimmon tannin extracts was attained to 39.56% calculated as catechin equivalents. Also, the radioprotective effects of persimmon tannin for HEK 293T cells proliferation and apoptosis after Gamma irradiation were investigated by CCK-8, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry assay and intracellular reactive oxygen species assay (ROS). Persimmon tannin was pre-incubated with HEK 293T cells for 12 h prior to Gamma irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with persimmon tannin increased cell viability and inhibited generation of Gamma-radiation induced ROS in HEK 293T cells exposed to 8 Gy Gamma-radiation. The percentage of apoptotic cells were only 6.7% when the radiation dose was 8 Gy and pretreated with 200 μg/ml of persimmon tannin. All these results indicated that persimmon tannin offered a potent radioprotective effect on cell vitality and cell apoptosis of Gamma-radiation exposure in HEK 293T cells. This study would serve as a pre-clinical evaluation of persimmon tannin for use in people with radiation protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification and characterisation of a novel chitinase from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Kopparapu, Narasimha Kumar; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-06-01

    A novel chitinase from the persimmon fruit was isolated, purified and characterised in this report. The Diospyros kaki chitinase (DKC) was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 29 kDa. It exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 with broad pH stability from pH 4.0-9.0. It has an optimal temperature of 60°C and thermostable up to 60°C when incubated for 30 min. The internal peptide sequences of DKC showed similarity with other reported plant chitinases. It has the ability to hydrolyse colloidal chitin into chito-oligomers such as chitotriose, chitobiose and into its monomer N-acetylglucosamine. It can be used to degrade chitin waste into useful products such as chito-oligosacchaarides. DKC exhibited antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungus Trichoderma viride. Chitinases with antifungal property can be used as biocontrol agents replacing chemical fungicides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'fuyu' com utilização de diferentes concentrações de cobertura comestível Postharvest quality of 'fuyu' persimmon using different concentrations of edible coatings

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    Michele Carvalho da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ao aplicar cera em frutas, tem-se o objetivo de criar uma película de proteção com a função de reduzir a perda de massa por evaporação e transpiração, e ainda diminuir a possibilidade de contaminação dos frutos por agentes causadores de podridão, melhorando assim o aspecto visual do produto. Dessa forma, é possível aumentar o tempo de conservação, diminuindo consequentemente os prejuízos por perdas na pós-colheita. O caqui é uma fruta muito apreciada, com alto potencial de exportação, porém sensível ao manuseio e armazenamento. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da cera comestível Megh Wax ECF-124 (18% de ativos, composta por emulsão de cera de carnaúba, tensoativo aniônico, preservante e água, produzida por Megh Indústria e Comércio Ltda em três diferentes concentrações (25, 50 e 100%, na qualidade pós-colheita do caqui 'Fuyu' armazenado por 14 dias. Os atributos avaliados para qualidade foram: firmeza, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa e coloração. Os resultados demonstraram que a aplicação da cera nas diferentes concentrações foi efetiva, principalmente na conservação da massa do caqui cv. Fuyu e manutenção da coloração externa. A aplicação de cera não causou diferenças significativas nas propriedades químicas avaliadas. O tratamento na concentração de 25% apresentou menor índice de descarte durante armazenamento, todavia maiores concentrações demonstraram menores valores de perda de massa. Aplicação de cera de carnaúba em caqui apresenta um grande potencial de uso para melhoria na conservação pós-colheita, podendo ser aplicado juntamente com outras tecnologias, auxiliando na manutenção da qualidade para exportação.One of the main objectives of applying edible coatings on fruits surface is to create a protective film to reduce weight loss due to evaporation and transpiration and also to decrease the risk of fruit rot caused by

  1. Suppressive effect of an aqueous extract of Diospyros kaki calyx on dust mite extract/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-Hee; Jin, Meiling; Choi, Young-Ae; Jeong, Na-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of individuals worldwide. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for treating AD is an attractive subject and important to human health. Diospyros kaki and Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) folium exert beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. However, the effect of D. kaki calyx on AD remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of D. kaki calyx (AEDKC) on AD-like skin lesions using mouse and keratinocyte models. We used a mouse AD model by the repeated skin exposure of house dust mite extract [Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)] and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, to determine the underlying mechanism of its operation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used. Oral administration of AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions, as demonstrated by the reduced ear thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), DFE-specific IgE, IgG2a, histamine level and inflammatory cell infiltration. AEDKC inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine via downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in HaCaT cells. On examination of the AD-related factors in vivo and in vitro, it was confirmed that AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that AEDKC is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  2. Dyospiros kaki phenolics inhibit colitis and colon cancer cell proliferation, but not gelatinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Rosa; Lima, Ana; Rocha, João; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Mota, Joana; Rebelo, Patrícia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Pinto, Rui; Alves, Paula; Bronze, Rosário; Sepodes, Bruno; Figueira, Maria-Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Polyphenols from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) have demonstrated radical-scavenging and antiinflammatory activities; however, little is known about the effects of persimmon phenolics on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we aimed in this work to characterize the antiinflammatory and antiproliferative effects of a persimmon phenolic extract (80% acetone in water), using an in vivo model of experimental colitis and a model of cancer cell invasion. Our results show, for the first time, a beneficial effect of a persimmon phenolic extract in the attenuation of experimental colitis and a potential antiproliferative effect on cultured colon cancer cells. Administration of persimmon phenolic extract to mice with TNBS-induced colitis led to a reduction in several functional and histological markers of colon inflammation, namely: attenuation of colon length decrease, reduction of the extent of visible injury (ulcer formation), decrease in diarrhea severity, reduced mortality rate, reduction of mucosal hemorrhage and reduction of general histological features of colon inflammation. In vitro studies also showed that persimmon phenolic extract successfully impaired cell proliferation and invasion in HT-29 cells. Further investigation showed a decreased expression of COX-2 and iNOS in the colonic tissue of colitis mice, two important mediators of intestinal inflammation, but there was no inhibition of the gelatinase MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities. Given the role of inflammatory processes in the progression of CRC and the important link between inflammation and cancer, our results highlight the potential of persimmon polyphenols as a pharmacological tool in the treatment of patients with IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves: a review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Xie, Zhisheng; Xu, Xinjun; Yang, Depo

    2015-04-02

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves, known as Shi Ye (in Chinese), have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of ischemia stroke, angina, internal hemorrhage, hypertension, atherosclerosis and some infectious diseases, etc. Additionally, persimmon leaves could be used as healthy products, cosmetics and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China etc. The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities and toxicology of persimmon leaves in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. Information on persimmon leaves were gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pudmed, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from some local books. Persimmon leaves have played an important role in Chinese system of medicines. The main compositions of persimmon leaves were flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. Scientific studies on extracts and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as, antioxidative, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, hemostasis activities and effects on cardiovascular system. Based on the pharmacological activities, persimmon leaves were widely used in clinic including treatment of cardiovascular disease, hemostasis, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and beauty treatment. Persimmon leaves probably have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for cerebral arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension. It showed significant neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it can regulate immune function and inhibite inflammation. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these pharmacological effects in vitro and in vivo and the mode of actions. Further

  4. Fruit quality of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon fruits bagged with different types of packings/ Qualidade de frutos de caqui ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes embalagens

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    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2007-10-01

    pomar foi realizado de forma orgânica. Os tratamentos foram: saco plástico microperfurado, saco de papel pardo, saco de papel manteiga, saco de jornal e testemunha sem ensacamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, sendo cada planta considerada um bloco. Cada parcela foi composta de 20 frutos. O ensacamento foi realizado após a queda fisiológica dos frutos jovens, procurando-se distribuir os tipos de sacos aleatoriamente dentro de cada planta. A avaliação foi realizada após 77 dias do ensacamento, verificando-se o número de frutos colhidos por parcela, massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, número de frutos em cada categoria de maturação, número de frutos infectados por sujeira-de-mosca (Schyzothyrium pomi e teor de sólidos solúveis. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos apenas na incidência de sujeira-de-mosca e na porcentagem de coloração dos frutos. O ensacamento de caqui com sacos de jornal ou papel pardo reduziu a incidência do fungo S. pomi e a coloração da epiderme dos frutos. O tamanho e teor de sólidos solúveis não foram influenciados pelo ensacamento.

  5. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

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    Patrícia Cia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  6. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

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    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  7. BAZI TRABZONHURMASI (Diospyros kaki L.) TÜR VE ÇEŞİTLERİNİN SOĞUKLAMA GEREKSİNİMLERİNİN SAPTANMASI

    OpenAIRE

    BAYAZIT, Safder; TUZCU, Önder; KÜDEN, Ayzin; İMRAK, Burhanettin

    2012-01-01

    Çalışma, 2003-2004 ve 2004-2005 yılları arasında, Ç.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümüne ait Araştırma ve Uygulama Bahçesinde bulunan Diospyros virginiana L. ve Diospyros lotus L. türleri ile Diospyros kaki L. türünden Hachiya, O’Gosho, Shakoku, Kaki Tipo, Fuji, Nishimura Wase, Suruga, Jiro, Saijo, Kawabata O’Gosho, Shogatsu, Giboshi, Kirakaki, Amankaki (İtalya), Akoumankaki, Kourokuma, Hyakume, Hiratanenashi, Mizushima Gosho, Giant Fuyu (İsrail), Triumph ve Fujiwara Gosho çeşitleri v...

  8. Bile acid-binding activity of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit and its hypolipidemic effect in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2010-02-01

    The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP significantly enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and lowered the concentration of hepatic lipids and plasma cholesterol. Analysis of gene expression in liver tissue showed that 2% or 5% YP up-regulated the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 gene. In the 5% group, there were increased expressions of the genes for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Next, the bile acid-binding ability of YP was analysed in vitro using cholic acid (CA). In 100-2000 microM CA solutions, 1% (w/v) YP adsorbed approximately 60% of CA, while dried mature persimmon fruit adsorbed approximately 20% of CA. The positive control, cholestyramine, adsorbed approximately 80% of CA in the 100-2000 microM CA solutions. A crude tannin extract from YP, which contained 54.7% condensed tannins, adsorbed approximately 78% of CA in the 2000 microM CA solutions. These results suggest that the ability of YP to bind bile acid contributes to its hypolipidemic effect in mice. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

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    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE and fruit pulp (PuHE of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. BIOLOGIA FLORAL E VIABILIDADE DE PÓLEN EM CULTIVARES DE CAQUIZEIRO (Diospyros kaki L. E Diospyros virginiania L.

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    SAMANTA SIQUEIRA DE CAMPOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O caquizeiro é uma planta muito complexa na questão de sua biologia floral, já que pode apresentar três tipos de flor (feminina, masculina ou hermafrodita ou apenas flores femininas, como no caso das cultivares comerciais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o período de florescimento, os tipos de flores e estimar a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen em nove cultivares de D. kaki e em D. virginiana. As cultivares Pomelo e Rama Forte foram precoces para o início do florescimento. A cultivar Pomelo e a espécie D. virginiana apresentaram produção de flores masculinas, com pólen viável. As nove cultivares de D. kakiestudadas apresentaram produção de flores femininas (também masculinas em Pomelo como esperado em cultivares comerciais. Porém a cultivar Mikado apresentou, ao final do florescimento, flores com produção de pólen viável, o que ainda não havia sido relatado. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen, em geral, foi acima de 90% para as cultivares Pomelo e Mikado, e para D. virginiana.

  11. Bio-photonic detection method for morphological analysis of anthracnose disease and physiological disorders of Diospyros kaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Moon, Byungin; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    The pathological and physiological defects in various types of fruits lead to large amounts of economical waste. It is well recognized that internal fruit defects due to pathological infections and physiological disorders can be effectively visualized at an initial stage of the disease using a well-known bio-photonic detection method called optical coherence tomography (OCT). This work investigates the use of OCT for identifying the morphological variations of anthracnose (bitter rot) disease infected and physiologically disordered Diospyros kaki (Asian Persimmon) fruits. An experiment was conducted using fruit samples that were carefully selected from persimmon orchards. Depth-resolved images with a high axial resolution were acquired using 850-nm-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. The obtained exemplary high-resolution two-dimensional and volumetric three-dimensional images revealed complementary morphological differences between healthy and defected samples. Moreover, the obtained depth-profile analysis results confirmed the disappearance of the healthy cell layers among the healthy-infected boundary regions. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of the OCT technique used in agricultural plantations.

  12. Penerapan Teknik Search Engine Optimization (SEO untuk Memenangkan Persaingan Kata Kunci pada Mesin Pencari Google (Studi Kasus: Paguyuban Pengrajin Alas Kaki SIMBA Purwokerto, Banyumas

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    Andi Dwi Riyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengrajin di kelurahan Pasir Kidul di wadahi dalam Paguyuban SIMBA. Pada Paguyuban Simba tersebut memiliki masalah dimana terjadi penumpukan barang dikarenakan produksi banyak, namun permintaan sedikit. Hal tersebut dikarenakan permintaan pasar produk didominasi dari kota-kota sekitar. Pada saat tim peneliti melakukan survey, Paguyuban SIMBA belum memiliki website. Adapun data pencarian yang berkaitan dengan kerajinan alas kaki yakni sepatu melalui mesin pencari Google di Indonesia dalam 12 bulan terakhir rata-rata mencapai 60.500 pencarian, sedangkan pencarian sandal mencapai angka 9.900 pencarian. Melihat potensi tersebut, tim peneliti mengajukan penelitian untuk membuat website sebagai media promosi dan memenangkan persaingan dalam mesin pencari Google. Untuk memenangkan persaingan peringkat website pada mesin pencari Google, dapat menggunakan teknik Search Engine Optimization (SEO. Baik SEO Off Page ataupun SEO On Page. Hal tersebut yang menjadi fokus tim peneliti untuk membuat website promosi dan mengimplementasikan teknik SEO pada Paguyuban pengrajin alas kaki SIMBA. Dalam menerapkan SEO On Page, tim peneliti menggunakan tools Google Trends dan Google Keywords Planner. Sedangkan dalam menerapkan SEO Off Page tim peneliti memperbanyak pembuatan link building (backlink ke beberapa website yang memiliki trust tinggi yaitu website berdomain .go.id, .ac.id, .sch.id, .gov, .edu. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah website www.simbandol.com yang memiliki persaingan kata kunci kompetitif pada mesin pencari di Google, sehingga meningkatkan penjualan pada Paguyuban SIMBA

  13. Effects of phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves on experimental atherosclerosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Meiyu; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Ziying; Jia, Jingming; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-09-15

    The total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF), extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. Dispryosl and Ebenaceae, is reported to possess many beneficial health effects. However, the oral bioavailability of PLF is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In the present study, the phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF-PC) was prepared to enhance the oral bioavailability of PLF and to evaluate its antiatherosclerotic properties in atherosclerosis rats in comparison to PLF. A HPLC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol in rats plasma to assess the oral bioavailability of PLF-PC. The effect of PLF (50mg/kg/d) and PLF-PC (equivalent to PLF 50mg/kg/d) on atherosclerosis rats induced by excessive administration of vitamin D (600,000IU/kg) and cholesterol (0.5g/kg/d) was assessed after orally administered for 4 weeks. The relative bioavailabilities of quercetin and kaempferol in PLF-PC relative to PLF were 242% and 337%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in serum were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. According to the levels of biochemical parameters in serum and the morphological changes of aorta, PLF-PC showed better therapeutic efficacy compared to PLF. Thus, PLF-PC holds a promising potential for increasing the oral bioavailability of PLF. Moreover, PLF-PC exerts better therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease than PLF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Avaliação nutricional e sensorial de caqui cv Fuyu submetido à desidratação osmótica e secagem por convecção Nutritional and sensory evaluation of osmo-convective dried Fuyu persimmons

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    Nathalia de Felice Elias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação com a saúde humana tem promovido o aumento da demanda pelo consumo de frutas, tanto in natura como processadas. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as avaliações nutricional e sensorial de caqui Fuyu submetido à desidratação osmótica e secagem por convecção. Cilindros de caqui com diâmetro de 15 mm e altura de 40 mm foram imersos por 2 horas em solução com concentração de sacarose de 0,47 g.mL-1, a 40 ºC, utilizando-se relação fruta/xarope de 1:10 e grau de agitação de 60 min-1. A redução do teor de água até 17% b.u. foi realizada a 60 ºC, empregando-se velocidade do ar de 1,25 m/s. Após a secagem, foram realizadas as seguintes análises físico-químicas: acidez, pH, ºBrix, carboidratos, proteínas, lipídios, vitamina C, cinzas, fibras insolúveis e análise sensorial. Os resultados mostraram incremento em todas as características físico-químicas avaliadas para o caqui desidratado em comparaç��o ao caqui in natura. A análise sensorial evidenciou que o produto obteve elevado índice de aceitação, correspondendo ao segundo e terceiro níveis da escala hedônica (gostei muito e gostei regularmente. A característica que influenciou predominantemente a aceitação do produto foi a textura (88%, seguida do sabor (84%. A aparência foi o atributo que menos influenciou a aceitação (80%.The increasing trend towards a healthier lifestyle has prompted a renewed interest in fruit consumption, either fresh or dried. The objectives of the present work were to assess the nutritional quality and conduct consumer sensory evaluation testing of osmo-convective dried Fuyu persimmons. Persimmon cylinders of 15 mm diameter and 40 mm length were partially dehydrated by impregnation soaking, at 40 ºC, in a 0.47 g.mL-1 sucrose solution, with a fruit to syrup ratio of 1:10. Samples were dehydrated in a shaker under a constant agitation level, 60 min-1 for 2 hours. The water content of the product was

  15. Conservação da qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu' em ambiente refrigerado pela combinação de 1-MCP e atmosfera modificada Quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmon in cold storage by combining 1-MCP and modified atmosphere

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    Luiz Carlos Argenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou os efeitos do inibidor da ação do etileno 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno, da AM (atmosfera modificada e do oxidante de etileno KMnO4 (permanganato de potássio sobre a qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu' após a armazenagem refrigerada. Os fatores 1-MCP, AM e KMnO4 foram combinados de quatro maneiras, correspondendo aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 Controle + AM + KMnO4;T2 1-MCP + AM + KMnO4; T3 1-MCP + AM, e T4 1-MCP + AA (AA=atmosfera do ar. Frutos maduro-firmes com coloração da casca predominantemente amarela foram colhidos em sete pomares comerciais no nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Parte dos frutos foi exposta a 0.3 µL L-1 de 1-MCP por 12 h em 24 h após a colheita. A seguir, os frutos foram armazenados sob AA ou sob AM induzida por bolsas de polietileno (0,04 mm de espessura, por 20; 40; 60 ou 80 dias a -0,1±0,8ºC. Dois sachês contendo 8,5 g de Alumina-KMnO4foram adicionados em cada uma das bolsas de polietileno dos tratamentos um e dois, antes de elas serem vedadas. Os frutos de cada período de armazenagem refrigerada foram analisados após 0; 3; 6 ou 9 dias de prateleira sob AA a 22±1ºC. O tratamento 1-MCP retardou o amolecimento da polpa, mas não afetou consistentemente o desenvolvimento de 'estrias' e manchas pretas na superfície dos frutos armazenados sob AM contendo KMnO4. A incidência de 'estrias' e manchas pretas em frutos tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AM foi significativamente menor que a de frutos tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AA. Houve efeitos aditivos do 1-MCP e AM na conservação da firmeza e na redução de danos por frio manifestados pela formação de textura gel-firme e manchas translúcidas na casca. O uso de KMnO4 não aumentou a conservação da qualidade dos frutos quando tratados com 1-MCP e armazenados sob AM. O desenvolvimento dos distúrbios da epiderme dependeu do pomar e de períodos de armazenagem e prateleira. No entanto, os benefícios da combinação de 1-MCP e

  16. Evaluation of the formation of volatiles and sensory characteristics of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) fruit wines using different commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Cai; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Liu, Sheng Jiang; Cheng, He Xing; Xu, Na; Yu, Hai Yan; Xiao, Zuo Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of five strains (IFFI 1346, IFFI 1363, CICC 31482, D254 and CGMCC2.346) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic profiles of fermented persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) musts. A total of 50 and 60 compounds were identified in persimmon wine by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to odour activity values (OAVs), 26 detected compounds showed an OAV above 1. Principal component analysis explained the distribution of these persimmon wines on the basis of volatile compounds with OAV>1. The volatile compounds with high OAV included ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, linalool and geraniol. Quantitative descriptive analysis was employed. The result showed that persimmon wines fermented with strains IFFI 1363 and D254 were strongly correlated with persimmon, aroma harmony, fruity, fusel and taste balanced, fullness, hedonic scale. Therefore, the two yeast strains could be used as starter culture for persimmon wine production.

  17. Aplicação de 1-MCP em caqui 'quioto' armazenado sob refrigeração e atmosfera controlada Effect of 1-MCP applied at different times during cold and Ca storage

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    Auri Brackmann

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o efeito do 1-MCP aplicado em diferentes épocas durante o armazenamento refrigerado (AR e em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a qualidade do caqui cv. Quioto. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 30 frutos, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: armazenamento refrigerado (AR; armazenamento refrigerado(AR + 1-MCP (1000ppb no início do armazenamento; armazenamento refrigerado(AR +1-MCP (1000ppb no final do armazenamento; armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC com 1kPa de O2 e AC 5kPa de CO2 e AC com 1kPa de O2 e 5kPa de CO2 + 1-MCP no fim do armazenamento, após 2 meses de armazenamento a -0,5ºC mais 5 dias de exposição dos frutos a 10ºC e 3 dias a 20ºC. No armazenamento refrigerado, o 1-MCP, aplicado tanto no início do armazenamento como no final, proporcionou maior firmeza de polpa. Para os parâmetros: sólidos solúveis totais, podridão e escurecimento da película, não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 1-MCP, tanto no início como no final do armazenamento mantém elevada a firmeza de polpa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP applied at different period during the cold storage (CS and in controlled atmosphere (CA on the quality of 'Quioto'. Persimmon. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 30 fruits and the tested treatments were: cold storage (CS, cold storage + 1-MCP (1000ppb in the beginning of the storage, cold storage + 1-MCP (1000ppb in the end of the storage period; storage in controlled atmosphere (CA with 1kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2 and 1kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2 + 1-MCP in the end of the storage, after 2 months of storage at -0.5ºC, plus 5 days at 10ºC and 3 days at 20ºC. In the cooled storage, the 1-MCP, applied as in the beginning of the storage as in the end of the storage, provided greater pulp firmness

  18. Anticancer activity of calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through downregulation of cyclin D1 via inducing proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Bin; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Son, Ho-Jun; Um, Yurry; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2017-09-05

    Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β-catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

  19. VALORIZACIÓN DEL CULTIVO DEL CAQUI

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ LAS HERAS, RUTH

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Fruit and vegetable industries generate millions of tonnes of wastes per year. In many cases, these wastes generate environmental problems so it is necessary to manage them properly. However, food waste may also be recovered. In the last years, the extraction of bioactive compounds is becoming a strategy with great potential. The design of integrated processes which could transform these organic by-products into products that generate economic and environmental benefits is the key to sus...

