WorldWideScience

Sample records for capturefrom coal-fired power

  1. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  2. Advanced coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebel, G.; Weirich, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    Reconstruction of coal-fired power plants under the aspects of higher economic efficiency and lower emissions has become more interesting as the petroleum and natural gas reserves have become shorter. A number of advanced concepts have been presented in the last few years and tested in experimental facilities, pilot plants and demonstration plants. If construction is envisaged within the next five years, better steam processes and coal gas turbines should be employed. Supercharged steam generators, which will bring about further improvements, will be available by the mid-Nineties.

  3. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  4. US EPA Region 9 Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  5. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  6. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  7. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  8. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.I. Karpenko; Y.E. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [RAO Unified Energy Systems of Russia, Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Russia Sectional Center for Plasma-Power Technologies

    2009-07-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  9. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  10. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  11. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations.

  12. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  13. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  14. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  15. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  16. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  17. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  18. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glodek, A.; Pacyna, J.M. [NILU Polska, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-11-15

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  19. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  20. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  1. Improved Optimization Study of Integration Strategies in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power generation system (SACFPGS combines solar energy and traditional coal-fired units in a particular way. This study mainly improves the solar thermal storage system. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the SACFPGS. The best integration approach of the system, the collector area, and the corresponding thermal storage capacity to replace each high-pressure extraction are obtained when the amount of coal saving in unit solar investment per hour is at its largest. System performance before and after the improvement is compared. Results show that the improvement of the thermal storage system effectively increases the economic benefit of the integrated system.

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udayan Singh; Naushita Sharma; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2016-01-01

    Coal is the backbone of the Indian power sector.The coal-fired power plants remain the largest emitters of carbon dioxide,sulfur dioxide and substantial amounts of nitrogen oxides,which are associated with climate and health impacts.Various CO2 mitigation technologies (carbon capture and storage—CCS) and SO2/NOx mitigation technologies (flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction) have been employed to reduce the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants.Therefore,it is imperative to understand the feasibility of various mitigation technologies employed.This paper attempts to perform environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Indian coal-fired power plant with and without CO2,SO2 and NOx mitigation controls.The study develops new normalization factors for India in various damage categories,using the Indian emissions and energy consumption data,coupled with the emissions and particulate emission to come up with a final environmental impact of coal-fired electricity.The results show a large degree of dependence on the perspective of assessment used.The impact of sensitivities of individual substances and the effect of plant efficiency on the final LCA results is also studied.

  3. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  4. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  5. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  6. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  7. More efficient operation of coal fired power plants using nonlinear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Anttila, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solution Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Abstract: Coal fired power plants should be operated in such a way that the emissions are kept clearly below desired limits and the combustion efficiency is as high as can be achieved. This requires a lot of quantitative knowledge of the effects of the process variables and fuel characteristics on the emissions and efficiency. Mathematical models can be developed with different approaches. Physical models are too slow to be used for on-line process guidance, and require too many assumptions and simplifications. It is feasible to develop empirical or semi-empirical models from normal production data of the power plant. This technical communication explains with an example of a coal fired power plant how nonlinear models are an effective means of determining the best operating conditions at any given load for a given type of coal.

  8. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  10. Sliding Mode Predictive Control of Main Steam Pressure in Coal-fired Power Plant Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史元浩; 王景成; 章云锋

    2012-01-01

    Since the combustion system of coal-fired boiler in thermal power plant is characterized as time varying, strongly coupled, and nonlinear, it is hard to achieve a satisfactory performance by the conventional proportional integral derivative (PID) control scheme. For the characteristics of the main steam pressure in coal-fired power plant boiler, the sliding mode control system with Smith predictive structure is proposed to look for performance and robustness improvement. First, internal model control (IMC) and Smith predictor (SP) is used to deal with the time delay, and sliding mode controller (SMCr) is designed to overcome the model mismatch. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with conventional ones.

  11. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J.E.; Simms, N.J. [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  12. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  13. 800-MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Boilers in Suizhong Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Haifeng; Li Zhishan; Liu Zhongqi; Yan Hongyong; Zhang Yuanliang; Wang Lei

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the problems of Russia-made 800-MW coal-fired supercritical boilers inSuizhong Power Plant, such as burner burnout, water-wall leakage, slag screen I explosion, crack happenedon the desuperheater outlet of reheater and welding defect of economizer; tells the process of renovating theseunits by modifying the original design and adjusting the operation parameters. After several years' effort, allthe problems have been well solved. The experience may be useful for other imported units in China.

  14. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  15. Physicochemical properties and heavy metals leachability of fly ash from coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei; Han Baoping; Zhou Dong; Nzihou Ange

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of fly ash from two kinds of coal-fired power plants were studied.Three aspects were examined:the micro-morphology,the mineral composition and the content of heavy met als.The results show that the fly ash from plants using a circulating fluidized bed are more irregular particles,while the particles from the plants using a pulverized coal-fired boiler are mainly spherical in shape.Quartz and mullite are the main crystalline phases in the ash.Clearly,both the technology and the coal used by a power plant can influence the mineral composition of the ash.The mineral composition of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed is more complex than that from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.The quantity of elements found in the fly ash is greater than that found in the bottom ash for the same plant.Heavy metals are likely to be enriched in the fly ash.Heavy metal leachability was studied using two leaching methods.The results indicate that most of the heavy metals that leached during either batch leaching or column leaching experiments did not exceed the related maximum concentration standards.But Ni concentrations in the leachates from both batch and column tests exceed the standard.The highest excess rates in both tests were 572% and 497%,which levels might threaten the environment.

  16. Torrevaldaliga Nord power plant: one of the cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power stations worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrighi, L.; Dentini, A. [Enel Generation, Rome (Italy); Pasini, S.; Toschi, M. [Enel Generation, Pisa (Italy); Guardiani, G.M. [Enel Generaton, Piacenza (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    In the light of market liberalisation Enel decided to switch the Torrevaldaliga Nord Power Plant from oil to coal firing. The new plant comprises three coal-fired units with a total capacity of about 1980 MW. Also in international comparison the project is among the most ambitious and advanced projects of its kind, both in terms of its technical and environmental characteristics. Construction activity started in March 2004 and the first unit will be in commercial operation at the end of 2008. (orig.)

  17. The advanced super critical 700{sup o}C pulverized coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Klauke, F.; Vanstone, R.; Zeijseink, A.; Weissinger, G.; Kristensen, P.; Meier, J.; Blum, R.; Wieghardt, K. [Tech-Wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{sup o}C PF Power Plant'. The first phase started in 1998 based on a grant from the Commission's Thermie programme under the 4th Framework programme. The overall objective of the project is to ensure a role for coal in Europe also in future. The project's targets renewedpublic and political acceptance of coal by improving efficiency and economy of well-proven, super critical pulverised coal-fired technology. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{sup o}C. Principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. Three benchmarks for theinvestigations have been set up: (i) the net efficiency of the demonstration plant from the present state of the art performance of 44% will be boosted into the range of 50-51% for a plant located inland with a cooling tower and 53-54% for the best seawater-cooled versions. (ii) reductions of investment cost of PF power plant by revising the overall architecture of the plant. (iii) Co-firing of up to 20% biomass with coal. The Advanced 700{sup o}C PF power plant project (or AD700) will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation and give a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Hot windbox repowering of coal-fired thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZOĞLU, Mustafa Zeki; DURMAZ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The repowering of thermal power plants could be the fastest way to respond to the energy demand while decreasing the CO2 emissions per kilowatt hour of energy generated. Hot windbox repowering of a thermal power plant was investigated in this study using Thermoflex simulations. The Soma A thermal power plant began operation in 1957 and was in service until 2010. In the current situation, the installed capacity of the power plant is 44 MWel, with 2 units. The boiler was designed to oper...

  19. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  20. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  1. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  2. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  3. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emissions of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. For steadily increasing emissions without substantial pollution controls, we find that the net global mean climate forcing ranges from near zero to a substantial negative value, depending on the magnitude of aerosol indirect effects, due to aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. The long-term forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls, with larger values in the case of pollutant controls. The results imply that historical emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period. Those emissions likely led to weak cooling at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and warming in the Southern Hemisphere, however. Subsequent imposition of pollution controls and the switch to low-sulfur coal in some areas kept global SO2 emissions roughly level from 1970 to 2000. Hence during that period, RF due to emissions during those decades and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and likely contributed to rapid global and regional warming. Most recently, construction of coal-fired power plants in China and India has been increasing rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of high-growth rates for another 30 years would lead to near zero to negative global mean climate forcing in the absence of expanded pollution controls, but severely degraded air quality. However, following the Western pattern of high coal usage followed by imposition of pollution controls could lead to accelerated global warming in the

  4. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Integrating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha- nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a typical SACPG system, considering CO2 avoidance, is 0.098 $/kW·h, lower than that of SEGS, 0.14 $/kW·h.

  5. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  6. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  7. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  8. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  9. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  10. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  11. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  12. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  13. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS PHASE II AND III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 "Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III." The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: à thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; à NOx, SOx, and particulates <10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); à coal providing >65% of heat input; à all solid wastes benign; à cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: à Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; à Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  15. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  16. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  17. Non-greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Within the Twelth Five-Year Plan, the Chinese Government has made addressing air quality problems a key environmental priority, with an intention to accelerate the development of systems, institutions and a technical knowledge base for sustained improvement. A major focus is on the coal power sector for which standards have been introduced that require the installation of modern, very high efficiency SO2, NOx and particulates emissions control systems. Nine key regions, which are facing very significant air quality challenges, are the three major economic zones around the cities of Beijing, Shanghai (Yangtze River Delta) and Guangzhou (Pearl River Delta), together with six areas around the cities of Shenyang, Changsha, Wuhan, Chengdu Chongqing, the Shandong peninsula, and the coastal area west of the Taiwan strait. These regions comprise the population and economic centres of the country, accounting for 64% of national GDP, 43% of total energy use, and 39% of the population. In these locations, all existing and new coal-fired power plants will have to achieve particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions limits of 20, 50 and 100 mg/m3 respectively, with new plants expected to meet the standards from 1 January 2012 and existing plants by 1 July 2014. At the same time, there will be an increasing emphasis on limiting any new coal-fired power plants in these regions. For the rest of the country, the standards are not quite so strict and the SO2 limits for existing plants are less severe than for new plants. The new pollutant that will be regulated on coal-fired power plants is mercury and its compounds, for which the limit has been set at a level that represents a core control. This means that providing the power plant operator meets the new particulate, SO2 and NOx standards then the mercury standard should be met without the need to introduce an additional capture device, although the emissions level will have to be measured on a regular basis. From a global perspective, this

  18. Utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-zuo CAO; Eva SELIC; Jan-Dirk HERBELL

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly increasing demand for energy in China leads to the construction of new power plants all over the country. Coal, as the main fuel resource of those power plants, results in increasing problems with the disposal of solid residues from combustion and off gas cleaning. This investigation describes chances for the utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in China. After briefly comparing the situation in China and Germany, the status of aluminum recycling from fly ash and the advantages for using fly ash in concrete products are introduced. Chemical and physical analyses of Chinese fly ash samples, e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP (Inductive Coupled Plasma) and particle size analysis, water requirement, etc. are presented. Reasonable amounts of aluminum were detected in the samples under investigation, but for recovery only sophisticated procedures are available up to now. Therefore, simpler techniques are suggested for the first steps in the utilization of Chinese fly ash.

  19. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant.

  20. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  1. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  2. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  3. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-04-30

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

  4. Sub-atmospheric disk generators for coal-fired MHD/steam combined cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerle, H.K.; Fang, Y.; Simpson, S.W.; Marty, S.M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    A coal fired MHD disk generator in a combined cycle MHD/steam power generation system with a diffuser operating at sub-atmospheric pressure is proposed. The effects of pressure on the performance of a radial outflow MHD disk generator and other system components are analysed. Using a previous study as a reference case, preliminary calculations show that, in such a sub-atmospheric system, improved power station efficiency can be achieved. In addition, operation at reduced values of magnetic field strength would be feasible. Calculations have also been carried out for a 30 MW{sub th} experimental disk generator operating at reduced pressure with a magnetic field strength of 2 T. Flow conditions at sub-atmospheric pressure would provide an improved simulation of a full-scale generator operating at normal pressures. (author).

  5. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  6. Semi-quantitative characterisation of ambient ultrafine aerosols resulting from emissions of coal fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J T; Bridgman, H A; Buhre, B J P; Gupta, R P; Nelson, P F; Wall, T F

    2008-02-25

    Emissions from coal fired power stations are known to be a significant anthropogenic source of fine atmospheric particles, both through direct primary emissions and secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate from emissions of gaseous precursors. However, there is relatively little information available in the literature regarding the contribution emissions make to the ambient aerosol, particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this study, the contribution of emissions to particles smaller than 0.3 mum in the ambient aerosol was examined at a sampling site 7 km from two large Australian coal fired power stations equipped with fabric filters. A novel approach was employed using conditional sampling based on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) as an indicator species, and a relatively new sampler, the TSI Nanometer Aerosol Sampler. Samples were collected on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and examined using a combination of TEM imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for qualitative chemical analysis. The ultrafine aerosol in low SO(2) conditions was dominated by diesel soot from vehicle emissions, while significant quantities of particles, which were unstable under the electron beam, were observed in the high SO(2) samples. The behaviour of these particles was consistent with literature accounts of sulfate and nitrate species, believed to have been derived from precursor emissions from the power stations. A significant carbon peak was noted in the residues from the evaporated particles, suggesting that some secondary organic aerosol formation may also have been catalysed by these acid seed particles. No primary particulate material was observed in the minus 0.3 mum fraction. The results of this study indicate the contribution of species more commonly associated with gas to particle conversion may be more significant than expected, even close to source.

  7. Mercury emissions of a coal-fired power plant in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Andreas; Slemr, Franz; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Pirrone, Nicola; Bieser, Johannes; Bödewadt, Jan; Esposito, Giulio; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.

    2016-11-01

    Hg / SO2, Hg / CO, NOx / SO2 (NOx being the sum of NO and NO2) emission ratios (ERs) in the plume of the coal-fired power plant (CFPP), Lippendorf, near Leipzig, Germany, were determined within the European Tropospheric Mercury Experiment (ETMEP) aircraft campaign in August 2013. The gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) fraction of mercury emissions was also assessed. Measured Hg / SO2 and Hg / CO ERs were within the measurement uncertainties consistent with the ratios calculated from annual emissions in 2013 reported by the CFPP operator, while the NOx / SO2 ER was somewhat lower. The GOM fraction of total mercury emissions, estimated using three independent methods, was below ˜ 25 %. This result is consistent with other findings and suggests that GOM fractions of ˜ 40 % of CFPP mercury emissions in current emission inventories are overestimated.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  9. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  10. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Radziwon, A S [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  12. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Luis M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via, 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, Jose M. [University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre, 83,48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO{sub 2} emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows compute the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. (author)

  13. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in fly ashes collected from five coal-fired power plants in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xu; Ma, Huiqiao; Fan, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The 5 coal fly ash samples (CFA) were systematically collected from 5 coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in North China for analysis of 86 PCB congeners. The predominant PCB congeners were PCB-6, -4/10, -28, -18, -19 and -16/32, which belonged to lighter molecular weight (LMW) congeners. The Σ86PCBs for 5 CFPPs ranged from 10.93 to 32.06 ng/g with the mean value as 16.01 ng/g. The PCBs in CFA were dominated by LMW-PCBs with 2-, 3- and 4-Cl PCBs contributed 34.80%, 39.18% and 9.21% to the Σ86PCBs. The TEQ concentrations for 5 CFPPs was 42.54 pg/g higher than 4 pg/g designed by Canada for soil quality, indicated the using of CFA as soil amendment should be cautioned.

  15. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  16. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  17. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  18. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  19. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-04-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  20. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system.

  1. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  2. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  3. Combined gas/steam turbine power plants with coal fired steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, H.J.; Weirich, P.H. [ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The combination of coal fired steam power plants with natural gas fired gas turbines results in an essential efficiency increase, up to 50%, requiring a portion of around one third of the fuel heat input in form of natural gas. There are two basic types of circuit arrangements in this category: in a topping process the gas turbine is connected to the steam generator on the gas side, and in a compound cycle power plant gas turbine and steam circuit are connected to each other on the water/steam side via a heat recovery steam generator. If comparable design parameters are applied slightly higher plant efficiencies can be obtained with the topping process. With respect to a higher power plant availability it is possible to operate both types of circuit arrangement without gas turbine. The specific investment cost of such combined cycle power plants is lower than that of corresponding steam power plants. Hence, they can represent economical solutions as far as the price ratio between natural gas and coal is not extremely high. In ecological respects, the advantage of this combination is a reduction of the specific CO{sub 2} emission by around 20-25%, compared with pure steam power plants. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  5. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  6. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van den Broek, Machteld; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to increa

  7. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  8. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  9. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-07-30

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a review of the available data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts from small, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale slipstream reactors and full-scale power plants was carried out. Data from small-scale reactors obtained with both simulated flue gas and actual coal combustion flue gas demonstrated the importance of temperature, ammonia, space velocity and chlorine on mercury oxidation across SCR catalyst. SCR catalysts are, under certain circumstances, capable of driving mercury speciation toward the gas-phase equilibrium values at SCR temperatures. Evidence suggests that mercury does not always reach equilibrium at the outlet. There may be other factors that become apparent as more data become available.

  12. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide (40)K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, (226)Ra, (235)U and (238)U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). (232)Th and artificial radionuclide (137)Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L(-)(1), while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L(-)(1).

  13. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  15. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shindell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by

  16. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  17. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  18. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  19. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  20. Should a coal-fired power plant be replaced or retrofitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit; Apt, Jay; Chen, Chao

    2007-12-01

    In a cap-and-trade system, a power plant operator can choose to operate while paying for the necessary emissions allowances, retrofit emissions controls to the plant, or replace the unit with a new plant. Allowance prices are uncertain, as are the timing and stringency of requirements for control of mercury and carbon emissions. We model the evolution of allowance prices for SO2, NOx, Hg, and CO2 using geometric Brownian motion with drift, volatility, and jumps, and use an options-based analysis to find the value of the alternatives. In the absence of a carbon price, only if the owners have a planning horizon longer than 30 years would they replace a conventional coal-fired plant with a high-performance unit such as a supercritical plant; otherwise, they would install SO2 and NOx, controls on the existing unit. An expectation that the CO2 price will reach $50/t in 2020 makes the installation of an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration attractive today, even for planning horizons as short as 20 years. A carbon price below $40/t is unlikely to produce investments in carbon capture for electric power.

  1. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  2. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  3. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  4. Performance enhancement in coal fired thermal power plants. Part IV: overall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Mandi, R.P.; Jothibasu, S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Trivandrum (India). Energy Research Centre

    1999-11-01

    An analysis is presented of the overall performance of 22 coal-fired power plants. The net overall efficiency is in the range 19.23-30.69%. The effects of ash in coal, contaminations in feed water, leakage, incondensables, etc., have been quantified. Ways of minimizing secondary oil consumption have been provided. The techniques for performance improvement, low cost as well as capital intensive, have been described. The role of overhauling the plant and associated opportunities for performance improvement are also discussed. It is concluded that achieving a high annual plant load factor will bring about all round improvement in the unit performance. Unless the pressing in problems of high ash in coal, inadequate contaminant control and leakage/ingress are solved, mere repowering by equipment of higher-efficiency may not yield the desired results. Design margins of 10-20% are essential for both repowered and new units. In the long term, it is economical to de-commission all units below 210 MW and only three sizes need be retained: 210, 500 and 1000 MW. Automation of the DM water plant provides maximum economic advantage. Considerable opportunity exists for energy conservation through introduction of information technology and variable frequency drives in all units. 15 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Performance enhancement in coal fired thermal power plants. Part II: steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Trivandrum (India). Energy Research Centre

    1999-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the performance enhancement study on 22 coal fired thermal power stations in India with capacities 30-500 MW. The oldest units (30 MW) have served for 33 yr and the newer units (500 MW) have been in operation for 7 years. The turbine efficiencies are in the range 31.00-41.90% as compared to the design range of 34.80-43.98%. The isentropic efficiencies are in the range 74.13-86.40% as compared to design values of 83.20-89.10%. Considerable scope for efficiency improvement through low cost solutions: operational optimization, capital overhaul, simple modifications, etc., exists for all classes of units. The efficiencies can be restored to their design values. The developments in turbines over the last quarter of this century which have led to improved isentropic and thermal efficiencies must be adopted for existing units through retrofits, upgrades and revamps. The turbine efficiencies can be improved to 38.0% for 30 MW units and to 47% for 500 MW units. The maximum potential is for improvement in 210 and 500 MW units followed by 110 and 120 MW units. The potential for 30 and 62.5 MW units is rather limited because of their low capacity share, lack of interest in manufacturers to sell spares (because of the low volume of requirement) and large pay back periods for modernisation schemes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  7. 700-MW coal fired sliding pressure operation boiler with improving operational characteristics. ; Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, J.; Kiyama, K. (Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    In response to requirements of improvements of efficiency and operability to provide demand control and environmental preservation in coal fired boilers, Babcock-Hitachi has endeavored to develop a large capacity coal fired boiler. As a result, Babcock-Hitachi has installed a 700MW supercritical sliding pressure operation coal fired once through boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Station Unit No.2 of Chubu Electric Power Co. For this coal fired boiler, spiral water wall construction was adopted to stabilize the furnace outlet water temperature via uniform heat absorption at the furnace. A three-stage spray-type attemperator was also applied to the main steam temperature control to improve load controllability and to correspond to a fluctuation of heat absorption at the furnace and the convection pass zone. Moreover, gas recirculation system, parallel gas damper, and intermediate spray attemperator were used to control the reheat steam temperature. The present article describes design summary and results of trial operation of this large capacity coal fired boiler. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ancora

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  9. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, D.K.; Bromet, E.J.

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident.

  10. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  11. Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wang; WenhuaWang; Wei Xu; Xiaohao Wang; Song Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent.All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series.During the course of coal stream,the samples,such as coal,bottom ash,fly ash,gypsum and fiue gas,were collected.The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion.Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer.The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching.The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%,77.1%,118% and 85.8% for the four power plants,respectively.The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 μg/m3.The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash,ESP,WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%,2.17%-23.4%,2.21%-87.1%,and 21.8%-72.7%,respectively.The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions.The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%.The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago.