  20. Flavonoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells by activation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Ren, Kai; Dong, Huanhuan; Song, Fei; Chen, Jing; Guo, Youtian; Liu, Yanshan; Tao, Weijie; Zhang, Yali

    2017-09-25

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are extensively used in Chinese medicine and are also excellent source of dietary polyphenols. Here we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of the total flavonoids extracted from persimmon leaves (FPL) in PC-3 cells. After treating cells with different concentration of FPL, Quercetin or Rutin for 24 h, MTT and flow cytometry were used to measure the cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate and cell cycle arrest. Compared with Quercetin and Rutin, FPL showed higher cytotoxicity at 12.5 and 25 μg/ml concentrations and also presented lower IC50 in PC-3 cells. In addition, FPL induced PC-3 cells apoptosis by activation of oxidative stress, as detected by ROS, MDA, nitrite and iNOS activity, and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Morphological changes, inactivation of Bcl-2, upregulation of BAX, release of cytochrome c and activation of downstream apoptotic signaling in FPL-treated PC-3 cells also suggested apoptotic death. Meanwhile, FPL significantly inhibited migration of PC-3 cells. Therefore, FPL inhibited proliferation, migration and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pesticide residues in cashew apple, guava, kaki and peach: GC-μECD, GC-FPD and LC-MS/MS multiresidue method validation, analysis and cumulative acute risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Andréia Nunes Oliveira; Mello, Denise Carvalho; Goes, Fernanda Caroline Silva; Frota Junior, Elcio Ferreira; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2014-12-01

    A multiresidue method for the determination of 46 pesticides in fruits was validated. Samples were extracted with acidified ethyl acetate, MgSO4 and CH3COONa and cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA. The compounds were analysed by GC-FPD, GC-μECD or LC-MS/MS, with LOQs from 1 to 8 μg/kg. The method was used to analyse 238 kaki, cashew apple, guava, and peach fruit and pulp samples, which were also analysed for dithiocarbamates (DTCs) using a spectrophotometric method. Over 70% of the samples were positive, with DTC present in 46.5%, λ-cyhalothrin in 37.1%, and omethoate in 21.8% of the positive samples. GC-MS/MS confirmed the identities of the compounds detected by GC. None of the pesticides found in kaki, cashew apple and guava was authorised for these crops in Brazil. The risk assessment has shown that the cumulative acute intake of organophosphorus or pyrethroid compounds from the consumption of these fruits is unlikely to pose a health risk to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki on a broad range of viruses.

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    Kyoko Ueda

    Full Text Available Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus. We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

  3. Boron and calcium sprayed on 'Fuyu' persimmon tree prevent skin cracks, groove and browning of fruit during cold storage Boro e cálcio pulverizado em árvores de caqui "Fuyu" previnem fissuras, estrias e escurecimento do fruto durante o armazenamento refrigerado

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    Valdecir Carlos Ferri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Flesh softening, skin browning and rotting are chief problems during cold storage (CS of 'Fuyu' Persimmon. We studied the effects of boron (B and calcium (Ca sprayed on the trees during three consecutive years, on the development of skin cracks, grooves and browning in persimmon fruit under CS in Farroupilha, RS, Brazil (29°31' south, 51°21' west, about 750 m altitude. A homogeneous orchard area of 0.5 ha was delimitated and three sets of five plants for each treatment were randomly selected. The persimmon trees were sprayed at a 20 day interval, from 15th January until harvest, for three consecutive years, with: T1 water; T2 calcium nitrate at 0.5% (m/v; T3 calcium chloride at 0.5% (m/v; and T4 boron at 0.3% (m/v. The fruit were harvest with orange-reddish colour; 18-20°Brix, pulp firmness of 45 to 60N, and kept under CS at 0±1°C for 45 days. The fruits were evaluated immediately before CS, after six hours at 23±2°C after removal from CS, and after four days at 23±2°C after removal from CS. Equally boron and calcium sprayed on the trees prevented skin cracks, skin grooves and skin browning. Besides, when boron was sprayed on the trees, the mentioned effects were additive in the following year.As principais alterações indesejáveis observadas no período pós-colheita de caquis em armazenamento refrigerado (AR são a perda de firmeza de polpa, e a ocorrência de escurecimento epidérmico e de podridões. Este trabalho teve por objetivo principal estudar as respostas da aplicação de boro (B e cálcio (Ca, em três safras sucessivas, na prevenção da ocorrência de fissuras, estrias e escurecimento epidérmico de caquis "Fuyu". No pomar (Farroupilha-RS-Brasil, 29°31' Sul, 51°21' Oeste, aproximadamente 750m altitude delimitou-se uma área homogênea de 0,5ha., marcando-se, ao acaso, três repetições de cinco plantas para cada tratamento: T1 - controle, caquizeiros não-pulverizados com B e Ca; T2 - pulverizações com Nitrato de

  4. Comportamento pós-colheita de caquis cv. Fuyu, através da atmosfera modificada passiva e da adsorção de etileno, armazenados sob refrigeração Postharvest behavior of persimmons cv. Fuyu through passive modified atmosphere and ethylene adsorption stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, da UFPel/Pelotas, com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e do adsorvedor de etileno em caquis cv. Fuyu. Na safra de 2000-2001, os frutos foram armazenados a granel, em embalagens de PEBD de 0,022 mm contendo doze e 40 frutos e em embalagens de PEBD de 0,033 mm contendo doze frutos, sendo que apenas metade das embalagens possuía o sachê adsorvedor de etileno. De acordo com as variáveis analisadas (distúrbios fisiológicos, concentração/produção de CO2 e etileno, os frutos acondicionados nas embalagens de 0,022 mm contendo doze frutos, com e sem o adsorvedor, apresentavam-se em estádio menos avançado de amadurecimento e com qualidade superior aos demais tratamentos. Já na safra de 2001 - 2002, sob os mesmos parâmetros avaliados no ano anterior, foram testados o armazenamento a granel e o armazenamento em embalagens de PEBD de 0,022 mm, contendo doze, dezoito e 24 frutos, também com e sem a utilização de sachê adsorvedor de etileno. Após 90 dias de armazenamento refrigerado (AR, mais os cinco dias de simulação de comercialização, os frutos acondicionados nas embalagens de 0,022 mm, contendo doze e dezoito frutos, independentemente do sistema de adsorção de etileno, apresentaram os melhores resultados em todas as variáveis testadas.The experiments were carried out at the Science and Technology Agroindustry Department of UFPel/Pelotas, with the objective to improve the use of polyethylene packing of low density (PPLD and the adsorption of ethylene, in Fuyu persimmons. During the season of 00/01, the fruits were stored without packing, in 0,022 mm PPLD packing with capacity for 12 or 40 fruits and in 0,033 mm PPLD packing with capacity for 12 units. Except for the control treatment, all the other treatments were combined with (50% or without (50% ethylene absorption. According to the analyzed

  5. Controle da maturação e conservação da qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'Fuyu' pelo manejo do etileno Postharvest control of ripening and quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmon fruit by ethylene handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Golin Krammes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o impacto do tratamento 1-MCP sobre a conservação da qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu', e como a exposição pós-colheita ao etileno pode afetar a eficácia do 1-MCP. Os frutos foram colhidos em quatro diferentes estádios de maturação conforme indicado pelo índice de coloração da casca, após a maturação fisiológica. Frutos foram tratados com 0,1 e 1 µL ·L-1 de 1-MCP, um dia após a colheita, e mantidos a 23ºC por até 45 dias, em ar ambiente contendo baixa (d" 0,1 µL ·L-1 ou alta (3 ± 2 µL ·L-1 concentração de etileno. O tratamento com 1-MCP retardou o amolecimento da polpa, o desenvolvimento da coloração dos frutos e o aumento da produção de etileno, mas não alterou o teor de açúcares solúveis e a acidez titulável. A vida pós-colheita (período entre a colheita e o amolecimento da polpa dos frutos foi aumentada por até 20 dias em relação aos frutos não-tratados. Frutos colhidos em estádio avançado de maturação apresentaram menor vida pós-colheita, independentemente do tratamento 1-MCP. O benefício do tratamento 1-MCP foi maior para frutos colhidos precocemente e para frutos expostos a 3 µL ·L-1 de etileno.The present study determined the impact of 1-mcp treatment on the quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmons, and how the postharvest exposure to ethylene could influence the 1-MCP effectiveness. The fruits were harvested at four different ripening stages according to skin color, after physiologic maturity. Fruits were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 µL ·L-1 of 1-MCP one day after harvest, and then held at 23ºC for up to 45 days in air with low (d" 0,1 µL ·L-1 or high (3 ± 2 µL ·L-1 ethylene . 1-MCP treatment delayed fruit softening and changes of skin color and the increase in the ethylene production, whereas it had no effect on soluble solids content and on titratable acidity. The postharvest life (period between harvest and pulp softening of fruits was increased for up to 20 days

  6. Co-production of tannase and pectinase by free and immobilized cells of the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis MP-10 isolated from tannin-rich persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Mesut

    2013-02-01

    Hyper tannase and pectinase-producing yeast Rhodotorula glutinis MP-10 was isolated from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits. The main pectinase activity of yeast was exo-polygalacturonase. No pectin methyl esterase and too low pectin lyase activities were detected for this yeast. The maximum exo-activities of tannase and polygalacturonase were determined as 15.2 and 26.9 U/mL for free cells and 19.8 and 28.6 U/mL for immobilized cells, respectively. Immobilized cells could be reused in 13 successive reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum tannase and polygalacturonase activities. Besides, too little decreases in activities of these enzymes were recorded between 14 and 18 cycles. At the end of 18 successive reaction cycles, total 503.1 U/mL of polygalacturonase and 349.6 U/mL of tannase could be produced using the same immobilized cells. This is the first report on the use of free and/or immobilized cells of a microorganism for the co-production of tannase and pectinase.

  7. DEBRIDEMENT SEBAGAI TATALAKSANA ULKUS KAKI DIABETIK

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    Made Agustya Darmaputra Wesnawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported a case of female patient 45 years old with diagnose Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 withDiabetic Foot Ulcer Wagner grade 2 at region pedis dextra. Debridement was done in thispatient. The type of debridement was surgical debridement. The purpose of this procedure is toremove necrotic tissue and hyperkeratosis until reach the health tissue. After debridement, thewound was dressed with kassa sterile and elastic bandage. During treatment, there were no pus,bleeding, and unpleasant odor on wound, granulation tissue begin to appear, and pain on thepedis was reduced.

  8. POLITIK HUKUM PENANGGULANGAN TINDAK PIDANA TERHADAP PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA

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    fitri setiyani dwiarti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available abstractThis research aimed to describe the choice of law carried out by Local Government of Bandar Lampung in tackling illegal activities of street vendors in the Bambu Kuning Market. By using normative approach and utilizing secondary data, it could be concluded that use of a means of penal or (law criminal in a policy is a way to streamline the implementation of the regulation. In addition, it can be concluded that the existence of criminal in a regulation will only be effective if: 1 the criminal is seriously preventing, 2 criminal it does not cause an even more dangerous or harmful than would occur if the criminal is not charged, and 3 no other criminal that can effectively prevent the harm or loss smaller. The provision of criminal sanctions in a regulation serves to prevent the occurrence of crime, and in addition, if a crime has occurred, then the function of criminal provisions is to give deterrent effect to the perpetrators. Keywords: Legal Politics, Criminal Law and Street Vendors.

  9. TERAPI OKSIGEN HIPERBARIK SEBAGAI TERAPI TAMBAHAN UNTUK LUKA KAKI DIABET

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    Chilyatiz Zahroh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gangrenous wounds is one of the chronic complications of diabetes that most feared by every diabetic patient (Tjokroprawiro, 2007. Gangrenous wounds is a condition that begins from the tissue hypoxia where oxygen is reduced, it will affect the activity of vascular and cellular networks, which results in tissue damage (Guyton, 2006. TOHB (Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or HBO therapy (Hyperbaric Oxygen is a way to increase tissue oxygen levels, by reducing the swelling caused by vasoconstriction of blood vessels. At the same time, TOHB also increases oxygen levels in the blood (Neubauer, 1998. Oxygen is expected to penetrate through to the peripheral tissues are deprived of oxygen, so that the supply of nutrients and oxygen are met, so that the network can do metabolism and function (Smeltzer, 2002. Review was conducted at 10 research/article. Search strategy articles by using two ways: manual and online libraries. This search is getting 113 articles, but the total articles reviewed were the 10 articles. 1 studies are case reports and 9 research is experimental research with 5 studies using random techniques. TOHB with adequate doses can have a positive effect on wound healing and reduce the risk of amputation. TOHB beneficial to improve peripheral perfusion and decrease the incidence of major amputation. However, there has been no research on the psychology of the patient. Abstrak: Luka gangren merupakan salah satu komplikasi kronik DM yang paling ditakuti oleh setiap penderita DM (Tjokroprawiro, 2007. Luka ganggren merupakan keadaan yang diawali dari adanya hipoksia jaringan dimana oksigen dalam jaringan berkurang, hal tersebut akan mempengaruhi aktivitas vaskuler dan seluler jaringan, sehingga akan berakibat terjadinya kerusakan jaringan (Guyton, 2006. TOHB (Terapi Oksigen Hiperbarik atau Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy atau terapi HBO (Hyperbaric Oxygen merupakan cara untuk meningkatkan kadar oksigen jaringan, dengan jalan mengurangi pembengkakan akibat vasokonstriksi pembuluh darah.  Pada saat yang bersamaan, TOHB juga meningkatkan kadar oksigen dalam darah (Neubauer, 1998. Oksigen tersebut diharapkan mampu menembus sampai ke jaringan perifer yang kekurangan oksigen, sehingga suplai nutrisi dan oksigen terpenuhi, sehingga jaringan luka dapat melakukan metabolisme dan fungsinya (Smeltzer, 2002. Review ini dilakukan pada 10 hasil penelitian/artikel.  Strategi pencarian artikel dengan menggunakan dua cara, yaitu perpustakaan manual dan online. Pencarian ini mendapatkan 113 artikel, namun total artikel yang direview adalah 10 artikel. 1 penelitian merupakan laporan kasus dan 9 penelitian merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan 5 penelitian menggunakan tehnik random.TOHB dengan dosis yang adekuat dapat memberikan efek positif dalam proses penyembuhan luka dan menurunkan resiko amputasi. TOHB bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan perfusi perifer dan menurunkan kejadian amputasi mayor. Namun, belum ada penelitian tentang aspek psikologi pasien. 

  10. Analisis Pengaruh Bentuk Telapak Kaki Terhadap Kelelahan Fisik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herianto Herianto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity over time can cause fatigue during exercise such as walking or light running. Physical fatigue effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Factors that can cause fatigue are gender, cardiovascular disease status, sport exercise habits, BMI (Body Mass Index and study activities during a week. Physical fatigue also could be caused by factors shape of your foot, especially the form of flat feet/pesplanus in type 1, 2or 3. Subjects of this research were students of Industrial Engineering Gadjah Mada University ages 19 to 23 years with the aim of sampling techniques to the criteria of having normal or flat feet. The subjects run normally using a tread mill with a speed of 4 miles per hour for 6 minutes. The variables measured were heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate was measured in three sessions among others before, during and after the experiment using a heart rate monitor while blood pressure was measured before and after the experiment. There are significant differences in systolic blood pressure before and after the experimental on indicator of sex, heart rate after experimental on indicator of disease status and heart rate on indicator exercise habit for normal feet. Then in the form of pesplanus foot type 1, there are significant differences like systolic and diastolic blood pressure after experimental on indicator of BMI (Body Mass Index and systolic blood pressure on indicator of pre-experimental study activities during a week, in which a significant difference in respondents who did not have study activities of the respondents who went tocollegein6-10 hours. In the form of pesplanus foot type 2 there is a significant difference in heart rate when experimental on indicator of cardiovascular disease status.

  11. Permasalahan Lokasi Pedagang Kaki Lima dalam Ruang Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widjajanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is inseparable from the problem of the urban informal. The informal sector is a sector that will always grow and thrive. Various issues that arise in urban development is the problem of the location of the activity space street vendors (PKL in the urban space. The problem of space activity occurs in the informal street vendors space settlements or urban space. PKL is one of the supporters of the activity in a public space that can be categorized as an 'activity support'. These activities tend to be located in a place according to its activity. Meanwhile, there is little discussion of urban street vendors in view space. Until now, the discussion is more to the economic, social and policy. In addition, many of the types of activities studied, space requirements, physical arrangement and the arrangement of the display / architectural aesthetics. The methodology used in conducting the study concerns the location of street vendors in the urban space using the method of literature revie. Given this method, can identify deficiencies / weaknesses of the informal sector theory and the theory of space to determine the location of street vendors in urban spaces. The conclusion of this research is to study the behavior of PKL space that affect the determination of the location of trade.Abstract : Urban development is inseparable from the problem of the urban informal. The informal sector is a sector that will always grow and thrive. Various issues that arise in urban development is the problem of the location of the activity space street vendors (PKL in the urban space. The problem of space activity occurs in the informal street vendors space settlements or urban space. PKL is one of the supporters of the activity in a public space that can be categorized as an 'activity support'. These activities tend to be located in a place according to its activity. Meanwhile, there is little discussion of urban street vendors in view space. Until now, the discussion is more to the economic, social and policy. In addition, many of the types of activities studied, space requirements, physical arrangement and the arrangement of the display / architectural aesthetics. The methodology used in conducting the study concerns the location of street vendors in the urban space using the method of literature revie. Given this method, can identify deficiencies / weaknesses of the informal sector theory and the theory of space to determine the location of street vendors in urban spaces. The conclusion of this research is to study the behavior of PKL space that affect the determination of the location of trade.

  12. Molecular diversity in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... REFERENCES. Aras S (2003). Molecular discrimination of some Dogrose (Rosa sp.) growing around Tokat region in Turkey by RAPD markers. Biotech. Biotech. Eq. 17: 27-34. Aras S, Polat JB, Cansaran D, Söylemezoğlu G (2005). Genetic. Identification of Büzgülü Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) grown ...

  13. Gerakan Sosial Pedagang Kaki Lima (Studi Tentang Hegemoni pada Pedagang Kaki Lima Di Pasar Bambu Kuning Kota Bandar Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Hermanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research aiming to study the street vendors’ social movement in the city of Bandar Lampung, particularly in Bambu Kuning market, by using the Marxist conflict perspective. The Bandar Lampung municipal policy to sweep the street vendors has caused them to resist. This research is qualitative, using observation technique, participative observation, in-depth interviews, and library research for data collecting. There are five important discoveries in the research; 1 street vendors movement, in Marxist conflict perspective, is a resistant act both openly and closely or latent. 2 Sweeps by Bandar Lampung municipality, which is based on public agreement on certain values such as bylaws Perda No 8 Tahun 2000 which aims at the street vendors, is a form of hegemony. 3 Movement by the street vendors, both openly and latently, which is perceived as a resistance in this research, is a counter hegemony. 4 Hegemony, resistance, negotiation, and compromise are indispensable things in a conflict between the ruling class and the subject class. 5 In Bambu Kuning market, there are people who control the street vendors as well as subordinated by the Bandar Lampung municipality. They are the market thugs usually called preman. Their position in the Bambu Kuning case is in “grey area” or not clear; representing none of both the street vendors and the municipality. Key words: social movement, street vendors, hegemony, resistance

  14. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  15. A Long and Winding Road: Cross-Cultural Connections Between Brazil, Australia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My first experiences of Japan were so early in life that they are hazy in my memory. My neighbours in São Paulo City, a sprawling megalopolis in Brazil, were Japanese migrants. I was seven or eight when I first saw their festivals and performance presentations from my parents’ bedroom window. I remember my awe at their colourful costumes, masks and music. On a daily basis I remember the pungent smell of the soy sauce they produced in a factory in their backyard. We also shopped at a small neighbourhood supermarket called Shinohara. We bought paper and sticks for our kites from a general store owned by another Japanese migrant. We would tell our mother that we were going to ride our bikes to the ‘Japonesa’ to get kite material. At home, caqui (Japanese kaki was my favourite fruit, but we also had all sorts of vegetables the Japanese migrants brought from Japan. We even called Japanese pumpkin by its Japanese name – kabocha.

  16. STUDI KOMPARATIF PERKEMBANGAN USAHA PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA DI KAWASAN SIMPANG LIMA SEBELUM DAN SESUDAH RELOKASI

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    Reni Shinta Dewi, Dinalestari Purbawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, one of the policies at Semarang Government is to the arrangement of the cadgers with the concept of the food court at Simpang Lima area. A number of shelter used as a culinary center grouped by type of business. This condition is apparently an impact on the development of the business has been run by cadgers. Therefore this study aimed to determine differences in business development both before and after the relocation of cadgers in the area of Simpang Lima Semarang. The study was conducted in the city of Semarang with a sample of 45 traders who occupy the shelter. The research method used was a comparative study. Further variables that all indicators have met the validity will be tested using different test Paired Sample T- Test. The results showed that there are differences in the development of business both before and after the relocation of cadgers in the area of Simpang Lima Semarang better on the indicators of turnover, profit/gain levels, the extent of effort, comfort, venture capital, number of employees and number of consumers. From the factors of business growth can be seen that the factor turnover, profit/gain levels, the extent of the business, venture capital, number of employees, the number of consumers and the number of productivity by traders felt better when compared before relocation than after relocation. Meanwhile as for the comfort factor by merchants considered to be in good condition at the time after relocation. Recommendations can be given the necessity of the payment made at one door/cashier using the concept that each customer can buy in any shop without fear that the buyer does not pay for the food they buy it’s . This concept can be done with the dealer manager agreement with the merchant so good between the consumer and the merchant is not harmed.

  17. JAMUR PADA BUAH-BUAHAN, SAVURAN, KAKI LALAT DAN LINCKUNCAN DI PASAR TRADISIONAL DAN SWALAVAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nunik St Aminah; Supraptini Supraptini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract.Fungi is relevant problem to study, since humidity in Indonesia is about65(1/0-85% which is verysuitable for fungi to grow. The study has been identified some genuses of fungi grown on fruits and vegetables sold in traditional market and supermarket. There are 12 genuses of fungi found from fruits soldin traditional market at temperature 27°C-30°C. Those are Candida  sp.,Fusarium sp.,Homodendrum sp., Curvulania sp.,Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Geotrichum, Alternaria,Penicillium,  Muccor, A...

  18. Extraction, Identification and Photo-Physical Characterization of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. Carotenoids

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    Khalil Zaghdoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments were extracted and purified from persimmon fruits using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE. Eleven pigments were isolated and five of them were clearly identified as all-trans-violaxanthine, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin all-trans-cryptoxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. To evaluate the potential of 1O2 quenching of the purified carotenoids, we used a monocarboxylic porphyrin (P1COOH as the photosensitizer to produce 1O2. The rate constants of singlet oxygen quenching (Kq were determined by monitoring the near-infrared (1270 nm luminescence of 1O2 produced by photosensitizer excitation. The lifetime of singlet oxygen was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of carotenoids in hexane. Recorded Kq values show that all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-zeaxanthin quench singlet oxygen in hexane efficiently (associated Kq values of 1.6 × 109, 1.3 × 109, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 109 M−1·s−1, respectively. The efficiency of singlet oxygen quenching of β-cryptoxanthin can thus change the consideration that β-carotene and lycopene are the most efficient singlet oxygen quenchers acting as catalysts for deactivation of the harmful 1O2.

  19. Informasi dari Feses dan Jejak Kaki Rusa Sambar (Cervus unicolor serta Implikasinya pada Akurasi Penaksiran Populasi

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    Rachmat Budiwijaya Suba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information from Feces and Foot Tracks of Sambar Deer(Cervus unicolor, and Its Implication on PopulationEstimation This study aims to investigate Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor ecology from the encounter of pellet piles groups and tracks in the study area. This study was carried out in Swanslutung village, one of the villages in the Paser District, East Kalimantan, where the hunting pressure is still relatively high and local people still depend on hunting for bush-meat of Sambar Deer. Further discussion addresses to find accurate and reliable scheme of population etimate. Average density estimate for the study area, based on the groups of pellet piles count, was 3.01 + 0.17 individuals/km2. Tracks can give information about sex and age classes, some of essential parts to study population dynamic of Sambar Deer. Dispersion of pellet piles groups and tracks can be used in tracking to study home range and territories of the species.

  20. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI LOTION MINYAK KAYU MANIS TERHADAP Staphylococcus epidermidis PENYEBAB BAU KAKI

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    Fitri Apriliyani Tiran

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis. Moreover, cinnamon oil and its formulation showed similar antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Keywords : antibacterial activity, cinnamon oil, lotion, Staphylococcus epidermidis

  1. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Terhadap Kaki Tikus Jantan yang Diinduksi λ-Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Sipayung, Presty

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process, which is often associated with pain and involve events such as increased vascular permeability, increased protein denaturation and membrane changes. One of the medicinal plants used for the treatment of inflammatory / anti-inflammatory is the leaves of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Moringa leaves have the potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory medicine because it contains polyphenols, saponins and essential oils. This study aims to determine ...

  2. Evaluation studies of persimmon plant (Diospyros kaki) for physiological benefits and bioaccessibility of antioxidants by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Las Heras, Ruth; Pinazo, Alicia; Heredia, Ana; Andrés, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes along gastrointestinal digestion. The evolution of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was studied using the recent harmonized in vitro protocol published by Minekus et al. (2014). The digestion was performed with and without digestive enzymes. Results showed aqueous leaf extract was richer in antioxidants than the fruit or the extracted fibres. Nevertheless, persimmon-leaf antioxidants were more sensitive to the digestive environment. In general, the oral conditions greatly affected the antioxidants, while gastric digestion led to slight additional losses. The intestinal step enhanced polyphenols and flavonoids solubility coming from the fruit and fibres. Additionally, the presence of digestive enzymes positively contributed to antioxidant release throughout digestion. Finally, the bioaccessibility of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of persimmon fruit were 1.4, 1.0 and 3.8 times higher than in aqueous leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pengalaman Pasien Luka Kaki Diabetik dalam Menjalani Perawatan Luka dengan Metode Moisture Balance di Asri Wound Care Center Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Yosefine, Anita Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Moisture balance is a new method in wound treatment which prioritizes moisture-based treatment. It is important to be applied in diabetic foot treatment in order to accelerate the process of wound healing. The research used phenomenological design which was aimed to explore the experience of diabetic foot wound patients in wound treatment with moisture balance method. The samples were ten respondents, taken by using purposive sampling technique. The research was conducted in Asri Wound Care C...

  4. Hubungan Lama Menderita Diabetes Melitus Dengan Pengetahuan Pencegahan Luka Kaki Diabetes di RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Aster Primawati

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is the ulcer with the highest incidence rate compared to other ulcer among the whole patients who get wounded. There are many factors that influence the incidence of diabetic foot ulcer, such as the length of Diabetes Mellitus Suffering. Such ulcer is mainly found in patients who have been suffered from Diabetes Mellitus for 10 years or more. If blood sugar rate is uncontrolled, there will be vascular complications which cause macroangiopathy leading to v...

  5. PEMBINAAN PEDAGANG MAKANAN KAKI LIMA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HIGIENE DAN SANITASI PENGOLAHAN DAN PENYEDIAAN MAKANAN DI DESA PENATIH, DENPASAR TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sujaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally street vendor has little knowledge on hygiene and sanitation of food handling. Usually they trade in a night market or on street sides. There are two markets in Penatih Village that operate night market. Both markets located in a strategic location thus they have many visitors every day. In these two markets there are some vendors that need to be counseled and assisted in order to improve their knowledge on hygiene and sanitation of food handling. The counseling and assistance was conducted every week from 25 September to 10 October 2009, with 10 vendors as target participants. The venues were located in Penatih Market and Agung Market, Penatih Village, East Denpasar. The activities were conducted in the form of counseling and assisting during trading hours towards the participants in regards of hygiene and sanitation of food handling. In order to evaluate and measure the knowledge improvement of the participants, pre test and post test were carried out. The result shows that, most of participants have less knowledge on food additives in terms of usage, types and risk of usage. The participants have good knowledge on usage of clean water for utensil and food washing as well as knowledge on personal hygiene. It is recommended to conduct a continuous and regular counseling to street vendors with the involvement of local primary health care (puskesmas.

  6. Perumusan Persepsi Kenyamanan Termis Pejalan Kaki di Iklim Tropis Lembab dan Membandingkan dengan Rumus untuk Iklim lainnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangkertadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about development a regression equation to determine the perception of thermal comfort for pedestrians in the humid tropical climate. Methods used was field studies and questionnaires to 60 samples as respondents in Manado. Each of the respondents was asked to act as pedestrian but walked on a treadmill for 2 minutes 5 five times. They regrouped into two parts, one who walked under open-sky and another group was under the shade of trees. Measurements of climate variables include air temperature, air humidity, radiation temperature, land surface temperature and solar radiation. Measurements to the respondents were their height, weight and skin temperature. By using statistical approach it is obtained a regression equation "Y=- 6.1369 + 0.479 Adu + 0.1143 Ta + 0.0376 Trm + 0.2541 RH + 1.6793 clo". The equation was then validated by comparison with other equations of non-tropical humid climate case. It is found that the empirical regression equations of outdoor thermal comfort developed by means of field studies in a certain climatic conditions could not be applied for a wide range of climate.

  7. Perumusan Persepsi Kenyamanan Termis Pejalan Kaki di Iklim Tropis Lembab dan Membandingkan dengan Rumus untuk Iklim lainnya

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangkertadi; Reny Syafriny

    2012-01-01

    This article is about development a regression equation to determine the perception of thermal comfort for pedestrians in the humid tropical climate. Methods used was field studies and questionnaires to 60 samples as respondents in Manado. Each of the respondents was asked to act as pedestrian but walked on a treadmill for 2 minutes 5 five times. They regrouped into two parts, one who walked under open-sky and another group was under the shade of trees. Measurements of climate variables inclu...

  8. Environ: E00203 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00203 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Kaki calyx Persimmon calyx Crude drug Tannin, Trite...ame as: D07154 Ebenaceae (ebony family) Diospyros kaki mature fruit calyx; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  9. PENGARUH GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN TRANSFORMASIONAL DAN KOMPENSASI TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN DENGAN MOTIVASI SEBAGAI VARIABEL INTERVENING (STUDI PADA INDUSTRI ALAS KAKI PT. BO KYUNG PASURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Budi Priyanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation is also self motivation factor for employees, where those things end in high-low level of work result or performance. This research purposes to test the effect of transformational leadership style, compensation, and motivation of employee’s performance, motivation as an effect mediator from transformational leadership style and compensation to employee’s performance in PT. Bo Kyung Pasuruan. This research is explanatory. In this research uses 96 samples from 2719 employees that work in PT. Bo Kyung Pasuruan. The result of Partial Least Square (PLS this research shows that transformational leadership style is positively effected but not significant to motivation and employee’s performance. Motivation affect transformational leadership style of employee’s performance, and motivation does not influence compensation of employee’s performance in PT. Bo Kyung Pasuruan.

  10. High-quality cultivation of autumn chrysanthemum in summer by night cooling; Kaki, yakan reibo ni yoru akigiku no kohinshitsu saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokomichi, Y.; Egi, I.; Kajiwara, S. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    Almost all of white chrysanthemums for business are autumn chrysanthemums 'Shuho no chikara'. They are almost year-round cultivated in facilities. 'Shuho no chikara' is excellent in marketability that it is large-flowered, lasts long, and is not deformed in shape even if blown fully. It is a sort that is most demanded among the single-flowered chrysanthemums. Even in future, 'Shuho no chikara' will be treated as a main sort. The quality of this sort deteriorates at high temperature. Therefore, in summer, the sorts of summer and autumn chrysanthemums (e.g., 'Seiun') are cultivated on the coast of the Inland Sea (famous as a chrysanthemum-growing district) in Hiroshima, instead of 'Shuho no chikara'. Night cooling was combined with shading (shading device) for the control test of day length and temperature so as to cultivate high-quality 'Shuho no chikara' on the cost of the Inland Sea in summer. The result showed that high-quality cut flowers can be cultivated if the temperature at night is less than 27 degrees C. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Expression balances of structural genes in shikimate and flavonoid biosynthesis cause a difference in proanthocyanidin accumulation in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Ikegami, Ayako; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Junya; Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko; Yonemori, Keizo

    2009-10-01

    Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA) during development. Fruits of pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while fruits of the normal (non-PCNA) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. To understand the molecular mechanism for this difference, we isolated the genes involved in PA accumulation that are differentially expressed between PCNA and non-PCNA, and confirmed their correlation with PA content and composition. The expression of structural genes of the shikimate and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways and genes encoding transferases homologous to those involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds were downregulated coincidentally only in the PCNA type. Analysis of PA composition using the phloroglucinol method suggested that the amounts of epigallocatechin and its 3-O-gallate form were remarkably low in the PCNA type. In the PCNA type, the genes encoding flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for epigallocatechin biosynthesis showed remarkable downregulation, despite the continuous expression level of their competitive genes, flavonoid 3' hydroxylation (F3'H) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We also confirmed that the relative expression levels of F3'5'H to F3'H, and ANR to LAR, were considerably higher, and the PA composition corresponded to the seasonal expression balances in both types. These results suggest that expressions of F3'5'H and ANR are important for PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Lastly, we tested enzymatic activity of recombinant DkANR in vitro, which is thought to be an important enzyme for PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.

  12. Effectivity of Foot Care Education Program in Improving Knowledge, Self-Efficacy and Foot Care Behavior of Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Banjarbaru, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdalena Mahdalena

    2016-11-01

    Masalah kaki diabetik di Indonesia masih merupakan masalah besar dan masih memerlukan perhatian yang optimal. Edukasi perawatan kaki adalah salah satu upaya yang harus dilakukan dalam mencegah masalah kaki untuk pasien diabetes melitus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efektivitas program pendidikan perawatan kaki dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan, efikasi diri, dan perilaku perawatan kaki pasien diabetes di wilayah Banjarbaru. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah quasi experimental dengan prepost test, dilakukan di puskesmas wilayah Banjarbaru tahun 2013. Kelompok intervensi diberikan program pendidikan perawatan kaki. Sampel berjumlah 48 pasien (32 orang kelompok intervensi dan 16 orang kelompok kontrol menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Variabel yang diukur adalah pengetahuan, efikasi diri, dan perilaku perawatan kaki pasien diabetes melitus. Perlakuan yang diberikan pada responden berupa pendidikan kesehatan tentang perawatan kaki sebanyak dua kali. Setiap variabel diukur dua kali sebelum dan setelah intervensi. Uji pengetahuan diukur menggunakan Diabetic Foot Care Knowledge Questionnaire, efikasi diri diukur menggunakan Foot Care Confident Scale Self-Efficacy, dan perilaku perawatan kaki dinilai menggunakan Behavior Foot Care Questionnaire. Analisis data menggunakan Manova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan pada tingkat pengetahuan (nilai p = 0,001, efikasi diri (nilai p = 0,000 dan perilaku perawatan kaki (nilai p = 0,000 sebelum dan setelah intervensi.

  13. Turboatomizador e repasse com pistola manual na cobertura de pulverização de agrotóxicos em caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.f. Air-jet sprayer and spray gun in the pesticide spray coverage of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Riyuiti Higashibara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do caquizeiro vem crescendo em importância no Brasil e, com o aumento do cultivo, tem havido também incremento dos problemas relacionados a doenças e pragas. A pulverização de agrotóxicos é o método mais utilizado na prevenção e no controle desses problemas e a principal forma de aplicação é a pulverização hidráulica com auxílio de fluxo de ar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação da taxa de aplicação e do repasse na parte interna das plantas em pulverização com pistola manual, na cobertura de calda das folhas. A pulverização foi realizada em plantas de caquizeiro com 17 anos, utilizando-se equipamento composto de trator e pulverizador turboatomizador. A aplicação foi realizada com duas velocidades de avanço do equipamento, o que promoveu diferentes taxas de aplicação. Para a realização do repasse, utilizou-se pistola manual acoplada ao mesmo equipamento. Para a avaliação da cobertura, utilizou-se calda preparada com corante fluorescente dissolvido em água. Foram coletadas folhas nas posições externa e interna das plantas. Posteriormente, em sala escura e com iluminação ultravioleta para destacar a área atingida pelo corante fluorescente, as superfícies abaxial e adaxial de cada folha foram fotografadas com câmera digital. Cada imagem gerada foi submetida à análise pelo software SIARCS 3.0, resultando em porcentagem de cobertura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subsubdivididas com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (taxas alta e baixa de aplicação, com e sem repasse manual, localizações interna e externa da folha na planta. Foi avaliada a cobertura das superfícies abaxial e adaxial das folhas. Houve interação significativa entre tratamentos (taxa de aplicação e repasse manual, posição e superfície das folhas. A maior taxa de aplicação promoveu aumento significativo da cobertura na superfície abaxial das folhas, independentemente da posição destas na planta (interna ou externa. Houve efeito do repasse com pistola na cobertura da superfície abaxial das folhas situadas na posição interna, mas não na externa à planta. Considerando que a maioria dos agentes causadores de danos fitossanitários inicia a ocorrência na superfície abaxial das folhas, pode-se concluir que o repasse manual foi mais eficiente do que o aumento da taxa de aplicação, visando à cobertura nas folhas posicionadas no interior da planta.Persimmon crop is growing in importance in Brazil, and with the increase of the production area there also has been an increase in the problems related to diseases and pests. For the control and prevention of these problems, most often it is used pesticides spray, and one of the main techniques is the spray with the aid of air flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of changes in the application rate and transfer with a spray gun on the leaves mixture coverage. The spraying was performed using tractor and air flow sprayer. The application was performed with two forward speeds of the equipment, leading to different application rates. The transfer was made with a spray gun attached to the same equipment. For the assessment of the coverage it was used a mixture prepared with fluorescent tracer dissolved in water. Leaves were collected in the inside and outside of the tree. Later, in dark room with ultraviolet lighting to highlight the area affected by the fluorescent tracer, the upper and lower surfaces of each leaf were photographed with a digital camera. Each image was subjected to analysis generated by software SIARCS 3.0, resulting in percentage of coverage. It was used a randomized block design with subdivided parcels with four replications, being the treatments in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (high or low application rate, with or without transfer, inside or outside the tree. The evaluations were made in the upper and lower leaf surfaces. There was significant interaction between treatments (application rate and spray gun transfer, leaf position and surface. High application rate promoted a significant increase in the coverage of the lower leaves, regardless the site in the plant (inside or outside. The inside leaves had a better coverage with the spray gun transfer. As most of the agents of plant damage begin to occur in the lower surface of leaves, it can conclude that the spray gun transfer was more effective to cover the leaves inside the plant than increasing the application rate.

  14. Development of new varieties of melastomaceous flowers. Hybridization and affinity between plants of the melastomaceous genus; Shinhinshu kaki 'nobotan' no kaihatsu. 1. Nobotan zoku shokubutsu ni okeru kozatsu shinwasei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Three varieties of creeping melastomaceous plants are developed at the environmental research center of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., which will blossom in the flower-scanty, hot and close summer season to cover bear land in parks. Efforts are made to cause interspecific crossing between melastomaceous plants, and to develop their hybrids. Involved in the hybridizing process are five kinds of the melastomaceous plants, namely, M. candidum, M. dodecandrum, M. normale, M. sanguineum, and M. tetramerum. Whether there is fruiting to follow fertilization is judged from the dehiscence to follow the thickening of the ovary, and seeds are collected before starting to drift away. Budding rates are surveyed for 10,000 seeds sown in various combinations. The budding rate is found to be the highest with the hybrid of M. candidum and M. tetramerum, which is 28.02%, and the lowest with the hybrid of M. normale and M. tetramerum, which is 0.07%. There are some combinations that exhibit fruiting but not budding. (NEDO)

  15. Numerical simulation on flow and density field in summer in Kagoshima bay by using a multi-layer model; Taso model ni yoru Kagoshimawan no kaki no ryudo to mitsudoba no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, Y. [Water Works Bureau of Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulation was performed on sea water circulation and density field in Kagoshima Bay by using a multi-layer model to verify a model by comparing the simulation result with observation values. The numerical computation model had the Coriolis parameters constant and used the Cartesian coordinates. Based on the fact that the scale in the perpendicular direction is very small as compared with that in the horizontal direction, a hydrostatic pressure approximation was used for the pressure, and an approximation that keeps density constant was used for all the other items than buoyancy. Processes for scales smaller than the lattice size were expressed by vortex viscosity terms and vortex diffusion terms. As a result of calculations, good agreement with observation values was derived in counterclockwise flow in the end of the bay and flow from the bay center to the entrance of the bay. The vertical distribution of density depicts well how density forming layers are created. In the calculation values of water temperature and salt content, good agreement with the observations was shown in the water temperature even in a quantitative aspect, but not as good agreement in the salt content as in the water temperature. In calculations that consider precipitation and evaporation, only the salt content showed values close to the observation values. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL-1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg-1 citric acid and 10 g kg-1 calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. AN ANALISIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT DEATHS IN A HOSPITAL IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supardi Praptasuganda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dari 107 penderita kecelakaan lalu lintas yang dirawat dan meninggal di RS. DR. Cipto Mangunkusumo di Jakarta, 1984, 37% adalah pejalan kaki dan 36% adalah pengendara atau penumpang sepeda motor. Paling sedikit 65% dari kasus yang meninggal, kalau tidak semuanya, menderita cedera kepala dan 70% meninggal dalam waktu 2 hari setelah perawatan. Kematian pejalan kaki cenderung meningkat dengan meningkatnya usia dan hampir 50% disebabkan oleh karena tertabrak mobil. Pemakaian helm kepala bagi pengendara dan penumpang sepeda motor, sabuk pengaman bagi pengemudi dan penumpang ken­daraan bermotor lain dianjurkan untuk mencegah terjadinya cedera kepala. Diperlukan lebih banyak sarana pencegahan pasif untuk melindungi pejalan kaki.

  18. Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between Bacillus mojavensis and Alternaria alternata. Asma Milet, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Laid Dehimat, Asma Ait Kaki, Mounira Kara Ali, Philippe Thonart ...

  19. Pengaruh Tari Jawa Pada Tari Baladewan Banyumasan

    OpenAIRE

    -, Indriyanto

    2011-01-01

    Tradisi besar akan mempengaruhi tradisi kecil. Tari Jawa sebagai tradisi besar berpengaruh pada tari Baladewan Banyumasan sebagai tari tradisional kerakyatan dan sebagai tradisi kecil.  Pengaruh tari Jawa pada tari Baladewan dapat ditelaah melalui gerak tarinya.  Norma dasar menari pada tari Baladewan mempunyai kesamaan dengan norma dasar menari pada tari Jawa yaitu sikap kaki mendak, pupu mlumah, kaki malang, dada ndegég, Perut ngempis dan pantat ditarik ke belakang.  Kategori tari Bala...

  20. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aki mature fruit calyx; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drug...s and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...4] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  1. Desenvolvimento e reprodução da mosca-do-mediterrâneo em caquizeiro, macieira, pessegueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o desenvolvimento e reprodução de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae em frutos de caqui 'Fuyu', maçã 'Gala', pêssego 'Maciel' e uva 'Itália'. Foram feitas avaliações quanto a: duração e viabilidade do ovo, duração do estágio larval, peso de pupa, duração e viabilidade da pupa, duração do período ovo-adulto, razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição e oviposição, fecundidade diária e total e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. A maior duração do período ovo-adulto ocorreu em maçã, em consequência do aumento do estágio larval, seguido por uva, caqui e pêssego. Larvas que se alimentaram de pêssego apresentaram maior peso médio de pupa. A maior viabilidade pupal foi registrada em pêssego, equivalente à de uva e caqui. O período de pré-oviposição foi maior para fêmeas provenientes de maçã e uva. Fêmeas provenientes de pêssego apresentaram período de oviposição mais longo, além de maior fecundidade média diária e fecundidade total. A longevidade de adultos foi superior em insetos criados em pêssego. Frutos de pessegueiro são mais adequados para o desenvolvimento de C. capitata, em comparação aos de caqui, maçã e uva.

  2. OBTENCIÓN DE INGREDIENTES FUNCIONALES PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE ALIMENTOS ENRIQUECIDOS CON EXTRACTOS VEGETALES. INFLUENCIA DEL TRATAMIENTO DE CONSERVACIÓN SOBRE ALGUNOS COMPUESTOS BIOACTIVOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Carrión, María

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral se centra en la obtención de nuevos ingredientes ricos en compuestos bioactivos a partir de tejidos vegetales (caqui y pimiento) sometidos a distintos tratamientos de conservación como las altas presiones hidrostáticas (APH) y la pasteurización, con la finalidad de formular nuevos alimentos funcionales. Se estudió el efecto de un tratamiento específico de APH (200 MPa/6 min/25 ºC) y otro de pasteurización (70 ºC/15min) sobre la estructura y el conteni...

  3. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    vb) besar. Préstamo persa. Kaki (N; adj) tela fuerte de algodón del color de hierba seca que se emplea sobre todo en la confección de pantalones y americanas, color de esta tela. Préstamo persa. Kanuni. (N) regla fundamental que prescribe.

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 15, No 26 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between Bacillus mojavensis and Alternaria alternata · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Asma Milet, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Laid Dehimat, Asma Ait Kaki, Mounira Kara Ali, Philippe Thonart ...

  5. KAJIAN JALUR PEDESTRIAN SEBAGAI RUANG TERBUKA PADA AREA KAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widyati Purwantiasning

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Jalur pedestrian sudah seharusnya dapat menjadi fasilitas yang baik yang disediakan baik oleh pemerintah maupun lembaga swasta sebagai fasilitas untuk pejalan kaki. Kebutuhan fasilitas pejalan kaki sebagai ruang terbuka publik juga meningkat karena adanya penyesuaian gaya hidup dan standar hidup bagi masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya dan masyarakat Jakarta khususnya. Daerah jalur pejalan kaki memiliki banyak fungsi, salah satu fungsi mereka baik sebagai fasilitas untuk pejalan kaki, juga sebagai ruang terbuka untuk berbagai aktifitas diantaranya aktifitas social dan juga aktifitas lainnya. Sebuah jarak dari tempat tinggal ke tempat kerja harus direncanakan dan dirancang sebagai akses yang mudah dan dapat dicapai dengan berjalan kaki. Hal ini menjadi latar belakang mengapa konsep pedestrian penting untuk diterapkan dalam wilayah publik seperti area kampus. Namun pada kenyataannya jalur pedestrian yang ada masih jauh dari optimal dalam hal perencanaan, desain atau penggunaannya. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penerapan konsep pedestrianisasi dalam area kampus sebagai ruang terbuka bagi komunitas kampus baik untuk memfasilitasi kebutuhan sosial juga untuk beraktifitas di dalamnya. Sebagai fakta terlihat bahwa jumlah arus pejalan kaki dalam waktu area kampus cukup tinggi. Perlunya kegiatan bersosialisasi antara mahasiswa dan lain-lain sangat penting. Metode deskriptif serta metode studi banding telah dipilih sebagai metodologi penelitian. Kata kunci: jalur pedestrian, ruang terbuka, area kampus ABSTRACT. A pedestrian line should be a good facility provided either by government or private institutions as a tool for pedestrians. The need for pedestrian facilities as public open spaces have also increased due to an adjustment of lifestyle and standard of living for Indonesian community generally and Jakarta’s community particularly. Pedestrian areas have many functions, one of their functions either as a tool for pedestrians, also

  6. MASS TREATMENT OF FILARIASIS IN SIDONDO, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Putrali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengobatan massal terhadap penyakit Kaki Gajah telah dilakukan pada penduduk desa Sidondo, Sulawesi Tengah dengan menggunakan obat Filarzan, (diethylcarbamazine citrate. Delapan puluh tiga per cent dari penduduk telah tercakup pada pengobatan ini dan delapan puluh sembilan per cent dari penderita yang mengandung bibit penyakit ini dalam darahnya dapat disem­buhkan. Gejala-gejala samping ditemukan pada penderita dan reaksi dari pengobatan yang ditemukan diantara penduduk yang tidak melihatkan gejala

  7. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Deng

    Full Text Available Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies.This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers.Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms.The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  8. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  9. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. January-February 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    of education, the need to dominate, and finally the efforts to keep impurities such as pork, alcohol , Christian bibles, and crosses out of the country...confiscated my roller skates because they offended his sensibilities.] Many foreigners get around alcohol prohibitions by brew- ing their own beverages...including moonshine called Siddequi (my friend). Mackey ably highlights the busi- ness elite, including the Al-Rajhi, Al- Kaki Bin Mahfouz, and Bin Laden

  10. Flora, life form and chorological study of soil seed bank in Sisangan box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the soil seed bank flora of the Sisangan Box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark reserve by using seedling emergence method. 150 soil samples were collected during late June and early November by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 to a depth of 5 cm. Results showed 67 species, representing 63 genera and 38 families germinated from soil seed bank. 45 species belonging to 28 families and 59 species belonging to 32 families were recorded in June and November soil seed bank respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (7 species, 10.5%, Lamiaceae (6 species, 9%, Poaceae (5 species, 7.5% and Rosaceae (4 species, 6% which compromised 32.8% percent of the total species in the soil seed bank. Results also showed that Hemicrptophytes (28.4% and Euro-Sibria elements (23/9% were the most important biological spectrum and phytochorion respectivly in the soil seed bank of Sisangan forest. From the total number of species recorded in seed bank, 30 species (44.6 % were found only in the seed bank and never observed in above-ground vegetation. In this regard, seeds of 10 woody species including Albizia julibrissin, Ficus carica, Morus alba, Diospyrus lotus, Celtis australis, Gleditsia caspica, Buxus hyrcana, Ulmus minor, Zelkova carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus were found in the soil seed bank, from which only 6 species were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. This condition confirmed low similarity between above-ground vegetation and persistent soil seed bank and it also reiterated the importance of soil seed bank study for introducing more accurate capacity of plant biodiversity.