  12. Review of the coal-fired, over-supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Shvarts, A. L.; Somova, E. V.; Verbovetskii, E. Kh.; Avrutskii, G. D.; Ermakova, S. V.; Kalugin, R. N.; Lazarev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a review of developments of modern high-capacity coal-fired over-supercritical (OSC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) steam power plants and their implementation. The basic engineering solutions are reported that ensure the reliability, economic performance, and low atmospheric pollution levels. The net efficiency of the power plants is increased by optimizing the heat balance, improving the primary and auxiliary equipment, and, which is the main thing, by increasing the throttle conditions. As a result of the enhanced efficiency, emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, the "greenhouse" gas, are reduced. To date, the exhaust steam conditions in the world power industry are p 0 ≈ 30 MPa and t 0 = 610/620°C. The efficiency of such power plants reaches 47%. The OSC plants are being operated in Germany, Denmark, Japan, China, and Korea; pilot plants are being developed in Russia. Currently, a project of a power plant for the ultra-supercritical steam conditions p 0 ≈ 35 MPa and t 0 = 700/720°C with efficiency of approximately 50% is being studied in the EU within the framework of the Thermie AD700 program, project AD 700PF. Investigations in this field have also been launched in the United States, Japan, and China. Engineering solutions are also being sought in Russia by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute (VTI) and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. The stated steam parameter level necessitates application of new materials, namely, nickel-base alloys. Taking into consideration high costs of nickel-base alloys and the absence in Russia of technologies for their production and manufacture of products from these materials for steam-turbine power plants, the development of power plants for steam parameters of 32 MPa and 650/650°C should be considered to be the first stage in creating the USC plants as, to achieve the above parameters, no expensive alloys are require. To develop and

  13. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLYASH FROM COAL REFUSE-FIRED AND COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jifeng; Han Zuozhen; Wang Xiuying

    2000-01-01

    The physical,chemical and mineral facies properties of the flyash from Xiezhuang Coal Refuse-Fired Power Plant have been studied by means of naked eyes,microscope,chemical composition analysis and XRD analysis,and compared with that of the flyash from Tai'an Coal-Fired Power Plant.The result shows that the flyash from coal refuse-fired power plant is of better quality in making construction items,for being brighter in color,fine and high activity.Some ways of comprehensive utilization of the ash have been suggested in this paper.

  14. Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal

  15. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  16. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  17. Assessment method for the prevention effectiveness of PM2.5 based on the optimization development of coal-fired power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kuan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jin-fang; Hao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    A large number of combustion of coal is easy to lead to the haze weather which has brought a lot of inconveniences and threat to people’s living and health in E&C China, as the dominant power source of China, the coal-fired power generation is one of the main sources to the haze. In this paper, the contribution of the combustion of coal and development of coal-fired power generation to the PM2.5 emissions is summarized based on the analysis of the present situation, the mechanism and the emission source of PM2.5. Considering the peak of carbon emissions and the constraints of atmospheric environment, the quantitative assessment method of PM2.5 by optimizing the development of coal-fired power generation is present. By the computation analysis for different scenarios, it indicates that the optimization scenario, which means the main new-installed coal-fired power generation is distributed in western and northern China, can prevent the PM2.5 effectively for both the load center and coal base regions of China. The results of this paper not only have reference value for the optimized layout of coal-fired power generation in the “13rd fifth-year” power planning, also is of great significance to deal with problems that the atmospheric pollution and climate warming in the future.

  18. Economic Analysis for Rebuilding of an Aged Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler with a New Boiler in an Aged Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil-fired thermal power plants (TPP produce a significant part of electricity in the world. Because of the aging TPPs and so their equipment (especially boiler, thermal power plants also produce less power than their installed capacities, and there has been power loss in time. This situation affects the supply and demand balance of countries. For this reason, aging equipments such as pulverized coal-fired boiler (PCB must be renewed and power loss must be recovered, instead of building new TPPs. In this study, economic analysis of rebuilding an aged pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new pulverized coal-fired boiler including flue gas desulfurization (FGD unit and a circulating fluidized bed boiler (FBB are investigated in an existing old TPP. Emission costs are also added to model, and the developed model is applied to a 200 MWe pulverized coal-fired thermal power plant in Turkey. As a result, the payback period and the net present value are calculated for different technical and economic parameters such as power loss, load factor, electricity price, discount rate, and escalation rate by using the annual value method. The outcomes of this study show that rebuilding of a pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new one is amortized itself in a very short time.

  19. Proposed Partial Repowering of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Low-Grade Solar Thermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hongguang Jin; Yawen Zhao; Hui Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid power-generation system with integration of solar heat at approximately 300 ⁰C was proposed for a coal-fired power plant. The system was investigated with the aid of energy-utilization diagram methodology (EUD methodology). In this research, in...

  20. Energy and Ecological Effects of the Primary Gas-Turbine Supplementing a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Szargut

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine fed with natural gas, introduced as a primary link of the coal-fired power plant for preheating the feed water, ensures positive energy and ecological effects. The energy effect has been expressed by means of the incremental energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the increase of power to the chemical energy of the consumed gas. The reduction of CO2 emission has been also characterized by means of the incremental index. Formulae have been derived and numerical examples included.

  1. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  2. Benefit-cost framework for analysis of trace element emissions from coal-fired power plants. [103 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The major conclusions of this report may be summarized in the following four points: (1) It is probable that atmospheric emissions of trace elements from Southwestern coal-fired power plants will not cause major problems over the next 20 years. But monitoring for trace element build-up (especially mercury, selenium, and arsenic) in the mountains of southern Colorado, Navajo Reservoir, and other local hot spots would be an important and desirable step. (2) It appears that damage from trace elements in disposed ash is more likely than damage from atmospheric trace element emissions. But whether damage from disposed ash will actually occur is highly uncertain. We recommend that additional research be conducted on the entire range of issues surrounding ash disposal. (3) In the area of legislation and regulation, there may be some need for review of regulations concerning trace element atmospheric emissions. Present regulation of ash disposal is very likely to need revision and extension. (4) Future research on the environmental problems of coal-fired power plants should place emphasis on atmospheric emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides; consequent problems of acid precipitation also need exploration. Environmental research on coal-fired power plants does not need to exclude other problems. But issues surrounding sulfur emissions, nitrogen emissions, sulfate transformations, and acid precipitation appear to merit major emphasis. Perhaps the most important aspect of the preceding list of conclusions is that more questions are raised than are answered. As work on the subject proceeded, it became apparent that an important task was to point future research in the right direction.

  3. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  4. Elemental composition of fly ash from a coal-fired thermal power plant: a study using PIXE and EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Behera, S.N.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Puri, S.; Shahi, J.S.; Singh, N. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1997-03-01

    Fly ash samples collected in an electrostatic precipitator from a coal-fired power plant at Talcher in India were characterized using particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques. Sixteen elements, namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y and Ph, were quantified. These concentration values can be helpful in developing a pollution abatement approach for various applications of fly ash such as cement manufacture and ceramics, and as a source of major and micro-nutrient elements for healthy plant growth.

  5. A systematic approach to assessing measurement uncertainty for CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    , from which a general matrix scheme is developed that includes all factors and stages needed for total CO2 determination, which is applied to the monitoring plan of a representative medium-sized coal-fired power plant. In particular sampling involved significant potential errors, as identified...... on extensive empirical sampling experiments, a fully comprehensive uncertainty estimate procedure has been devised. Even though uncertainties increased (indeed one particular factor is substantially higher, the so-called “emission factor”), the revised CO2 emission budget for the case plant complies...

  6. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, M; Khan, M A

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were found to be alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent was found to contain large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. All the effluents were found to be responsible for altering the chemical composition of the soil. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased, probably due to being leached to the lower layers of the soil. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both the crops when the irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. The germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. The samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of the effluents on the canal water and its subsequent effect on the crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained

  7. Proposed Partial Repowering of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Low-Grade Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Jin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, a hybrid power-generation system with integration of solar heat at approximately 300 ⁰C was proposed for a coal-fired power plant. The system was investigated with the aid of energy-utilization diagram methodology (EUD methodology. In this research, instead of steam, low-grade solar heat was utilized to heat the feed water, leading to an improvement in the plant thermodynamic performance. The net annual solar-to-electric efficiency was recorded as over 15%. Solar feed-water heaters can operate in line with previously used feed-water heaters during the solar off-design period. A preliminary economic evaluation demonstrated that the increased capital cost of the solar collectors may be approximately $2,007/kWe. The promising results indicated that the proposed thermal cycle offers an approach that integrates mid-temperature solar heat to partially repower existing coal-fired power plants.


  8. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  9. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010.

  10. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  11. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2016-12-06

    Using data on the coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) in Texas we assess the economic feasibility of retrofitting existing units with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in order to comply with the Clean Power Plan's rate-based emission standards under an emission trading scheme. CCS with 90% capture is shown to be more economically attractive for a range of existing units than purchasing emission rate credits (ERCs) from a trading market at an average credit price above $28 per MWh under the final state standard and $35 per MWh under the final national standard. The breakeven ERC trading prices would decrease significantly if the captured CO2 were sold for use in enhanced oil recovery, making CCS retrofits viable at lower trading prices. The combination of ERC trading and CO2 use can greatly reinforce economic incentives and market demands for CCS and hence accelerate large-scale deployment, even under scenarios with high retrofit costs. Comparing the levelized costs of electricity generation between CCS retrofits and new renewable plants under the ERC trading scheme, retrofitting coal-fired EGUs with CCS may be significantly cheaper than new solar plants under some market conditions.

  12. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  13. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  14. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  15. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  16. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain sc

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/wet FGD system. Final report, Volume 2 of 2 - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This volume contains the appendices for a coal-fired power plant toxic emissions study. Included are Process data log sheets from Coal Creek, Auditing information, Sampling protocol, Field sampling data sheets, Quality assurance/quality control, Analytical protocol, and Uncertainty analyses.

  18. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  19. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  1. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  2. Development of an exposure system for the toxicological evaluation of particles derived from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo A. Ruiz; Tarun Gupta; Choong-Min Kang; Joy E. Lawrence; Stephen T. Ferguson; Jack M. Wolfson; Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health

    2007-06-15

    To investigate the toxicity of particles originating from coal-fired power plants it is necessary to consider the effects of both primary particles and secondary components formed in the air through atmospheric reactions. This report describes a new exposure system that can be used to expose animals to both directly emitted particles and to secondary particles. The system consists of three main components. The first is a sampling system to continuously collect and dilute power plant stack emissions. The second is a reaction laboratory that contains reaction chambers to simulate atmospheric reactions. The following atmospheric reactions were simulated: (1) the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid, (2) the neutralization of sulfuric acid by ammonia, and (3) the reaction of -pinene with ozone to form secondary organic aerosol. Using these chambers with the diluted emissions, different typical atmospheric scenarios can be simulated. The final component is a mobile toxicology laboratory where animals are exposed to the resulting test aerosols. We report here the characteristics of the test aerosol exposures obtained at a coal-fired electric power plant. Particle exposures were characterized for concentrations of mass, elements, elemental carbon, organic species, inorganic ions, strong acidity, particle number, and size distributions. Mass concentrations ranged from a few micrograms per cubic meter for a scenario of primary emissions only, to about 250 {mu}g m{sup 3} for the most complex scenario. We show that the different scenarios produced a large variation in the composition of the test aerosol, thus potentially changing the toxicity of the emissions.

  3. Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, J.I.; Baxter, L.K.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard School of Public Health

    2009-07-15

    The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM2.5 emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM2.5-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM2.5, $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO{sub 2}, $500 to $15,000 per ton of NOx, and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO{sub 2} emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances.

  4. Development and evaluation of a photochemical chamber to examine the toxicity of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo A. Ruiz; Joy E. Lawrence; Jack M. Wolfson; Stephen T. Ferguson; Tarun Gupta; Choong-Min Kang; Petros Koutrakis [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health

    2007-06-15

    When investigating the toxicity of individual particle sources, it is important to consider the contribution of both primary and secondary particles. In this article, we present the design of a new photochemical chamber that can be used to form secondary sulfuric acid particles from diluted coal-fired power plant emissions. The chamber is a relatively small, well-mixed flow reactor that can fit in a mobile reaction laboratory. It produces high concentrations of hydroxyl radical (OH) from the photolysis of ozone (O{sub 3}) in the presence of water vapor. Two chambers were built and tested. A pilot chamber was tested in the laboratory, using mixtures of NO and SO{sub 2} in air, at concentrations that are approximately 100 times lower than those in power plant stack emissions. This chamber was able to oxidize about 20% of the SO{sub 2}, thereby producing 1350 {mu}g m{sup -3} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles. Further tests showed that increasing O{sub 3} concentrations and residence time increased the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} production. A field chamber was built subsequently and used in a toxicological study. Diluted coal-fired power plant emissions were introduced in the chamber. Over 19 days of exposure, the chamber, on average, converted 17% of the supplied SO{sub 2} emissions and produced an average of 350 {mu}g m{sup -3} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles. Particle losses were determined for the pilot chamber, using artificial particles whose size ranged from 50 to 1000 nm. The determined losses ranged from 21 to 42%, with no trend between the amount of particle loss and particle size. Losses for the field chamber, estimated using model calculations, were found to be similar to those of the pilot chamber.

  5. Analysis of natural radionuclides in coal, slag and ash in coal-fired power plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity monitoring in the “Nikola Tesla”, “Kolubara”, “Morava” and “Kostolac” coal-fired power plants was performed by the Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Vinča Institute of nuclear sciences in the period 2003-2010. Monitoring included the analysis of soil, water, flying ash, slag, coal and plants. This paper presents the results of the radioactivity analysis of coal, ash and slag samples. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and 210Pb as well as the man-made radionuclide 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The concentrations of pairs of radionuclides were statistically tested to determine the correlation between them. Based on the obtained results, health effect due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated via radium equivalent (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, external gamma absorbed dose rate ( and annual effective dose.

  6. Mercury speciation and its emissions from a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Chen, L.; Yang, L.G.; Zhang, L.A.; Jiang, Y.M.; Xu, X.C. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

    2007-07-15

    Distributions of mercury speciation of Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup P} in flue gas and fly ash were sampled by using the Ontario Hydro Method in a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in China. The mercury speciation was varied greatly when flue gas going through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The mercury adsorbed on fly ashes was found strongly dependent on unburnt carbon content in fly ash and slightly on the particle sizes, which implies that the physical and chemical features of some elemental substances enriched to fly ash surface also have a non-ignored effect on the mercury adsorption. The concentration of chlorine in coal, oxygen and NOx in flue gas has a positive correlation with the formation of the oxidized mercury, but the sulfur in coal has a positive influence on the formation of elemental mercury.

  7. [Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Emitted from Coal-Fired Power Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-kun; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Deng, Jian-guo; Duan, Lei

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the primary PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power plants in China, and to quantitatively evaluate the effects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization on PM2.5 emission, a pulverized coal fired (PC) power plant and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) plant were selected for measuring the mass concentration and water-soluble ion composition of PM2.5 in flue gas. The results showed that the mass concentration of PM2.5 generated from the CFB was much higher than that from the PC, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5 emitted from these two plants were very similar, because the CFB was equipped with an electrostatic-bag precipitator (EBP) with higher PM2.5 removal efficiency than the common electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Although the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from the PC was lower than that from the CFB, the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 emitted from the PC was much higher than that from the CFB, which implied that PM2.5 emission from the PC was greatly affected by the flue gas treatment installations. For example, the flue gas denitrification system produced H2SO4 mist, part of which reacted with the excessive NH3 in the flue gas to form NH4HSO4 in PM2.5 and to increase the acidity of PM2.5. In addition, the escaping of desulfurization solution during the flue gas desulfurization process could also introduce NH4+ and SO2- into PM2.5. Therefore, although the main water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from both of the plants were Ca2+ and SO(4)2-, the major cation was changed to NH4+ when emitted from PC.

  8. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of (1) > 47% thermal efficiency; (2) NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {<=}25% NSPS; (3) cost {>=}65% of heat input; (4) all solid wastes benign. In our design consideration, we have tried to render all waste streams benign and if possible convert them to a commercial product. It appears that vitrified slag has commercial values. If the flyash is reinjected through the furnace, along with the dry bottom ash, then the amount of the less valuable solid waste stream (ash) can be minimized. A limitation on this procedure arises if it results in the buildup of toxic metal concentrations in either the slag, the flyash or other APCD components. We have assembled analytical tools to describe the progress of specific toxic metals in our system. The outline of the analytical procedure is presented in the first section of this report. The strengths and corrosion resistance of five candidate refractories have been studied in this quarter. Some of the results are presented and compared for selected preparation conditions (mixing, drying time and drying temperatures). A 100 hour pilot-scale stagging combustor test of the prototype radiant panel is being planned. Several potential refractory brick materials are under review and five will be selected for the first 100 hour test. The design of the prototype panel is presented along with some of the test requirements.

  9. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five locations--Delaware River Basin (Philadelphia), Michigan/Great Lakes (Detroit), Ohio River Valley (Indianapolis), South (Atlanta), and Southwest (Yuma)--were modeled using an ASPEN simulator model. The model evaluated the performance and energy penalty for hypothetical 400-MW coal-fired plants that were retrofitted from using once-through cooling systems to wet- and dry-recirculating systems. The modeling was initially done to simulate the hottest time of the year using temperature input values that are exceeded only 1 percent of the time between June through September at each modeled location. These are the same temperature inputs commonly used by cooling tower designers to ensure that towers perform properly under most climatic conditions.

  10. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  11. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  12. Biotic and physico-chemical conditions in a cooling reservoir of a coal-fired power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cholla Lake is a cooling reservoir for the coal fired Cholla electrical generating plant. The lake provides recreational fishing and water contact recreation. The...

  13. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  14. The influence of coal-fired power plants operations on environmental radioactivity and assessment of the associated radiation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Gois, Joaquim; Carvalho, Jose S. de [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Engineering Faculty, Porto University, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal); Centre for Natural Resources and the Environment (CERENA), Instituto Superior Tecnico - IST, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Castro, Ana Cristina M. [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Engineering Faculty, Porto University, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal); Centre for Natural Resources and the Environment (CERENA), Instituto Superior Tecnico - IST, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP), Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida, 431, Porto 4200-07 (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    The natural radioactivity of coal and by-products from coal-fired power plants has been reported in many countries. Most of these studies focus on the radioactivity levels of airborne discharges with enhanced concentration in fly ashes. However, the distribution of natural radionuclides in the environment is crucial to estimate the radiological impact and the resulting risk to the exposed nearby population. At national level, data from coal-fired power plants is not available as radionuclides measurements are not compulsory; regulations are only restricted to airborne discharges of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and suspended particles. The consequent radiological impact is rather difficult to estimate as there is no data concerning the radiological elements released. This study aims to evaluate the influence of a coal-fired power plant operation on the environmental radioactivity and assessment of the associated radiation hazard. The spatial distribution of the radionuclides found in the surroundings of a coal plant, and the hazard index, were investigated by statistic and geo-statistics tools. The current research was applied to a coal plant located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. This power plant started working in 1985; it has two operational stacks, both with 225 m height, and is fueled by bituminous coal. The environmental activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were determined using gamma ray spectrometry with energy discrimination. A total of 40 relevant measurement locations were established at distances within 6 and 20 km from the coal plant. In situ gamma radiation measurements identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products ({sup 40}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa and {sup 235}U). The highest activity concentrations were registered at locations near to the stacks (500.94, 41.30 and 40.55 Bq/kg for {sup

  15. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment.

  16. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  17. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO2, NOx, and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  18. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  19. Frontier of CO{sub 2} reduction/sink with international Win/Win Corporation - coal fired electric power generation helps afforestation through by product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitaka, N.; Kaori, A.; Kazuo, W.; Katsumi, O. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Several countries in Asia require coal fired electric power generation because they are rich in domestic coal. In common sense, coal firing generates carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide more than natural gas, thus it tends to be disliked for electric power generation. When desulfurization plants are housed, these cost much and produce valuable by-poducts. Gypsum is a by-product from desulfurization plant, which can reclaim very poor alkaline or sodic soil and the combination of gypsum and quick lime is a by-product from fluidized-bed boiler and bio-briquet, which can reclaim very poor acidic soil. These two principal by-products are the key to afforestation, resulting in carbon sink. Sometimes soil reclamation can change poor soil into fertile soil which is useful for agriculture. 2 tabs.

  20. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution.

  1. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant. Nikola Tesla A in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Z.; Madic, M.; Vukovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-11-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and {sup 40}K has been investigated in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). Using alpha and gamma spectrometry, luminescence spectrophotometry, it was found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series; and these radionuclides were found in the ground water up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity was minimal.

  2. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  3. Impacts of the Minamata Conventionon on Mercury Emissions and Global Deposition from Coal-Fired Power Generation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C.; Streets, David G.; Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project similar to 90 and 150 Mg.y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India similar to 2 and 13 mu g.m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg.y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  4. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  5. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  6. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  7. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard J; Paul, Nicholas A; Hu, Yi; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass). Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg(-1) DW and 137 mg.kg(-1) DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn) were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation.

  8. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Saunders

    Full Text Available Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass. Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg(-1 DW and 137 mg.kg(-1 DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation.

  9. Zinc Isotope Variability in Three Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Predictive Model for Determining Isotopic Fractionation during Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gonzalez, R; Weiss, D

    2015-10-20

    The zinc (Zn) isotope compositions of feed materials and combustion byproducts were investigated in three different coal-fired power plants, and the results were used to develop a generalized model that can account for Zn isotopic fractionation during coal combustion. The isotope signatures in the coal (δ(66)ZnIRMM) ranged between +0.73 and +1.18‰, values that fall well within those previously determined for peat (+0.6 ±2.0‰). We therefore propose that the speciation of Zn in peat determines the isotope fingerprint in coal. All of the bottom ashes collected in these power plants were isotopically depleted in the heavy isotopes relative to the coals, with δ(66)ZnIRMM values ranging between +0.26‰ and +0.64‰. This suggests that the heavy isotopes, possibly associated with the organic matter of the coal, may be preferentially released into the vapor phase. The fly ash in all of these power plants was, in contrast, enriched in the heavy isotopes relative to coal. The signatures in the fly ash can be accounted for using a simple unidirectional fractionation model with isotope fractionation factors (αsolid-vapor) ranging between 1.0003 and 1.0007, and we suggest that condensation is the controlling process. The model proposed allows, once the isotope composition of the feed coal is known, the constraining of the Zn signatures in the byproducts. This will now enable the integration of Zn isotopes as a quantitative tool for the source apportionment of this metal from coal combustion in the atmosphere.

  10. Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayaraman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Dietz, Steven [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2016-03-03

    In this project TDA Research, Inc (TDA) has developed a new post combustion carbon capture technology based on a vacuum swing adsorption system that uses a steam purge and demonstrated its technical feasibility and economic viability in laboratory-scale tests and tests in actual coal derived flue gas. TDA uses an advanced physical adsorbent to selectively remove CO2 from the flue gas. The sorbent exhibits a much higher affinity for CO2 than N2, H2O or O2, enabling effective CO2 separation from the flue gas. We also carried out a detailed process design and analysis of the new system as part of both sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants. The new technology uses a low cost, high capacity adsorbent that selectively removes CO2 in the presence of moisture at the flue gas temperature without a need for significant cooling of the flue gas or moisture removal. The sorbent is based on a TDA proprietary mesoporous carbon that consists of surface functionalized groups that remove CO2 via physical adsorption. The high surface area and favorable porosity of the sorbent also provides a unique platform to introduce additional functionality, such as active groups to remove trace metals (e.g., Hg, As). In collaboration with the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), TDA developed system simulation models using Aspen PlusTM simulation software to assess the economic viability of TDA’s VSA-based post-combustion carbon capture technology. The levelized cost of electricity including the TS&M costs for CO2 is calculated as $116.71/MWh and $113.76/MWh for TDA system integrated with sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants; much lower than the $153.03/MWhand $147.44/MWh calculated for the corresponding amine based systems. The cost of CO2 captured for TDA’s VSA based system is $38

  11. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  12. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view.

  13. Utilization Alternatives and Potentiality for FGD Gypsum from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hezhong; Hao Jiming; Zhao Zhe; Kong Xiangying; Yang Chao; Lu Guangjie; Liu Hanqiang; Xu Fenggang; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is estimated that an installed capacity of thermal power units with desulphurization equipment will come up to 40-50 GW by the end of 2020, which affords a good opportunity for opening up and development of the market of the by-product gypsum from thermal power desulphurization. Therefore, it is necessary to research the present situation and restrictive factors in the comprehensive utilization of FGD gypsum.

  14. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  15. 太阳能辅助燃煤发电技术经济分析%Techno-economic Analysis of Solar Thermal Aided Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛剑; 杨勇平; 侯宏娟; 张楠

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The solar aided coal-fired power generation system is one of the trends of the solar thermal applications on a large scale recently. The performance of a solar trough collector aided 330MW plant with part of extraction steam in high-pressure (HP) heaters replaced was analyzed as an example. The design point and typical annual performance of solar aided coal-fired power generation in fuel-saving operation mode was analyzed. The results show that the performance of solar aided coal-fired power generation system is superior to trough solar thermal power unit and the solar to power efficiency can reach 20.41%. On this basis, the economic benefits of the solar aided coal-fired power generation system was analyzed with internal rate of return (IRR) as index by using the fundamental theories of techno-economy, and the main factors which affect the project economy were evaluated quantitatively. The influences of electricity prices, collector prices, fuel prices on IRR were gained.%太阳能与燃煤互补发电方式是近年来大规模太阳能热利用的发展方向之一。以槽式太阳能集热系统辅助某330MW燃煤机组替代高加回热抽汽加热给水的互补发电系统为例,对功率不变型互补发电系统的设计点热力性能及年热力性能进行了分析。结果表明,太阳能辅助发电系统的年光电转换效率可达到20.41%,高于单纯槽式太阳能热发电方式。在此基础上,以内部收益率(internal rate of return,IRR)作为评价指标,运用技术经济的基本原理对太阳能辅助燃煤机组互补发电系统的经济性能及其主要影响因素进行了定量的分析评价,得到了太阳能上网电价、集热器造价、燃料成本等关键因素对内部收益率的影响。

  16. Humid Air Turbine as a Primary Link of a Coal-Fired Steam Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Szargut

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlet gases of the humid air turbine (having a temperature of about 125 oC and great content of steam can be used for the preheating of feed water of the steam power plant fueled with coal. So the efficiency of the plant can be increased and its ecological indices can be improved. The attainable incremental efficiency of the humid air turbine and the increased efficiency of the combined plant has been determined for three variants of the repowering of an existing steam power plant. The variant presented in Figure 4 is recommended for practical application.

  17. Modes of Occurrence of Fluorine by Extraction and SEM Method in a Coal-Fired Power Plant from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extraction method and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to reveal the changes in the occurrence mode of fluorine in a coal-fired power plant in Inner Mongolia, China. The different occurrence states of fluorine during coal combustion and emission show that fluorine in coal mainly assumes insoluble inorganic mineral forms. The results illustrate that the three typical occurrence modes in coal are CaF2, MgF2 and AlF3. The fluorine in fly ash can be captured by an electrostatic precipitator (EPS or a bag filter. In contrast, the gaseous fluorine content in flue gas is only in the range of several parts per million; thus, it cannot be used in this study. The occurrence mode of fluorine in bottom ash and slag is inorganic villiaumite (e.g., soluble NaF, KF and insoluble CaF2 which is difficult to break down even at high temperatures. The occurrence mode of fluorine with the highest content in fly ash is physically adsorbed fluorine along the direction of the flue gas flow. The insoluble inorganic mineral fluoride content in fly ash is also high, but the gradually increasing fluorine content in fly ash is mainly caused by physical adsorption. Fluorine in the coal-fired power plant discharges mostly as solid products; however, very little fluorine emitted into the environment as gas products (HF, SiF4 cannot be captured. The parameters used in this study may provide useful references in developing a monitoring and control system for fluorine in coal-fired power plants.

  18. Application of positive matrix factorization, multi-linear engine and back trajectory techniques to the quantification of coal-fired power station pollution in metropolitan Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand J.

    2012-12-01

    Over 900 fine particle Teflon filters were collected within the Sydney Basin between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 and analyzed using simultaneous PIXE, PIGE, RBS and PESA techniques to determine 21 different elements between hydrogen and lead. These elements were used in positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multi-linear engine (ME) techniques together with HYSPLIT wind back trajectory techniques to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions from coal-fired power stations. The power stations were many kilometers outside the greater Sydney metropolitan area but still had a significant impact on the fine particle mass loadings measured at the sampling site within this metropolitan area. The PM2.5 eleven year average mass at the sampling site was 6.48 μg m-3. The corresponding ammonium sulfate estimate was 1.65 μg m-3 or 26% of the PM2.5 mass. By applying back trajectory data and (ME) analysis methods, two power related fingerprints, secondary sulfate (2ndrySPower) and aged industrial sulfur (IndSagedPower) were determined. These two power related fingerprints were responsible for between 14 and 18% of the total PM2.5 mass and 34-47% of the total sulfate measured at the sampling site. That is on average somewhere between a third and a half of all the sulfate measured in the greater Sydney region could be attributed to coal-fired power station emissions.

  19. Erosion in Steam General Tubes in Boiler and ID Fans in Coal Fired FBC Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustion is a technique used to make solid particles behave like fluid and grow very fast for the power generation using low grade coal. Due to its merits, first time this technology has been introduced in Pakistan by installing 3x50 MW power plants at Khanote. Fluidized beds have long been used for the combustion of low-quality, difficult fuels and have become a rapidly developing technology for the clean burning of coal. The FBC Power Plant at Khanote has been facing operational and technical problems, resulting frequently shut down of generation units, consequently facing heavy financial losses. This study reveals that due to the presence of high percentage of silica in the lime stone that are further distributed in the bottom ash, fly ash and re-injection material, the generation tubes in the boiler and wings/blades of ID (Induced Draft fans were eroded. In addition, filter bags were also ruptured; resulting frequent shut down of power plant units.

  20. The advanced supercritical 700 C pulverised coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Kristensen, P. [Tech-wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy, Oberhausen (Germany); Vanstone, R. [ALSTOM Power UK Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom); Zeijseink, A. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnhem (Netherlands); Weissinger, G. [ALSTOM Power Boilers GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Meier, J. [ALSTOM Power Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Blum, R. [Elsam A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Wieghardt, K. [Siemens, Muelheim (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700 C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700 C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - Nickel-based materials. (orig.) [German] Der Beitrag beschreibt die gemeinsamen Anstrengungen einer grossen Gruppe europaeischer Kraftwerksbauer, Kraftwerksbetreiber und Institute, die in einem gestuften langfristigen Projekt mit dem Titel 'Advanced 700 C PF Power Plant' zusammenarbeiten. Nettowirkungsgrade von mehr als 50% sollen durch die Entwicklung eines ueberkritischen Dampfkreislaufs erreicht werden, der mit maximalen Dampftemperaturen in der Groessenordnung von 700 C arbeitet. Die Hauptbemuehungen gelten der Entwicklung von kriechfesten und aufwaendigen Werkstoffen auf Nickelbasis, die als Superlegierungen bezeichnet werden. (orig.)

  1. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  2. Multi-model Predictive Control of Ultra-supercritical Coal-fired Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Wang; Weiwu Yan; Shihe Chen; Xi Zhang; Huihe Shao

    2014-01-01

    The control of ultra-supercritical (USC) power unit is a difficult issue for its characteristic of the nonlinearity, large dead time and coupling of the unit. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) based on multi-model and double layered optimization is introduced for coordinated control of USC unit. The linear programming (LP) com-bined with quadratic programming (QP) is used in steady optimization for computation of the ideal value of dynamic optimization. Three inputs (i.e. valve opening, coal flow and feedwater flow) are employed to control three outputs (i.e. load, main steam temperature and main steam pressure). The step response models for the dynamic matrix control (DMC) are constructed using the three inputs and the three outputs. Piecewise models are built at selected operation points. Double-layered multi-model predictive controller is implemented in sim-ulation with satisfactory performance.

  3. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalimetallverbindungen in kohlebefeuerten Kombikraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Coal fired combined cycle power systems will be a sufficient way to increase the efficiency of coal combustion. However, combined cycle power systems require a reliable hot gas cleanup. Especially alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to hot corrosion of the gas turbine blading if they condensate as sulphates. The actual work deals with the release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems. The influence of coal composition, temperature and pressure on the release of alkali species in coal combustion was investigated and the relevant release mechanisms identified. Alumosilicate sorbents have been found that reduce the alkali concentration in the hot flue gas of the Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 2{sup nd} Generation (CPFBC 2{sup nd} Gen.) at 750 C to values sufficient for use in a gas turbine. Accordingly, alumosilicate sorbents working at 1400 C have been found for the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC). The sorption mechanisms have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to upscale the results of the laboratory experiments to conditions prevailing in power systems. According to these calculations, there is no risk of hot corrosion in both processes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate the behaviour of alkali metals in an IGCC with integrated hot gas cleanup and H{sub 2} membrane for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (orig.)

  4. Geochemistry of the recent sediments from lake in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Sanei; F. Goodarzi; K. Telmer [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Environmental Study Group

    2005-07-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent sediments and their porewaters from the Wabamun Lake in central Alberta (Canada) to elucidate the possible impact from coal utilization in this region. A multi-elemental analysis of recent sediments in conjunction with other inorganic and organic geochemical approaches are applied to determine the sources, quantity, and processes involved in the distribution of trace elements in the sediments. Concentration versus depth profiles in the sediments and the associated porewaters suggest that geochemical processes impact the mobility and vertical distribution of trace elements in these sediments. Although inputs of trace elements to ecosystems have clearly been elevated by emissions from the coal-fired power plants, diagenetic processes and natural inputs cannot be ignored in the distribution of lake sediments. A combination of various biogeochemical processes may control the distribution of elements in sediment and porewater. However, because of the alkalinity and eutrophic conditions of the studied lake, the Ca-OM fraction plays the most important role as substrate for trace elements. The higher input of calcareous fly ash in the Wabamun Lake, adjacent to the power plants, may cause scavenging of trace metals. The size of fly ash particles tends to decrease towards the more recent part of the sediment profile indicating the effect of particle emission control measures adopted by the power plants. There is no evidence of fly ash particles in the sediments deposited prior to the commencement of coal-fired power plants in the study area (before 1956).

  5. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  6. Characteristics and composition of particulate matter from coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the characteristics of particulate matter(PM)were performed at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitators(ESP)of four boilers in two full-scale pulverized coal power plants.PM was collected with a 13-stages low-pressure-impactor(LPI)having aerodynamic cut-off diameter ranging from 10.0 to 0.03μm for a size-segregated collection.The properties of PM including its con-centration,mass size distribution,emission characteristics,percent penetration of PM through ESP and elemental composition were investigated.The experimental results indicate that,in all the cases the mass size distribution of PM10 had typical bimodal.PM1 contained up to 1.15wt% of the total particle(TP)generated in the boilers.PM2.5 contained about 2wt%―7wt% of the TP and PM10 contained about 4wt%―19wt% of the TP.When additive limestone used for desulphurization as sorbent besides PM generated from coal combustion,there was new PM generated from limestone.Penetration as a func-tion of particle diameter had a clear peak in particle size ranging from 0.2 to 0.6μm.Particles in the submicrometer size range were much more difficult to be collected with ESP than larger particles.Dis-tributions of individual elements within PM10 were different.

  7. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  8. Mercury Removal with Activated Carbon in Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapperport, J.; Sasmaz, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coal is both the most abundant and the dirtiest combustible energy source on earth. In the United States, about half of the country’s electricity comes from coal combustion and the industry is rapidly expanding all over the world. Among many of coal’s flaws, its combustion annually produces roughly 50 tones in the U.S. and 5000 tons worldwide of mercury, a carcinogen and highly toxic pollutant. Certain sorbents and processes are used to try to limit the amount of mercury that reaches the atmosphere, a key aspect of reducing the energy source’s harmful environmental impact. This experiment’s goal is to discover what process occurs on a sorbent surface during mercury’s capture while also determining sorbent effectiveness. Bench-scale experiments are difficult to carry out since the focus of the experiment is to simulate mercury capture in a power plant flue gas stream, where mercury is in its elemental form. The process involves injecting air, elemental mercury and other components to simulate a coal exhaust environment, and then running the stream through a packed-bed reactor with an in-tact sorbent. While carrying out the reactor tests, the gas-phase is monitored for changes in mercury oxidation and following these gas-phase studies, the mercury-laden sorbent is analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Conclusions that can be drawn thus far are that brominated activated carbon shows very high mercury capture and that mercury is found in its oxidized form on the surface of the sorbent. The speciation, or conclusions drawn on the process and bonding sites on the surface, cannot be determined at this point simply using the current spectroscopic analysis.

  9. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  10. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  11. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office

    2007-01-15

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  12. Regulations Perfection Accelerates Development of Desulfurization Industry——The 11th Five-Year Plan on SO2 emission control in existing coal-fired power plants constituted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Editors of China Electric Power News; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ The "Outline of National Economic and Social Development of the 11th Five-Year Plan" has set forth the target of cutting SO2 emissions by 10% to the year 2010. To realize the target, the National Development and Reform Commission and the State Environmental Protection Administration of China jointly constituted "The 11th Five-Year Plan on SO2Emission Control in Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants" which is not only a completing document for implementing the outline but also an important basis for the state to administer preferential policies to existing coal-fired power plants to equip desulfurization installations.

  13. Application of PMF and CMB receptor models for the evaluation of the contribution of a large coal-fired power plant to PM10 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Cesari, Daniela; Conte, Marianna; Donateo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The evaluation of the contribution of coal-fired thermo-electrical power plants to particulate matter (PM) is important for environmental management, for evaluation of health risks, and for its potential influence on climate. The application of receptor models, based on chemical composition of PM, is not straightforward because the chemical profile of this source is loaded with Si and Al and it is collinear with the profile of crustal particles. In this work, a new methodology, based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model and Si/Al diagnostic ratio, specifically developed to discriminate the coal-fired power plant contribution from the crustal contribution is discussed. The methodology was applied to daily PM10 samples collected in central Italy in proximity of a large coal-fired power plant. Samples were simultaneously collected at three sites between 2.8 and 5.8km from the power plant: an urban site, an urban background site, and a rural site. Chemical characterization included OC/EC concentrations, by thermo-optical method, ions concentrations (NH4(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-)), by high performances ion chromatography, and metals concentrations (Si, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br), by Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF). Results showed an average primary contribution of the power plant of 2% (±1%) in the area studied, with limited differences between the sites. Robustness of the methodology was tested inter-comparing the results with two independent evaluations: the first obtained using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model and the second correlating the Si-Al factor/source contribution of PMF with wind directions and Calpuff/Calmet dispersion model results. The contribution of the power plant to secondary ammonium sulphate was investigated using an approach that integrates dispersion model results and the receptor models (PMF and CMB), a sulphate contribution of 1.5% of PM10 (±0.3%) as

  14. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  15. Preparation, transport and disposal of ash from coal-fired power plant Kosovo B in the form of dense hydromixture; Priprema, transport i deponovanje pepela termoelektrane Kosovo B u vidu guste hidromesavine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazovic, D.; Markovic, Z.; Stjepanovic, P.; Todorovtc, D. [Rudarski Institute, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    The transportation of ash and slag from coal-fired power plants is mainly hydraulic. Until the eighties the most frequently applied technology was the transportation of ash and slag in the form of diluted hydromixture (concentration of solids below 10%). This method of ash and slag transportation became a rule in Yugoslavia's coal-fired power plants. It was not until 1988 that the transportation of dense hydromixture was introduced in the coal-fired power plant Gacko. This technology was not applied on account of its transportation advantages, but due to specific ash features that determine the conditions of disposal. Namely, the density of hydromixture is important for the solidification of disposed material. Considering the chemical and mineralogical properties of ash the same system was applied in the coal-fired power plant Kosovo B. In this paper two technological lines were installed and put to use in actual industrial conditions, and the results obtained indicate that all the designed parameters have been confirmed in practice and that the application of this technology has proven to be profitable in many ways. 7 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Export of reactive nitrogen from coal-fired power plants in the U.S.: Estimates from a plume-in-grid modeling study - article no. D04308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Zhang, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Karamchandani, P.; Snell, H.E.

    2009-02-15

    The export of reactive nitrogen (nitrogen oxides and their oxidation products, collectively referred to as NOy) from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to the rest of the world could have a significant global contribution to ozone. Traditional Eulerian gridded air quality models cannot characterize accurately the chemistry and transport of plumes from elevated point sources such as power plant stacks. A state-of-the-science plume-in-grid (PinG) air quality model, a reactive plume model embedded in an Eulerian gridded model, is used to estimate the export of NOy from 25 large coal-fired power plants in the U. S. (in terms of NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions) in July 2001 to the global atmosphere. The PinG model used is the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with Advanced Plume Treatment (CMAQ-APT). A benchmark simulation with only the gridded model, CMAQ, is also conducted for comparison purposes. The simulations with and without advanced plume treatment show differences in the calculated export of NOy from the 25 plants considered reflecting the effect of using a detailed and explicit treatment of plume transport and chemistry. The advanced plume treatment results in 31% greater simulated export of NOy compared to the purely grid-based modeling approach. The export efficiency of NOy (the fraction of NOy emitted that is exported) is predicted to be 21% without APT and 27% with APT. When considering only export through the eastern boundary across the Atlantic, CMAQ-APT predicts that the export efficiency is 24% and that 2% of NOy is exported as NOx, 49% as inorganic nitrate, and 25% as PAN. These results are in reasonably good agreement with an analysis reported in the literature of aircraft measurements over the North Atlantic.

  17. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  18. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [June 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  19. Application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis with a polychromator/monochromator combination the byproducts of coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, C. A.

    The by-products of coal-fired power plants may be hazardous for the environment. Good analysis methods are therefore required in order to establish either a possible usage of the by-products or their possible storage. Preliminary experiments performed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy have proven very successful. Moreover, the method is cost-effective. A short description is given of the optimized system for routine analysis. The system consists of a 2- and a 15-channel polychromator in combination with a monochromator. The opportunities is provides are also described. Use of the monochromator to analyze coal and run-off water from the flue-gases desulphurization, and of the polychromators to analyze coal fly-ash is described separately.

  20. 燃煤电厂清洁生产审核应用探讨%Application and Discussion of Cleaner Production Audit in Coal-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴瑜

    2014-01-01

    As one of the industries required explicitly to carry out cleaner production audit by China’ s Govern-ment,coal-fired power plants need to implement cleaner production from eight aspects including raw materials and energy,technology,processcontrol,equipment,management,employees,products,and wastes according to the audit guideline.The audit has to follow a seven-steps procedure of preparing for the audit,pre-auditing,audi-ting,forming the draft of audit proposal,completing the audit final proposal,implementing the audit,and sustain-able cleaner production.A coal-fired power plant as a case applied the whole process of cleaner production.The cleaner production goals have been reached after the audit was done.Furthermore,obvious environmental and eco-nomic benefits have been achieved as well.%作为国家明确要求开展清洁生产审核行业之一,某燃煤电厂依据清洁生产审核思路,从原辅料和能源、技术工艺、过程控制、设备、管理、员工、产品、废物生产过程的八个方面,按照审核准备、预审核、审核、方案产生和筛选、方案确定、方案实施、持续清洁生产七个实施阶段在企业内部开展清洁生产审核工作,实现了本轮清洁生产目标,并取得了显著的环境效益和经济效益。

  1. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM{sub 10}- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM{sub 10} surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM{sub 10} and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM{sub 10}- and gas-phases. • People in

  2. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  3. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  4. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  5. Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

    2012-08-31

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable

  6. Respiratory complaints and spirometric parameters of the villagers living around the Seyitomer coal-fired thermal power plant in Kutahya, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavus, M.; Aker, A.; Cebeci, D.; Tasdemir, M.; Bayram, N.; Cali, S. [University of Marmara, Istanbul (Turkey). School of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health

    2002-07-01

    The respiratory effects of the stack emissions of the Seyitomer coal-fired thermal power plant in the Kutahya Province of Turkey were investigated. Three villages within 5 km of the power plant were investigated as 'Villages around Power Plant.' Two similar villages more than 30 km away were investigated as 'Control Villages.' The study compared respiratory complaints and the spirometric parameters of the individuals living in the two groups of villages. It was carried out on individuals of 15 years of age and above living in these villages (277 of 302 individuals living in the Villages around Power Plant and 225 of 264 living in the Control Villages). Among the ones living in the Villages around Power Plant, 46.2% had complaints of chest tightness and 29.2% repeated coughing attacks present for more than one year, whereas these percentages were 28.0 and 20.4% in the Control Villages. The means of the spirometric parameters of FEV1 and FEF25-75% were found to be statistically significantly lower in the individuals of the Villages around Power Plant compared to the individuals of the Control Villages. The spirometric parameters revealed statistically significant adverse health effects of the Power Plant. This was particularly apparent for the nonsmokers. More specific tests to confirm the diagnosis of acute and chronic lung diseases could be carried out.