  11. Estresse salino associado à aplicação exógena de espermidina no acúmulo de glicina betaína em Guandu Salt stress associated to exogenous spermidine application on the accumulation of glycine betaine in pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Vinícius Pereira Destro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do estresse salino associado à aplicação exógena de espermidina (Spd nos genótipos de guandu, IAC Fava Larga e Caqui, no acúmulo de glicina betaína (GB, visando propor a sua utilização como marcador bioquímico-fisiológico à salinidade. O experimento foi instalado na Unesp, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, em Jaboticabal (SP, no período de outubro a novembro de 2005, conduzido em sala de crescimento, com irradiância de 190 µmol m-2 s-1, fotoperíodo de 12 horas, temperatura de 25ºC e U.R. de 40%. A semeadura foi realizada em areia estéril, com adequado suprimento hídrico. Após 10 dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para solução nutritiva por 20 dias para aclimatação. A seguir, as plântulas foram alocadas nos tratamentos, sendo utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 4 com os fatores genótipos (IAC Fava Larga e Caqui, Spd (0,0 e 0,5 mM e estresse salino (0, 20, 60 e 80 mM de NaCl. Após 20 dias sob estresse, foram determinados os teores de GB. Pelos resultados obtidos, a GB pode ser indicada como um marcador bioquímico-fisiológico do estresse salino para o 'IAC Fava Larga'.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of salt stress associated to exogenous spermidine (Spd application on the accumulation of glycine betaine in the pigeonpea genotypes IAC Fava Larga and Caqui. The use of this compatible osmolyte as a biochemical-physiological indicator of salinity was also evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Unesp, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, in Jaboticabal (SP, from October to November 2005, in a grow room with irradiance of 190 µmol m-2 s-1, photoperiod of 12 hours, temperature set to 25 ºC and the RH to 40%. Seeds were sowed in sterile sand with adequate water supply. After 10 days, seedlings were transferred to nutritive solution during 20 days for acclimation

  12. Shiatsu Di Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Shiatsu adalah sebuah kata dalam bahasa Jepang yang bila diterjemahkan secara harafiah artinya “tekanan jari”.Hal ini merupakan tekanan jari yang di berikan ke tubuh sebagai metode utama penerapan shiatsu untuk merangsang suatu respon penyembuhan.Namun,shiatsu lebih dari situ.Teknik shiatsu tidak hanya menggunakan jari,tetapi juga ibu jari,telapak tangan,lutut,lengan bawah,siku dan kaki.Lebih jauh lagi,kerena shiatsu dilakukan di lantai dan di tikar ataupun tempat tidur,shiatsu juga focus pad...

  13. カキ‘西条’における雄花の発見

    OpenAIRE

    江角, 智也; 渡辺, 諄; 小杉, 友華菜; 大畑, 和也; 板村, 裕之

    2015-01-01

    ‘Saijo’ persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is a local cultivar in western Japan and a signature agricultural product in Shimane Prefecture. ‘Saijo’ fruit has excellent eating quality with high sugar content, and long history of the cultivation. However, ‘Saijo’ has many problems, such as fruit softening and short shelf-life. The improvement of this cultivar by breeding techniques will contribute to overcome these problems and revitalize the fruit industry in region where it is cultivated. ‘Sai...

  14. Effect of Jojoba Oil Emulsion on Prolonging Storage Periods of Costata Persimmon Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    A.S.E. Abd-Allah; A.A. Eman; Abd El-Moneim; M.M.S. Saleh; M.A.A. El-Naggar

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons (2008-2009) and (2009-2010) on Costata persimmon fruits (Disopyros kaki, L) harvested at mature stage. Experimental fruits were divided into five similar groups; each of three boxes and each box about 2 kg. Fruits of each group were emulsified in one of the following jojoba oil emulsion concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Treated fruits were stored at 13+1oC and 90% RH. Weight loss percentage, decayed fruits, changes in fruit w...

  15. NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY (NPWT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT WOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesiana Heris Santy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications often experienced by people with diabetes are complications in the feet ( 15 % called diabetic foot ( Akhtyo , 2009 . Where the injury to the leg if not treated properly will lead to infections and ultimately need to be amputated .The purpose of writing articles is to review and discuss the evidence-based literature bersadarkanpraktice of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Effectiveness ( NPWT on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers.One technology that is used to prevent and avoid lower limb amputation is the technique of negative pressure or Negative Pressure Wound Therapy ( NPWT . This negative pressure technique has grown rapidly and now has been widely used in many countries , especially in Western European countries ( Germany and the United States . Negative pressure technique has the advantage that it is relatively cheaper cost than the use of hyperbaric oxygen . Results obtained by several studies that the use of NPWT may improve wound healing process through efforts to create a moist wound environment and decrease edema that becomes optimal wound healing , throw that out of the wound exudate so that the protease enzyme in the exudate also go wasted , this enzyme is known to interfere wound healing process . The other benefit is that it can stimulate cell growth by increasing angiogenesis physically , so that the growth of new cells will be maximal Abstrak : Komplikasi sering dialami pengidap diabetes adalah komplikasi pada kaki (15% disebut kaki diabetes (Akhtyo, 2009.Dimana luka pada kaki jika tidak ditangani dengan baik akan menyebabkan terjadinya infeksi dan akhirnya perlu di amputasi. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah mengkaji dan membahas literature bersadarkan evidence based praktice  tentang Efektifitas Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT pada penyembuhan ulkus kaki Diabetik. Salah satu teknologi yang digunakan untuk mencegah dan menghindari amputasi ekstremitas bawah adalah  teknik tekanan negatif atau Negative

  16. PENGGUNAAN BALUTAN MODERN (HYDROCOLOID UNTUK PENYEMBUHAN LUKA DIABETES MELLITUS TIPE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common complications experienced by sufferers of diabetes mellitus tipe II , complications in the feet is about 15% of diabetic foot wounds, This research aims to know the influence of the modern use of a bandage (Hydrocoloid on wound healing of diabetes mellitus type II. The design of this research uses experimental research design using One Group Pretest Post Test Design. Sampling purposive sampling was done with a sample of 10 people. Results of statistical tests taken before given a modern bandage (hydrocoloid (pre-test, is 37,40. After given a bandage for modern (post-test, was 33.53. Bivariat analysis results showed differences in average values of wound healing on the client during the 3 days of 3,86 with p value = 0.000 means there is influence on the modern use of a bandage (hydrocoloid on wound healing of type 2 diabetes mellitus .Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that modern bandage (hydrocoloid is effective in healing diabetic wounds. It’s expected to patient of diabetes mellitus can leverage modern bandage (hydrocoloid for wound healings with DM type II  as one way of healing that is safe and effective. Komplikasi yang paling sering dialami oleh penderita Diabetes Mellitus tipe II adalah komplikasi pada kaki sekitar 15% yang disebut luka kaki Diabetes , penanganan luka diabetik secara efektif dapat mencegah terjadinya amputasi pada kaki, Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk  mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan balutan modern (Hydrocoloid terhadap penyembuhan   luka diabetes mellitus tipe II , Desain Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian eksperimen dengan menggunakan One Group Pretest Post Test Design. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan secara purposive sampling dengan sample 10 orang. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan the pressure sore status tool (PSST diukur sebelum dan sesudah pemberian balutan sebanyak 3 kali untuk mengetahui pengaruh balutan modern hydrocoloid dilakukan  uji t

  17. Cennet Elması Püresinin Dondurarak Kurutma Kinetiğinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Dirim, Gülşah Çalışkan, S. Nur

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drying behavior of Trabzon persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) which grown in Kahramanmarashas been investigated as experimentally. Experiments have been made in a convective dryer at threedifferent drying air velocity (U=0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s) and at three different drying air temperatures(40, 50, and 60 °C). The experimental moisture data were fitted to some thin layer models (namelyHenderson-Pabis, Lewis and two-term exponential models) available in the literature. The two-...

  18. DESAIN DAN PERANCANGAN ALAT PENGEPRES GERAM SAMPAH MESIN PERKAKAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Indah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sayatan geram tidak beraturan diruang lingkup perusahaan jasa permesinan dapat membahayakan para operator dan karyawan yang ada diruang lingkup perusahaan jasa permesinan, peralatan yang dirancang  membantu proses mengepresan geram sampah mesin perkakas sehingga geram sampah mesin perkakas setelah di press terlihat rapih, tidak perlu mennggunakan tempat luas dan memudahkan pada saat dipindahkan atau pengangkutan lebih lanjut. Perancangan ini menggunakan solidworks dengan spesifikasi Kapasitas maksimal 2 ton Perancangan alat pengepres geram ini berukuran 24,4 cm × 24,4 cm ×  61,9 cm untuk blok ruang pengepresan 24,4 cm × 24,4 cm × 30 cm. Tinggi kaki penyangga atau kaki rangka 6 cm, hal ini bertujuan agar pada saat dioperasikan alat lebih kokoh tidak bergoyang. Tinngi sampah geram sebelum di pres 30 cm, maka volume awal 331,89 m3 dan tinggi sampah geram setelah di pres 13 cm, maka volume akhir menjadi 68,77 m3, Dengan penurunan sampah geram pada alat pengepres perubahan bentuk sampai 14,64 %.

  19. Perancangan Alat Ukur Sudut Tekuk Lutut Wireless menggunakan Sensor Gyroscope berbasis ATMega 328 dan ATMega 2560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEGUH PERKASA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada penelitian ini, sensor Gyroscope digunakan sebagai alat pengukur sudut lutut. Pengukuran sudut ini dilakukan untuk mendiagnosis penyakit pada pasien yang mengalami gangguan atau cedera lutut dan evaluasi pola jalan manusia. Alat pengukur sudut ini terdiri dari 3 sistem yaitu sistem tungkai bawah, sistem tungkai atas dan sistem komunikasi data. Media komunikasi data yang digunakan adalah radio frekuensi 2,4 GHz untuk mentransfer data sudut lutut antar sistem secara wireless. Sensor Gyroscope ditempelkan pada suatu divais mekanik berbahan acrylic sebagai representasi sistem tungkai kaki bawah dan sistem tungkai kaki atas. Kedua sensor tersebut digunakan untuk mengukur percepatan sudut dari kedua sistem tungkai kaki. Kemudian data tersebut diolah menjadi nilai sudut lutut menggunakan kontroler berbasis Arduino. Pengujian alat ini mencakup pengujian sistem tungkai bawah, sistem tungkai atas dan sistem komunikasi data. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh nilai error sebesar 3 derajat untuk sistem tungkai bawah dan 2 derajat untuk sistem tungkai atas terhadap hasil pengukuran dengan goniometer yang biasa digunakan untuk mengukur sudut lutut oleh tenaga medis. Sistem komunikasi data wireless juga telah berhasil mengirimkan data sudut secara utuh.Kata Kunci: Arduino, Gyroscope, Radio Frekuensi, Sudut lutut, Wireless.ABSTRACTGyroscope sensor was used to measure a knee angle. The angle measurement is useful to diagnose an early symptom of some patient with disorders or knee injuries as well as to evaluation of gait analysis. The device consist of three system i.e. lower limb system, upper limb system and communication. The radio frequency of 2.4 GHz was used to transfer knee angle data between two systems. Gyroscope sensor were affixed on upper and lower part of the mechanical hinge device that built from acrylic. These device device was representative of the knee joint. Both sensors were used to measure the angular acceleration between the upper

  20. PRIMARY CUTANEOUS HISTOPLASMOSIS PADA PASIEN DENGAN INFEKSI HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Upadana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis adalah penyakit granulomatosa disebabkan oleh jamur dimorphic Histoplasma capsulatum. Lesi kulit merupakan bentuk sekunder, tetapi dapat juga primer pada kasus self inoculation. Kasus adalah laki-laki 27 tahun dengan benjolan sejak 3 bulan yang lalu, diawali pada kedua kaki meluas ke tangan dan wajah. Pemeriksaan kulit didapatkan papul, nodul, dan ulkus dengan tepi landai, tertutup krusta tebal. Hasil pemeriksaan CD4 adalah 4/mm3. Pemeriksaan histopatologi pada stroma tampak sebaran sel histiosit mengandung mikroorganisme, bentuk bulat, berdinding tebal, berwarna eosinofilik, dan dikelilingi oleh clear halo. Positif dengan pewarnaan periodic acid schiff dan grocott methenamic silver, dan sesuai untuk Histoplasma capsulatum. Diagnosis pasien adalah primary cutaneous histoplasmosis dan diterapi flukonazol 200 mg IV dengan respon terapi yang baik. [MEDICINA 2013;44:113-117].

  1. Penalaran Ilmiah dalam Ciptaan-Ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Hidayat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang penalaran ilmiah dalam hasil ciptaan Bionik. Proses penalaran ilmiah sebagai bagian dari kemampuan berpikir manusia dalam ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions yang diwujudkan pada penelitian-penelitian antara gabungan biologi dan elektronik. Bionik merupakan gabungan dari kata biologi dan elektronik, sistem mekanik makhluk hidup yang berfungsi seperti organ atau anggota tubuh makhluk hidup, mulai dari tangan, kaki, pendengaran, hingga penglihatan, semua bisa diperbaiki atau diganti (prosthesis serta inspirasi teknologi pada semua makhluk hidup. Artikel secara rinci mengungkap konsep-konsep Bionik, ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik pada makhluk hidup (manusia, hewan dan tumbuhan, serta hubungan penalaran ilmiah dengan ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions. Penciptaan Bionik termasuk dalam penalaran ilmiah induktif, deduktif dan abduktif yang berarti terdapat adanya proposisi hukum (rule, proposisi tentang suatu kasus (case, dan terakhir proposisi tentang kesimpulan (result serta probabiltas yang tinggi yang terlepas dari falsifikasi (pseudo science.

  2. Variation of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acid in the Flesh of Persimmon Fruit among Different Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.. The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection. Both OA and UA were present in all of the investigated cultivars, except for three, ‘Hiratanenashi’, ‘Ribenhongshi’ and ‘Matsumotowase’. The OA content ranged from traces to 88.57 μg/g FW, and that of UA were between traces and 27.64 μg/g FW.

  3. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  4. INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Yeni Laksmini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].

  5. RANCANG BANGUN SISTEM PENCITRAAN RADIOGRAFI DIGITAL UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN LABORATORIUM 1 FISIKA MEDIK UNNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo Susilo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan modifikasi sistem penangkap gambar kedap cahaya yang dapat menampilkan langsung citra radiograf digital pada layar monitor PC dan menyimpan file radiograf tersebut sehingga bisa ditampilkan kembali. Penelitian ini bertujuan membangun model prototip sistem penangkap gambar berbasis kamera digital, sehingga hasilnya bisa diproses lebih lanjut menggunakan perangkat lunak pengolah citra berbasis Matlab. Hasil pemotretan dengan sinar-X pada benda uji dan volunteer digunakan untuk menguji keajegan hasil radiograf tersebut, dan diperoleh perbaikan kontras yang signifikan, ditunjukkan dengan tampilan histogram, nilai MSE dan PSNR yang sesuai. Aplikasi perangkat lunak tersebut dalam menganalisis radiograf benda uji, kaki, tangan serta stepwedge menunjukkan juga kenaikan ukuran file, kontras citra radiograf dan resolusi citra. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa pada model prototip penangkap gambar yang dilengkapi dengan perangkat lunak berbasis Matlab dapat dikembangkan untuk pemeriksaan radiografi digital yang handal, bisa ditangani sendiri, ramah lingkungan (tanpa zat kimia serta paper less, sesuai dengan pesan program konservasi Unnes.

  6. INTERVENSI ERGONOMI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SAINS MENGURANGI KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL SISWA SD 1 SANGSIT KECAMATAN SAWAN KABUPATEN BULELENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Wijana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains untuk menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. Pada kelompok kontrol pembelajarannya dengan cara konvensional (tanpa intervensi ergonomi dan kelompok eksperimen dengan intervensi ergonomi. Intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains mengacu pada pendekatan ergonomi (PE yakni gabungan antara SHIP dan TTG. Implementasi dari hal ini adalah melakukan perbaikan dan atau penataan terhadap instrumental input, environmental input dan porcess, sedangkan untuk di kelompok kontrol tidak dilakukan intervensi ergonomi, di mana kondisi instrumental input, environmental input dan process berlangsung secara konvensional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney dengan taraf signifikansi 5 %. Simpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah (1 intervensi ergonomi dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD  (p < 0,05; (2 Hasil pengukuran dengan nordic body map pada kelompok kontrol terjadi keluhan pada otot pinggang (86,1%, otot pantat (86,1%, otot punggung (84,8%, otot lengan atas kiri (78,8%, otot lengan atas kanan (67,9%, otot siku kanan (78,2%, otot siku kiri (74,6%, paha kanan (76,9%, paha kiri (75,7%, otot betis kanan  (66,1%, otot betis kiri (64,2%, otot pergelangan kaki kanan (67,3%, dan otot pergelangan kaki kiri (65,5%. Dengan demikian dapat disarankan bahwa intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran dengan menggunakan PE sebaiknya diterapkan dalam pembelajaran sains di SD karena telah terbukti dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal.[MEDICINA 2009;40:11-20].  

  7. Evaluation of Railway Level Crossing Attributes on Accident Causation in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu O Dina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the contribution of Railway Level Crossing (RLCphysical attributes to accident occurrence using the12 major level crossings within the Lagos metropolis. The 48km single track mainline section under consideration which barely make up 1.1% of the entire narrow gauge track network of the country within a 5 year period contributed about 45% of the total National crossing accidents recorded in Nigeria. The method of investigation involved recording the individual attributes of each RLC such asgates, pedestrian traffic, car traffic light, proximity of signage to crossing, vehicular traffic as dummy variables.The regression analysis  was used to measure their effect on accidents.The result indicates gates, pedestrians and the location of signage had significant impact on accidents occurrence at level crossings within Lagos metropolis. Based on the findings, enhancement of active warning systems among other recommendations was suggested as potent counter measures for RLC accident reduction. Abstrak Penelitian menguji tingkat kontribusi atribut fisik dari perlintasan jalan kereta api terhadap kejadian kecelakaan menggunakan 12 perlintasan utama dalam kota metropolis Lagos. 48 km jalan utama tunggal menjadi pertimbangan yang hampir meningkat 1.1% dari seluruh trek sempit jaringan negara dalam jangka waktu 5 tahun menyumbang sekitar 45% dari total kecelakaan perlintasan secara Nasional di Nigeria. Metode penelitian melibatkan catatan dari masing-masing atribut RLC seperti pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, lampu lalu lintas mobil, kedekatan tanda penyebarangan, lalu lintas kendaraan sebagai variabel dumi. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk mengukur pengaruh dari atribut terhadap kecelakaan. Hasilnya menunjukkan pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, dan lokasi tanda perlintasan mempunyai dampak signifikan pada kecelakaan dalam kota metropolis Lagos.Berdasarkan penemuan tersebut, perbaikan dari sistem peringatan aktif disarankan sebagai upaya

  8. 'PARÁ BELO', um clone do tomateiro adaptado à Amazônia Oriental

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    Chengk Simon S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os tomates são produzidos nas regiões mais frias e secas, tais como Sudeste, Sul e Centro-Oeste, onde encontram condições adequadas para crescimento e produção. Na Amazônia Oriental, bem como em outras regiões do trópico úmido, as condições de clima permanentemente quente e úmido e, em muitos locais de solos infestados pela bactéria Ralstonia solanacearum, a produtividade do tomateiro é baixa, o que desestimula a produção local. Mais de 99% dos tomates consumidos são importados de outras regiões, chegando ao valor aproximando de R$12 milhões em 1997. Este trabalho faz parte de um programa de melhoramento genético de tomateiro na Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém (PA. O clone denominado 'Pará Belo' possui as características de alta tolerância à murchadeira causada por R. solanacearum; produtividade por planta superior a 7,0 kg, ou 19 kg/m² de canteiro; frutos com peso de 200 a 400 g, tipo caqui, dependendo da intensidade de desbaste; fruto tipo longa vida com durabilidade pós-colheita de 30 dias sob condições ambientais locais; bom sabor de polpa, com até 5,2(0 Brix nos frutos vermelhos; frutos resistentes à rachadura sob chuvas pesadas; alto vigor da planta com folhagem resistente às doenças comuns e alta capacidade de emitir hastes laterais; facilidade de enraizamento para formação de mudas na propagação vegetativa.

  9. Crescimento e conteúdo de prolina em plântulas de guandu submetidas a estresse osmótico e à putrescina exógena

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    Juliana Geseíra Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação da poliamina putrescina no acúmulo de prolina e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de guandu cultivadas sob estresse hídrico ou salino, e avaliar se esta poliamina pode ser usada como atenuadora desses estresses. Sementes de duas cultivares de guandu, BRS Mandarim e Caqui, foram germinadas em caixas gerbox forradas com papel de filtro umedecido com 0,0, -0,2, -0,3, -0,4, -0,5 MPa de PEG 6000 ou 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 120 mmol L-1 de NaCl, na ausência (0 mmol L-1 ou na presença (0,5 mmol L-1 de putrescina. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x5x2 e 2x6x2 (duas cultivares, cinco níveis de deficiência hídrica ou seis níveis de estresse salino, e presença ou ausência de putrescina, com quatro repetições. O crescimento das plântulas é acentuadamente reduzido pelas condições de restrição hídrica e salinidade. A putrescina exógena incrementa, sob ambos os estresses, os teores de prolina nas plântulas de guandu, especialmente na cultivar BRS Mandarin, e atenua os efeitos da deficiência hídrica moderada nas cultivares estudadas. Os estresses de restrição hídrica e de salinidade causam acúmulo de prolina na parte aérea e nas raízes de ambas as cultivares. A prolina pode ser considerada um bom indicador bioquímico e fisiológico desses estresses em plântulas de guandu.