  7. The effect of coal-fired power-plant SO2 and NOx control technologies on aerosol nucleation in the source plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle number concentrations near source regions. The changing emissions rates of SO2 and NOx due to pollution-control technologies over recent decades may have had a significant effect on aerosol formation and growth in the plumes with ultimate implications for climate and human health. We use the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM large-eddy simulation model with the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS microphysics algorithm to model the nucleation in plumes of coal-fired plants. We test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of emissions-control technologies between 1997 and 2010. We start by simulating the W. A. Parish power plant (near Houston, TX during this time period, when NOx emissions were reduced by ~90% and SO2 emissions decreased by ~30%. Increases in plume OH (due to the reduced NOx produced enhanced SO2 oxidation and an order-of-magnitude increase in particle nucleation in the plume despite the reduction in SO2 emissions. These results suggest that NOx emissions could strongly regulate particle nucleation and growth in power-plant plumes. Next, we test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of SO2 and NOx emissions-control technologies. Particle formation generally increases with SO2 emission, while NOx shows two different regimes: increasing particle formation with increasing NOx under low-NOx emissions and decreasing particle formation with increasing NOx under high-NOx emissions. Next, we compare model results with airborne measurements made in the W. A. Parish power-plant plume in 2000 and 2006, confirming the importance of NOx emissions on new particle formation and highlighting the substantial effect of background aerosol loadings on this process (the more polluted background of the 2006 case caused more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in particle formation in the plume compared to

  8. Opportunity for offshore wind to reduce future demand for coal-fired power plants in China with consequent savings in emissions of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Chen, Xinyu; Kang, Chongqing

    2014-12-16

    Although capacity credits for wind power have been embodied in power systems in the U.S. and Europe, the current planning framework for electricity in China continues to treat wind power as a nondispatchable source with zero contribution to firm capacity. This study adopts a rigorous reliability model for the electric power system evaluating capacity credits that should be recognized for offshore wind resources supplying power demands for Jiangsu, China. Jiangsu is an economic hub located in the Yangtze River delta accounting for 10% of the total electricity consumed in China. Demand for electricity in Jiangsu is projected to increase from 331 TWh in 2009 to 800 TWh by 2030. Given a wind penetration level of 60% for the future additional Jiangsu power supply, wind resources distributed along the offshore region of five coastal provinces in China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian) should merit a capacity credit of 12.9%, the fraction of installed wind capacity that should be recognized to displace coal-fired systems without violating the reliability standard. In the high-coal-price scenario, with 60% wind penetration, reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a business as usual reference could be as large as 200.2 million tons of CO2 or 51.8% of the potential addition, with a cost for emissions avoided of $29.0 per ton.

  9. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  10. CFD study of NO{sub x} production in coal-fired power plant; CFD-Simulationen der NO{sub x}-Produktion in Kohlenstaubbefeuerten Brennkammern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heierle, Y.; Leithner, R.; Mueller, H. [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Institut fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik; Askarova, A.S. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-07-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to study different possibilities to improve the performance of the coal-fired furnace. Different influences which lead to decrease in pollutant emissions have been analyzed. (orig.)

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  12. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector.

  13. The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1996-11-01

    The Carnol System consists of methanol production by CO{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol Process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with CO{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the Carnol System is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The CO{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% CO{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

  14. The Carnol System for methanol production and CO{sub 2} mitigation from coal fired power plants and the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1996-02-01

    The Carnol System consists of methanol production by C0{sub 2} recovered from coal fired power plants and natural gas and the use of the methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. The Carnol process produces hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of natural gas and reacting the hydrogen with C0{sub 2} recovered from the power plant. The carbon produced can be stored or used as a materials commodity. A design and economic evaluation of the process is presented and compared to gasoline as an automotive fuel. An evaluation of the C0{sub 2} emission reduction of the process and system is made and compared to other conventional methanol production processes is including the use of biomass feedstock and methanol fuel cell vehicles. The C0{sub 2} for the entire Carnol System using methanol in automotive IC engines can be reduced by 56% compared to conventional system of coal plants and gasoline engines and by as much as 77% C0{sub 2} emission reduction when methanol is used in fuel cells in automotive engines. The Carnol System is shown to be an environmentally attractive and economically viable system connecting the power generation sector with the transportation sector which should warrant further development.

  15. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  16. Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China is now facing great challenges resulting from climate change and air pollution, driven by the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions produced by the coal-fired power industry represent approximately 70% of the total emissions in China’s industrial sector. In this study, 39 coal-fired power plants built in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in regards to the co-effects oncarbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions generated directly and indirectly by end-of-pipe measures of pollution control. After completing the quantitative analysis with input data from 83units of power plants, we found that co-effects were positive only for air pollutant reductions through the implementation of desulfurization, denitrification, and dedusting measures, but co-effects were negative for carbon dioxide production because of the corresponding electricity use and chemical reactions that led to the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. We also performed an assessment of the synergistic coefficients to better understand the degree of co-effects. It will be important for researchers to take a comprehensive view of China’s coal-fired power plants and look for solutions that can maximize positive co-effects and achieve overall co-benefits of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.

  17. New concepts for coal-fired power stations; A comparison of efficiency, economy, enviroment and operational aspects. Neue Konzepte fuer kohlebefeuerte Kraftwerke; Vergleich von Wirkungsgrad, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Umwelt- und Betriebsaspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S. (Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)); Koetzier, H. (N.V. KEMA, Arnheim (Netherlands)); Liere, J. van (N.V. KEMA, Arnheim (Netherlands)); Rasmussen, I. (Midtkraft Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark))

    1994-07-01

    Pulverized fuel-fired steam power plant employed today will, up to the end of this century, be further developed, from supercritical units to super-super-critical units with double reheat. Gas turbines will permit a new basis for the improvement of heat consumption of coal-fired units in the next century. Combined cycle processes with integrated coal gasification and some with charged fluidized bed combustion stand at the threshold of economic realization. (orig.)

  18. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Lada; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Lada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Lada coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  19. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Meirama; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Meirama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Meirama coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  20. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Velilla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Velilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. c.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. a.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238U, 235U, 232Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Velilla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  1. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Abono; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Abono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the {sup 4}0K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Abono coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  2. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40{sup K}, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  3. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  4. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Anllares; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Anllares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Anllares coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  5. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  6. Effects of heavy metals/metalloids present in fly ash from coal fired thermal power plant on photosynthetic parameters of Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Meravi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly ash emitted from a coal fired thermal power plant was estimated. The effects of heavy metals/metalloids present in the ash on various photosynthetic parameters (fluorescence, Fv/Fm, fluorescence quenching coefficients, relative electron transport rate, photosynthetic active radiation, ETR-Factor absorptance of photons by photosynthetic pigments etc. were estimated. Heavy metals/metalloids were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, 7000 Shimadzu for Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mo, Cu, Cr, Co and Ni and the standard solution was prepared using standard metal solution of Inorganic Ventures. Various photosynthetic parameters were estimated using JUNIOR-PAM, Chlorophyll Fluorometer, Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany. It was clear from the observed value of Fv/Fm (0.717 that the heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly have negative effects on plants because for a healthy plant Fv/Fm should not be less than 0.75. Similarly other parameters were also adversely affected by the presence of heavy metals/metalloids present in the fly ash that were deposited on the plants leaves. Therefore, the issue of fly ash emitted from thermal power plants need to be addressed in a proper way.

  7. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka-Danielowska, D. [University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2010-11-15

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations of Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: {sup 226}Ra - 85.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 40}K-689 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 232}Th - 100.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 235}U - 13.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 238}U - 50 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 228}Ac - 82.4 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  8. Radioactivity measurements in soils surrounding four coal-fired power plants in Serbia by gamma-ray spectrometry and estimated dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Ivana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of spatial distribution of activity concentration of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs radionuclides in the surface soil samples (n = 42 collected in the vicinity of four coal-fired power plants in Serbia is presented. Radioactivity measurements in soils performed by gamma-ray spectrometry showed values [Bqkg-1] in the range: 15-117 for 238U, 21-115 for 226Ra, 33-65 for 210Pb, 20-69 for 232Th, 324-736 for 40K, and 2-59 for 137Cs. Surface soil radio-activity that could have resulted from deposition of radionuclides from airborne discharges or resuspension of ash from disposal sites showed no enhanced levels. It was found that variation of soil textural properties, pH values, and carbonate content influenced activity levels of natural radionuclides while radiocesium activities were associated with soil organic matter content. Modification of some soil properties was observed in the immediate vicinity (<1 km of power plants where the soil was more alkaline with coarser particles (0.2-0.05 mm and carbonates accumulated. Calculated average values of the absorbed gamma dose rate and annual external effective dose originating from the terrestrial radionuclides were 69.4 nGy/h and 0.085 mSv, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 4007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  9. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh

    2015-08-18

    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%.

  10. Effects of accelerated closing of the five oldest coal-fired power plants [in the Netherlands]; Effecten van versneld sluiten van de vijf oudste kolencentrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    This memo outlines the possible effects of the early closing of the five oldest coal-fired power plants in the Netherlands, as part of the Dutch Energy Agreement, still to be concluded at this time. It concerns plants from four power producers: RWE/Essent, E.ON, GDF Suez Netherlands and EPZ. The decision or the agreement to reduce coal capacity is likely to affect prices in the Dutch electricity market. The Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) must make a judgment about the possible adverse effect within the framework of the (European) cartel legislation. By order of ACM the author has carried out several calculations of which the results and starting points of the calculations are summarized in this paper [Dutch] Deze notitie schetst de mogelijke effecten van het vervroegd sluiten van de vijf oudste kolencentrales in Nederland, als onderdeel van het nog te sluiten Energieakkoord. Het betreft centrales van vier producenten: RWE/Essent, E.ON, GDF Suez Nederland en EPZ. Het besluit c.q. de afspraak om kolenvermogen uit de markt te halen heeft mogelijk invloed op de prijzen op de Nederlandse elektriciteitsmarkt. De ACM moet een oordeel vellen over de mogelijke ongewenstheid van dat effect in het kader van de (Europese) kartelwetgeving. Om een indicatie te krijgen van de effecten, heeft de ACM aan ECN gevraagd een aantal berekeningen uit te voeren. De resultaten en de uitgangspunten van deze berekeningen staan in deze notitie samengevat.

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  13. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  14. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  15. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  16. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  17. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  18. 无动力燃煤除尘器自动控制装置%Dust-Free Coal-Fired No Power Automatic Control Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晶; 周兵

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of automatic dust-free coal-fired no power control device.It uses LF356 opamp and metal electrode to design the wet and dry detection circuit, time relay、 relay、 moisture control circuit, SCM、TCL0832 A / D converter、 AT24C16 data memory、 MAX813 watchdog timer intelligent controller.The design method of various parts of hardware and software are described in detail.%介绍了无动力燃煤除尘器自动控制装置工作原理,采用LF356运算放大器和金属电极设计干湿检测电路;时间继电器、继电器、电磁阀设计湿润控制电路;单片机、TCL0832 A/D转换器、AT24C16数据存储器、MAX813看门狗定时器设计智能控制仪.详细阐述了各部分的硬件和软件设计方法.

  19. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. The computational REACH reactor was modeled with PCGC-2. The reactor geometry, inlet flow rates and configurations were investigated via modeling in order to get an optimum operation condition, with which a thorough coal and gas mixture and a required coal particle dispersion can both be achieved. This is to ensure the efficiencies of both coal combustion and aerodynamic cleaning. The aerodynamic cleaning effect of the tertiary air injection was modeled with CELMINT. Various injection schemes investigated show the dramatic impact of the tertiary air and the injection positions on the overall air flow pattern in the reactor which is one of the major influencing factors on the particle dispersion. It is clearly demonstrated that an optimum tertiary injection scheme with a reasonable flow rate is able to keep the heat exchange tubes from particle fouling.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction Technologies for Coal-fired Power Plants%燃煤电厂烟气中二氧化碳的减排技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫华

    2012-01-01

    Due to the growth emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion,greenhouse effect has brought significant influences on the world environment and social economic development.Then,the mitigation of CO2 emissions has drawn more attention all over the world.The paper had reviewed four main CO2 emission reduction technologies and various typical separation techniques for a major CO2 emission source,coal-fired power plants.In the end,CO2 capture technologies have been prospected.%由于CO2等温室气体引发的温室效应对全球生态环境和社会经济发展造成了显著影响,使得CO2减排受到了国际社会的密切关注。文章针对CO2的集中排放源,介绍燃煤电厂烟气中CO2减排技术路线和目前国际上常用的CO2捕集分离技术,最后分析和展望CO2捕集分离技术的发展前景。

  1. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phases 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goals of this program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: {gt} 47% efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {gt} 10% NSPS; coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all sold wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. Work reported herein is from Task 1.3 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design, Task 2,2 HITAF Air Heater, and Task 2.4 Duct Heater Design. The impact on cycle efficiency from the integration of various technology advances is presented. The criteria associated with a commercial HIPPS plant design as well as possible environmental control options are presented. The design of the HITAF air heaters, both radiative and convective, is the most critical task in the program. In this report, a summary of the effort associated with the radiative air heater designs that have been considered is provided. The primary testing of the air heater design will be carried out in the UND/EERC pilot-scale furnace; progress to date on the design and construction of the furnace is a major part of this report. The results of laboratory and bench scale activities associated with defining slag properties are presented. Correct material selection is critical for the success of the concept; the materials, both ceramic and metallic, being considered for radiant air heater are presented. The activities associated with the duct heater are also presented.

  2. Coal-fired stations top emission league

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegren, C.

    2004-12-01

    Topping the list of the greatest emitters of sulphur into the atmosphere in Europe are two large coal-fired power stations in Bulgaria (Maritsa II) and Spain (Puentes). These figures come from an updated survey of emissions from large point sources prepared by SENCO on behalf of the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain. The article summarises the survey results and gives a table of the 100 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide in the European Union EU25 and accession countries (Bulgaria and Romania) together with author listing the 'best' fossil fuel power plants. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  4. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  5. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  6. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    Coal is still the most important energy source in Germany. In 2009 it produced 42.9 % of the overall German electrical power. Coal is available world-wide in large quantities and can be delivered economically. One of the possible ways to reduce CO{sub 2} pollution is the increase of efficiency of coal fired power plants, which requires steam conditions of up to 700 C - 730 C and 350 bar. Because many German power units will reach the end of their technical lifespan in a few years or the following decade, one will have the possibility to build up modern types of power plants with increased efficiency of more than 50 %. Some international standards (European Pressure Equipment Directive or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) require 100 000 hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 750 C. Therefore, nickel base alloys are in the focus of material qualification processes. Nickel base alloys are well investigated due to their hot corrosion behaviour. It is known that sodium sulphate may generate hot corrosion on those alloys at temperatures above its melting point of 884 C. On nickel base alloys an eutectic mixture of nickel sulphate and sodium sulphate with a melting point of 671 C can be generated, which leads to accelerated corrosion. This work examines, whether the high amount of sulphur and alkali metals will induce hot corrosion at the estimated working temperature on devices manufactured from nickel base alloy. Two synthetic coal ash deposits, according to the chemical composition of hard coal and lignite, and typical flue gases with and without sulphur dioxide were blended of pure agents. The reactions of the deposits with heater tubes' materials and synthetic flue gases are examined in the temperature range from 650 C to 800 C and different time ranges up to 2000 hours. The corroded specimen are examined with SEM/EDX to identify relevant corrosion products and determine the corrosivity of deposited compounds. Deposits increase the corrosion rate of

  7. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  8. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  9. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  10. Risk Management and Portfolio Optimization for Gas- and Coal-fired Power Plants in Germany: A Multivariate GARCH Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampous, Georgios; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    This study revisits risk management in the German power market, specifically focusing on conventional thermal power generation. The subsidizing and prioritizing of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES) by means of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has changed the market’s structure. Specifically, it has led to an erosion of the revenues gained by coal- and natural-gas-fired power plants and, therefore, undermined the competitiveness of traditional power generation. Thi...

  11. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  12. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they

  13. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  14. Biomonitoring of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Emel; Uğur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay

    2011-06-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatağan (Muğla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (210)Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for (210)Po and (210)Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more (210)Po and (210)Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatağan (Muğla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations.

  15. Study and practice on condition-based maintenance of induced fans in coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the enormous maintenance cost is essential to enhance the competitiveness for power plants.An overall design scheme for condition-based maintenance of induced fans is proposed for large thermal power plants.The interface of the above framework is simple and convenient;the optimum maintenance strategy is given by condition monitoring and risk evaluating.The decisionsupported system was used in Guangdong Shajiao C Power Plant.The results show that it is a feasible maintenance optimization scheme for power plants.

  16. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  17. A Method to Improve the Dust Removal Efficiency of Coal -fired Power Plants%提高火电厂除尘效率的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安强

    2015-01-01

    环境保护已经成为现代企业生存发展的生命线。在大量工业废弃物中,工业含尘废气对环境的污染是其主要方面之一。煤灰燃烧所产生的烟尘,不仅影响人体健康,而且给工农业生产带来较大的经济损失。本文分析了电厂电除尘器除尘效率的影响因素,对单相硅整流电源与三相硅整流电源进行对比,采取用三相高压硅整流电源代替原来的单相高压硅整流电源的技术措施,提高了电场的一次电压及除尘效率,降低了烟尘排放浓度,满足了环保达标的要求。同时,解决了常规单相电源不平衡的问题,符合国家节能减排产业政策。%Environmental protection has become the lifeline of survival and development in modern enterprises. Industrial waste gas containing dust is one main pollution factor to environment in the large number of industrial waste. Ash generated by combustion of soot not only affects human health but also brings large economic damage to industrial and agricultural production.Analyzes the influencing factors of the dust removal efficiency of electric precipitator in coal -fired power plants,compares single phase silicon eliminator power supply with three -phase silicon eliminator power supply,adopts the technical measures of three phase high voltage silicon eliminator supply to take the place of single -phase high voltage silicon eliminator supply,increases the primary voltage and dust removal efficiency,re-duces the smoke emission concentration,satisfies the requirement of environmental protection.At the same time, solves the problem of conventional single phase power imbalance,conforms to the national industrial policy of energy conservation and emission reduction.

  18. Coal-fired plants worst point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvingson, P.

    2007-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants dominate the twenty worst emitters, not only of carbon dioxide but also of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, in the 25 'old' EU member countries. Seven plants are among the 25 worst on all three lists. They are Belchatow, Rybnik and Kozience in Poland, Cottam and Longannet in the UK, Puentes in Spain and Taranto in Italy. All data refer to 2004. German plants are among the worst in respect of carbon dioxide - nine of the 25 biggest point sources are in Germany. Topping the list for sulphur dioxide is the coal-fired Puentes power plant in the northwest of Spain. Second highest as regards sulphur dioxide is the Megalopolis A (I, II, III) complex on the Peloponnesian peninsula in Greece. Close by is Megalopolis B (IV), also on the worst 25 list. All are fired with lignite from local deposits. British plants account for nine of the 25 worst emitters of nitrogen oxides. Figures from tables reproduced in the article are from the European Pollutant Emission Register, EPER which covers 11,500 industrial facilities in the EU25 and Norway and has recently been updated with 2004 figures. 3 tabs., 1 photo.

  19. Efficiency improvement of coal-fired power plants by means of gas turbines; Gasturbines maken kolencentrales rendabel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1998-02-01

    The results of a study project, carried out by energy technology students of the `Hogeschool Rotterdam en Omstreken`, on the title subject (the EZH power plant Maasvlakte) are briefly discussed. Two concepts were compared: the gas turbine-fired boiler concept and the high-efficiency-coal and gas concept (HE-C&G). In the HE-C&G concept an extra steam boiler uses heat from the turbine off-gases

  20. OXYCOAL-AC: Towards an integrated coal-fired power plant process with ion transport membrane-based oxygen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneer, R.; Toporov, D.; Forster, M.; Christ, D.; Broeckmann, C.; Pfaff, E.; Zwick, M.; Engels, S.; Modigell, M. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Heat & Mass Transfer

    2010-07-01

    The cooperative project OXYCOAL-AC aims at the development of a zero-CO{sub 2}-emission coal combustion process for power generation. The scope of the research comprises a multitude of aspects. This article focuses on membrane-based air separation modules and their design for oxycoal conditions, the specifics of coal combustion in a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere including related burner design as well as the cleaning of hot flue gas from oxycoal combustion.

  1. Assessment of contamination of soil due to heavy metals around coal fired thermal power plants at Singrauli region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prashant; Mittal, Anugya; Prakash, Rajiv; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, T B; Tripathi, S K

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to measure contamination of soil around four large coal-based Thermal Power Plants. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was estimated in all four directions from Thermal Power Plants. The soil in the study area was found to be contaminated to varying degrees from coal combustion byproducts. The soil drawn from various selected sites in each direction was largely contaminated by metals, predominantly higher within 2-4 km distance from Thermal Power Plant. Within 2-4 km, the mean maximum concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was 0.69, 13.69, 17.76, and 3.51 mg/kg, respectively. It was also observed that concentration was maximum in the prevalent wind direction. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was highest 0.69, 13.23, 17.29 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively in west direction where wind was prevalent.

  2. Biochemical responses in tree foliage exposed to coal-fired power plant emission in seasonally dry tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul Prakash; Tripathi, B D

    2009-11-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the responses of plants exposed to power plant emission in a dry tropical environment. For this purpose, five sampling sites were selected in the prevailing wind direction (NE) at different distance to thermal power plant (TPP) within 8.0 km range and a reference site was selected in eastern direction at a distance of 22.0 km. The two most common tree species, Ficus benghalensis L. (Evergreen tree) and Dalbergia sisso Roxb. (deciduous tree) were selected as test plants. Ambient sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), dust-fall rate (DFR) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, sugar and sulphate-sulphur (SO4(2-)-S) contents were measured. Ambient SO(2), NO(2), SPM, RSPM and DFR showed significant spatial and temporal variation at different sites. Considerable reduction in pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and sugar contents were observed at sites receiving higher pollution load. Ascorbic acid exhibited significant positive correlation with pollution load. Accumulation of SO4(2-)-S in leaf tissue showed significant positive correlation with ambient SO(2) concentration at all the sites. At the same time, SO4(2-)-S showed significant negative correlation with pigment and sugar content. D. sisso Roxb. tree was found to be more sensitive as compared to F. benghalensis L. tree.

  3. 火电厂脱汞技术综述%Mercury Removal Technology Advances of Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝江

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas mercury pollution was attached great importance,and to research institutions it bacome one of the current focus of research.Combination of morphological characteristics of mercury,from coal before combustion,combustion and post-combustion synthesis,the latest developments of thermal power plants flue gas mercury removal technology was summerized.%火电厂烟气汞污染已受到高度重视,已成为科研机构当前重点研究内容之一。结合汞的形态特性,从煤燃烧前、燃烧中和燃烧后三方面综述了火电厂烟气脱汞技术最新进展。

  4. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  5. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelin Wang; William Orndorff; Yan Cao; Weiping Pan

    2013-01-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated,which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coalfired power plants.Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils.Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants,and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum,simulating rainfall irrigations,soils,and plants types.Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils,the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere,and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves).Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports.Some plants,such as tall fescue,were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil.Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application.However,mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates.Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  6. Development of an Integrated Air Quality Management System for the Large-Capacity Coal-fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Chun, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyun Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kil Choo; Ghim, Young Sung; Shim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of this study was to construct an integrated air pollution monitoring network(APMN) at the Boryong Thermal Power Plant site. For siting the air pollution monitoring stations(APMS) and determining appropriate numbers of them, four different approaches were applied : extensive field survey, meteorological data analysis dispersion modelling and wind tunnel experiment. After analyzing those results obtained from such different disciplines, 9 APMS sites were selected and facilities of ambient air pollution and meteorological measurements were installed at each site. In addition to the 9 APMS, a doppler meter(SODAR, sound detection and ranging) was installed in order to continuously monitor the wind direction and speed upto 1500 meter from the ground. Ambient air pollution and meteorological data and source emission data were transmitted to the central computer and processed by the computer. Many obstacles such as difficulties of negotiating with the local people who own the lands for APMS installation and getting the land use permits from the local government, delay of import and installation of TMS facilities, and frequent malfunctions of many accessory devices during APMS construction and test operation, particularly in the data transmission and data acquisition system part, had made the construction work quite longer than the period it was planned at the planning stage of this project. However, all the hurdles were finally overcome and after several months test period the system seems to work as originally planned. In the presenting report, these all efforts devoted for constructing and test operating the advanced APMN system were described and the manuals and guidelines of APMN construction and operation were included. (author). 43 figs.

  7. Effects of a coal-fired power plant and other sources on southwestern visibility (interim summary of EPA'S project VISTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, D. L.; Richards, L. W.; Macias, E. S.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Wilson, W. E.; Bhardwaja, P. S.

    VISTTA (Visibility impairment due to Sulfur Transport and Transformation in the Atmosphere) is a cooperative program involving numerous government agencies, private companies, and universities. This paper summarizes the measurements and the results to date of the summer and winter, 1979, VISTTA plume measurement programs conducted near the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), Page, Arizona. During the program, ground and airborne measurements of aerosol size distribution, chemistry and optical properties, as well as gaseous reactant concentrations were made in the plume and in background air. Extensive regional and plume telephotometer measurements, airborne measurements along telephotometer site paths, background meteorological measurements, and source aerosol and chemistry measurements were also made. Various types of visibility measurements were compared with one another and with calculations of light extinction made using aerosol and NO 2 data. The measured plume optical effects were compared to those predicted using the EPA-SAI plume visibility model (PLUVUE). The results of the study to date indicate that: For the NGS plume, under most lighting and viewing conditions, NO 2 dominates the blue light extinction and brown coloration due to the plume. For distances up to 100 km or more for power plants like NGS, secondary aerosol formation can be ignored in visibility models under the dry conditions studied. Widespread areas of elevated aerosol concentrations were documented in the southwest due to long range transport from the southern California area, and to wild fires. Other causes of regional haze are known to exist but were not documented in this study. Evaluation of the chemistry, aerosol growth, and optics components of the PLUVUE plume visibility model showed predictions to be in reasonable agreement with the measurements. More uncertainty was encountered with the diffusion component. A set of nine reactions among NO, NO 2, O 3, O 2, SO 2, OH, H 2O, and O

  8. Application of paste backfill in underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Masniyom, M. [Technische Univ., Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Coal fires are common in most coalfields around the world, and most particularly in China. The main countries affected by coal fires include China, India, the United States, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa. The fires cause sinkholes; large-scale subsidence; air pollution in the form of greenhouse gases; global warming; loss of mining productivity; contamination of drinking water; damage of flora and fauna; and a high safety risk. Therefore, protecting the economically valuable coal resources and the environment is of significant national and international importance. This paper discussed the use of paste backfill in the Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply to prevent coal fires. The study investigated backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. The paper presented the results of laboratory tests that were conducted on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures, with particular attention to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials such as fly ash from power plants. The characteristics of backfill materials, grain size analysis, and chemical composition of backfill were also identified. It was concluded that backfilling voids enhance the stability of the mine, thereby improving safety for the workforce. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Application of automatic high-rise warehouse in spare parts management of coal-fired power plant%自动化立体仓库在火力发电厂备件管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聚德

    2012-01-01

    以秦皇岛发电有限责任公司立体仓库的建设、使用为例,针对火力发电厂备件管理的特点,制定适合火电厂备件管理的自动化立体仓库方案,并提出在建设实施及运行使用过程中应注意的问题.%With construction and operation of the high-rise warehouse in Qinhuangdao Power Generation Company Limited as an example, and based on features of spare parts management of the coal-fired power plant, the automatic high-rise warehouse scheme is developed suitable for spare parts management. Furthermore, the paper puts forward certain problems to be concerned during the construction and operation of the high-rise warehouse.

  10. New Coal-Fired Plants Jeopardise Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel González-Eguino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global greenhouse gas emissions need to peak soon and be reduced practically to zero in the second half of this century in order to not exceed the climate targets adopted in the Paris Agreement. However, there are currently numerous coal-fired power stations around the world at different stages of construction and planning that could be completed in the next decade. If all these plants are actually built, their expected future emissions will make it very difficult to reach these targets, even in an optimistic scenario with the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies. Policy makers around the world need to react quickly and help to redirect investment plans for new coal-fired power stations towards low-carbon technologies.

  11. 某350 MW级燃煤电厂化学毒物职业危害风险评估%Risk assessment on chemical poisons hazard of one 350 MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷春许; 陈葆春; 胡琼; 张岭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical poisons hazard risk of one 350 MW coal-fired power plant in north Anhui province, for providing technical basis of risk management of chemical poisons hazard in same level power plants. Methods One 350 MW coal-fired power plant was chosen, and its chemical poisons health status and main types of occupational hazard factors were investigated. The chemical poisons occupational hazard risk of this plant was assessed according the risk matrix analysis method. The level of risk was calculated based on hazard rating and exposure rating, Risk=HR:hazard rating, ER:exposure rating. Results The result of research on the chemical hazard of this 350 MW coal-fired power plant was: ammonia, hydrochloric acid, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide were in middle risk level;sodium hydroxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and sulfuric acid were in low risk level. Conclusion The chemical poisons haz-ard risk level of this 350 MW coal-fired power plant is within tolerance. In future this plant should emphasize the following points for risk management of chemical poisons hazard: to strengthen the safety protection management and avoid acute occupational poisoning caused by ammonia leakage, hydrochloric acidvolatile and nitrogen dioxide & carbon monoxide escape into the air, and at the same time to prevent hy-drogen sulfide poisoning in the desulfurization wastewater treatment.%目的:对皖北某350 MW级燃煤电厂的化学毒物进行职业危害风险评估,为350 MW级燃煤电厂职业危害关键控制点的风险管理提供技术依据。方法调查某350 MW级燃煤电厂的职业卫生现状及主要化学危害因素种类,采用风险矩阵分析法对某350 MW级燃煤电厂的化学毒物职业危害风险进行评估,风险水平根据健康危害等级( HR)和暴露等级( ER)进行计算。结果皖北某350 MW级燃煤电厂化学毒物中的氨、盐酸、二氧化氮、一氧化碳、硫化氢为中等风险水

  12. General Evaluation of Clean Coal-fired Power Generating System with Gray System Correlation Model%用灰色系统关联模式综合评价洁净燃煤发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞

    2001-01-01

    在综合洁净燃煤发电系统影响因素的基础上,用灰色系统关联模式进行讨论和分析,以排除人为的主观任意性,可取得满意的结果。该结果与其它文献综合评判结果完全一致。%Presents the general evaluation of clean coal-fired power generating system with gray system correlation model with the effect of various factors taken into consideration, and the satisfactory results achieved without the effect of human factor in full agreement with those contained in other literatures.

  13. Application Research of Million Coal-fired Unitsand Gas Turbine Combined Power Generation Technology%百万级煤机与燃气轮机联合发电技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢大幸; 石永锋; 雷娇娇; 徐婷婷; 郑健

    2015-01-01

    For heavy gas turbine, currently the most common way of the gas turbine flue gas energy utilization is to configure the combined cycle, using steam turbine and HRSG to take full use of the gas turbine flue gas energy, but the overall efficiency of the lower power plant cycle under this configuration is low , generally less than 30%;considering that the 1000MW coal-fired units have a higher thermal efficiency, generally greater than 45%, so this paper presents the gas turbine flue gas heat utilization to the 1000MW coal-fired units thermodynamic cycle in order to improve energy efficiency, and gives system integration forms by using the ThermoFlex software. Take typical 1000MW coal-fired units and E-class gas turbine for example, through reasonable system integration, calculated the overall coal consumption of the combined system can be reduced about 2.31g/kWh.%对于重型燃气轮机而言,目前其排烟能量利用最常见的方式是配置联合循环,利用下位电站汽轮机及余热锅炉来充分利用燃机排烟余热,但这种配置方式下位电站循环的总体效率不高,一般小于30%;因为考虑到百万级燃煤机组拥有较高的循环热效率,一般大于45%,因此本文提出了将燃气轮机排烟余热利用到百万级燃煤机组热力循环中的思路,以提高能源的利用效率,利用ThermoFlex软件进行热力学计算,并给出了系统集成形式以供参考。以典型1000MW燃煤机组与E级燃气轮机为例,通过合理的系统集成,计算得出可以降低整个联合系统煤耗约2.31g/kWh,达到节能降耗的目的。

  14. 南京某燃煤电厂汞的排放特点及分布特征%Distribution Features and Emission Characteristics of Mercury in A Nanjing Coal-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪生; 谢馨

    2014-01-01

    Mercury in coal,bottom ash,fly ash,smoke dust,limestone,gypsum and flue gas were sampled and analyzed from a coal-fired power plant 330 MW unit in Nanjing.The distribution and emission characteristics of mercury were obtained based on the analysis data.The results showed that mercury in bottom ash has little effects on environment.Mercury in fly ash and smoke dust is apt to accumulate,and the accumulation increases with decreasing the particle diameter.As most of mercury discharge in company with gypsum after the burning of coal in coal-fired boiler,some measures should be taken to prevent and control the mercury pollution on the envi-ronment.%选择南京某燃煤电厂330 MW机组,对煤、炉渣、粉煤灰、烟尘、石灰石、石膏和烟气中的汞取样测量,探讨煤中汞在燃烧过程中的变化情况,并进一步分析汞的排放特点及分布特征。指出,煤经燃煤锅炉炉内高温燃烧后,炉渣中的汞对环境影响不明显;粉煤灰、烟尘中的汞存在富集现象,且随着粒径变细,富集程度加剧;燃煤锅炉燃烧后,随石膏排放的汞占比较大,应采取相应的防治措施。

  15. 西安灞桥燃煤电厂周围土壤天然放射性水平%Natural Radioactivity Level in Soil Around Baqiao Coal-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩凤; 卢新卫; 杨光; 李楠; 任春辉

    2012-01-01

    Natural radioactivity in soil around Baqiao coal - fired power plant had been measured by using a Nal ( Tl) γ - ray spectrometry. The results show that the specific activity of 226Ra,232Th and 40K in soil samples ranges from 27.60 to 48.78, 44. 39 to 61. 39 and 640.19 to 992. 25 Bq/kg with an average of 36.07 , 51. 13 and 733.91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average activity of 226Ra in soil around the power plant is greater than the average of Shaanxi soil, while slightly less than the average of Chinese soil. The average activity of Th and K in the studied soil samples are higher than the average level of Shaanxi soil and Chinese soil. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th in soil samples collected within 1000 m sites to coal - fired power plant boundary show no significantly spatial differences, whereas K concentration in soil samples collected from 100 m sites is less than from 400 m and 1 000 m sampling sites. The evaluation results of radium equivalent activity, air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate show that coal - fired power plant affected the natural radioactivity level of surrounding soil, but natural radioactivity of soil is in normal level.%应用低本底多道γ能谱仪测定了燃煤电厂周围土壤中天然放射性核素226 Ra、232Th和40K的比活度,评价了其辐射危害.测定结果表明,土壤中226 Ra、232Th和40K的比活度分别为27.60~ 48.78、44.39~ 61.39和640.19~ 992.25 Bq/kg,平均值分别为36.07、51.13和733.91 Bq/kg.电厂周围土壤中226Ra比活度大于陕西土壤平均水平,稍小于全国土壤平均值;232 Th和40K比活度均大于陕西省土壤和全国土壤平均水平.在距离电厂1 000 m范围内,土壤中226Ra和232Th无明显空间差异,而40K比活度在距电厂100 m处土壤中明显低于400 m和1000m处.等效镭活度、空气吸收剂量率和年有效剂量率评价结果表明,燃煤发电对灞桥电厂周围土壤放射性有一定影响,但放射性水平处于正常.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of using NSGA-II in CO2 capture system for coal-fired power plant%燃煤电厂脱碳系统的模拟与多目标优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欢欢; 鄢烈祥; 李国建; 史彬

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the heat waste and increase heat efficiency, a method is proposed to improve the traditional CO2 capture system for coal-fired power plant by adding a multistage heat exchanger. Based on the 85%of CO2 capture rate, the utility consumption is depressed to the original 51.61%. Multi-objective optimization of heat consumption and carbon dioxide capture rate is proposed instead of single object optimization. At first, the modified carbon dioxide removal system for coal-fired power plant is modeled using Aspen Plus. Multi-objective optimization using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with elitist strategy (NSGA-II) was performed based on the Aspen Plus simulation and MATLAB. At last, the Pareto-optimal set for the two optimization objective of carbon dioxide capture rate and reboiler heat duty is obtained and the best compromise solution is achieved using a fuzzy decision-making process. Carbon dioxide capture rate reaches 95.92%, reboiler heat duty reaches 775.39 MW, which provide a theoretical basis for process optimization.%针对燃煤电厂脱碳系统余热浪费问题,提出了增加多级换热器MHeatX模块的改进设计以提高热量利用率。在保证CO2捕获率为85%的前提下,可降低系统总公用工程消耗量48.39%。在此基础上,再应用带精英策略的非支配排序遗传算法(NSGA-II)对脱碳系统的热能消耗和CO2捕获率2个目标进行了同步优化,得到了碳捕获率和再沸器热负荷的最优Pareto解集。为了将优化结果应用于实际,本文采用模糊集方法求得最优妥协解,可使CO2捕获率达到95.92%,再沸器负荷降至775.39 MW,为该工艺的优化操作提供了理论依据。

  17. Determination and Emission of Condensable particulate Matter from Coal-fired power plants%燃煤电厂可凝结颗粒物的测试与排放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴冰

    2015-01-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21. 2 ± 3. 5) mg•m - 3 while the FPM was (20. 6 ± 10. 0) mg•m - 3 during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32% , and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1% .%建立了固定源可凝结颗粒物(condensable particulate matter, CPM)采样-分析方法,开发了 CPM 采样配件,与 EPA Method 202方法进行比对后应用于燃煤电厂.结果表明燃煤电厂 CPM 排放均值为(21.2±3.5) mg•m -3,同步使用国标方法测得的FPM 为(20.6±10.0) mg•m -3;高效除尘器可有效降低 FPM 的排放水平,但对 CPM 无太大影响.高效除尘改造后 CPM 对TPM 的贡献将有所提高,应引起足够的重视. CPM 中冷凝液贡献了68%,滤膜为32%,有机组分较少,为1%.

  18. 燃煤电厂氮氧化物(NOX)脱除技术方法探讨和应用%Discussion and Application of NOX Removal Technology in Coal-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱礼想

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides are an important cause of acid rain pollution and urban air pollution. Nitrogen oxides (NOX) generated by coal-burning is a major source of air pollution in China, where about 60% of the coal is consumed by thermal power plants and large and medium-sized coal-fired boiler. Along with economic development, the consumption proportion of coal fired by boilers accounted for coal consumption will gradually increase. At present, the NOx emissions of power plants and industrial boilers in China has reached more than 7 million tons/year (growth rate is more than 8%), and in the future it will show a longer period of sustained growth trend. Statistics in recent years show that, NOX air pollution is also gradually developing in large and middle cities. To eliminate NOX, in addition to the use of staged combustion in the boiler combustion, to reduce the oxygen concentration of the combustion zone and lower flame temperature, the flue gas treatment technology can also be used to reduce NOx content.%氮氧化物是造成酸雨污染、城市空气污染的重要原因。由燃煤所产生的氮氧化物(NOx)是我国大气污染的主要来源之一,其中约60%的燃煤被火电站和大中型燃煤锅炉消耗,随着经济的发展,燃煤锅炉耗煤占煤炭消费量比例也将逐步增长。目前我国电厂和工业锅炉氮氧化物排放量已超过700万吨/年(增长速度超过8%),今后一个较长的时期仍将呈持续增长趋势。近年的统计数据表明,大中城市空气中NOX污染情况也在逐步发展。要想消除NOX,除了在锅炉燃烧中采用分级燃烧,降低燃烧区域氧浓度和降低火焰温度来降低NOx,也可采用烟气处理技术降低NOx含量。

  19. Coal-fired Power Plants with Flexible Amine-based CCS and Co-located Wind Power: Environmental, Economic and Reliability Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Rubenka

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies provide a means to significantly reduce carbon emissions from the existing fleet of fossil-fired plants, and hence can facilitate a gradual transition from conventional to more sustainable sources of electric power. This is especially relevant for coal plants that have a CO2 emission rate that is roughly two times higher than that of natural gas plants. Of the different kinds of CCS technology available, post-combustion amine based CCS is the best developed and hence more suitable for retrofitting an existing coal plant. The high costs from operating CCS could be reduced by enabling flexible operation through amine storage or allowing partial capture of CO2 during high electricity prices. This flexibility is also found to improve the power plant's ramp capability, enabling it to offset the intermittency of renewable power sources. This thesis proposes a solution to problems associated with two promising technologies for decarbonizing the electric power system: the high costs of the energy penalty of CCS, and the intermittency and non-dispatchability of wind power. It explores the economic and technical feasibility of a hybrid system consisting of a coal plant retrofitted with a post-combustion-amine based CCS system equipped with the option to perform partial capture or amine storage, and a co-located wind farm. A techno-economic assessment of the performance of the hybrid system is carried out both from the perspective of the stakeholders (utility owners, investors, etc.) as well as that of the power system operator. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Increased demands for modern power plants. Gas and coal-fired power plants; Gestiegene Anforderungen an moderne Kraftwerke. Gas- und Kohlekraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautsch, Andreas [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland). CCS; Goll, Bringfried; Hestermann, Rolf [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Peter, Torsten; Timmermann, Leif [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Rieck, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Driven by the mega trends of climate protection, increase in efficiency and flexibility, the demands for low CO{sub 2} and low emission technology, low specific fuel consumption and maximum control capability has increased significantly. Due to the energy strategy submitted by the Federal government, the demands on modern power plants are still further emphasized.

  1. 燃煤电厂用新型高分子复合滤料性能的测试%Test on performance of new macromolecule compound filter media used in coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 沈恒根; 薛婷婷

    2013-01-01

    耐高温滤料的使用寿命和稳定性是影响袋式除尘器运行寿命的因素之一。对新型高分子复合滤料进行了基本性能的测试,并与目前燃煤电厂常用的玻纤滤料性能进行了对比试验。结果表明,新型复合滤料在耐高温、耐酸腐蚀和抗氧化性能方面均优于常用的玻纤滤料,适合在电厂烟气处理系统中应用。%Lifetime and stability of the high temperature resistance filter media is one of the factors that affect the operation lifetime of bag house duster .The basic performance test and analysis of the newly developed compound filter media were carried out , and the comparing test of the performances between the material and general glass fiber filter media used in coal-fired power plants was discussed.The test result demon-strates that high temperature resistance and acid corrosion resistance as well as oxidation resistance of new compound filter media were better than that of glass fiber filter media .The fiter media is feasible on used in flue gas treatment system in power plant .

  2. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 3, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R & D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  3. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Coal-fired CCS demonstration plants, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The present report reviews activities taking place focused on the eventual large-scale deployment of carbon capture systems on coal-fired power plants. With this aim in mind, there are three main CO2 capture technology streams currently being developed and tested; these comprise pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, and systems based on oxyfuel technology. Although numerous other capture systems have been proposed, these three are currently the focus of most RD&D efforts and this report concentrates on these. More speculative technologies still at early stages in their development are not addressed. The overall aims of this report are to provide an update of recent technological developments in each of the main categories of CO2 capture, and to review the current state of development of each, primarily through an examination of larger-scale development activities taking place or proposed. However, where appropriate, data generated by smaller-scale testing is noted, especially where this is feeding directly into ongoing programmes aimed at developing further, or scaling-up the particular technology. Each is reviewed and the status of individual coal-based projects and proposals described. These are limited mainly to what are generally described as pilot and/or demonstration scale. Where available, learning experiences and operational data being generated by these projects is noted. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of individual projects have been used to provide an indication of technology scale and maturity. For pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxyfuel systems, an attempt has been made to identify the technological challenges and gaps in the knowledge that remain, and to determine what technology developers are doing in terms of RD&D to address these. However, issues of commercial confidentiality have meant that in some cases, information in the public domain is limited, hence it has only been possible to identify overarching

  5. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  6. 太阳能与燃煤联合发电技术及其应用前景%Solar energy and coal-fired power generation technology and its application prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思韫

    2012-01-01

    The technology principle and engineering application of hybrid solar-coal power systems were presented. The thermal economy of different integrated options for hybrid systems was comprehensively analyzed, The potential of the development of hybrid solar-coal power technology was studied. The strategies to promote the hybrid solar-coal power technology were recommended. From studies on hybrid system performance and the Colorado project, it is shown that the integration of the solar field and the regenerative system of coal-fired units has a stable operation and good economic performance, especially for the option in which the whole first stage extraction steam is replaced by solar field is effective and thus has a good prospect.%介绍了太阳能与燃煤联合发电技术原理及工程应用,综合分析了联合发电系统不同集成方案的热经济性,给出了太阳能与燃煤联合发电技术的应用前景,提出了我国发展太阳能与燃煤联合发电技术的建议.通过对太阳能与燃煤联合发电系统的性能分析及工程实例表明,太阳能场与燃煤机组回热系统相结合的方式,运行稳定,经济性较好,特别是太阳能场取代1段抽汽的集成方案较为理想,具有很好的发展前景.