  10. Faktor Risiko Terjadinya Ulkus Diabetikum pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus yang Dirawat Jalan dan Inap di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil dan RSI Ibnu Sina Padang

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    Rizky Loviana Roza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakUlkus diabetikum adalah keadaan ditemukannya infeksi, tukak dan atau destruksi ke jaringan kulit yang paling dalam di kaki pada pasien Diabetes Mellitus (DM akibat abnormalitas saraf dan gangguan pembuluh darah arteri perifer. Ulkus diabetikum dapat dicegah dengan melakukan intervensi sederhana sehingga kejadian angka amputasi dapat diturunkan hingga 80%. Amputasi memberikan pengaruh besar terhadap seorang individu, tidak hanya dari segi kosmetik tapi juga kehilangan produktivitas, meningkatkan ketergantungan terhadap orang lain serta biaya mahal yang dikeluarkan untuk penyembuhan. Penelitian ini memberikan pengetahuan tentang faktor risiko terjadinya ulkus diabetikum agar angka mortalitas dan morbiditas dapat di kurangi. Jenis penelitian ini adalah retrospektif observasional dengan mengumpulkan data menggunakan wawancara, kuisoner, dan pemeriksaan fisik pada pasien diabetes mellitus yang di rawat jalan dan inap di RSUP DR. M. Djamil dan RSI Ibnu Sina Padang periode Januari-Maret 2014. Analisis data terhadap 6 variabel di dapatkan Jenis kelamin (p =0,595; OR=0,654 lama DM (p=1,000; OR = 1,158, neuropati (p=0,411; OR=1,833, PAD (p=0,004; OR, trauma (p=0, 02; OR= 4, dan perawatan kaki (p=1,000; OR=1,158. Berdasarkan uji statistik Chi-Square didapatkan 2 variabel yang memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian ulkus diabetikum yaitu PAD dan trauma. Sedangkan, hasil uji statistik regresi logistik ganda menyatakan bahwa lama DM, neuropati, PAD, riwayat trauma, dan perawatn kaki merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya ulkus diabetikum. PAD dan trauma adalah faktor yang paling berpengaruh.Kata kunci: faktor risiko, DM, ulkus diabetikumAbstractDiabetic foot ulcer is defined as the presence of infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissues associated with neurologic abnormalities and various degrees of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in the lower limb on patients with diabetes. Foot ulceration is preventable, and relatively simple

  11. The risk of varicose veins in standing female workers

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    Tony Hidayat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Varises sering terjadi pada karyawan yang harus bekerja dalam posisi kerja berdiri. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui beberapa faktor risiko terhadap varises tungkai dan atau kaki di antara pekerja perempuan. Metode:Penelitian potong lintang ini dilakukan pada Januari-Maret 2010. Sampel penelitian yang dipilih secara purposif yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi penelitian di antara pekerja perempuan perlu bekerja dalam  posisi  kerja  berdiri.  Data  dikumpulkan  dengan  wawancara,  pemeriksaan  fisik  dan  observasi posisi kerja berdiri. Pengolahan data untuk menentukan faktor dominan terhadap varises menggunakan pendekatan risiko relatif.Hasil:Dari 152 karyawan yang terdapat 111 yang bersedia mengikuti penelitian, dan yang menderita varises tungkai dan atau kaki sebanyak 52,3% (53 orang. Sebagian besar responden berusia 18-35 tahun, memiliki masa kerja 3-17 tahun, bekerja dalam posisi kerja banyak berdiri. Sebagian kecil responden memiliki riwayat varises di dalam keluarga (13,51%, memakai kontrasepsi oral (11,71%, memiliki kebiasaan olah raga (18,02% dan memakai sepatu hak tinggi (11,71%. Faktor umur, pemakaian kontrasepsi oral, pemakaian sepatu hak tinggi, kebiasaan olah raga, posisi kerja berdiri, tempat kerja, dan masa kerja tidak berhubungan dengan varises tungkai dan atau kaki. Karyawan yang mempunyai dibandingkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises, berisiko 69% lebih tinggi menderita varises [risiko relatif (RR = 1,69; P = 0.121]. Kesimpulan:Karyawan yang mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises berisiko lebih tinggi menderita varises. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:47-50 Kata kunci:varises, posisi kerja berdiriAbstractBackground: Varicose veins often occur in employees who have to work in a position of standing work. The purpose of this study to determine risk factors for varicose veins and leg or foot among women workers.Methods: In this cross-sectional study in January-March 2010 the

  12. Hubungan antara Higiene Perorangan dengan Infeksi Cacing Usus (Soil Transmitted Helminths pada Siswa SDN 25 dan 28 Kelurahan Purus, Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat Tahun 2013

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    Rizka Yunidha Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi cacing usus (helminthiasis masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia yang prevalensinya lebih tinggi pada anak usia sekolah dasar (SD. Berdasarkan data Dinas Kesehatan Kota Padang, jumlah kasus infeksi cacing usus di Kota Padang tahun 2010 dilaporkan terbanyak kelima dari penyakit yang menyerang balita, yaitu sekitar 2.64%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara higiene perorangan siswa yaitu kebiasaan mencuci tangan, kebersihan kuku, penggunaan alas kaki dan kebiasaan mandi dengan infeksi cacing usus. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional analitik dengan metode cross sectional  pada 122 murid kelas 1 sampai kelas 6 SDN 25 dan 28 Purus Kota Padang pada bulan Desember 2013. Hubungan antara variabel dianalisis dengan uji Chi-Square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa angka infeksi kecacingan di Purus 38.5%, yang terinfeksi A.lumbricoides 33.6%, T.trichiura 7.4% dan cacing tambang 0.8%. Didapatkan nilai probabilitas untuk hubungan variabel kebiasaan mencuci tangan 0.235, kebersihan kuku 0.564, penggunaan alas kaki 0.133, dan kebiasaan mandi dengan infeksi cacing usus 0.753.  Kesimpulan studi ini ialah tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kebiasaan mencuci tangan, kebersihan kuku, penggunaan alas kaki dan kebiasaan mandi dengan infeksi cacing usus pada murid SDN 25 dan 28 Purus, Kota Padang tahun 2013. Kata kunci: higiene perorangan, infeksi cacing usus, siswa sekolah dasar, perilaku siswa AbstractIntestinal worm infection (helminthiasis is a public health problems in  Indonesia. Its prevalence is found higher on children. Based on data of Padang District Health Office, the prevalence of helminthiasis in Padang City at 2010 was reported the most 5th highest of disease that attacks toddler, it is about 2.64%. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between the student’s personal hygiene habits, such as washing hands, nail cleanliness, using footwear and bathing to

  13. PERBURUAN KASUARI (Casuarius spp. SECARA TRADISIONAL OLEH MASYARAKAT SUKU NDUGA DI DISTRIK SAWAERMA KABUPATEN ASMAT (The traditional hunting of Kasuari (Casuarius sp. by Nduga tribe in Sawaerma District, Asmat Regency

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    Yohanes Y. Rahawarin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kegiatan perburuan kasuari secara tradisonal oleh masyarakat suku Nduga di Distrik Sawaerma, Kabupaten Asmat. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dengan teknik studi kasus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perburuan kasuari oleh masyarakat suku Nduga di Distrik Sawaerma bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan protein hewani dan pendapatan ekonomi keluarga. Aktivitas berburu kasuari oleh masyarakat suku Nduga masih dilakukan secara tradisional dengan menggunakan alat-alat tradisional seperti parang, kapak dan busur, anak panah. Selain itu cara penangkapan kasuari dilakukan dengan jerat leher dan jerat kaki maupun bantuan anjing berburu. Kegiatan berburu kasuari dilakukan secara secara perorangan maupun kelompok sesuai dengan hak adat (dusun. Kegiatan berburu lebih banyak dilakukan pada pagi dan malam hari, terutama saat musim hujan. Jenis kasuari yang terdapat pada areal hutan di sekitar Distrik Sawaerma adalah Kasuari Gelambir Ganda (Casuarius-casuarius, Kasuari Gelambir Tunggal (Casuarius unppendiculatus, dan Kasuari Kerdil (Casuarius bennetti. Rata-rata jumlah hasil buruan kasuari yang mengunakan jerat kaki atau leher sebanyak 2-3 ekor/hari, sedangkan menggunakan anjing berburu 1-2 ekor/hari.   ABSTRACT The research was aimed to discribe how the Nduga tribe in Sawaerma district, Asmat Regency is hunting kasuari traditionally. Descriptive method with case study was employed in this research. The resultshave shown that the main purposes of hunting kasusari by Nduga tribe were to fulfill their own need of protein as well as family income. The Nduga tribe have hunted kasuari traditionally by using traditional tools including cleavers, axe, and arrow. In addition, this tribe also hunts kasuari using neck and feet trapsas well as hunting dogs.The result also showed that Nduga tribe hunted kasuari alone or in group, and they did it based on their land customary. The most hunting time were

  14. Temperature stress in accumulation of free proline of pigeonpea seedlings from seeds treated with polyamines

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the effects of seed treatment with polyamines of pigeonpea for proline content of seedling in order to verify that the application of these polyamines attenuates temperature stress on germination and early seedling growth, and see if exogenous putrescine and spermidine induce the accumulation of proline, this amino acid may be biochemical and physiological indicator in seedlings that are under suboptimal temperatures and supraoptmail. The seeds of pigeonpea cv. BRS Mandarin and cv. Caqui, treated with a solution of 0.5 mM of putrescine and spermidine, were subjected to suboptimal temperature (20ºC, 18ºC, 16ºC and 14ºC and supraoptimal (36ºC, 38ºC, 40ºC and 44ºC for 24 hours and 48 hours. After these periods, were subjected to 25°C until day 10, when the percentage of seed germination were observed, the proline content of vegetative parts and the dry mass of the seedlings. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used 3x4x2+3 (solutions with polyamines, temperature stress by cooling/heating, time of exposure to stress, plus additional factors em25ºC with 0.0 mM and 0.5mM of Put and Spd, with four replicates of 25 seeds. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability, separately for each cultivar. Both exogenous polyamines attenuate the effects of cooling and heating, contributing to the growth of germinated seeds. Also, putrescine and spermidine exogenous mitigated the adverse effects by inducing proline accumulation, which leads to osmotic adjustment temperatures, although this physiological response has not minimized the negative effects of temperature stress on seedling growth of pigeonpea. Proline can be considered biochemical and physiological indicator in seedlings of both cultivars of pigeonpea treated with polyamines under temperature stress.

  15. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

  16. Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. PENULARAN FILARIASIS DI PEMUKIMAN TRANSMIGRASI KUMPEH, JAMBI DITINJAU DARI ASPEK SOSIO ANTROPOLOGI

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    M. Sudomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Study on the socio-cultural aspects in relation to filariasis transmission dynamics was carried out in the transmigration area of Kumpeh, Iambi. In this study a number of 266 respondents originated from Java were interviewed. Beside interview by using questionnaires, focus group discussions and observation were also implemented. From this study it was known that the word "filariasis" seemed to be unpopular among the transmigrants. They used to called the disease untut or penyakit kaki gajah. A great number of the respondents stated that the disease is transmitted through mosquito bites, but they did not know the mode of the transmission. A small number of the respondents were of the opinion that the disease was hereditary and this knowledge was adopted from the local inhabitants. The attitude of the respondents towards filariasis control measures was positive, and it was shown among others, by their willingness to be bled for filariasis examination. Their behaviour in its connection with filariasis transmission was not supportive towards filariasis control e.g. they used to stay in the ladang, and chat outdoor during the night without protection against mosquito bites. From this study it was also known that they exposed themselves to the mosquito bites mainly in the ladang when they take guard of their crops from pests damages. Their low education affected their perception towards filariasis and will hamper health education on filariasis control.

  18. JALUR SEPEDA SEBAGAI BAGIAN DARI SISTEM TRANSPORTASI KOTA YANG BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN

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    A Artiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Menciptakan kota berwawasan lingkungan dapat diupayakan dengan mengurangi volume kendaraan, misalnya melalui penggunaan angkutan umum massal atau penggunaan kendaraan ramah lingkungan. Penggunaan sepeda sebagai kendaraan ramah lingkungan di Jakarta, telah diinisiasi oleh komunitas yang menerapkan gaya hidup berwawasan lingkungan, misalnya komunitas B2W (Bike to Work. Sepeda menjadi pilihan menarik karena biaya operasionalnya yang murah, dan kesanggupan memperpendek waktu tempuh di jalanan yang macet, serta kemampuannya bermanuver di sela-sela kendaraan lain. Namun sekarang ini jalur khusus sepeda, maupun lahan parkir khusus sepeda di per-kotaan masih terbatas. Akibatnya, muncul ancaman terhadap keselamatan pengguna sepeda, karena harus berkendara pada kondisi jalan tanpa pemisah jalur kendaraan bermotor dan tidak bermotor. Akibatnya ada okupansi pedestrian menjadi jalur sepeda, yang akhirnya mengancam keselamatan pe-jalan kaki. Banyak hal patut dipertanyakan. Apa urgensi jalur sepeda pada pengembangan infratruktur jalan di perkotaan? Apakah kemudian upaya pengembangan jalur sepeda tidak akan menjadi hal yang kontra produktif dalam penataan ruang? Mengingat, penciptaan kota berkelanjutan melalui perenca-naan dan pengelolaan sistem transportasi baru efektif jika terintegrasi dengan strategi pengelolaan penggunaan lahan dan lingkungan. Alokasi jalur sepeda di perkotaan bukanlah upaya yang berdiri sendiri, namun harus menjadi salah satu bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari rangkaian strategi pem-bangunan berkelanjutan yang dilakukan secara simultan.

  19. Response of a Predatory Insect, Chrysopa sinica, toward the Volatiles of Persimmon Trees Infested with the Herbivore, Japanese Wax Scale

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    Yanfeng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A predatory insect, Chrysopa sinica Tiedet (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, and its taxis behavior were investigated in a tritrophic system that included a herbivore, Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae, and a host plant, persimmon tree, Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae. The results showed that this predator was attracted to the volatile compounds of persimmon trees that were infested with C. japonicus; however, the attraction varied with the growth season of the trees and the development stage of the wax scale. The strongest attraction occurred in the autumn and not in the late spring or summer. For the four time periods considered throughout the day, the most significant attraction rates were found at midnight and the early afternoon. The results indicated that the transformation of the chemical compositions of the volatiles of the persimmon tree might drive the taxis response of the predator in the three studied seasons. We mainly found differences in terpenoid emissions and propose that these compounds play a key part in the observed differences in attractiveness.

  20. Gambaran Respon Anak Usia Prasekolah dalam Menjalani Proses Transfusi

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    Meila Sabridatia Putri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan transfusi darah yang dilakukan pada anak usia prasekolah yang mengalami talasemia membuat anak merasa terancam. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh anak dengan berbagai respon (kognitif, afektif, fisiologis, perilaku dan sosial anak prasekolah dalam menjalani proses transfusi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui gambaran respon kognitif, afektif, fisiologis, perilaku dan sosial pada anak usia prasekolah dalam menjalani proses transfusi di Poli Talasemia RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kuantitatif dengan sample sebanyak 50 orang selama periode 3–13 Juni 2014 diambil dengan teknik insidental sampling. Hasil penelitianini dianalisis dengan menggunakan rumus distribusi frekuensiPenelitian yang sudah dilakukan, didapatkan hasil respon yang paling banyak ditunjukkan oleh anak prasekolah ketika proses transfusi berlangsung adalah hampir seluruhnya menunjukkan respon sosial (84% dengan jenis respon terbanyak ialah meminta dukungan emosional pada orang yang bermakna, hampir seluruhnya menunjukkan respon afektif (74% dengan jenis respon terbanyak adalah mengeluarkan ekspresi verbal, sebagian besar menunjukkan respon perilaku (66% dengan jenis respon terbanyak adalah memukul-mukulkan lengan dan kaki dan juga respon kognitif (72% dengan jenis respon terbanyak gelisah, dan hampir setengahnya dari responden menunjukkan respon fisiologis (34% dengan jenis respon terbanyak bernapas cepat. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah bahwa presentase respon terbesar yang dikeluarkan oleh anak usia prasekolah berupa respon sosial dengan jenis meminta dukungan emosional pada orang bermakna. Saran bagi instansi pendidikan dan rumah sakit untuk bisa berkontribusi mengembangkan asuhan keperawatan pada orang yang paling dekat pada anak sebelum tindakan invasif.

  1. Persimmon-derived tannin has bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory activity in a murine model of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoko; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Ouji-Sageshima, Noriko; Yasui, Satsuki; Mochida, Naoko; Nakano, Ryuichi; Kasahara, Kei; Tomoda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kayano, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cause opportunistic chronic pulmonary infections. Notably, MAC susceptibility is regulated by various factors, including the host immune system. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tannin is a condensed tannin composed of a polymer of catechin groups. It is well known that condensed tannins have high antioxidant activity and bacteriostatic properties. However, it is hypothesized that condensed tannins might need to be digested and/or fermented into smaller molecules in vivo prior to being absorbed into the body to perform beneficial functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of soluble persimmon-derived tannins on opportunistic MAC disease. Soluble tannins were hydrolyzed and evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC value of soluble tannin hydrolysate was approximately five times greater than that of soluble tannin powder. In addition, soluble tannin hydrolysate exhibited high bacteriostatic activity against MAC in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo study, MAC infected mice fed a soluble tannin-containing diet showed significantly higher anti-bacterial activity against MAC and less pulmonary granuloma formation compared with those fed a control diet. Tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly lower in lungs of the soluble tannin diet group compared with the control diet group. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines induced by MAC stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages were significantly decreased by addition of soluble tannin hydrolysate. These data suggest that soluble tannin from persimmons might attenuate the pathogenesis of pulmonary NTM infection.

  2. Peningkatan Efisiensi LKMS Inklusif Melalui Skim Pembiayaan Mikro Takaful Untuk PKL Surabaya

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    Arin Setiyowati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surabaya sebagai kota metropolis kedua di Indonesia, isu terkait tenaga kerja informal khususnya pedagang kaki lima merupakan salah satu isu abadi yang sangat kompleks untuk diselesaikan. Satu hal yang perlu digarisbawahi adalah PKL menjadi salah satu solusi alternatif dalam mengurangi angka pengangguran di Surabaya sebagai kota urban. Sehingga wajar saja kalau PKL layak mendapatkan jamsostek (jaminan sosial ketenagakerjaan, mengingat tempat kerjanya yang rentan kecelakaan kerja dan jaminan hari tua untuk keluarga mereka. Sementara UU SJSN dan jamsostek maupun  UU pelaksana lainnya belum secara signifikan menganggarkan untuk mereka. Sehingga perlu segera diadakan skim coverage baru yang diinisiasi oleh lembaga non pemerintah untuk jamsostek PKL. Melalui Lembaga keuangan mikro syariah (LKMS dengan karakter inklusifitasnya, maka salah satunya BMT mengadakan skim pembiayaan mikrotakaful untuk tenaga kerja informal, khususnya PKL dalam rangka coverage kecelakaan kerja dan jaminan hari tua. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian PAR (Partisipation Action Research dengan PKL-PKL di sentra PKL yang sudah disediakan oleh Pemkot Surabaya maupun yang masih liar, dan dari pihak LKMS. Sehingga diharapkan dari penelitian ini mampu menjadi new inside dalam Islamic Economic science dan menjadi solusi alternatif mewujudkan kesejahteraan umat.

  3. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

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    Paulo C. Ceresini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis. However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA, to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2. As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  4. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Paulo C; Costa-Souza, Elaine; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson L; Souza, Nilton L

    2012-04-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  5. MENGENAL PARASIT FILARIA

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis atau kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan karena infeksi cacing filaria yang hidup disaluran dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe serta menyebabkan gejala akut, kronis. Filariasis mulai dikenal di Indonesia tahun 1889 sejak Haga dan Van Eecke menemukan kasus pembesaran scrotum di Jakarta. Penyakit tersebut dapat menular kepada orang lain dengan perantara gigitan nyamuk. Seluruh wilayah Indonesia berpotensi untuk terjangkitnya penyakit tersebut, hal ini mengingat cacing sebagai penyebabnya dan nyamuk penularnya tersebar luas. Keadaan ini didukung oleh kerusakan lingkungan, seperti banjir, penebangan hutan dan lainnya yang memperluas tempat berkembangbiaknya nyamuk. Meskipun filariasis tidak mematikan secara langsung, dengan adanya demam dan bisul-bisul (abses yang hilang timbul, dan gejala menahun berupa pembesaran/elefantiasis yang merupakan cacat menetap akan sangat mengganggu. Secara ekonomis keadaan tersebut sangat merugikan, karena mengurangi produktivitas masyarakat, serta diperlukan biaya pengobatan dan perawatan yang tidak mudah dan tidak murah.Di Indonesia filariasis limfatik di sebabkan oleh tiga spesies cacing filaria yaitu Brugia malayi,B.timori dan Wuchereria bancrofti, yang terbagi lagi menjadi 6 tipe secara epidemiologi.Tiap parasit mempunyai siklus hidup yang kompleks dan infeksi pada manusia tidak akan berhasil kecuali jika terjadi pemaparan larva infektif untuk waktu yang lama. Setelah terjadi pemaparan, dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun sebelum timbulnya perubahan patologis yang nyata pada manusia. Periodisitas dalam sirkulasi setiap mikrofilaria akan berbeda, tergantung dari spesiesnya.

  6. Evaluasi Kemampuan Lahan Kecamatan Kedawung Kabupaten Sragen Jawa Tengah

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    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengklasifikasi dan mengevaluasi kelas kemampuan lahan, serta memetakan kelas kemampuan lahan Kecamatan Kedawung, Kabupaten Sragen, Jawa Tengah. Hasil akhir disajikan dalam Peta Kelas Kemampuan Laban skala 1:50.000. Klasifikasi kelas kemampuan lahan didasarkan pada jumlah skor factor-faktor lahan yang menguntungkan dan yang merugikan dari metoda Soepraptohardjo (1962 dengan modifikasi. Faktor-faktor lajan tersebut dinilai pada setiap satuan bentuk lahan. Satuan bentuk lahan diperoleh melalut interpretasi peta topografi, peta geologi dan pengama!an lapangan. Dari basil klasifikasi didapatkan bahwa daerah penelitian seluas 2375 hektar (49.1% mempunyai kelas kemampuan lahan kelas I 2,400 hektar (49.6% dengan kelas kemampuan lahan kelas II, dan 62.5 hektar (1.3% mempunyai kelas kemampuan lahan kelas IV. Kemampuan laban Kelas I menyebar pada bentuk lahan Lembah Fluvial terkikis ringan dan Lereng Kaki Volkan terkikis Ringan, kelas II pada satuan bentuk lahan Lembab Fluvial terkikis sedang dan Lereng Bawah Volkan terkikis ringan, sedangkan Kelas IV terletak pada satuan bentuk lahan Lembab Fluvial terkikis berat. Adapun faktor penghambat pada kemampuan laban kelas II adalah erosi dan lereng, sedangkan pada Kelas IV adalah erosi, lereng, tanah dan batuan. Berdasarkan Faktor penghambat maka lahan ini termasuk dalam Sub-kelas II el dan Sub-kelas IV elsb.