  7. 煤炭价格对燃煤发电项目内部收益率影响关系的研究%A Study on Relation between Coal Price and FIRR of Coal-fired Power Generating Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一; 林廷康

    2014-01-01

    Coal prices have a decisive impact on the economic return of coal-fired power plants and relative level of coal and electricity prices reflects the interest distribution among the coal industry, power and the government. The marketization revolution of Coal power industry as the downstream industries of coal industry is relatively lag behind, hence the fluctuation in coal price constitutes an major cost risk to the electricity business. This paper studies internal rate of return (IRR) as a key indicator of coal-fired power plants' economic return and quantitatively analyze the impact of coal price changes on IRR, using regression methods to fit the internal rate of return curves. The author further calculates marginal impact of coal prices on IRR curve by numerical difference method, fitting the marginal impact curve by hyperbolic analog function model and finally make some conclusion and suggestion. The result shows that in the lower price range, the marginal impact of changes in coal price on IRR is relatively smaller, while in the higher price range, marginal changes of internal rate of return decline rapidly in the form of hyperbolic function.%煤炭价格对燃煤发电项目经济效益具有决定性影响,煤价与电价的相对水平决定了煤炭行业、电力行业、政府间的利益分配。电力行业的市场化进度相对落后于其上游的煤炭产业,煤炭价格波动对电力企业的运营构成较大的成本风险。内部收益率是燃煤电厂经济效益的关键指标,文章以内部收益率作为研究对象,分析煤炭价格变动对内部收益率的影响,运用回归方法拟合煤炭价格对内部收益率的影响曲线,进一步通过数值差分法得到煤炭价格对内部收益率的微分曲线即边际影响曲线,并利用双曲函数拟合边际影响曲线。研究结果表明,在较低价格区间内,煤炭价格变化对内部收益率的边际影响度较小;在较高价格范围内,

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  9. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L(-1) were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m(-3) was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored.

  10. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  11. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  12. Experiences with the KEMA Corrosion Probe in waste incineration plants and coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, M.P. de; Leferink, R.G.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V. Arnhem, (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Fireside corrosion is still a major cause of concern in coal- fired power plants and municipal waste incineration plants. In a highly competitive electricity market, the demand for a method to determine the quality or protectiveness of the oxide layers on evaporator walls, in boilers of power plants with low-NO{sub x} firing techniques, will increase. Moreover, co-firing of new fuels (RDF, pulverised wood and other residual fractions) has as yet unknown consequences for corrosion in evaporator walls and super heaters in boiler installations and waste incinerators. Corrosion monitoring enables operators of coal fired power plants to measure and act when corrosion problems are likely to occur. If done properly corrosion monitoring allows the plant operator to adjust the (co-) firing conditions to less corrosive conditions with the highest possible plant efficiency. Recently KEMA developed the KEMA Corrosion Probe (KEMCOP) which enables plant owners to determine fireside corrosion in different locations in their boiler. A good example is the 540 MWe E.on Maasvlakte power plant, which was recently fitted for the exposure of 144 probes simultaneously. The probes can also be used for material testing by exposing different materials under actual firing conditions. Aside from corrosion monitoring also slagging behaviour and condensation of heavy metals can be monitored. In the Netherlands KEMCOP probes are used for several purposes and are more and more becoming common practice for coal fired boilers and waste incinerators. Until now almost 300 probes have been mounted in coal fired boilers and waste incineration plants. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of biogeochemical controls on the formation, uptake and accumulation of methylmercury in rice paddies in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant and a municipal solid waste incinerator in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yen-Bin; Chang, Wei-Chun; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Chu-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that rice consumption is another critical route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and accumulative form of mercury (Hg) in the food web. Yet, the mechanisms that underlie the production and accumulation of MeHg in the paddy ecosystem are still poorly understood. In 2013 and 2014, we conducted field campaigns and laboratory experiments over a rice growing season to examine Hg and MeHg cycling, as well as associated biogeochemistry in a suite of paddies close to a municipal solid waste incinerator and a coal-fired power plant station in Taiwan. Concentrations of total Hg and MeHg in paddy soil and rice grain at both sites were low and found not to exceed the control standards for farmland soil and edible rice in Taiwan. However, seasonal variations of MeHg concentrations observed in pore water samples indicate that the in situ bioavailability of inorganic Hg and activity of Hg-methylating microbes in the rhizosphere increased from the early-season and peaked at the mid-season, presumably due to the anoxia created under flooded conditions and root exudation of organic compounds. The presence of Hg-methylators was also confirmed by the hgcA gene detected in all root soil samples. Subsequent methylation tests performed by incubating the root soil with inorganic Hg and an inhibitor or stimulant specific for certain microbes further revealed that sulfate-reducers might have been the principal Hg-methylting guild at the study sites. Interestingly, results of hydroponic experiments conducted by cultivating rice in a defined nutrient solution amended with fixed MeHg and varying levels of MeHg-binding ligands suggested that chemical speciation in soil pore water may play a key role in controlling MeHg accumulation in rice, and both passive and active transport pathways seem to take place in the uptake of MeHg in rice roots.

  14. 燃煤发电厂脱硝催化剂的成分及表面分析研究%Composition and Surface Analysis of Denitration Catalyst in Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2015-01-01

    采用X射线荧光光谱分析(XRF)、 X射线光电子能谱(XPS)研究手段对燃煤发电厂SCR脱硝催化剂开展成分检测及表面分析。 XRF分析结果显示,在催化剂运行过程中,由于烟气中碱金属沉积、飞灰磨损等原因,其载体及活性组分含量逐渐下降,而烟尘中碱金属、碱土金属等有害物质在催化剂上逐渐累积。 XPS分析结果表明,在运行寿命期内催化剂的主要元素构成基本相似,催化剂表面有硫酸盐沉积,催化剂有效成分如钒元素、钼元素化合态发生了一定转变。%In this paper, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are utilized for composition and surface analysis of SCR denitration catalyst in coal-fired power plants. As XRF analysis shows that due to the alkali metal deposition of flue gas, flying ash erosion and other reasons during catalyst operation, the carrier and active ingredient content of catalyst ingredient decreases while the hazardous sub-stances such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals gradually accumulate on the catalyst. XPS analysis shows that within the operational lifetime of catalyst constitutions of main elements are similar; surface sulfate de-posits on the surface of catalyst and the chemical form of active ingredients such as vanadium, molybdenum undergoes some changes.

  15. Review on the SO3 detection method and Removal Strategy in Coal-fired Power Plants%浅谈燃煤电站SO3检测方法及脱除策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 刘毅; 李延兵; 王慧芳

    2015-01-01

    结合目前燃煤电站运行情况,简述了燃煤电站SO3产生原因,重点介绍了燃煤电站SO3的测量方法,并对几种方法进行对比分析,其中量子级联激光法是目前最为先进的SO3检测技术,通过进一步研发有望实现SO3的实时监测。最后,针对燃煤电站,提出了有效消除SO3方法,达到解决燃煤电站SO3排放导致的烟囱排烟不透明及SO3引起的腐蚀等问题。%Based on coal-fired power plants, the source of the SO3 is analyzed in this paper. And the exist⁃ing SO3 sampling, measuring method are summarized in detail both at home and abroad, the accuracy and limits were listed from sampling and measument, and the Quantum cascade laser method is the most promis⁃ing SO3 detection method, which may be able to achieve the real-time SO3 detection after forward study. Meanwhile, the removal strategies of SO3 emission are proposed , though injection of alkaline substances and adding wet electrostatic precipitator, the SO3 concentration in the chimney was reduced successfully, and⁃solved the chimney opaque and acid fog.

  16. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  17. Risk assessment of mortality for all-cause, ischemic heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer due to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hu, Suh-Woan; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Jeng-Lin; Tang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Guan-Jie; Ku, Kai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent understanding of PM2.5 health-related problems from fossil-fueled power plants emission inventories collected in Taiwan, we have determined the loss of life expectancy (LLE) and the lifetime (75-year) risks for PM2.5 health-related mortalities as attributed to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant; the Taichung Power Plant (TCP), with an installed nominal electrical capacity of 5780 MW in 2013. Five plausible scenarios (combinations of emission controls, fuel switch, and relocation) and two risk factors were considered. It is estimated that the lifetime (75-y) risk for all-cause mortality was 0.3%-0.6% for males and 0.2%-0.4% for females, and LLE at 84 days in 1997 for the 23 million residents of Taiwan. The risk has been reduced to one-fourth at 0.05%-0.10% for males and 0.03%-0.06% for females, and LLE at 15 days in 2007, which was mainly attributed to the installation of desulfurization and de-NOx equipment. Moreover, additional improvements can be expected if we can relocate the power plant to a downwind site on Taiwan, and convert the fuel source from coal to natural gas. The risk can be significantly reduced further to one-fiftieth at 0.001%-0.002% for males and 0.001% for females, and LLE at 0.3 days. Nonetheless, it is still an order higher than the commonly accepted elevated-cancer risk at 0.0001% (10-6), indicating that the PM2.5 health-related risk for operating such a world-class power plant is not negligible. In addition, this study finds that a better-chosen site (involving moving the plant to the leeward side of Taiwan) can reduce the risk significantly as opposed to solely transitioning the fuel source to natural gas. Note that the fuel cost of using natural gas (0.11 USD/kWh in 2013) in Taiwan is about twice the price of using coal fuel (0.05 USD/kWh in 2013).

  18. Study on the Flue Gas Denitrification Cost Estimation of Coal-fired Power Plant During the "Tweli~h Five-Year Plan" Period of China%我国燃煤电厂“十二五”期间新增烟气脱硝费用测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东; 朱法华; 王圣

    2012-01-01

    介绍了我国燃煤电厂氮氧化物排放控制情况,并在符合《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB13223--2011)的前提下,通过对我国采用的主要烟气脱硝技术进行经济性分析,根据预测的我国“十二五”期间新增燃煤电厂装机容量,估算出我国“十二五”期间燃煤电厂烟气脱硝费用。至2015年,如果我国燃煤电厂烟气脱硝全部采用SCR技术,则脱硝投资费用将达到925.83亿元,年运行费用为362.07亿元;如果600MW以下机组采用SNCR—SCR脱硝技术,600MW及以上机组采用SCR脱硝技术,则脱硝投资费用将达到780.72亿元,年运行费用为344.32亿元。%The situation of nitrogen oxides emission control of coal-fired power plant in China is introduced in this paper. And based on the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Thermal Power Plants of China, the flue gas denitrification cost of coal-fired power plant during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period of China (2011-2015) is estimated through economic analysis of the flue gas denitrification technology which is now widely used in China and according to the predicted incremental installed capacity of coal-fired power during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period. It is estimated that, if the coal-fired power plants all adopt the SCR for flue gas denitrification, the denitrification investment cost will reach 92.583 billion RMB and the annual operation cost will reach 36.207 billion RMB in 2015; and if the generator units with an installed capacity of under 600 MW adopt the SNCR-SCR denitrification technology and the generator units with an installed capacity of 600 MW or above adopt the SCR denitrification technology, the denitrification investment cost will reach 78.072 billion RMB and the annual operation cost will reach 34.432 billion RMB in 2015.

  19. Research and application of GASS preconditioning system for "ltra low emission" CEMS in coal fired power plant%Nafion干燥器GASS处理系统在“超低排放”CEMS中的工程应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄杰; 李峰

    2015-01-01

    Nafion dryer tubing has unique characteristics of selective gaseous dehumidification ,can re‐tain the target acid gas ,is a premium approach to widen existing cold and dry extractive CEMS .With Na‐fion tube as the core ,the GASS precondition system integrates secondary acid mist filter ,Nafion dry tub‐ing and online dew point analyzer together ,can thoroughly solve the problems of water condensation and low range SO2 loss of cold dry extract method CEMS .After laboratory experiments ,onsite portable CEMS experiments ,and application of Jiaxing Power Plant No .8 power generation "ultra low emission"CEMS ,GASS precondition system has been demonstrated that it's very suitable for cold and dry extractive"ultra low emission"CEMS in coal fired power plant .%燃煤电厂在推广“超低排放”CEMS气态污染物监测系统监测低量程SO2和NOx 中,低温、高湿度的烟气条件是极为严峻的挑战。Nafion干燥管独特的气态膜除湿、能保留目标气体的特点,为冷干直抽法CEMS提出了一个样气处理的新方案。Nafion管为核心的GASS样气处理系统,集絮凝过滤、除酸雾、Nafion管干燥和在线酸性气体露点监测为一体,可彻底解决冷干直抽法CEMS中冷凝水析出和低量程SO2易溶于冷凝水的难题,是一种创新的冷干直取法CEMS样气处理技术。通过实验室试验,手持式CEMS应用实验,和嘉兴发电厂8号机组"超低排放"CEMS的应用,证明GASS样气处理系统非常适合在燃煤电厂“超低排放”CEMS中应用。

  20. Measuring of mineral particulate matter at work places in coal-fired power plants. Aids for determining hazards; Messungen mineralischer Staeube an Arbeitsplaetzen in Kohlekraftwerken. Hilfen zur Gefaehrdungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckler, Margret [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Gefahrstoffe; Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinen und Anlagen

    2009-07-01

    If employees have to carry out operations with mineral particulate matter or if such blends - due to processes or operations interfere with the breathing air at the work place, power plant operators have to assess and determine the hazards for employees and must introduce corresponding protection measures. Between 2006 and 2008 the Accident Prevention and Insurance Association ''Energy, Textile and Electrics'' has carried out work place measurements in coalfired power plants (lignite and bard coal) in order to provide support when determining and assessing the hazard potential. The measuring results showed that normally the limit values for work places are safely met for A and E fractions. Further dust measurements will be carried out. (orig.)

  1. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim; Alam Lubna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar,...

  2. An integrative approach for determination of air pollution and its health effects in a coal fired power plant area by passive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükaçıl Artun, Gülzade; Polat, Narin; Yay, Ozan Devrim; Özden Üzmez, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Tuna Tuygun, Gizem; Elbir, Tolga; Altuğ, Hicran; Dumanoğlu, Yetkin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Dawood, Abdallah; Odabasi, Mustafa; Gaga, Eftade O.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at several locations in Kütahya, a severely polluted city and also characterized as a thermal power plant city, in Turkey. Two-week extensive passive sampling campaigns were carried out in summer and winter at 108 sampling sites that were classified into three main groups as urban, rural and industrial. Spatial and seasonal distributions of the measured pollutants were evaluated employing Geographical Information System techniques. All pollutant concentrations showed an increasing pattern in winter, except for ozone. The concentrations of VOCs were substantially higher particularly at sampling sites with high traffic and population densities. Power plants were noted as important sources for VOCs since high concentrations were measured especially around the power plants. Highest NO2 levels were observed in the city center while there was a general decrease in the concentration levels far away from the city center. Considerably higher SO2 levels were observed in the settlements where local coal is used for residential heating. Seasonal variations in SO2 concentrations were quite low around the thermal power plants indicating their important effect on atmospheric levels. A basic population exposure assessment was conducted for two largest settlements of the province (Kütahya city center and Tavşanlı) by combining population density maps with pollutant distribution maps of NO2 and SO2. Exposure to NO2 and SO2 were assessed separately according to a classification made for different degrees of exposure. Cancer risks associated with inhalation of benzene were also estimated. Higher risk values were obtained from the sampling sites with higher population densities, especially in winter. Risk values estimated for 95 sampling sites were higher than EPA's acceptable risk value (1 × 10-6).

  3. The Effect of Mercury Content in Coal on the Level of Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plant Flue Gas%燃煤电厂煤中汞含量对烟气中汞排放水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞美香; 杨丽; 寇晓芳

    2014-01-01

    The mercury in coal and the mercury emissions from flue gas of coal-fired power plants were analyzed in Jiangsu prov-ince.The results showed that,mercury in coal of 9 coal-fired power plants were 54.5 ~297 ng/g,and the average was 139 ng/g. The average value was lower than the average mercury in coal of China(220 ng/g).The mercury emissions from flue gas of coal-fired power plants were in the range of 0.08 ~16.97 μg/m3 in Jiangsu province.It was lower than the mercury and compounds standard(GB 13223-2011)limits(30 μg/m3)of china.By analyzing the mercury in coal and the mercury emissions from flue gas of coal-fired power plants,it was found that there was a certain proportional relationship between the two.%对江苏省9家燃煤电厂入炉煤中ω(汞)及烟气中ρ(汞)进行了测试,结果表明,9家燃煤电厂入炉煤中ω(汞)为54.5~297 ng/g,平均值为139 ng/g,低于我国煤中ω(汞)的平均值(220 ng/g)。燃煤电厂排放烟气中ρ(汞)为0.08~16.97μg/m3,远低于《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》(GB 13223-2011)汞及其化合物标准限值(30μg/m3)。通过对燃煤电厂入炉煤中ω(汞)与最终排放的烟气中ρ(汞)进行分析,两者之间有一定的相关性。

  4. State of the art coal fired steam generators for low emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busekrus, K.; Tigges, K.; Klauke, F. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Some methods of improving efficiency of coal-fired power plants in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions is described, followed by carbon capture and storage technologies. NOx and SOx reduction technologies are then discussed. 26 refs.

  5. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  6. Optimization Renovation of Low NOx Combustion in Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler of Thermal Power Plant%电厂煤粉锅炉的低氮燃烧优化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志国

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for generation of NOx in the combustion process of pulverized coal fired boiler was introduced. Connecting with renovation of pulverized coal fired boiler, the principle of reducing NOx discharge through air classification combustion was introduced, and the experimental result was analyzed and discussed. After air classification combustion renovation, the discharge of NOx from pulverized coal fired boiler decreased substantially, and the main performance indexes of boiler were improved, which achieved good economic profit and environmental protection effects.%阐述了在煤粉锅炉燃烧过程中氮氧化物(NOx)的产生机理和影响因素,结合煤粉锅炉改造,介绍了采用空气分级燃烧降低NOx排放的原理,并对试验结果进行了分析和讨论。实施空气分级燃烧改造后,煤粉锅炉的NOx排放量大幅减少,锅炉的主要性能参数指标得到提升,取得了良好的经济效益和环保效果。

  7. 燃煤电厂电除尘现状及关键参数设计研究%STATUS QUO OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS IN COAL-FIRING POWER PLANTS AND STUDY ON DDESIGN OF THEIR KEY PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁君田; 吴玉强; 吴望民; 樊君侠; 田改珍; 李海波; 惠志峰

    2009-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitators (EP) in service of coal-firing power plants commonly have problem of failing to reach the standard set for smoke emission. It is believed from analysis that the most fundamental cause leading to said problems is unreasonable design of EP's parameters,especially the small specific dust collection area (SDCA). Regarding to commonly used coal sort for power gener-ation,under condition of reasonably choised SDCA,the concentration of smoke emission at exit of EP can satisfy the requirement of the new emission standard , being lower than 5 0 mg / m3. The range of SDCA is recommended as follows:l, if the concentration of smoke emission to be less than 100 mg/m3 ,under condition of conventional coal sort, the SDCA should≥110 m2 (m3/s) ; under condition of diffi-cultly collecting coal sort, the SDCA should≥150 m2 (m3/s);2. If the concentration of smoke emission to be less than 50 mg/m3 ,under condition of conventional coal sort,the SDCA must≥125 m2 (m3/s);under condition of special coal sorts,the SDCA must≥180 m2 (m3/s).%燃煤电厂现役电除尘器普遍存在烟尘排放不达标的问题,分析认为电除尘器关键参数设计不合理,尤其比集尘面积小是造成这种问题的最根本原因.在比集尘面积选择合理的情况下,电除尘器出口烟尘排放浓度达到低于50 mg/m3的新排放标准时,要求推荐的比集尘面积范围如下:(1)烟尘排放浓度小于100 mg/m3、常规煤种情况下,比集尘面积≥110 m3/(m3/s);难收集煤种情况下,比集尘面积≥150 m2/(m3/s).(2)烟尘排放浓度小于50 mg/m3、常规煤种情况下,比集尘面积≥125 m2/(m3/s);特殊煤种情况下,比集尘面积≥180 m2/(m3/s).

  8. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  9. SUENTP code simulations of scale-up and economic evaluation of non-thermal plasma technology for exhaust gas emission control of coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J.; Chang, J.-S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1998-07-01

    Computer code (SUENTP) to predict scale up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower process - was developed for a commercialized power plant. This code was written by spread sheet type MS Excel with visual basic for application and comprise data input procedure, scale-up (design) procedure, economic calculation procedure, and output procedure. Data obtained from pilot plant tests are input with general data so that they might be led to the conceptual design data of commercial plants by scale-up procedure. In the next economic evaluation procedure, the total capital investment and the total annual cost. The total capital investment comes into the indirect annual cost as the item of capital recovery. The levelized cost and the levelized busbar cost could be shown in the output table. An example calculation was presented to evaluate the cost of three non-thermal systems and the results were compared with a conventional wet-scrubber/selective catalytic reduction combined system. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Natural Radium Detection and Inventory Flux of Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater at Kapar Coastal Area Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N.; Ariffin, N. A. N.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Distribution of 226Ra and 228Ra radioactive in marine have been studied at Kapar coastal area that closed to Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah (SJSSAS) power station. The concentration level of 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in seawater include total suspended solids (TSSrw) and dissolved phases from September 2006 to February 2008. The measurement technique used for 226Ra and 228Ra was using cation exchange column and counted using Liquid Scintillator Ciunter (LSC). The radioactivities of 226Rasw and 228Rasw in the dissolved phase of seawater ranged from 1.29 ± 0.52 mBq/L - 3.69 ± 1.29 mBq/L and 2.12 ± 0.71 mbq/L - 17.07 ± 6.03 mBq/L respectively. The measurement of radioactivities of radium isotopes in the particulate phase of seawater ranged from 15.62 ± 1.99 Bq/kg - 241.76 ± 100.23 Bq/kg (226Ratsw) and 7.19 ± 3.21 Bq/kg - 879.66 ± 365.74 Bq/kg (228Ratsw). Radium isotopes inventory in this study showed that suspended solid have higher inventory value than seawater and sediment. Study also found that suspended solid play an important role for flux contribution at seawater. Based on the finding, the radioactivity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra is higher in particulate phase than in dissolved phase.

  11. Stable isotope composition of mercury forms in flue gases from a typical coal-fired power plant, Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Chaohui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Sun, Ruoyu; Fan, Huipeng; Wang, Lina; Li, Ruiyang; Mao, Tonghua; Zhou, Ting

    2017-04-15

    Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products. As compared to feed coal (δ(202)Hg=-2.04±0.25‰), bottom ash, GEM and GOM in flue gases before and after wet flue gas desulfurization system significantly enrich heavy Hg isotopes by 0.7-2.6‰ in δ(202)Hg, while fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water show slight but insignificant enrichment of light Hg isotopes. GEM is significantly enriched heavy Hg isotopes compared to GOM and Hg in fly ash. Our observations verify the previous speculation on Hg isotope fractionation mechanism in CFPPs, and suggest a kinetically-controlled mass dependent Hg isotope fractionation during transformation of Hg forms in flue gases. Finally, our data are compared to Hg isotope compositions of atmospheric Hg pools, suggesting that coal combustion Hg emission is likely an important atmospheric Hg contributor.

  12. 燃煤电厂最佳入炉煤热值的计算%CalculationofBestHeatQuantityinCoalFirePowerPlant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玉明; 刘如铁; 刘占明; 张永利; 刘秀航

    2013-01-01

    Takingtheofsomecoalfiredpowerplant,forex-ample,thispaperintroducesthecalculationprocessofthe bestcoalcalorificvaluein power plants,putsforward a methodofthebestcoalcalorificvaluecalculation,thepracti-calapplicationshowsthatthemethodcanreducepowercost significantly.%  以某火电厂某月实际生产经营情况为例,介绍该火电厂最佳入炉煤热值的计算过程,提出了一种计算最佳入炉煤热值的方法,即通过机组热效率试验测定各工况点的供电煤耗,利用最小二乘法拟合曲线确定供电煤耗与入炉煤热值的关系,通过规划求解确定入厂煤热值与标煤单价关系,二者相乘得单位燃料成本与入炉煤热值的关系,求极小值确定最低单位燃料成本和最佳入炉煤热值。通过实际应用情况说明该方法可显著降低供电成本。

  13. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  14. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa. The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  15. 油田燃煤电厂CO2捕集纯化工程实践%CO2 capture and purification in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉峰; 郝杰; 万志鹏; 张翠红

    2014-01-01

    CO2是一种温室气体,通过CO2收集、驱油技术,能将造成温室效应的气体用于提高原油采收率,同时减少工业生产中温室气体的排放。为了实现CO2的捕集纯化,胜利油田采用一乙醇胺溶液( MEA)化学吸收工艺捕集CO2。介绍了“低渗透油藏CO2驱油”重大先导试验,在胜利发电厂建设CO2捕集纯化装置,通过此装置收集稳定、廉价的CO2气体用于驱油生产实践。通过分析系统运行状况,对装置进行了一系列的试验、研究,总结了大量CO2捕集系统的工程应用经验。胜利油田CO2捕集项目,通过将大型燃煤电厂烟道气中CO2捕集纯化、安全输送等系列技术攻关,形成低能耗捕集纯化、运输的集成配套技术。%CO2,known as a greenhouse gas,is recycled to improve the production of crude oil through collection an d oil-driving technolo-gies.Shengli Oilfield adopts MEA chemical adsorption process to capture and purify CO2.To develop low permeability reservoir,conduct CO2 flooding experiment.First,build capture and purification devices which capture and purify the CO2 from the large-scale coal-fired power plant.Analyze the matched CO2 conveying techniques.The actual operation experiment guides the subsequent object design.

  16. Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants; Reduccion de la Emisiones de Particulas Solidas en Centrales Termicas de Carbon Existentes Mediante Acondicionamiento Integral (Fisico y Quimico) de Gases de Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. Tehy came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations, although they use different types of coal. The power station at Cercs uses a mixture of local lignite, rich in calcium, together with 40% of South African coal, while that of Escucha uses local lignite, the ashes of which are predominantly silicon and aluminium oxides, together with 20% of South African coal. At both power stations, the local lignite has changes during the life of the power stations and presently its quality is clearly inferior th that when the power stations were designed. This change in quality has produced two consequences, on one hand, the characteristics of the ash have changed in that the resistivity of the fly ash produced at present is much higher than when the power stations were designed. On the other hand, the temperature of the gases at the boiler outlet has increased and reaches values of up to 200 degree centigree, which has also led to an increase in resistivity. These two facts have produced, as a consequence, a significant increase in the emission of particulate matter. In order to reduce the emission of particulate matter, two stategies were implantes at both power stations; a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases and a reduction of the resistivity of the fly ash. This was an innovative approach to the problem, as generally either one or the other of these strategies is employed but rarely both of them at the same time. A reduction of flue gas temperature was achieved by modifying the last three tube banks of the boiler by adding another 2500 m``2 of heat exchanging surface. As a result, the temperature of the flue gases decreased to a value of 140 degree centigree, which in turn produced a notable effect on the resistivity of the ash. Furthermore, an increase in the performance of the boiler

  17. Improvements of the Computerized Data Acquisition System for 25MWt Experimental Facility of Coal-fired MHD Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a new computerized data acquisition system for the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) electrical power generation experiments. Compared to the previous system, it has a higher sampling rate and an improved simultaneity performance. It also improves the data collection method and sensor design for the measurement of Faraday voltages and Faraday currents. The system has been successfully used in many regular MHD generator tests. It provides an excellent base for the future research and development of the Coal-fired MHD electrical power generation.

  18. Study and Application of Universal Model for Quantitative Exergy Analysis of Auxiliary Steam and Water for the Coal-fired Power Unit%火电厂辅助汽水系统定量(火用)分析计算通用模型的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴智泉; 安连锁; 韩中合

    2011-01-01

    根据(火用)平衡方程,利用(火用)效率的概念对火电厂各回热加热器进行了分析,通过论证推导,提出了火电机组辅助汽水系统定量(火用)分析计算的通用模型.运用此模型定量计算某电厂328.5MW机组高压缸轴封漏汽利用对汽轮机装置系统(火用)效率的影响;为辅助系统局部定量分析提供了便利方法.%Based on exergy balanced equation, with the concept of exergy efficiency the exergy analysis of heaters is worked.Based on strict deduction and demonstration, the general quantitative exergy calculation model of auxiliary steam and water for the coal-fired power unit is given. With this model,take the utilization of shaft-packing leakage in HP cylinder of a 328.5MW unit to define its effect on steam turbine thermal system. What is more,it provides new theoretic base for coal-fired power unit's thermal exergy analysis especially for partial qualitative exergy analysis.

  19. 330 MW火电机组发变组出口断路器跳闸原因分析%Trip cause analysis for outlet circuit breaker trip of generator-transformer unit in 330 MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余民

    2015-01-01

    针对一起330 MW火电机组发变组出口断路器在无任何保护动作情况下的跳闸故障,采用逐步排查法,通过现场模拟实验,找出了故障的原因,提出有效解决办法并制定了防范措施.应用结果表明:改进措施消除了机组存在的安全隐患,确保了机组的长周期安全运行.%Aiming at an accident of generator-transformer unit outlet circuit breaker trip without any protection device act in 330 MW coal-fired power plant,using gradual elimination method and field simulation test,finds out the causes of the trip,puts forward effective solution and preventive measures. The application result shows that the improved measures eliminate the hidden safety trouble,guarantee long periodic safe operation of the 330 MW coal-fired power generation unit.

  20. 2200 MW SCR installation on new coal-fired utility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, D.P.; Uysal, T.A. [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States)

    1998-12-31

    NO{sub x} regulations in Germany and Japan in the mid-1980s resulted in the mandatory retrofit of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology on many utility installations. The early 1990s brought SCR technology to small, single unit new coal fired installations around the world. This paper describes the application of high NO{sub x} reduction SCR technology to the first large scale, coal fired, multiple unit new installation. By integrating the SCR design into the initial boiler equipment arrangement and design, significant simplification of equipment arrangement resulted in project cost savings. The four 550 MW units at Taiwan Power`s Taichung 5--8 Power Plant were installed, commissioned (Unit 8 went on line in early 1997), and tested demonstrating the low NO{sub x} emission capabilities of SCR technology.

  1. Ecological and economic solution for removing and dumping the slag and ash from coal-fired low capacity boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru Gardan; Laurentiu Maier; Nistor Bujdei; Maria Gardan [Institute of Power Studies and Design, Timisoara (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The removal of ash and slags from fossil-fuel power plants and their transport to and storage on dumps are discussed. A new dense slurry ash removal process developed by IPSE and Termoelectrica is described. This was successfully tested at Timisoara coal-fired power plant, Romania. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Pre-evaluation on occupational hazards of cogeneration project in a coal-fired power plant%某燃煤发电机组热电联产项目职业病危害预评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉红; 张世英; 赵普

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To determine the occupational hazard factors existed in this proposed construction project,analyze the damage degree as well as its influence on laborers' health,evaluate the effect of corresponding protective measures of the hazards,and present the critical control point of the occupational hazards.[Methods] Check list and analogy method were used to carry out the comprehensive analysis and evaluation.[Results] By the analogy method,all of 41 poison detection sites were qualified with the qualified rate of 100.0%,82.4% of 51 dust detection sites were qualified,and 85.5% of 69 noise detection sites were qualified,while all 3 detection sites of power frequency electric field were qualified.Combined with on-site inspection of a coal-fired power plant,it was predicted that the critical control points of occupational hazards included fuel storage,handling and ash transportation,turbine patrol,water treatment system,and boiler patrol.[Conclusion] The occupational hazard factors in the workplace of this proposed construction project are toxicant,noise,dust and power frequency electric field.Only the protective measures of occupational hazards are implemented in the new construction project,can the concentration (intensity) of possible occupational hazard factors in the productive process be controlled within the national occupational exposure limits.The proposed project is feasible from the view of occupational health.%目的 确定该拟建项目产生的职业病危害因素,分析其危害程度及对劳动者健康的影响,评价职业病危害防护措施及其效果,提出职业病危害的关键控制点.方法 采用检查表法、类比法进行综合分析评价.结果 类比企业41个毒物检测点,合格率为100.0%;51个粉尘检测点,合格率为82.4%;69个噪声检测点,合格率为85.5%;3个工频电场检测点全部合格.结合某燃煤发电厂实地考察的情况预测该项目建成投产后,其职业病危害的

  3. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  4. Construction And Application Of Thermal Power Plant Coal-Fired Unit Price Analysis Model%火力发电厂燃煤单价分析模型的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 王树政; 方良兵

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the background, model innovation of analysis coal-fired unit price analysis model construction. It also introduces model construction method and contented model application casesdetail. It finally proposes economic benefits after the model is applied. Through establishment of model embedded into EXCEL table, we can quantitatively analyze the whole the process of coal-fired price from entering the factory to burning in the furnace, it reveals the standard coal unit price change trend and its cause, which help guide the business management practice and provide effective reference for administrators decision-making.%简单介绍了燃煤单价分析模型构建的背景,模型的创新点,详细介绍了模型的构建方法和内容及模型应用的实例,最后给出了模型应用后的经济效益。通过建立模型嵌入到EXCEL表格中,文表并茂进行定量分析,可以实现对燃煤价格从入厂到入炉的全过程分析,揭示标煤单价变化的态势及其成因,有助于指导经营管理实践,为管理者制订决策提供有效的参考。

  5. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  6. 300 MW燃煤电站砷、汞排放特征研究%Emission characteristics of arsenic and mercury from a 300 MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯华; 张锴; 潘伟平

    2013-01-01

    An emissions studies for arsenic and mercury were conducted at a 300 MW coal-fired power plant.The solid streams such as coal,bottom ash and ESP ash were collected,and the arsenic and mercury in the flue gas around ESP were aslo directly sampled using Ontario Hydro Method and then tested.The results show that the arsenic concentration in fly ash is about 6.68×10-6,which is almost 2.5 times as that in coal,nevertheless that in bottom ash is only 1.70 ×10-6.Its concentration in the flue gas is 153.27 and 41.13 μg/m3 before and after ESP,respectively.The mercury concentration in coal,fly ash and bottom ash is about 2.5×10-7,1.9×10-7 and 1.5 × 10-7 respectively,its concentration in the flue gas before and after ESP was about 5.49 and 5.21 μg/m3.Arsenic is significantly concentrated in fly ash,whereas mercury is not.ESP unit has obvious synergistic effect on arsenic removal up to 71%,while it is not obvious for mercury removal.%对某300 MW燃煤电站煤、底灰和静电除尘器(ESP)飞灰进行采样并测定了其中的砷、汞含量,同时应用Ontario Hydro Method(OHM)标准方法和设备对ESP前后烟气中的砷、汞分布进行了直接采样和测试.对砷的检测结果表明,ESP 飞灰中砷含量约6.68×10-6,是原煤中砷含量的2.5倍左右,而底灰中砷含量仅为1.70×10-6,ESP前烟气中砷含量约153.27 μg/m3,ESP后砷含量急剧降低为41.13 μg/m3;对汞的检测结果表明,原煤中汞含量约2.5×10-7,飞灰、底灰中的汞含量分别约1.9×10-7、1.5×10-7;ESP前后烟气中总汞含量分别为5.49、5.21 μg/m3.砷在飞灰中明显富集,而汞在飞灰和底渣中均不具有富集效果.ESP单元具有明显的协同脱砷效果,平均脱除率约在71%左右,而对汞的协同脱除效果不明显.

  7. 某燃煤电厂300MW机组SCR烟气脱硝装置结构优化%Optimal design of a SCR-DeNOx system for a 300MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊庆锌; 王明轩; 关心; 邱微

    2014-01-01

    SCR 烟气脱硝装置中烟气流场的分布及还原剂(NH3)与 NOx的混合效果对脱硝效果起着重要作用,因此,采用数值模拟技术对于初步设计的SCR烟气脱硝装置进行结构优化是目前国内外SCR烟气脱硝装置设计必不可少的一部分。本研究采用Fluent软件对某燃煤电厂300MW机组SCR烟气脱硝装置内的烟气流动、第一层催化剂入口NH3与NOx的混合和系统压降等方面进行模拟,结果表明:BMCR工况下,结构优化后的SCR烟气脱硝装置AIG上(下)游、第一层催化剂入口和装置出口截面烟气流速相对标准偏差不超过15%;第一层催化剂入口截面 NH3/NOx摩尔比相对标准偏差不超过10%;第一层催化剂入口截面烟气进入最大偏差角度处于±10°范围之间;系统压降低于800Pa。合理的设计导流板能够起到抑制弯管以及变截面所引起的流场分离现象、消除大旋流的产生使烟气更加流畅地进入催化剂等作用。%The distribution of flue gas flow field and the effects on mixing the reducing agent (NH3) with NOx in SCR system are important in the denitrification. Therefore,the structure optimization by numerical simulation of newly designed SCR reactors is essential in the SCR reactor design. In this research FLUENT software was used to simulate flue gas flow field,the effects on mixing NH3 with NOx at the entrance of the first layer catalyst,and the pressure drop of the system in a 300MW coal-fired power plant. Results showed that the relative standard deviation of flue gas velocity was less than 15%between the above and below section of AIG (ammonia injection grid),the entrance of the first layer catalyst and the outlet of SCR reactor after structure optimization in the BMCR (boiler maximum continuous rating) conditions;the relative standard deviation of NH3/NOx ratio was less than 10%at the entrance of the first layer catalyst;the maximum deviation angle of the flue gas

  8. 600 MW 超临界煤电机组与分布式光伏系统耦合发电研究%Study on coupling power technology for 600 MW supercritical coal-fired generating units and distributed photovoltaic energy systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢霆

    2015-01-01

    This paper carried a case study on application technology of combined power generation system between 600 MW supercritical coal-fired electricity generating units and the Tuoketuo power plant 10 MW distributed photovoltaic demonstration project.Protection system and moni-toring system of photovoltaic energy system were designed and photovoltaic power supply moni-toring system and coal-fired generating monitoring system were integrated,which can improve the reliability of photovoltaic energy system connection to power grid.The difficult problems of grid-connected techniques and long distance transmission of conventional photovoltaic power sta-tion can be solved through coupling distributed photovoltaic clean energy and traditional energy of coal generation techniques.Moreover,it can improve the efficiency of thermal power units and a-chieve a comprehensive energy-saving emission reduction benefits.%以托克托发电厂10 MW 分布式光伏供电示范项目为背景,展开600 MW 超临界煤电机组与分布式光伏系统耦合发电应用技术研究。设计光伏供电并网保护系统和监控系统,完成光伏供电监控系统与煤电机组监控系统的集成,确保光伏供电系统并网可靠性。开发分布式光伏清洁能源与传统煤炭能源联合发电系统,弥补了常规光伏电站建设并网及送出难的问题,提高了火电机组发电效率,综合节能减排效益突出。

  9. Optimised control of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, D.H.; MacConnell, P.F.A.; Neuffer, D.; Dando, R. [University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom). Centre for System and Control Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and specify a control methodology that will enable existing coal combustion plant to take maximum advantage of modern control techniques. The research is specifically aimed at chain-grate stoker plant (such as the test facility at the Coal Research Establishment, Cheltenham) on which little work has been done for thirty years yet which still represents a large proportion of industrial coal-fired plant in operation worldwide. In detail, the project: reviewed existing control strategies for moving grate stokers, highlighting their limitations and areas for improvements; carried out plant trials to identify the system characteristics such as response time and input/output behaviour; developed a theoretical process based on physical and chemical laws and backed up by trial data; specified control strategies for a single boiler; simulated and evaluated the control strategies using model simulations; developed of an optimised. Control strategy for a single boiler; and assessed the applicability and effects of this control strategy on multiple boiler installations. 67 refs., 34 figs.

  10. Visualization of 3-D temperature distribution in a 300 MW twin-furnace coal-fired boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; ZHOU Huai-chun; HUANG Zhi-feng

    2008-01-01

    Until now, it has been difficult to obtain on-line three-dimensional (3-D) temperature distribution information which can reflect the overall combustion condition in the furnace of a coal-fired power plant boiler. A combustion monitoring system is intro-duced which can solve the problem efficiently. Through this system, the 3-D temperature distribution in a coal-fired boiler furnace can be obtained using a novel flame image processing technique. Briefly, we first outline the visualization principle. Then, the hardware and software design of the system in a 300 MW twin-furnace coal-fired boiler are introduced in detail. The visualization of the 3-D temperature distribution in the twin-furnace boiler is realized with an industrial computer and the Distributed Control System (DCS) of the boiler. The practical operation of the system shows that it can provide valuable combustion information of a furnace and is useful for the combustion diagnosis and adjustment in coal-fired power plants.

  11. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  12. 粉煤灰中砷溶出特性及其与铁锰相关性分析%Arsenic leaching characteristics and correlations with iron,manganese in fly ash from coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金毅; 苑春刚; 江万平; 齐立强; 赵毅

    2013-01-01

    将不同燃煤电厂的粉煤灰分为0-2.5 μm、2.5-10 μm、10-60μm、60-100 μm、100-200 μm、> 200 μm不同粒径的样品,采用原子荧光光谱法测定了其中的总砷含量.粉煤灰对砷的富集效果与粒径呈明显的负相关.分别采用去离子水、醋酸、稀盐酸、盐酸羟胺、草酸铵-草酸和柠檬酸钠-连二亚硫酸钠为提取剂对不同粒径粉煤灰中的砷进行了提取.结果显示,去离子水可提取态砷占总砷含量的5.93%-18.70%,醋酸溶液提取砷占总砷的6.78%-16.91%,采用0.25 mol· L-1稀盐酸、0.6 mol·L-1稀盐酸、盐酸羟胺、草酸铵-草酸为提取剂可提取态砷占总砷的比例分别为18.1%-56.5%、28.2%-74.8%、43.4%-80.8%和39.1%-66.7%.盐酸羟胺对砷的提取效果最佳.采用稀盐酸、盐酸羟胺、草酸铵-草酸为提取剂时,可提取砷含量与铁、锰含量具有很好的线性相关性,同时,可提取砷占总砷含量的比例与铁、锰之间也存在显著线性相关性.%Fly ash samples from three different coal-fired power plants were divided into sub-samples according to particle size (0-2.5 μm, 2.5-10 μm, 10-60 μm, 60-100 μm, 100-200 μm, > 200 μm). Total concentrations of arsenic in the samples were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that the total arsenic in fly ash was negatively correlated with particle size. Arsenic in the fly ash samples with different particle size ( > 200 μm, 100-200 μm, < 60 μm) was extracted respectively by deionized water ( H2O ) , acetic acid ( CH3COOH ) , diluted hydrochloric acid ( HC1) , hydroxylammonium chloride (NH2OH·HC1), oxalate-ammonium oxalate solution ( C2 H2O4-( NH4 )2C2 O4 ) , and sodium citrate-sodium hydrosulfite solution ( Na3 C6 H5 O7-Na2S2O4 ). The results revealed that water soluble arsenic accounted for 5. 93%-18. 7% of total arsenic. Carbonate arsenic extracted by acetic acid accounted for 6. 78%-16. 91% of total arsenic. Arsenic

  13. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  14. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  15. 燃煤电厂污染减排成本有效性分析及超低排放政策讨论%Cost-effectiveness analysis of pollution emission reductionmeasures and ultra-low emission policies for coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东阳; 靳雅娜; 张世秋

    2016-01-01

    中国的空气污染与以煤为主的能源结构关系密切.燃煤电厂是中国煤炭消费量最大且大气污染物排放量最大的部门,因此,也必然成为污染物排放控制的主要对象.针对最近公布的电厂超低排放政策,本文采用成本有效性评估方法对燃煤电厂污染物减排进行了分析,研究结果表明:全面进行超低排放改造以实现污染物减排的成本高昂,其中,燃煤电厂超低排放改造的脱硫、脱硝、除尘的单位减排成本分别为:4.46万元/t,2.35万元/t,0.43万元/t.现有燃煤电厂实施超低排放的行业成本较高;鉴于其他燃煤部门技术水平相对落后、排放标准宽松,现阶段是否首先针对燃煤电厂全面实施超低排放改造需要更为全面的环境经济评估.基于本文的分析,以度电成本为衡量指标将会误导超低排放改造的减排路径选择.研究结论表明:燃煤电厂行业最低成本超低排放改造,应从规模较小、煤质水平较差的机组开始.%China’s air pollution is closely related to its coal-dominated energy structure. As the largest coal-consuming and pollution-releasing sector in China, coal-fired power plants have been playing an important role on air pollution control. A cost-effectiveness analysis of pollution emission reduction measures in coal-fired power plants was discussed in this article considering the recent ultra-low emission policies for the power industry. The results showed that the pollutant-mitigation costs are around 44600 Yuan per ton of SO2, 23500 Yuan per ton of NOx, 4,300Yuan per ton of PM, and it would be costly to implement the ultra-low emission transformation in the whole power industry. It still need more comprehensive environmental economic evaluation on the ultra-low emission implementation, taking into consideration that other coal-fired sectors’ inefficient technologies and loose emission standards. It was also found that to evaluate the

  16. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  17. THERMODYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM AIDED BY PAROBOLIC TROUGH COLLECTIVE FIELDS%槽式集热场辅助燃煤机组回热系统混合发电热性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宏娟; 高嵩; 杨勇平

    2011-01-01

    以热力学第一、第二定律为基础,对抛物面槽式集热器进行热效率和(火用)效率分析,并以LS-2典型槽式集热器热性能测试结果为依据,分析不同太阳辐照及工作温度条件下对应的(火用)效率;以此结果作为指导,对以等面积槽式太阳能集热场作为辅助热源替代燃煤发电机组不同回热抽汽集成方式的热力性能进行分析比较,得到此类集热场作为辅助热源与燃煤机组回热系统集成的最佳方案.%Thermal and exergy efficiencies of parabolic trough collectors ( PTC ) were analyzed by the basic laws of thermodynamics. Under different solar radiation and operating temperature conditions, a typical PTC; LS-2 was analyzed according to its thermal performance test results. Based on this, thermal performance of different integrated approaches was analyzed and compared. The integrated approaches were characterized by using the PTC field with same area as a supplementary heat source to different extraction of coal-fired generating units. The best option of typical integrated approaches was obtained.