  7. Synthesis of descriptive sensory attributes and hedonic rankings of dried persimmon (Diospyros kakisp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Woods, Rachelle D; LaFond, Sean I; Breksa, Andrew P; Preece, John E; Smith, Jenny L; Sedej, Ivana; Olsen, Carl W; Vilches, Ana M

    2018-01-01

    This work aimed to characterize the sensory attributes of hot air-dried persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) chips, correlate these attributes with consumer hedonic information, and, by doing so, present recommendations for cultivars that are most suitable for hot-air drying. A trained sensory panel evaluated dried persimmon samples (representing 40 cultivars) for flavor, taste/aftertaste, and texture. In addition, in each of two tests conducted in different years, more than 100 consumers provided hedonic evaluations of 21 unique samples in a ranking task with a balanced incomplete block design. A partial least squares regression model correlating the mean hedonic ranking to the trained panel data was developed using the data from the first consumer panel. The predictions from the model were correlated with the second panel to verify the model. It was found that including taste, aftertaste, and texture data (but not specific flavor attribute data) produced a predictive model (Spearman's ρ=0.83). This indicates that flavor is likely secondary to taste and texture in dried persimmon chips. Using the validated predictive model, 6 of the 40 persimmon cultivars tested are recommended for a dried chip product; these cultivars are 'Fuyu', 'Lycopersicon', 'Maekawa Jiro', 'Nishimura Wase', 'Tishihtzu', and 'Yotsumizo'.

  8. PERENCANAAN DAN PERANCANGAN TAMAN WISATA KULINER DI KABUPATEN ENREKANG

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    Burhanuddin Burhanuddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak_ Potensi kuliner Kabupaten Enrekang menjadi perhatian pemerintah terhadap pengembangan  pariwisata sangat  besar  terutama pada jalur menuju Tanatoraja. Maka diperlukan sebuah perancangan taman wisata kuliner di Enrekang. Metode yang digunakan ialah metode desktriptif melalui studi literatur, studi preseden, dan studi lapangan dengan melakukan survey langsung ke lapangan untuk mengamati dan menganalisis lingkungan sekitar tapak. Perancangan menggunakan konsep Arsitektur Kontemporer berupa konsep  perancangan  dalam  merancang  kawasan  taman wisata kuliner, terdiri dari: zoning/ peruntukan lahan (land use, bentuk dan massa bangunan (building from and massing, sirkulasi dan parkir (circulation and parking, jalur pejalan kaki (pedestrian ways, ruang terbuka (open space, dan penanda (signage. Kata kunci : Wisata Kuliner, Konsep Koneporer, Enrekang.   Abstract_Culinery’s Potency in Enrekang Regency is the government's attention to the enormous tourism development especially on the path to go to Tanatoraja. In this case, it is needed a design of culinary tourism area in Enrekang. The method used is descriptive method through literature study, precedent study, and field study by conducting direct survey to the field to observe and analyze the environment around the site. The design using the concept of Contemporary Architecture includedof design concept in designing culinary tourism area, consists of: zoning / land use (land use, shape and building mass (building from and massing, circulation and parking (circulation and parking, pedestrian path (pedestrian ways, open space (space, and signage (signage. Keywords: Culinary Tour, Concept of Koneporer, Enrekang.

  9. Hubungan Hipertensi dan Penyakit Arteri Perifer Berdasarkan Nilai Ankle-Brachial Index

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    Tessa Thendria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit arteri perifer (PAP merupakan penyakit vaskular yang memiliki morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Pasien dengan PAP memiliki resiko tinggi menderita infark miokard, stroke iskemik dan kematian. Hipertensi merupakan salah satu faktor risiko PAP dan belum pernah dilakukan penelitian tentang hipertensi dan PAP di RSU Dokter Soedarso Pontianak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan hipertensi dan PAP berdasarkan nilai ankle-brachialindex (ABI. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan rancangan cross-sectional. Sebanyak 58 sampel penelitian dipilih dengan teknik consecutive sampling berdasarkan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Data dikumpulkan dari wawancara, rekam medis, pemeriksaan tekanan darahdan ABI. Diagnosis PAP ditegakkan jika ditemukan nilai ABI ≤0,9 pada salah satu kaki. Prevalensi PAP pada pasien hipertensi ditemukan sebesar 21% (IK95% 11-31%. Kejadian PAP paling banyak ditemukan pada kelompok umur 60-69 tahun yakni sebesar 48%. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara hipertensi dan PAP berdasarkan nilai ABI (p=0,000. Hipertensi berhubungan dengan penyakit arteri perifer berdasarkan nilai ankle-brachial index. Kata kunci: penyakit arteri perifer, faktor resiko, hipertensi, ankle-brachial index

  10. Screening of vasorelaxant activity of some medicinal plants used in Oriental medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming Hao; Kang, Dae Gill; Choi, Deok Ho; Kwon, Tae Oh; Lee, Ho Sub

    2005-05-13

    Hexane, ethylacetate (EtOAC), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of medicinal plants traditionally used in the East Asia, such as China, Korea, and Japan were screened for their vasorelaxant activity using isolated rat aorta. Among the 60 solvent-extracts from 20 medicinal plants, hexane and n-BuOH extracts of Diospyros kaki and Polygonum aviculare, hexane, EtOAC, and n-BuOH extracts of Magnolia liliflora, n-BuOH extract of Sorbus commixta, and EtOAC and n-BuOH extracts of Selaginella tamariscina were found to exhibit distinctive vasorelaxant activity. The activity disappeared by removal of functional endothelium or pre-treatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the medicinal plants relax vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide. These results will be useful to further analyze those medicinal plants that contain the vasorelaxant activity in order to identify the active principles.

  11. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  12. Comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes em diferentes épocas de semeadura e espaçamentos na região dos Cerrados

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    Amabile Renato Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes, instalaram-se três ensaios, em três épocas de semeadura e dois espaçamentos na região dos Cerrados, durante o ano agrícola de 1991/1992, na área experimental da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Solo (CNPS, em Senador Canedo, GO. As espécies avaliadas foram Crotalaria juncea L., mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Merr., guandu cv. Kaki (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. e Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don. O delineamento experimental utilizado, dentro de cada época, foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os resultados indicaram que C. juncea e C. cajan apresentaram as maiores produções de fitomassa seca. O atraso da semeadura, em relação ao início da estação chuvosa, reduziu os rendimentos de fitomassas verde e seca produzidos pelas leguminosas, exceto pela mucuna-preta. Os espaçamentos de 0,5 m e 0,4 m não influenciaram o período para o florescimento e as produções de fitomassas verde e seca.

  13. Oral Administration of 17α-Methyltestosterone Increased Male Percentage of Freshwater Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus

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    O. Carman

    2008-01-01

    meningkatkan efisiensi usaha.  Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan persentase C. quadricarinatus jantan menggunakan metode seks reversal melalui pemberian pakan yang mengandung 17α-metiltestosteron (MT sebagai upaya efisiensi produksi.  C. quadricarinatus umur 2 minggu diberi pakan yang mengandung MT dengan dosis 25, 50, 75, 100 dan 150 mg/kg pakan atau tanpa hormon secara ad libitum, 3 kali sehari selama 30 hari.  Setelah perlakuan lobster uji diberi pakan alami Chironomus sp. beku dan pakan udang. Parameter yang diamati meliputi nisbah kelamin, kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya (panjang dan berat mutlak, yang dilakukan pada akhir penelitian. Identifikasi jenis kelamin dilakukan secara visual; alat kelamin lobster jantan terdapat pada bagian pangkal kaki jalan kelima, yang betina terletak pada bagian dasar kaki jalan ketiga.  Data dianalisis menggunakan uji F dan BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian hormon MT berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase kelamin jantan lobster. Perlakuan dengan dosis 50 mg/kg pakan efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase jantan C. quadricarinatus dari 24,93% (kontrol menjadi 59,96%.  Pertumbuhan panjang dan berat mutlak  juga menunjukkan pengaruh yang berbeda nyata, sementara kelangsungan hidup tidak berbeda.  Dengan demikian pemberian hormon MT melalui pakan cukup efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase lobster jantan yang dihasilkan, meskipun penggunaan metode lain dan waktu pemberian hormon MT masih perlu diteliti untuk memperoleh hasil maksimal.  Kata kunci: tunggal kelamin, 17α-metiltestosteron, seks reversal, Cherax quadricarinatus

  14. Variação do teor de nitrogênio em ramos produtivos de caquizeiro Change the content of nitrogen in productive branches of persimmon

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    Sinval Xavier de Aguiar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L. à adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar comercial no município de Faxinal, Estado do Paraná, nas coordenadas geográficas S 23º 57' 35'', W51º 13'34'', altitude de 999 metros. A cultivar estudada foi "Giombo". Utilizou-se de 9 tratamentos, sendo uma testemunha sem aplicação de nitrogênio (N, e os demais resultante das épocas de aplicação de N (Maturação fisiológica dos frutos, início de poda, final de florescimento e em 15-12-06, combinadas com duas doses de N (80 e 160 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados e 4 repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída de 3 plantas, sendo a planta central usada para avaliação. A cada quarenta e cinco dias após o início da adubação, foram retirados aleatoriamente de cada tratamento oito ramos produtivos em diferentes pontos da planta. Na folha, os tratamentos IP e MF apresentaram os maiores teores de N na primavera e no verão, e uma diminuição significativa na fase final do ciclo antes da senescência e queda.Na folha e no ramo, todos os tratamentos resultaram em teor de N semelhante no final do ciclo.A época de aplicação, início de poda, foi a época que demonstrou menor variação de N, independentemente da dose.The objective was to evaluate the change in content of nitrogen in productive branches of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. to nitrogen fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard in the municipality of Faxinal, state of Paraná, in geographical coordinates S 23 º 57 '35'', W51 ° 13'34'', altitude of 999 meters. The cultivar studied was "Giombo. 9 was used treatments, and a control without application of nitrogen (N, and the remainder resulting from the application in time of physiological maturity of fruits, pruning the top, end of flowering and 15/12/06 and combined with two doses of N (80 and 160 kg / ha

  15. HISTOLOGI DORSAL HORN DARI SPINAL CORD MENCIT YANG MENGALAMI NYERI INFLAMASI AKIBAT INDUKSI CFA (COMPLETED FREUD’S ADJUVANT SETELAH PEMBERIAN GABAPENTIN DAN BACLOFEN

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    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2014-02-01

    patofisiologi yang berhubungan dengan aktivitas reseptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA subunit 2B (NR2B. Sampai saat ini pengobatan nyeri kronik menjadi tantangan. Obat yang bekerja sebagai agonis GABA seperti gabapentin dan baclofen dilaporkan mempunyai peranan penting dalam penghambatan proses nyeri. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian gabapentin dan baclofen terhadap histologi dorsal horn pada keadaan nyeri kronik akibat inflamasi. Hal ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana gabapentin dan baclofen dapat digunakan sebagai terapi pada nyeri kronik. Empat puluh mencit dibagi menjadi delapan kelompok, yaitu sham, kontrol negatif, gabapentin dosis 10, 30 dan 100 nmol/mencit serta baclofen dosis 1, 10 dan 30 nmol/mencit. keadaan inflamasi diinduksi oleh injeksi intraplantar CFA (Completed  Freud's Adjuvants. Gabapentin dan baclofen diberikan secara intratekal sehari sekali selama tujuh hari, pada hari ketujuh setelah induksi CFA. Waktu ketahanan terhadap  stimulus panas diukur menggunakan hot/cold plate pada hari ke-0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12 dan 14 setelah induksi. Tebal plantar diukur pada hari ke-0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 dan 14 setelah induksi. Respon nyeri diamati secara visual seperti mendekatkan kedua tungkai kaki ke depan, menjilat tungkai kaki ke depan, gerakan meliuk, berusaha melompat keluar hot/cold plate,dan menghentakkan tungkai belakang. Histologi bagian dorsal horn dari spinal cord diamati menggunakan pewarnaan haematoxyllin-eosin. Pemberian gabapentin dan baclofen meningkatkan waktu ketahanan terhadap stimulus panas secara signifikan dibandingkan kontrol. Secara histologi, pemberian gabapentin dan baclofen menurunkan sel inflamatori, menurunkan vasodilatasi dan meningkatkan bentukan neuron pada dorsal horn dari spinal cord dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah pemberian gabapentin dan baclofen meningkatkan waktu ketahanan terhadap stimulus panas serta memperbaiki histologi dorsal horn dari spinal cord

  16. Organogênese do caquizeiro a partir de segmentos radiculares

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    Carvalho Dayse Cristina de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki pelo processo da enxertia sobre porta-enxertos provenientes de sementes, ocasiona problemas de desuniformidade vegetativa. O objetivo do trabalho foi contribuir para o desenvolvimento de um protocolo para a regeneração de brotações de caquizeiro do tipo café, a partir de raízes por organogênese indireta. Segmentos radiculares obtidos de embriões germinados in vitro foram isolados de sementes de frutos maduros em meio MSfraction one-halfNO3. As sementes receberam assepsia pela imersão em etanol 70% por um minuto, em solução de hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% por 20 minutos e quatro lavagens em água esterilizada. No primeiro experimento, os segmentos radiculares de 2cm foram isolados em meio de cultura MSfraction one-halfNO3 acrescido de 0,01mM de ácido indolacético e quatro tipos de citocininas nas concentrações 1 e 10mM: zeatina, 6-benzilaminopurina, 2-isopenteniladenina e thidiazuron. No segundo experimento, para o enraizamento das brotações, foram testados quatro períodos de permanência em meio com 10mM de ácido indolbutírico: 0, 5 10 e 15 dias. A maior regeneração de brotos (1,2 brotos por explante ocorreu na combinação 1mM de zeatina com 0,01mM de ácido indolacético. As brotações juvenis obtidas possuem potencial natural para o enraizamento, sendo necessário novos estudos para confirmar o efeito da aplicação de auxinas.

  17. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mode Choice of Undergraduates : A Case Study of Lecture Trips in Nigeria.

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    Moses Olaniran Olawole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Travel behavior and determinants of mode choice of university students in Nigeria are neither well understood nor well represented in literature. This study model is modal choice of undergraduates, using data from students travel survey and logistic regression to determine factors influence modal choice of undergraduate students in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The results indicate that walking dominate modes for on-campus and commercial bus for off-campus students, while motorcycles taxi is used by few of the sample. Mode choices are influenced by a combination of socio-economic and trip factors. A key finding is extent that these variables positively affect the odds of using walk and commercial bus modes especially with reference to student residence: on and off-campus.  The results suggest investment in pedestrian infrastructure and development of intermodal transport system as a means of making the university livable and attractive. Abstrak Kebiaasaan perjalanan dan penentu moda dari mahasiswa di Nigeria tidak juga dipahami dengan baik atau dijelaskan dalam literatur. Model penelitian ini adalah pemilihan moda mahasiswa menggunakan data dari survei perjalanan mahasiswa dan regresi logistik untuk menentukan faktor penyebab pilihan moda dari mahasiswa di Universitas Obafemi Awolowo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Hasilnya menunjukkan berjalan mendominasi pilihan untuk ke kampus dan kendaraan bus umum untuk mahasiswa di luar kampus, sementara sepeda motor taksi digunakan oleh beberapa sample. Pilihan cara dipengaruhi oleh kombinasi dari sosial-ekonomi dan faktor kunjungan. Inti penelitian adalah luasnya variabel positif mempengaruhi peluang dari berjalan dan kendaraan bus umum terutama rujukan ke asrama mahasiswa, dalam maupun luar kampus. Hasil penelitian menyarankan investasi pada infrastruktur pejalan kaki dan pengembangan dari sistem transportasi antarmoda sebagai sarana membuat universitas layak huni dan menarik.

  19. Remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro 'Giombo' sob diferentes períodos de exposição aovapor de álcool etílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIOLLI LUCIMARA ROGÉRIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de exposição ao vapor de álcool etílico na remoção da adstringência de frutos de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L. cultivar Giombo. Os frutos foram expostos ao vapor de álcool durante 24, 36 e 48 horas, sob temperatura de 20°C e 95% de umidade relativa. As características químicas e físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas durante dez dias, em intervalos de dois dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: teor de taninos solúveis, firmeza da polpa, perda de matéria fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os períodos de 24 e 36 horas demonstraram ser igualmente eficientes no processo de remoção da adstringência dos frutos; no entanto, a avaliação das demais características indicou melhor qualidade dos frutos expostos durante o período de 24 horas. Constatou-se uma diminuição linear na firmeza da polpa em função do tempo. O melhor período para consumo dos frutos situou-se entre o 4°e o 8° dia após o tratamento, considerando-se que a partir do 4° dia a concentração de taninos solúveis ficou abaixo de 0,1%, imperceptível ao paladar, e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos se manteve aceitável durante o período de oito dias posteriores ao tratamento.

  20. DESAIN FURNITURE PADA LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN SENI RUPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Nursalim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana membuat desain furniture yang memenuhi standard Antrophometry dan Ergonomy untuk Laboratorium Pendidikan Seni Rupa. Penelitian mengkaji tingkat kenyamanan furniture yang dipakai mahasiswa ketika sedang praktikum di studio. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengenai standard kenyamanan pembutan desain furniture yang akan digunakan mahasiswa sebagai perlengkapan praktikum pada laboratorium Pendidikan Seni. Bentuk Penelitian ini adalah penelitian diskriftif dengan metode kwalitatif. Temuan awal dalam penelitian ini adalah: dimensi ergonomics dan antropometrics mahasiswa pendidikan seni rupa memiliki nilai X(mean masih dibawah standard International (rekomendasi: Dreyfuss dalam buku “:The Measure of Man” dengan standard deviasi 1.96 dengan persentil 2.5 dan persentil 97.5 masih dalam batas normal (Data Tabel 4.7 dan Tabel 4.8: dimensi antropomotrics mahasiswa Angkatan 20122013. Centre of grafity atau moment of grafity mahasiswa ketika praktikum dengan duduk bertumpu pada pantat dan daerah kerja normal pada rentang 72.4-87.5. Sedangkan mahasiswa yang melakukan praktikum dengan berdiri bertumpu pada kaki dengan angular motion dan siku bebas bergerak (SBB pada rentang 183.92212.9 (data Tabel 4.2-Tabel 4.5:Data Ergonomi Mahasiswa Angkatan 2012-2013 sesuai dengan rekomendasi C.G. Drury dalam „Journal Apllied Ergonomics’. Vol.13, p.135. masih dalam tingkat nyaman. Hasil temuan ini kemudian digunakan sebagai pertimbangan awal dalam membuat desain Furniture pada studio Pendidikan Seni Rupa. Dengan demikian mahasiswa merasakan kenyamanan dalam melakukan praktikum di Studio Pendidikan Seni Rupa dengan menggunakan furniture yang ada. Untuk itu furniture harus didesain yang adjustable. Kenyamanan Furniture berpengaruh signifikan terhadap prestasi mahasiswa. Desain furniture yang dibuat Adjustable diantaranya etsel untuk melukis, Meja kerja studio dasar, Kursi kerja untuk melukis, meja putar pada

  1. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

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    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  2. Sebaran Nyamuk Vektor Di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi, Provinsi Jambi

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    Yanelza Supranelfy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMosquito-borne disease still a public health problem, both in urban and rural areas, such as: dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, malaria, lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis, chikungunya and japanese encephalitis. Muaro Jambi is one of regencies in Jambi Province were found to vector borne diseases. The aim of this study is to get more information about the mosquito diversity in Muaro Jambi Regency for comprehensive data. The activities carried out are catching mosquitoes at night using human landing and resting collection methods. There were a total of 1.722 mosquitoes of four genera were collected (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia that consists of 24 species. The results of this study give additional information on the diversity of mosquitoes found in Muaro Jambi Regency.Keywords: Mosquito, vector, Muaro Jambi RegencyAbstrakPenyakit yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk masih merupakan masalah kesehatan bagi masyarakat, baik di perkotaan maupun di pedesaan, seperti demam berdarah dengue (DBD, malaria, filariasis (kaki gajah, chikungunya dan japanese encephalitis. Muaro Jambi merupakan salah satu kabupaten di Provinsi Jambi yang ditemukan beberapa penyakit tular vektor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menambah informasi mengenai fauna nyamuk di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi untuk mendapatkan data yang komprehensif. Kegiatan yang dilakukan yaitu penangkapan nyamuk pada malam hari dengan metode human landing collection dan nyamuk istirahat (resting collection. Sebanyak 1.722 ekor nyamuk berhasil diangkap yang terdiri dari empat genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex dan Mansonia meliputi 24 spesies. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan tambahan informasi mengenai keragaman nyamuk yang ditemukan di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi.Kata Kunci: Nyamuk, vektor, Kabupaten Muaro Jambi

  3. The Biodiversity of Gastropods Identified In the Mangrove Forest of Baban Village, Gapura Districts Sumenep Regency as The Resource of Learning Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mundzir Romdhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastropoda merupakan hewan yang bergerak dengan menggunkan perutnya (gaster= perut dan podos=kaki yang saat ini mulai terancam keberadaannya karena rusaknya ekosistem hutan mangrove karena konversi lahan, dampak ekologis yang ditimbulkan adalah mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem hutan mangrove. Masalah lain adalah kurangnya informasi tentang keanekaragaman Gastropoda khususnya di daerah terpencil, salah satu daerah terpencil yang belum diteliti adalah Desa Baban Kecamatan Gapura Kabupaten Sumenep. Penelitian ini berujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman Gastropoda hutan mangrove. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian deskriptif. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tanggal 17-24 April 2016 pada saat air surut dengan metode random sampling dengan menggunakan transek kuadrat. Data dikumpulkan dengan melakukan observasi atau pengamatan langsung terhadap populasi yang diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Gastropoda yang ditemukam terdiri dari 11 jenis yaitu Nerita fulgurans, Cassidula aurisfelis, Telescopium telescopium, Cerithidea quadrata, Ceritiopsis sp, Littroraria scabra, Raphitoma purpurea, Alvania sp, Littoraria melanostoma, Terebralia sulcata, dan Littorina sp. Struktur komunitas Gastropoda berdasarkan beberapa hal: 1 indeks kepadatan tertinggi terdapat pada spesies Terebralia sulcata (2.17 individu per meter persegi sementara indeks kepadatan terendah adalah Nerit fulgurans (0,25 individu per meter persegi; 2 indeks nilai penting tertinggi adalah spesies Terebralia sulcata (33% dan yang terendah adalah pada spesies spesies Nerita fulgurans (0.05%; 3 indeks keragaman termasuk dalam kategori standar yaitu antara 1,84 sampai 2,16; 4 indeks nilai kemerataan menunjukkan kemerataan pada setiap stasiun, mulai 0.77 sampai 0.90; 5 indeks dominansi menunjukkan tidak adanya dominansi. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar Biologi dalam bentuk booklet.

  4. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM MENGANALISA FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PEMILIHAN MODA KE KAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardi Teknomo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of parking spaces in Petra Christian University need to be solved by deterring private cars usage. However, the factors that affect students to choose their mode to campus are unknown. Determination of factors that influence mode choices may support alternatives and policy that could be proposed. Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to analyze the factors. Trips characteristics data of the students was collected by questionnaires interview. The results of the analysis show that the main factors that influence student to choose their mode to campus is security (49,3% and time (27,3%. Walking from student dormitory was the best alternative (33.2%, while carpool (16% is slightly lower than private cars usage (18%. Vanpool (12.4% is lower than carpool. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Lahan parkir di Universitas Kristen Petra yang terbatas, memerlukan solusi alternatif yang mengalihkan penggunaan kendaraan pribadi. Permasalahannya, faktor-faktor apa yang menyebabkan mahasiswa memilih menggunakan mobil pribadi daripada alternatif moda yang lain belum diketahui. Dengan menentukan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda, serta besar pengaruhnya, berbagai alternatif dan kebijakan untuk menurunkan kebutuhan akan lahan parkir, dapat diusulkan dengan lebih efektif. Metoda Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP dapat dipergunakan untuk menentukan faktor-faktor pemilihan moda. Data karakteristik perjalanan dilakukan dengan wawancara berkuisioner kepada mahasiswa Universitas Kristen Petra yang mempunyai kemungkinan untuk melakukan pilihan terhadap alternatif-alternatif moda yang ada. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa faktor utama yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda untuk berangkat kuliah adalah faktor keamanan (49,3% dan faktor waktu (27,3%. Ditinjau dari berbagai faktor, alternatif jalan kaki dari pondokan merupakan alternatif yang terbaik (33,2%, sedangkan carpool (16%, sedikit lebih rendah daripada penggunaan mobil pribadi (18%. Angkutan kampus (antar

  5. A Transcriptome Approach Toward Understanding Fruit Softening in Persimmon

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    Jihye Jung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb., which is a climacteric fruit, softens in 3–5 weeks after harvest. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional changes that underlie persimmon ripening. In this study, high-throughput de novo RNA sequencing was performed to examine differential expression between freshly harvested (FH and softened (ST persimmon fruit peels. Using the Illumina HiSeq platform, we obtained 259,483,704 high quality reads and 94,856 transcripts. After the removal of redundant sequences, a total of 31,258 unigenes were predicted, 1,790 of which were differentially expressed between FH and ST persimmon (1,284 up-regulated and 506 down-regulated in ST compared with FH. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs were further subjected to KEGG pathway analysis. Several pathways were found to be up-regulated in ST persimmon, including “amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism.” Pathways down-regulated in ST persimmon included “photosynthesis” and “carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms.” Expression patterns of genes in these pathways were further confirmed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Ethylene gas production during persimmon softening was monitored with gas chromatography and found to be correlated with the fruit softening. Transcription involved in ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling was up-regulated. On the whole, this study investigated the key genes involved in metabolic pathways of persimmon fruit softening, especially implicated in increased sugar metabolism, decreased photosynthetic capability, and increased ethylene production and other ethylene-related functions. This transcriptome analysis provides baseline information on the identity and modulation of genes involved in softening of persimmon fruits and can underpin the future development of technologies to delay softening in persimmon.

  6. PENDIDIKAN KELUARGA BERWAWASAN GENDER PADA ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS DI KUDUS

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    Muzdalifah Muzdalifah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tentang peran orang tua dalam pendidikan berwawasan gender keluarga pada anak berkebutuhan khusus. Penelitian ini mneggunakan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dengan metode observasi dan wawancara mendalam yang diperoleh dari subyek penelitian sebanyak tiga orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subyek 1 menganggap bahwa memiliki anak laki-laki berumur 6 tahun berkebutuhan khusus dengan menderita cerebral palsy. Subyek 2 menyatakan memiliki anak perempuan yang berumur 23 tahun yang berkebutuhan khusus berupa cacat kaki. Subyek 3 memiliki anak perempuan berumur 30 tahun berkebutuhan khusus yaitu hidrosefalus. Subyek 1 dan 2 menganggap bahwa pendidikan tetap diberikan kepada anak berkebutuhan khusus dengan berkeadilan gender. Subyek 3 menganggap bahwa pendidikan tidak perlu diberikan kepada anak berkebutuhan khusus .Perbedaan mendidik dalam keluarga ini dipengaruhi oleh faktor tingkat pendidikan, kenyakinan, harapan masa depan, faktor ekonomi dalam keluarga.   This study aims described the role of parents in the education gender responsive family on children with  special needs. This study used qualitative research approach. The collection of data by the method of observation and in-depth interviews were obtained from three research subjects. The results showed that subjects one considers that having a boy was 6 years old with special needs suffering from cerebral palsy. Subjects 2 states had a daughter who was 23 years old with special needs in the form of deformed feet. 3 subjects had a 30 year-old daughter with special needs, namely hydrocephalus. Subjects 1 and 2 assumed that education still be given to children with special needs by gender. Subjects 3 considers that education should not be given to children with special needs in the family . The difference of education is influenced by the level of education, the assurance, the future expectations, economic factors in the

  7. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  8. Absorção de N, P e K por espécies de adubos verdes cultivadas em diferentes épocas e densidades num latossolo vermelho-escuro argiloso sob cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Amabile

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Populações específicas de plantas e a época de semeadura podem promover interferências na absorção dos nutrientes. Assim, um experimento foi realizado, no ano agrícola de 1991/92, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro argiloso no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/Embrapa, em Senador Canedo (GO, com o objetivo de determinar os teores e as quantidades absorvidas de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na parte aérea da Crotalaria juncea: l., Crotalaria ochroleuca: G. Don, mucuna preta ( Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Merr. e guandu cv. Kaki (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., em três épocas de semeadura (início, meados e final da estação chuvosa e em dois espaçamentos entrelinhas (0,5 e 0,4 m. O delineamento experimental, dentro de cada época, foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As espécies diferiram entre si quanto aos teores e quantidades absorvidas de N, P e K. Ao contrário das épocas de semeadura, não houve efeito significativo dos espaçamentos nos teores e quantidades absorvidas de N, P e K. A interação de espécies e épocas de semeadura foi significativa apenas para o nitrogênio e fósforo.

  9. Pemilihan food outlet sebagai faktor risiko berat badan lebih anak usia sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Tegalsari Surabaya

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    Renny Evelyn Hartono

    2016-08-01

    , physical activity,gender, and total expenditure had relationship with overweight/obesity status.KEYWORDS: food outlet, obesity, overweightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Overweight dan obesitas adalah keadaan akibat ketidakseimbangan kalori dalam tubuh yang terjadi dalam waktu lama dan menjadi penyebab kematian lebih banyak dibanding underweight. Salah satu faktor yang berhubungan langsung adalah pola makan, yang juga dipengaruhi pemilihan food outlet. Surabaya merupakan daerah perkotaan sehingga memiliki jenis dan karakteristik food oulet lebih beragam. Anak usia SD kelas IV, V, VI sudah tidak terlalu bergantung pada orang tua, sehingga konsumsi pangan dan aktivitas fisiknya mulai beragam. Tujuan: Mengetahui hubungan antara pemilihan food outlet dan status berat badan lebih pada anak usia sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Tegalsari, Surabaya.Metode: Penelitian menggunakan desain studi kasus-kontrol. Sampel penelitian adalah 51 anak untuk masing-masing kelompok kasus dan kontrol dari 11 SD di 5 Kelurahan di Kecamatan Tegalsari, Surabaya. Data diperoleh dengan wawancara, observasi langsung ke food outlet dan wawancara alasan pemilihan food outlet pada informan terpilih. Data kuantitatif diolah dengan uji bivariat (chi-square dan multivariariat (regresi binomial.Hasil: Uji bivariat menyatakan terdapat hubungan signifi kan antara frekuensi datang ke pedagang kaki lima (OR=4,09, 95% CI:1,60-10,75, frekuensi konsumsi fast food (OR=2,86, 95% CI:1,19-6,94 dan kudapan (OR=6,05, 95% CI:2,20-17,62, aktivitas fi sik (OR=3,09, 95% CI:1,28-7,51 serta jenis kelamin (OR=2,70, 95% CI:1,11-6,64 dengan berat badan lebih, sedangkan frekuensi ke food store (total, supermarket, pasar, mini-market, frekuensi ke food service place total, rumah makan, restoran fast food, pola konsumsi sayur buah, dan sosial ekonomi responden tidak berhubungan signifi kan. Pada analisis multivariat, variabel yang mempengaruhi frekuensi datang ke pedagang kaki lima adalah frekuensi konsumsi kudapan, aktivitas fisik, jenis kelamin

  10. Efeito do uso de diferentes compostos na produção de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill em cultivo orgânico

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    M. S. Teodoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação, a influência de cinco compostos orgânicos na adubação de plantio e de cobertura de tomate híbrido do tipo Caqui. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados cinco tratamentos, contendo biomassa vegetal provenientes do banco de leguminosas da Embrapa Meio-Norte. As leguminosas utilizadas na confecção dos compostos foram o guandu Cultivar Fava Larga (Cajanus cajan, a Crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., a Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, a Gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e a Mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima. A gramínea utilizada foi o capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum. Os frutos do tomate começaram a ser colhidos no início do amadurecimento, por volta de 70 a 120 dias após o transplantio. Avaliaram-se a produção total de frutos (PTF, produção de frutos comerciais (PFC, número total de frutos (NTF, número de frutos comerciais (NFC, peso médio de frutos comerciais (PMFC e diâmetro médio de frutos (DMF. Foram registradas ocorrências de pragas nas condições experimentais, detectando-se a presença de nematóides (Meloydogines spp e cochonilha (Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos estudados, entretanto, o tratamento 2 foi o que se destacou quanto as variáveis analisadas, principalmente para PTF (54,5 t/ha e PFC (49,6 t/ha. Concluiu-se que o uso de compostos orgânicos com palhadas de leguminosas e gramíneas é uma alternativa técnica e economicamente viável, podendo reduzir o uso integral do esterco bovino na adubação de plantio e de cobertura do tomate produzido no sistema orgânico.Effect of the use of different compounds in the production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill in organic farmingAbstract: - The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in greenhouse conditions, the influence of five organic compounds on fertilizing

  11. Extração de nutrientes pelos ramos frutíferos de caquizeiro cultivar giombo durante um ciclo de produção Nutrients uptake by fruitful branches of persimmon cv. giombo in one cycle of production

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    Hideaki Wilson Takahashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A literatura brasileira apresenta poucos dados para subsidiar a recomendação de adubação para a cultura do caquizeiro, portanto o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes nos órgãos que compõem o ramo produtivo, ao longo dos estádios fenológicos da cultura de caqui cultivar Giombo e quantificar as necessidades de nutrientes para a produção. O estudo foi realizado em pomar localizado no município de Faxinal-PR, e as amostragens de ramos frutíferos foram iniciadas três semanas após o início da brotação, repetidas a cada três semanas, durante 45 semanas. Foram realizadas análises químicas dos materiais coletados e determinada a extração de nutrientes ao longo do estádio de desenvolvimento. O total de macronutrientes exportados pela colheita dos frutos foram: 25,47; 5.72; 51.53; 6.76; 2.79 e 5,09, respectivamente, para N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S em kg por ha, para produtividade de 27.7 toneladas por ha de fruto, e os exportados pela retirada de ramos podados para fora do pomar, por questões fitossanitárias, foram: 2,1; 0,3; 1,1; 5,8; 0,5 e 0,4 kg de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S em kg por ha.There is no information supporting fertilization for persimmon crop as far as the Brazilian literature is concerned. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to study the accumulation of dry mass and micronutrient in organs that compounds the productive branch, during phenological growth stages of persimmon cv. Giombo, and to quantify the nutrient requirement for production. The study was carried out in an orchard located in Faxinal-PR. The spacing between plants was 6 x 7 meters. The sampling of fruiting branches started three weeks after budding had begun and this procedure was repeated after every three weeks during 45 weeks. Chemical analyses of the samples were performed and nutrients extractions during phenological growth stages were determinate. The total of macronutrients removed by fruit harvest was 25.47; 5

  12. Situação e perspectivas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil

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    José Carlos Fachinello

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura está presente em todos os estados brasileiros e, como atividade econômica, envolve mais de cinco milhões de pessoas que trabalham de forma direta e indireta no setor. O Brasil é o terceiro maior produtor mundial de frutas, com colheita em torno de 40 milhões de toneladas ao ano, mas participa com apenas 2% do comércio global do setor, o que demonstra o forte consumo interno (ANUÁRIO BRASILEIRO DE FRUTICULTURA, 2010. A área plantada com plantas frutíferas no Brasil está distribuída em 1.034.708 ha com frutas tropicais, 928.552 ha com frutas subtropicais e 151.732 ha com espécies de clima temperado. Dentre as frutas de clima temperado, destaca-se a produção de uvas de mesa e viníferas (81.355 ha; maçãs (38.205 ha; pêssegos, ameixas e nectarinas (19.043 ha; caqui (8.638 ha; morango, amora, framboesa, mirtilo (3.560 ha; figo (2.886 ha; pera (1.394 ha e marmelo (211 ha. Mesmo com uma área inferior em relação às espécies de clima tropical e subtropical, as frutas de clima temperado têm uma importância socioeconômica destacada em diversas regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais e o Vale do São Francisco, seja como cultivo in natura, agroindústria e/ou agroturismo. Para que ocorra a produção de frutas de qualidade nas regiões de clima temperado no Brasil, é necessário o desenvolvimento de programas de melhoramento genético e/ou estudos de manejo e controles sobre a fisiologia das plantas para adaptá-las às condições de inverno ameno e com oscilação de temperaturas, muito frequentes nas principais regiões produtoras brasileiras. Os verões longos e excesso de precipitação ocasionam muitas doenças e pragas, obrigando muitas vezes ao excesso de tratamentos fitossanitários. O manejo dos pomares com a produção integrada de frutas está possibilitando a produção de qualidade e, ao mesmo tempo, reduzindo o impacto

  13. Kuršių nerijos asmenvardžiai kaip gyventojų etninės sudėties liudininkai

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    Dalia Kiseliūnaitė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PERSONENNAMEN DER KURISCHEN NEHRUNG ALS ZEUGEN DER ETHNISCHEN ZUSAMMENSETZUNG DER BEVÖLKERUNGZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel wird die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Kurischen Nehrung (im Fol­genden: KN anhand von registriertien Personennamen der Ortseinwohner untersucht. Die eingebürgerte Meinung, dass die Mehrheit der Einwohner der KN vom 15. bis zum 20. Jh. aus kurländischen Ein­siedlern und ihren Nachfolgern bestand, während Litauer und Deutsche einen wesentlich kleineren Bestandteil bildeten, wird meist mit der Tatsache der damals herrschenden Familiensprache (des ku­rischen Dialekts begründet.Diese Position muss hinsichtlich der Einwohnerzusammensetzung nach den Personennamen korri­giert werden. Der nehrungskurische Dialekt wird für den eigenen von Menschen gehalten, die nicht nur für Kurland typische Personennamen wie Kakies, Pinkies, Sprogies, sondern auch deutsche Wiesel, Foege, Radmacher und litauische Naujoks, Kubilius, Karalius, Jakeit u. a. haben. Unter den Perso­nennamen findet man sowohl verslawischte Formen als auch mögliche Prußizismen. Kurland eigene Personennamen (kurische und lettische des vorhandenen Materials bilden keine Mehrheit sogar im Hintergrund des baltischen Materials, gar nicht zu sprechen davon, dass die letzteren nur etwas mehr als einen Drittel aller Personennamen der KN ausmachen. Der kurische Subdialekt war im erwähnten Zeit­raum grundsätzlich zu einem Soziolekt geworden, den beinahe alle Fischerfamilien gesprochen haben, abgesehen von ihrer ethnischen Herkunft.713 Familiennamen der KN aus der Vorkriegszeit sind etymologisch analysiert worden. 282 Fami­liennamen werden wegen ihrer Herkunft und Bildung für baltisch gehalten. Bei 413 Familiennamen ist man der Meinung, dass sie ihre Herkunft anderen Sprachen (Deutsch, Slawisch und manchen anderen bzw. christlichen Vornamen verdanken und keine Merkmale der baltischen Familiennamenbildung auf­weisen. Die Herkunft der restlichen

  14. SUSTAINABLE CULINARY TOURISM IN PUNCAK, BOGOR

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    Ismail Saleh

    2014-09-01

    dikategorikan menjadi lima kelompok utama berdasarkan fungsinya: penyedia layanan makanan; pemasok (masyarakat lokal, pedagang, dan koperasi; konsumen akhir (turis dan pelanggan; pemerintahan (pemerintah Kabupaten Bogor, areal koordinator, kompepar, dan perantara (distributor, agen tur. Setidaknya ada lima isu strategis yang terjadi dalam pengembangan pariwisata di daerah Puncak: 1 konversi fungsi lahan; 2 dampak ekonomi dan sosial, 3 partisipasi masyarakat lokal dalam kegiatan pariwisata; 4 lalu lintas dan infrastruktur di daerah Puncak, dan 5 pengelolaan sampah. Ketiga restoran memiliki kriteria keberlanjutan, hasil preferensi pelanggan, dan tiga aspek keberlanjutan (ekonomi, lingkungan, dan sosial. Cimory memiliki nilai yang terbaik dalam kinerja keberlanjutan dan diikuti oleh Melrimba. Pedagang kaki lima, dengan beberapa catatan, mencetak nilai sebagai peringkat terakhir dalam kinerja keberlanjutan.Kata kunci: wisata kuliner, ekowisata, puncak, rantai nilai, wisata berkelanjutan

  15. DIVERSIFIKASI OLAHAN BERBASIS IKAN PATIN DI DESA JINGAH HABANG HILIR KECAMATAN KARANG INTAN KABUPATEN BANJAR KALIMANTAN SELATAN

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    Purnomo Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alih teknologi pengolahan dalam rangka diversifikasi  produk olahan berbasis ikan patin di Kabupaten Banjar masih sangat dibutuhkan untuk memperkenalkan pada para pengolah dan konsumen mengenai jenis-jenis produk olahan siap saji. Diversifikasi olahan ikan patin dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan sekaligus meningkatkan perekonomian masyarakat perikanan di Desa Jingah Habang Hilir. Sehingga, pemahaman tersebut dapat dijadikan sebagai suatu tindakan alternatif dalam pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan patin semi modern yang bermutu dalam mencukupi kebutuhan protein  pada saat paceklik ikan. Program peningkatan keterampilan dengan melalui penyuluhan, pelatihan dan pembinaan bagi masyarakat tersebut ternyata harus sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan karakteristik masyarakat itu sendiri sebagai pelaku usaha bukanlah hal yang mudah. Sekalipun khalayak sasaran sebagai mitra kerja sudah terbiasa memanfaatkan ikan patin dengan variasi produk olahan ternyata hasil evaluasi sangat membutuhkan acuan, format / model dan arahan praktis untuk membuat produk siap saji seperti bakso, nugget dan kaki naga berbasis ikan patin guna pengembangan potensi sumberdaya perairan secara optimal. Instead of processing technologies in order to fish based processed products diversification catfish in Banjar Regency is still urgently needed to introduce on the processors and consumers about the kinds of products processed fast-food restaurant.  Diversification of processed fish catfish can increase the added value and the economy while increasing the Community fishery in the village of Jingah Habang Hilir with chillies downstream.  Such understanding can serve as an alternative in action processing and preserving fish quality semi modern catfish in sufficient protein needs at the time of paceklik fishes.  Skill enhancement programs through outreach, training and coaching for the community must  be in accordance with tha needs and characteristics of the community itself as

  16. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI DERAJAT MIOPIA PADA REMAJA (STUDI DI SMA NEGERI 2 TEMANGGUNG KABUPATEN TEMANGGUNG

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    Anisa Sofiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miopia sebagai kelainan refraksi menjadi penyebab terbanyak gangguan penglihatan di dunia hingga diestimasikan separuh dari penduduk dunia menderita miopia pada tahun 2020. Segala golongan usia dapat mengalami miopia, terutama pada remaja. Jawa tengah menduduki peringkat ke 6 untuk masalah miopia, dan remaja yang menderita miopia di kabupaten Temanggung khususnya SMA N 2 Temanggung diperkirakan meningkat tiap tahunnya. Penelitian ini termasuk dalam penelitian explanatory research dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi berjumlah 720 siswa, sampel 92 siswa SMA N 2 Temanggung. Hasil penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan antara jarak baca (p=0,042, intensitas gadget (p=0,049, intensitas jalan kaki outdoor (0,004, dan intensitas olahraga outdoor (p=0,017 dengan derajat miopia remaja. Dan tidak ada hubungan dengan jenis kelamin, asupan vitamin A, lama membaca, penerangan, posisi membaca, penggunaan gadget /hari, pekerjaan, pendapatan orang tua, keturunan, intensitas rekreasi dan hobi. Faktor terkuat adalah olahraga outdoor (p=0,005 dan OR=17,468. Anjuran untuk penelitian selanjutnya adalah dalam penghitungan asupan Vitamin A apakah mempengaruhi peningkatan dioptri miopia agar memperhatikan cara pengolahan makanan. Kategori untuk variabel penggunaan gadget juga perlu ditambahkan. Myopia as refractive error will be the most common cause of visual impairment over the world until half of the world's populations are suffer from myopia in 2020. All of age groups can get it, especially in adolescents. Central Java’s ranked is sixth for the problems of myopia, and adolescents who suffer the myopia in Temanggung regency in particular SMA N 2 Temanggung is expected to increase each year. This study was explanatory research with cross sectional approach. The population were 720 students, with 92 samples students of SMA N 2 Temanggung. The Results, there were a relationship between reading distance (p=0.042, the intensity of the gadget (p=0.049, the

  17. KEBUN RAYA BOTANI DENGAN SISTEM WTP (WATER TREATMENT PLAN DI MAKASSAR

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    Sri Innayah Wahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Pariwisata merupakan salah satu sumber devisa yang sangat potensial dan mempunyai andil besar dalam membangun perekonomian yang memiliki nilai jual menjadi objek yang menguntungkan bagi kemajuan Makassar. Tujuan wisata yang hanya ada di Makassar menciptakan rasa ingin tahu pengunjung untuk berkunjung.Pengunjung yang datang menginvestasikan akomodasi seluruh kegiatan wisata dengan pengusaha lokal setempat.Pengunjung domestik maupun asing juga menjadi sumber pendapatan bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar objek wisata. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk menata elemen-elemen fisik kawasan seperti tata guna lahan, bentuk dan massa bangunan, jalur pejalan kaki, sirkulasi dan parker signage atau penanda, serta fasilitas pendukung kedalam suatu kawasan kebun raya botani yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai kenyamanan bagi para pengguna lahan dan menerapkan sistem WTP dalam bentuk desain yang bersifat berkelanjutan (sustainable.dan tujuan non arsitektural yang lain untuk merumuskan kegiatan rekayasa tumbuhan secara alami sehingga kebun raya botani dapat menjadi alternatif pusat pendidikan, mengelompokkan tanaman yang sesuai dengan iklim dan kondisi tapak kebun raya botani, untuk menentukan sistem kerja WTP dalam kebun raya botani yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman. Hasil laporan ini berupa desain penataan kebun raya botani dengan sistem WTP (water Treatment Plan di Makassar Kata Kunci :kebun raya botani, WTP Abstract- Tourism is one potential source of foreign exchange and have a larger share in building an economy that has a sale value into an object that is beneficial to the progress of Makassar. Tourist destinations that exist only in Makassar creates curiosity of visitors to visit. Visitors who come to invest accommodation all over the local tourism activities with local entrepreneurs. Domestic and foreign visitors are also a source of income for the people who live around the attraction. This report aims to restructure the physical elements

  18. Electron Microscopy Observation of Biomineralization within Wood Tissues of Kurogaki

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    Kazue Tazaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between minerals and microorganisms play a crucial role in living wood tissues. However, living wood tissues have never been studied in the field. Fortunately, we found several kurogaki (black persimmon; Diospyros kaki trees at Tawara in Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. Here, we report the characterization of kurogaki based on scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, associated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS analyses, X-ray fluorescence analyses (XRF and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD analyses. This study aims to illustrate the ability of various microorganisms associated with biominerals within wood tissues of kurogaki, as shown by SEM-EDS elemental content maps and TEM images. Kurogaki grows very slowly and has extremely hard wood, known for its striking black and beige coloration, referred to as a “peacock pattern”. However, the scientific data for kurogaki are very limited. The black “peacock pattern” of the wood mainly comprises cellulose and high levels of crystal cristobalite. As per the XRD results, the black taproot contains mineralized 7 Å clays (kaolinite, cellulose, apatite and cristobalite associated with many microorganisms. The chemical compositions of the black and beige portions of the black persimmon tree were obtained by ICP-MS analyses. Particular elements such as abundant Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn, Ba, S, Cl, Fe, Na, and Al were concentrated in the black region, associated with Pb and Sr elements. SEM-EDS semi-qualitative analyses of kurogaki indicated an abundance of P and Ca in microorganisms in the black region, associated with Pb, Sr, S, Mn, and Mg elements. On the other hand, XRF and XRD mineralogical data showed that fresh andesite, weathered andesite, and the soils around the roots of kurogaki correlate with biomineralization of the black region in kurogaki roots, showing clay minerals (kaolinite and

  19. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

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    Gombet T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  20. SURVEI DARAH JARI FILARIASIS DI DESA BATUMARTA X KEC. MADANG SUKU III KABUPATEN OGAN KOMERING ULU (OKU TIMUR, SUMATERA SELATAN TAHUN 2012

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    R. Irpan Pahlepi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFilariasis atau penyakit kaki gajah adalah golongan penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh cacing filaria  yang  ditularkan  melalui  berbagai  jenis  nyamuk.  Penyebaran  filariasis  hampir  meliputi  seluruh wilayah di Indonesia termasuk Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU Timur. Angka kesakitan filarisis di Kabupaten OKU Timur tahun 2007 sebesar 1,05%. Kegiatan pengobatan massal di Kabupaten OKU Timur belum pernah dilakukan sampai saat ini, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat penyebaran penyakit filariasis. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan desain potong lintang. Pengambilan dan pemeriksaan sediaan darah jari dilakukan pada malam hari dimulai pukul 19.00 WIB. Jumlah penduduk yang diperiksa sebanyak 502. Hasil pemeriksaan diperoleh 4 orang positif mikrofilaria (Mf_ rate 0,8% dengan spesies Brugia  malayi  dan  kepadatan  rata-rata  200mf/ml.  Seluruh  kasus  yang  ditemukan  merupakan  kasus baru. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penularan filariasis masih terjadi di Kabupaten OKU Timur sehingga perlu adanya pengobatan massal untuk mencegah penularan lebih lanjut.Kata kunci : Filariasis, Brugia malayi, Survei darah jari, OKU TimurAbstractFilariasis or elephantiasis is an infectious diseases caused by filarial worms that transmitted by various species of mosquitoes. Filariasis distributions almost covers all districts in Indonesia including East Ogan Komering Ulu (OKU. Filarisais morbidity in East OKU regency in 2007 was 1.05 %. Mass treatment in the district of East OKU have not been done yet, so it is necessary to do a research that aim to determine the prevalen of filariasis. This study is a cross-sectional survey design. Collection and examination of finger’s blood was done at night starting at 19:00. Number of people examined were 502. Examination results obtained 4 positive microfilariae (Mf_ rate 0.8 % of Brugia malayi and the average density of 200

  1. EFEKTIVITAS LARVASIDA INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR (IGR BERBAH ANAK TIFPYRIPROXIFEN 0.5%, TERHADAP JENTIK NYAMUK VEKTOR MALARIA Anophelesaconitus KONDISI LABORATORIUM

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    Damar Tri Boewono

    2014-06-01

    (aipyriproxifen0,5%,formulasi granula, terhadap vektor malaria larva An. aconitus pada kondisilaboratorium.Hasilnyaterungkap bahwa IGR(pyriproxifen 0,5% adalah efektif disebabkanpenghambatan100%kemunculandan membuatkelangsunganhidup 13 harilagiAn. aconitusdalampembangunantahapkehidupanbelummenghasilkanpanjangAn.aconitus dewasatahap pembangunan.Beberapalarvaditemukantumbuh menjadidewasadenganberbagaimembelotkarenametamorfosisbelumselesai,seperti sayapkecilmerekadan kaki melekatpadakulitkepompong.KataKunci:Larvasida,Larva,Anohelesaconitus

  2. Moscas frugívoras e seus parasitoides nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies and their parasitoids in the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas frugívoras (Tephritoidea são as principais pragas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a infestação desses dípteros e a ocorrência de seus parasitoides em frutíferas nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, localizados na região Sul, nas safras agrícolas de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Foram coletados frutos de araçazeiro-amarelo e vermelho (Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821, butiazeiro [Butia capitata (Mart. Becc., 1916], caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki Linnaeus, 1753, cerejeira-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC., 1828, goiabeira [Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753], goiabeira-serrana [Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret, 1941], nespereira [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindley, 1822], pessegueiro [Prunus persicae (L. Batsch, 1801], pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus,1753 e uvalheira (Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, 1832. Os frutos foram coletados e transportados para o laboratório, onde foram individualizados e determinados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de infestação das moscas, índice de parasitismo e frequência de indivíduos por espécie de parasitoide. Foram constatadas duas espécies de Tephritidae, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (90,5% e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (9,5% e duas de Lonchaeidae, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, 1982 (87,8% e uma espécie ainda não descrita, referida como Neosilba n. sp. 3 (12,2%. Anastrepha fraterculus é a espécie mais abundante nos dois municípios, sendo constatada na maioria das frutíferas coletadas. Caquizeiro e goiabeira foram os hospedeiros que apresentaram o maior índice de infestação por C. capitata. Quanto às espécies de Neosilba, a maior infestação ocorreu em frutos de goiabeira-serrana. Dos parasitoides emergidos, foram identificadas três espécies, sendo duas de Braconidae, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911 (52,6% e Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 (27,5% e uma espécie de Figitidae, Aganaspis

  3. Factors Related to Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection on Primary School Children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2018-01-01

    Sleman dengan teknik total sampling yaitu 60 responden. Analisis data menggunakan uji chi-squre. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa mencuci tangan sebelum makan (sig= 0,010; RP= 3,850, mencuci tangan setelah buang air besar (sig= 0,007; RP= 4,571, kebersihan kuku (sig= 0,179; RP= 2,138, kebiasaan memakai alas kaki (sig= 0,008; RP= 3,714, dan perilaku buang air besar (sig= 0,004; RP= 4,000. Disimpulkan bahwa ada hubungan antara mencuci tangan sebelum makan, mencuci tangan setelah BAB, kebiasaan memakai alas kaki, dan perilaku buang air besar dengan infeksi STH pada anak-anak sekolah dasar  Moyudan Sleman, sementara kebersihan kuku tidak memiliki hubungan dengan infeksi STH. Kata kunci: Infeksi STH, faktor risiko, sekolah dasar ABSTRACT Infeksi Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH is the third ranks of the top 10 common infectious diseases in the world with an incidence rate of about 1.4 billion per year. The incidence of STH in Indonesia is still quite high. This figure occurs in primary school students of 60-80%, while for all ages of 40% -60%. The purpose of this study was to determine factors related to STH infection in elementary school children at primary school of Moyudan Sleman. The type of research used was analytic observational with the cross-sectional design. The population in this study were all students of class I, II, and III in Moyudan Sleman primary school with total sampling technique of 60 respondents. Data analysis used chi-square. The test results showed that the habit of hand washing before eating (sig= 0.010; RP= 3.850, the habit of hand washing  after defecating(sig= 0.007; RP= 4.571, nail hygiene (sig= 0.179; RP= 2.138, the habit of wearing footwear (sig= 0.008; RP= 3.714, and bowel habits (sig= 0.004; RP= 4.000. It can be concluded that there was a relationship between hand washing before eating, hand washing after defecating, the habit of wearing footwear, bowel habits and STH infection on the students of Moyudan Sleman primary school but there was no

  4. The impact of breeding on fruit production in warm climates of Brazil O impacto do melhoramento genético na produção de frutas em climas quentes do Brasil

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    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    2009-06-01

    , na região centro-oeste e nas áreas de semiárido no nordeste. A maior parte do território encontra-se na região tropical onde a latitude abrange de 5º N a 33º S. Há, portanto, razões suficientes para os melhoristas de plantas devotarem boa parte de seus esforços para melhorar plantas apropriadas aos climas mais quentes. Entre as frutíferas, os resultados dos trabalhos dos melhoristas têm sido notados em diversas espécies, especialmente pêssegos, uvas, citros, maçãs, caquis, figos, pêras e outras, não tão comuns, como acerola, goiaba, anonas (graviola, pinha, atemóia, cherimóia e maracujá. Pessegueiros introduzidos em baixas latitudes (22 ± 2ºS requerem adaptação climática às condições subtropicais de baixa ocorrência de frio. No Brasil, o primeiro programa de melhoramento de pêssego visando adaptação de cultivares a diferentes habitats foi desenvolvido pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC começando no final dos anos 1940. O melhoramento da macieira com baixa necessidade frio levado a cabo no IAPAR, Paraná, produziu cultivares que podem ser plantados com sucesso em regiões de baixa latitude. Os programas de melhoramento da banana e do abacaxi conduzidos em unidades da Embrapa em todo o país estão conseguindo fazer frente aos fortes problemas fitossanitários com as cultivares melhoradas. Petrolina/Juazeiro, na região nordeste (9ºS, é a principal região exportadora de uvas no país com mais de 6.000 ha. A viticultura na região está baseada nos chamados porta-enxertos "tropicais" lançados pelo IAC: IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 572 'Jales'. Recentemente, a Embrapa Uva e Vinho lançou cultivares tropicais de uvas sem sementes que estão mudando o cenário da uva de mesa no país.

  5. Decomposição de resíduos vegetais em latossolo sob cultivo de milho e plantas de cobertura Decomposition of plant residues in latosol under corn crop and cover crops

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    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A degradação dos solos pode ocorrer pelo seu preparo intensivo, combinado com monocultivos que produzem pequenas quantidades de resíduos vegetais com decomposição acelerada. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a decomposição dos resíduos vegetais, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob cultivo de milho em sucessão a plantas de cobertura, nos sistemas plantio direto e com incorporação desses resíduos. As espécies vegetais cultivadas em sucessão ao milho foram: crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., feijão-bravo-do-ceará (Canavalia brasiliensis M. e Benth, guandu cv. Caqui (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC, girassol (Helianthus annuus L., milheto BN-2 (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown e nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.. A testemunha foi ausência de culturas em sucessão ao milho (vegetação espontânea. Sacolas de tela de náilon com dez gramas de matéria seca de cada espécie foram colocadas na superfície do solo e cobertas com resíduos vegetais. Durante as operações de preparo do solo e de aplicação de herbicida, as sacolas de serapilheira foram retiradas do campo e mantidas em câmara fria. Depois da semeadura do milho, essas sacolas foram reintegradas às respectivas subparcelas, colocadas em superfície, no sistema plantio direto, e enterradas a 10 cm de profundidade, quando sob o manejo com incorporação dos resíduos vegetais. As taxas de decomposição foram determinadas na seca (60 e 90 dias e no período de chuva (180, 210 e 240 dias. Os resíduos vegetais de guandu, milheto, mucuna-cinza e vegetação espontânea apresentaram menores taxas de decomposição na maioria dos períodos avaliados. A incorporação dos resíduos vegetais acelerou o processo de decomposição em relação à sua manutenção na superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto, exceto para o nabo forrageiro. O milho cultivado em sucessão ao feijão-bravo-do-ceará apresentou maior rendimento

  6. DISTRIBUSI HUTAN BAKAU DI LAGUNA PANTAI SELATAN YOGYAKARTA (Mangrove Distribution at the Lagoons in the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta

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    Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Kehadiran sisa hutan bakau di laguna Bogowonto, pantai selatan Yogyakarta menunjukkan bahwa pada masa lalu laguna tersebut didominasi oleh hutan bakau, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari kehadiran vegetasi bakau di laguna-laguna dan muara sungai di pantai selatan tersebut. Ada empat laguna di pantai Selatan Yogyakarta, laguna Bogowonto, Serang, Progo, Opak, dan satu muara sungai, Kali Baron. Laguna tersebut merupakan laguna internitten, artinya pada musim kemarau, mulut sungainya tertutup gumuk pasir dan laguna didominasi oleh perairan tawar dan merupakan ekosistem tergenang. Sebaliknya di musim hujan mulut sungai terbuka, laguna bersifat sebagai ekosistem pasang surut. Data vegetasi dicuplik dengan menggunakan kuadrat plot berukuran 10m x 20m dengan ulangan dua kali. Kuadrat plot ditempatkan pada pusat distribusi mangrovenya, yang dipilih mulai dari rawa burit ke arah muara sungai. Tekstur tanah, hara tanah, salinitas air dan hara air juga dikaji. Kehadiran hutan bakau di laguna dibatasi oleh tekstur tanah. Tekstur pasir, 60-99 %, mendominasi laguna Serang, Progo, Opak dan muara kali Baron. Komunitas bakau hanya ditemukan di laguna Bogowonto, yang tersusun atas 5 jenis bakau, Sonneratia alba, Nypa fruticans, Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrosticum sp., dan Derris heterophylla, dan dua jenis spesies peralihan, Pandanus sp. dan Cynodon dactylon. Pola distribusi komunitasnya mengelompok (clump, mempunyai tipe riverine mangrove,dan tidak membentuk zonasi. Sonneratia hadir mulai dari muara sungai sampai di rawa burit. Ketika air surut salinitas berkisar antara 0-6,5 %. Nypa hanya ditemukan satu kelompok di kaki gumuk. Distribusi Sonneratia tidak ditentukan oleh tinggi genangan, akan tetapi tinggi pneumatophor mengikuti pola tinggi genangan air. Di laguna Bogowonto, spesies bakau tidak mempunyai zonasi dan beradaptasi pada sistem ekologinya.   ABSTRACT  The presence of mangrove remnant at the lagoon of Bogowonto River in the southern

  7. Sanitasi, Higiene Perorangan, dan Pencemaran Tanah oleh Cacing pada Kecacingan pada Anak di Kelurahan Liliba, Kecamatan Oebobo Kota Kupang, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Eni Sinaga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit kecacingan banyak ditemukan di daerah dengan kelembaban tinggi terutama pada kelompok masyarakat dengan higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan yang kurang baik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan kondisi sanitasi, higiene perorangan, pencemaran tanah oleh cacing dengan kejadian kecacingan pada anak usia 1–5 tahun di Kelurahan Liliba, Kecamatan Oebobo Kota Kupang, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Penelitian observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional study dilakukan pada Mei–November 2012. Sampel penelitian 50 anak usia 1–5 tahun sebanyak 50 orang yang diambil secara random sampling. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji chi kuadrat (X2 dengan program statistical product and service solution (SPSS. Prevalensi kecacingan pada anak usia 1-5tahun di Kelurahan Liliba adalah 38%. Hasil Uji chi kuadrat menunjukkan hanya ada satu variabel yang berhubungan dengan kejadian kecacingan di Liliba yaitu higiene perorangan (p=0,005. Variabel yang tidak berhubungan dengan kejadian kecacingan pada anak 1–5 tahun di Liliba yaitu kondisi sarana air bersih (p=0,07, kondisi jamban (p=0,128, dan pencemaran tanah oleh cacing (p=0,309. Penelitian ini membuktikan ada hubungan bermakna antara higiene perorangan dan kejadian kecacingan, sehingga diharapkan orangtua lebih memperhatikan higiene perorangan anaknya seperti memotong kuku, mencuci tangan setelah bermain dan sebelum makan, mencuci tangan setelah buang air besar dan memberikan alas kaki saat bermain. Dinkes Kota dan Puskesmas khususnya secara periodic setiap 6 bulan sekali diharapkan melakukan tindakan pencegahan dan penanggulangan kecacingan dengan penyuluhan dan pemberian obat cacing kepada anak usia 1–5 tahun. Kata kunci: Higiene perorangan, kecacingan, kondisi lingkungan   Sanitation, Personal Hygiene, and Helminth Contamination of Helminth infectionin Children at Liliba Subdistrict, Oebobo Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province Abstract Helminth infection was found

  8. DETERMINAN PERILAKU PADA KEJADIAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN DEMAK, JAWA TENGAH TAHUN 2008

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    Aryani Pujiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerilaku manusia dapat menjadi faktor pemicu terjadinya leptospirosis sebagai re-emerging zoonosis di Kabupaten Demak. Tujuan penelitian adalah menggambarkan determinan perilaku penderita pada kejadian luar biasa leptospirosis (KLB di Kabupaten Demak, Tahun 2008. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif dengan rancangan cross-sectional. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara. Sampel adalah penderita leptospirosis periode 1 Januari – 1 April 2008. Hasil menunjukan mayoritas penderita berusia produktif. Lebih dari 50% penderita tidak tahu bahaya leptospirosis. Kaporit dipahami sebagai penjernih air bukan desinfektan. Lebih dari 50% penderita memiliki aktivitas kontak dengan sumber penularan leptospirosis. Mayoritas penderita tidak memakai alas kaki dan sarung tangan sebagai pelindung diri dari penularan leptospirosis. Bangkai tikus lebih banyak dibuang di sungai (59,3%, sedangkan perilaku pengendalian tikus yang efektif belum banyak dilaksanakan (68,5%. Kewaspadaan penderita terhadap leptospirosis masih rendah karena adanya persepsi leptospirosis tidak berbahaya dan pengetahuan tentang leptospirosis yang masih kurang. Responden mendukung penggunaan kaporit tetapi untuk menjernihkan air bukan sebagai desinfektan. Perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat, pengendalian tikus serta penggunaan alat pelindung diri untuk mencegah leptospirosis masih kurang. Rekomendasi yang diberikan adalah perlu peningkatan edukasi kesehatan tentang bahaya leptospirosis, aktivitas berisiko, penggunaan kaporit dan teknik pengendalian tikus yang benar.Kata kunci : leptospirosis, perilaku, determinan, kejadian luar biasaAbstractHuman behavior could be a trigger factor for leptospirosis as a re-emerging zoonoses in Demak Regency. Objective of this study was to describe patients behavioral determinants in leptospirosis outbreaks in Demak Regency, 2008. Research was a descriptive study with cross – sectional design. Data was collected with interview. Samples were

  9. KAJIAN POTENSI PEMAKAMAN SEBAGAI RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU PERKOTAAN, STUDI KASUS: TPU KOTA PONTIANAK

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    Agustiah Wulandari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ruang terbuka hijau (RTH pada saat ini banyak mengalami perubahan fungsi menjadi lahan terbangun. Tidak dipungkiri lagi bahwa RTH di banyak kota di Indonesia sudah beralih fungsi menjadi kawasan pemukiman, perhotelan, restauran, pertokoan, perkantoran, jalan raya, tempat parkir, pompa bensin, tempat pedagang kaki lima dan kawasan lainnya. Hal ini menciptakan kelangkaan RTH di banyak daerah perkotaan di Indonesia. Proses perencanaan kota yang berwawasan lingkungan sangat diperlukan di seluruh wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia. Pemanfaatan ruang terbuka yang selama ini belum atau kurang dimanfaatkan harus lebih dimaksimalkan lagi pemanfaatannya, seperti tempat pemakaman. Pemakaman merupakan salah satu bentuk ruang terbuka kota yang belum efektif pemanfaatannya sebagai RTH. Karakteristik dan jenis makam yang ada di Indonesia seperti  tempat pemakaman umum (TPU dan tempat pemakaman khusus (TPK memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai ruang terbuka hijau. Pemanfaatan tempat pemakaman umum sebagai RTH dilakukan dengan membandingkan variabel-variabel dari tiap indikator  fungsi RTH, seperti fungsi sosial, fungsi fisik, dan fungsi estetika.  Kesimpulan yang dihasilkan berdasarkan fungsi fisik RTH kawasan pemakaman saat ini masih belum ada kawasan pemakaman umum yang secara optimal dapat berfungsi sebagai RTH. Kawasan Pemakaman yang memenuhi fungsi sosial  RTH  adalah TPU Islam, TPU Kristen, dan TPU tionghoa.  Sedangkan  Fungsi estetika  RTH dapat dipenuhi oleh tempat pemakaman Kristen dan Tionghoa.   Green open space has now been changed into buildings. urban green space has been converted into residential areas, hotels, restaurants, shops, offices, highways, parking lots, gas stations, street vendors and other areas. This creates a dearth of green space in many urban areas in Indonesia. Ecological city planning is indispensable in all urban areas in Indonesia. Utilization of open space should be maximized

  10. DAMPAK KEGIATAN PELEDAKAN PERTAMBANGAN ANDESIT TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN PEMUKIMAN DI GUNUNG SUDAMANIK KECAMATAN CIGUDEG KABUPATEN BOGOR (The Impact of Blasting Activities for Andesite Mining to Residential Environment at Mount Sudamanik Cigudeg Bogor

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    Aljon Albertus Manotar Simbolon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Aspek lingkungan hidup kemungkinan terganggu akibat kegiatan eksploitasi sumber daya alam. Mineral dan batuan sebagai salah satu sumber daya alam pada umumnya tersebar di daerah terpencil yang masih memerlukan pengembangan. Pada sisi ini, kehadiran perusahaan pertambangan sangat penting peranannya bagi kemajuan dan pembangunan serta meretas keterisolasian suatu daerah. Wilayah sekitar Gunung Sudamanik, Kecamatan Cigudeg, Kabupaten Bogor tumbuh dan berkembang karena pertambangan andesit. Gunung Sudamanik telah dan masih dieksploitasi lima perusahaan tambang andesit yang memiliki Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP dengan luas total Wilayah Izin Usaha Pertambangan (WIUP seluas 113 hektar. Pada tahun 2012, total produksi batuan kelima perusahaan adalah 3.984.785 ton atau rata-rata 332.065,4 ton per bulan. Produksi batuan tersebut dihasilkan dari peledakan yang dapat mencapai lima kali peledakan atau lebih setiap hari. Getaran dan bunyi ledakan yang disebabkan peledakan ini kemungkinan berdampak terhadap lingkungan hidup, terutama pada konstruksi rumah dan kenyamanan masyarakat yang bermukim di sekitar kaki Gunung Sudamanik. Pemukiman penduduk yang paling dekat lokasi peledakan andesit berada pada tiga kampung/dusun yaitu Kampung Kadaung, Lebakwangi Lapangan dan Lebakwangi Girang. Ketiga kampung tersebut secara administratif berada dalam Desa Rengasjajar. Rumah warga pada pemukiman yang paling dekat ke lokasi peledakan batuan andesit berjarak sekitar 337 – 616 meter. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemakaian 90,5 kg bahan peledak delay yang sama pada jarak 148 m mengakibatkan tingkat getaran tanah maksimum 7,71 mm/s yang telah melewati baku mutu kelas 3 SNI 7571 : 2010. Dan pemakaian bahan peledak mulai dari 77,4 kg sampai 1310,4 kg setiap peledakan tidak menimbulkan dampak kebisingan pada pemukiman warga. ABSTRACT Living environment aspects are possibility disrupted by the exploitation of natural resources. Minerals and rocks as one of the

  11. Pola Permukiman Tradisional Kajang

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    Erni Erawati

    2016-12-01

    yang terdiri atas kawasan kamase-masea dan kawasan kuassayyya. Dari bentuk dan fungsi situs-situs di kawasan Kajang, dapat dikatakan bahwa kawasan Kajang memiliki situs Megalitik dan situs Islam yang masih dipergunakan sampai sekarang. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola permukiman di Kawasan Kajang berdasarkan letak situs-situs. Sumber data penelitian ada dua, yaitu data sekunder yang diperoleh melalui penelitian pustaka, dan data primer diperoleh melalui penelitian lapangan dengan cara observasi dan survei permukaan.Pola permukiman di kawasan Kajang menampilkan dua ciri, yaitu: 1. Pola permukiman dan penempatan rumah secara berkelompok mengarah pada ketinggian, arah hadap rumah ke arah barat, bangunan sakral berada di tempat ketinggian dan dikelilingi oleh kawasan hutan adat dan bangunan rumah penduduk, 2. Pola permukiman berbentuk memanjang dan berderet disebelah menyebelah jalan, kaki bukit, dan pinggir sungai dan pantai dengan ciri yang menunjukkan pelapisan sosial. Terdapat dua fungsi situs di kawasan Kajang, yaitu: situs yang berfungsi sebagai tempat pelantikan Ammatoa sebagai pemimpin di bidang spiritual, dan tempat pelantikan Karaeng yang dianggap pemimpin di bidang pemerintahan.