  18. 燃煤电厂环保设施运行状况及性能诊断技术研究%Research on Diagnosis Technique of Operation Condition and Performance in the Coal-fired Power Plant Environmental Protection Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许月阳; 薛建明; 管一明; 王小明

    2011-01-01

    该研究总结了近年来燃煤电厂环保设施建设及运行情况,突出了管理减排的重要性,提出了“燃煤电厂环保设施运行状态及性能诊断”的全新理念.将模糊决策分析法应用于环保设施运行状态及性能诊断,构建物理模型,建立诊断目标树、形成了诊断准则.研究引入特尔斐法量化方法,确定评价指标权重,建立数学模型.通过模糊矩阵合成运算,综合决策确定环保设施的健康状态.开发了系统的环保设施系列诊断技术和软件包.该研究成果是环保设施管理技术的重大创新,将为进一步促进电力环保设施安全、稳定、可靠、经济运行,确保达标排放,推进火电行业管理减排和技术监督提供技术支持.%This study summarized the construction and operation of the coal-fired power plant environmental protection facilities in recent years, highlighted the importance of management reduction, and put forward a new concept about the diagnosis technique of operation condition and performance in the coal-fired power plant environmental protection facilities. Fuzzy decision analysis method was applied to construct a physical model, establish a diagnosis objective tree, and form a diagnosis criteria. The Delphi method was introduced to determine the weight of evaluating index and establish the mathematical model. The health of environmental protection facilities was confirmed by the synthesis decision and fuzzy matrix integration calculation. A series of diagnosis technologies and software packages were developed. The study is an important management technology innovation of environmental protection facilities, which will provide technical support for further promoting the thermal environment protection facilities with safe, stable, reliable, and economical operation, ensuring the discharging standard, and promoting the management reduction and technical supervision of the thermal power industry.

  19. Life Cycle Carbon Emission Assessment for a Coal-fired Power Plant Using MEA CO2 Capture and Storage Technology%燃煤电厂醇胺化学吸收法捕集和封存CO2全生命周期碳排放分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 赵永椿; 张军营; 郑楚光

    2011-01-01

    运用生命周期评价(LCA)方法对采用醇胺溶液(MEA)吸收CO2的2×300MW燃煤电厂CO2捕集和封存(CCS)技术改造过程进行了系统地分析,分别计算了系统建设、运行及退役,应用MEA吸收CO2、对CO2压缩并管道运输和地质储存等各阶段的CO2排放量.结果表明:全生命周期内采用MEA化学吸收法CCS技术改造后的燃煤电厂CO2的直接减排率可达86.24%左右,CCS系统全生命周期CO2排放量为960.93 t/d;电厂发电运行过程与CCS系统运行的CO2排放量在全生命周期排放中占较大比重,分别为46.96%和47.62%左右;采用MEA技术捕集CO2并进行封存的成本约为23.80~44.90美元/t.%The methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to analyze systematically the CO2 emission from a 2 × 300 MW coal-fired power plant retrofitted with monoethanolamine (MEA) carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, during which CO2 emission was calculated for all stages such as system construction, operation and decommissioning, CO2 capture with MEA, CO2 compression,transport and storage etc. Results show that in a life cycle, the direct reduction rate of CO2 emission in a coal-fired power plant with MEA CCS system reaches 86. 24%, and the CO2 emission of CCS system is about 960.93 t/d. The CO2 emission from both power generation and CCS system operation shares a major part, respectively accounting for 46.96 % and 47.62 % of the whole life-cycle emissions. The cost of CCS is about 23.80-44.90 USD/t with MEA technologies.

  20. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  1. Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired External Combustion Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is one of the large-scale energy storage technologies utilized to provide effective power peak load shaving. In this paper, a coal-fired external combustion CAES, which only uses coal as fuel, is proposed. Unlike the traditional CAES, the combustion chamber is substituted with an external combustion heater in which high-pressure air is heated before entering turbines to expand in the proposed system. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed CAES is conducted on the basis of the process simulation. The overall efficiency and the efficiency of electricity storage are 48.37% and 81.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the exergy analysis is then derived and forecasted, and the exergy efficiency of the proposed system is 47.22%. The results show that the proposed CAES has more performance advantages than Huntorf CAES (the first CAES plant in the world. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-fired CAES shows that the cost of electricity (COE is $106.33/MWh, which is relatively high in the rapidly developing power market. However, CAES will be more likely to be competitive if the power grid is improved and suitable geographical conditions for storage caverns are satisfied. This research provides a new approach for developing CAES in China.

  2. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: chroslee@eng.usm.my; Martunus [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Riau University Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Zakaria, R.; Fernando, W.J.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-15

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO{sub 2} emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.

  3. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M.R.; Zakaria, R.; Fernando, W.J.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Martunus [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Riau University Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia)

    2009-05-15

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO{sub 2} emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. (author)

  4. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  5. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  6. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  7. Application of the 2910 by-law to coal-fired heating plants; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of the new French regulation about medium power thermal equipments on small coal-fired combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) in particular concerning the limit values of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust emissions. (J.S.)

  8. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  9. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  10. 电力市场环境下燃煤电厂电煤库存优化的CVaR模型%A CVaR-based Coal Inventory Optimization Model for Coal-fired Power Plants in Electricity Market Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨甲甲; 何洋; 邹波; 尚金成; 李文启; 文福拴

    2014-01-01

    The coal inventory and supply are two major issues to concern for coal-fired power plants.It is necessary to have a certain amount of coal reserves so as to maintain the stable power generation of a coal-fired power plant.In the electricity market environment,fluctuations of electricity prices and power outputs of power plants concerned are inevitable as the results of market competition and load fluctuations.Similarly,the coal price in the coal market also exhibits fluctuating behaviours. To achieve the expected profits at the minimum conditional value at risk (CVaR),the power plant needs to make an appropriate planning for coal inventory.Given this background and based on the risk management theory developed in the financial industry,a nonlinear programming mean-CVaR model for optimizing the coal inventory is developed by taking the CVaR as a risk measuring index.In the developed optimization model,the objective is to minimize the CVaR under a given expected profit,and some uncertainties are taken into account including the coal price,electricity price,coal consumption,the execution rates of the contracted coal and the coal purchased from the coal market.Then,the developed optimization model is transformed into a linear programming problem so as to improve the solving efficiency.Finally,a sample example is employed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the model and algorithm developed.%电煤供给和库存是燃煤电厂十分关注的问题。为避免由于电煤供应中断而影响正常发电,燃煤电厂必须具备一定量的电煤储备。在电力市场环境下,电煤价格和发电上网电价都具有不确定性。为了在保证一定的收益率水平上最小化与收益相关的风险,燃煤电厂就需要合理确定电煤库存量。在此背景下,借鉴金融领域发展起来的风险管理理论,以条件风险价值(CVaR)作为风险计量指标,建立了燃煤电厂电煤库存优化的均值-CVaR 非线性规

  11. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  12. Measurement method and experimental research on flame emissivity in Coal-fired furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; LOU Chun; JIANG Zhi-wei; ZHOU Huai-chun

    2007-01-01

    The combustion condition in coal-fired furnaces of the large power station boiler is very complex and the flame emissivity is one of the important combustion parameters.A measurement method of the flame emissivity based on the blackbody furnace calibration of CCD(Charge Coupled Device)cameras and the color image processing techniques of computer was introduced.The experimentaI research on the flame emissivity in a 200 MW boiler furnace and a 300 MW boiler furnace was conducted respectively through the several CCD cameras installed at different height in furnace.The measurement results show:the flame emissivity increases with the increase of the unit load.the flame emissivity of the burner areas in furnace is the highest and the flame emissivity decrease with the increase of height of furnace above the burners area.

  13. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  14. FY 2000 Report on the results of international cooperative research scheme (power generation - No.3). Developmental research on high-performance plasma-assisted fine coal powder combustion mechanism for coal-fired power generation boilers to realize oilless ignition; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo seika hokokusho (hatsuden No.3). Oilless chakka wo jitsugensuru sekitan karyoku hatsuden bifuntan nenshoroyo koseino plasma jonen kiko no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the developmental research on the high-performance plasma-assisted fine coal powder combustion mechanism for coal-fired power generation boilers, a theme adopted by the international cooperative research scheme. The program for design/manufacture of the plasma torch manufactures laminar type torches for 100kW high power class and 10kW middle class. The high-performance plasma-assisted combustion mechanism is designed and manufactured using the torch. It has a structure which supplies secondary air and secondary coal flow to the primary coal flow. It is tested for starting up a commercial boiler firing finely pulverized coal, to confirm its functions. The tests for optimizing the oilless ignition and operation are conducted in Tashtagonal Iron Plant and Berdsk Chemical Plant. It is found that the cold start can be realized in the boiler, when the muffle burners are preheated for 30 to 40 minutes before the finely pulverized coal is supplied and the steady-state coal combustion is attained 3 to 5 minutes after the coal is supplied. The program for the combustion basics for the plasma-assisted mechanism collects the data related to its dependence on coal type. (NEDO)

  15. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Plasma coatings against corrosion and abrasion on pipes and panels at coal-fired power plants, biomass- and waste incinerating plants; Plasmaspritzschichten gegen Korrosion und Verschleiss auf Dampferzeugerrohren in Kohlekraftwerken, Biomasse- und Muellheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balting, U. [Ingenieurbuero co.balt, Emmerich (Germany); Haeuser, B. [Haeuser und Co. GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Weber, T. [Wall Colmonoy Ltd., Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In today's steam generators which are applied in conventionally fired coal power plants, as well as in waste incineration plants, wear and corrosion are of major concern. These problems are successfully combated by enhancing the steam parameters. Applied material solutions lead to higher plant efficiencies. Protective layers on heat exchanger surfaces which proved to be successful are deposited by APS (atmospheric plasma spraying). (orig.)

  17. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  18. Crónica de un conflicto anunciado: Tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón en un hotspot de biodiversidad de importancia mundial Chronicle of a foretold conflict: Three coal-fired power plants in a biodiversity hotspot of global significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. FRANCISCO CÁRCAMO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la demanda energética chilena en los últimos años ha promovido la creación de una gran cantidad de proyectos de generación eléctrica. La posible instalación de tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón al norte de la Región de Coquimbo y en las inmediaciones de áreas definidas como claves para la conservación y manejo de la biodiversidad marina (e.g., reservas marinas, áreas de manejo y explotación de recursos bentónicos y terrestre (e.g., reserva nacional, sitios prioritarios, ha generado conflictos sociales y controversias sobre su ubicación y compatibilidad con los usos propuestos para el área. El presente comentario plantea el conflicto que se origina entre la necesidad de cubrir los requerimientos energéticos de Chile y la implementación de iniciativas de conservación y manejo de recursos naturales. Se describe la importancia y relevancia ecológica y económica del área de posible instalación de las termoeléctricas y se revisan los principales impactos reportados para este tipo de tecnología sobre la salud humana y ecosistémica. Finalmente, se proponen enfoques y herramientas que pueden asistir en la toma de decisiones y en la resolución de conflictos.In recent years, Chilean increasing energy needs have promoted the creation of many initiatives to generate electricity. The possible installation of three coal-fired power plants in the coastal area north of the Region of Coquimbo and close to areas identified as key to the conservation and management of marine (e.g., marine reserves, management and exploitation areas for benthic resources and terrestrial (e.g., national reserve, priority sites biodiversity, has generated social conflicts and raised concerns about the location and compatibility with others proposed uses for the area. This commentary proposes the conflict that arises between the need to cope with Chile's energy needs and the implementation of conservation and management of natural

  19. Design and Exergy Analysis on Thermodynamic System of a 700℃ Ultra Supercritical Coal-fired Power Generating Set%700℃超超临界燃煤发电机组热力系统设计及炯分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小燕; 张燕平; 李钰; 黄树红; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    根据MC(MasterCycle)系统的框架结构,设计了基于MC的1000MW、700℃超超临界燃煤发电机组热力系统,确定了相关的热力参数,同时设计了基于常规热力系统结构的对比系统.将这2个热力系统划分为锅炉、汽轮机、发电机、凝汽器和管道共5个单元,采用炯分析法计算了各单元的炯损、焖损系数和焖效率指标.结果表明:采用MC系统机组的热经济性比常规热力系统机组的热经济性高,主要体现在MC系统机组中汽轮机系统的热经济性较高,尤其是MC系统机组中汽轮机系统的中压缸、第3~6级加热器具有更高的热经济性.%According to the frame structure of MC (Master Cycle) system, a thermodynamic system was designed for 1 000 MW, 700℃ ultra supercritical coal fired power generating set based on MC, during which the thermodynamic parameters were determined, while a comparative thermodynamic system de- signed based on conventional structures. Both the thermodynamic systems were divided into 5 units, inclu- ding the boiler, steam turbine, generator, condenser and pipeline, and three indexes of each unit including the exergy loss, exergy loss coefficient and exergy efficiency were calculated by exergy analysis method. Results show that the power generating set based on MC system has higher thermo-economy than that based on conventional system, mainly indicating in the higher thermo-economy of the steam turbine sys- tem, especially in the higher thermo-economy of the IP cylinder and of the heaters at stages 3 to 6.

  20. 燃煤电厂大气污染物“超低排放”基本问题思考%Considerations on Basic Issues of “Ultra-low Emissions”of Air Pollutants from Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志轩

    2015-01-01

    2014年,中国燃煤电厂开始推进大气污染物“超低排放”,但其定义、技术成熟性、成本与效益等一直存有较大争议。“超低排放”并非法定要求而只是严格实现达标排放的一种状态,单纯追求“超低排放”,其成本与环境经济效益不适应,且烟尘法定监测方法也不支持,168小时连续运行时间也不足以验证配套技术与设备的可靠性。应鼓励为实现稳定达标排放进行技术和管理创新,如要强制推行“超低排放”,应由政府有关部门开展规范性全面评估,确认环境、经济及技术可行性后再通过修改排放标准途径依法推进。%In 2014, air pollutants ultra-low emissions prevailed in coal-fired power plants of China. However, arguments over the definition, technological maturity, cost and effectiveness of ultra-low emissions have never stopped since the very beginning. The ultra-low emissions is not a statutory requirement, but a way to reach strict emission standard. Ultra-low emission is not cost-effective in terms of environmental and economic benefits. Meanwhile, current statutory flue dust monitoring measures cannot support the measurement of ultra-low emissions, and the 168 hours of continuous operation is not enough to test the reliability of the ultra-low emissions technologies and equipments. This article proposed that technological innovation and management innovation aiming at stably meeting the emission standards should be encouraged. Government authorities should carry out strict and all-round evaluation before compelling power plants to meet the ultra-low emissions standards, which should be legalized with modifications to the original standards based on feasibility studies of environment, economy and technology.

  1. 火电机组热力系统成本分布通用矩阵方程%General Matrix Equation of Exergy Cost Distribution in Thermal System of Coal-fired Power Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华; 刘伟庭

    2012-01-01

    Based on exergy cost theory,a general model for exergy cost analysis of local thermal system was established,while a general matrix equation determined for exergy cost distribution in thermal system of power units.On above basis,example calculation and analysis were performed for thermal system of a 600 MW power unit,during which the unit exergy cost of independent exergy flow was obtained.Results show that the equation with normative structure is suitable for study of different thermal systems and analysis of regularities commonly existing in thermal systems;for a specific thermal system,the unit exergy cost of independent exergy flow and the distribution regularity of unit exergy cost can be acquired simply by substituting necessary matrix elements into the equation,thus providing guidance for energy saving and consumption reduction of relevant power units;if the equation is furthermore analyzed by differential calculation,the sensitivity of alteration of some factors on unit exergy cost can also be obtained.%基于成本理论建立了热力系统局部成本分析通用模型及火电机组热力系统成本分布的通用矩阵方程,并对某600MW机组的热力系统进行实例计算与分析,得到了额定工况下独立流的单位成本.结果表明:该方程构造规范,适用于各种不同的热力系统,可以用于分析热力系统中存在的共性规律;对于具体的热力系统,通过将一些必要的矩阵元素代入方程中,可得到独立流的单位成本和单位成本的分布规律,为机组的节能降耗提供指导;如果对方程进行进一步的微分运算分析,还可求出一些因素变化对单位成本影响的敏感度.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 2. Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Combustion-Based NOx Controls for Wall and Tangential Furnace Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Tran, Loan K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  3. 高压变频器在火电厂凝结水泵上的应用%The application of high voltage inverter in the coal-fired power plant condensate pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花雨; 张德本

    2013-01-01

      介绍深圳妈湾电厂5、6号机组凝结水泵变频改造方案,阐述了高压变频器的安装调试情况及其控制策略,运行结果显示变频改造后电动机节能效果显著。%The article introduces frequency conversion recon-struction scheme of condensate pump for Shenzhen Mawan power plant unit 5, and 6.This paper expounds the installation and debug-ging situation of high voltage frequency converter and its control strategy. Operation results show that the frequency conversion re-construction after motor energy saving effect is remarkable, and im-prove the motor operating conditions.

  4. 基于碳捕集的燃煤机组热力系统优化及技术经济分析%Study on carbon capture system optimization of coal-fired power plant and analysis of its technical economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继选; 韩中合; 刘小贞; 白睿; 王营营; 王江江

    2014-01-01

    CCS technology is the key to develop low-carbon power. This paper took a 600 MW power unit as example to study energy flux and mass flux of the carbon capture system. The coupling way of carbon capture and coal-fired units was proposed. The thermal economy of the conventional power plant and power plant with carbon capture system was calculated. The optimized model of power plant with carbon capture system was established. PSO was used as the solving algorithm of the optimized model. The optimal solution was obtained. Based on the cost of investment of equipment,the models of power generation cost and CO2 emission reduction cost were established. The technical economy of the power plant with carbon capture system was analyzed. The effects of carbon tax and carbon price on the power generation cost and CO2 emission reduction cost was evaluated by using the sensitivity analysis method. The results showed that the thermal efficiency of the power plant with optimized carbon capture system increased by 1.1 percent compared to the conventional system. The economy of the power plant with carbon capture systemwas better than that of the conventional power plant when tax of 1 kg of CO2 was higher than 0.33 yuan.%碳捕集和封存是实现电力低碳化发展的关键所在,以600 MW机组为例,研究了碳捕集系统的能量流和质量流。提出了碳捕集系统与燃煤机组的耦合方式,计算了参考电站和碳捕集电站的热经济性。建立了碳捕集电站优化模型,以粒子群算法作为优化模型的求解算法,获得了系统的最优解。基于各设备投资成本,建立了碳捕集电站发电成本和 CO2减排成本模型,研究了碳捕集电站的技术经济性。利用系统灵敏度分析方法,研究了碳税收和碳售价对发电成本和 CO2减排成本的影响。结果表明:优化后碳捕集电站的热效率比优化前提高了1.1%;当CO2税收额高于0.33元/(kgCO2)时,碳捕集电站的经济性优于参考电站。

  5. 电袋复合除尘技术在燃煤电厂中的应用%APPLICATION OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR AND FABRIC FILTER PRECIPITATION TECHNOLOGY IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 王丽萍; 田立江; 张秀琨; 韩晶晶

    2011-01-01

    电袋复合式除尘技术综合了电除尘和布袋除尘的收尘优点,通过除尘负荷的合理分配,实现了电除尘和布袋除尘的有机结合;采用基于表面过滤原理的新型滤料,可克服常规滤料清灰后除尘效率降低及滤袋易破损等缺点。电袋复合式除尘器在徐州坝山环保热电有限公司的应用实践表明,电袋复合式除尘器可保持高效稳定除尘同时节能,粉尘排放浓度达到了30 mg/m^3以下,满足国家新的电力行业烟尘排放要求GB 13223—2003《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》。%Electrical and baghouse composite precipitation technology colligated the dust-collecting merits of ESP and bag filter,thus realizing the combination of ESP and bag filter through the reasonable distribution of dust load.Based on the principle of surface filter,a new filter media is selected,which can overcome the inherent shortcomings of low removal efficiency after cleaning the conventional media filter.The application of electric-bag filter in Bashan Environmental Protection Thermoelectricity Company Limited of Xuzhou is introuduced,the results show that electric-bag filter can keep efficient and stable dedusting and energy-saving with dust emission concentration lower than 30 mg/m^3,and meet the power industry dust emission requirements of the national new standard:"Fossil-fuel Power Plant Atmospheric Pollutant Emission Standard"(GB 13223—2003).

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  7. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  8. Pulverized-coal-firing small-size boiler for coal-cartridge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. supplied a test boiler plant to the Iwakuni Experimental Station of the Coal Cartridge System (CCS) Promotion Association in September 1985; this was the first pulverized-coal-fired small industrial boiler in Japan. Tests will be performed for two years, until fiscal 1987, at the CCS Iwakuni Experimental Station to establish a method of coal-firing with a performance comparable to heavy oil firing. The boiler plant has been operating satisfactorily.

  9. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  10. Integrated gasification combined cycle and the capture of CO{sub 2}: a solution for the mitigation of the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal fired power plants at large scale in the short term?; O ciclo combinado com gaseificacao integrada e a captura de CO{sub 2}: uma solucao para mitigar as emissoes de CO{sub 2} em termeletricas a carvao em larga escala no curto prazo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2010-03-15

    The power sector of many big economies still relies heavily on coal fired plants and emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology which holds advantages over current conventional coal technologies, including higher efficiency, pathway to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and higher product and fuel flexibility. The most critical obstacles for commercialization of IGCC technology are higher costs, lower reliability, and little operating experiences. The present work aims to analyze the maturity and the costs of the IGCC technology, with and without CCS, in order to evaluate its potential to be introduced in the generation fleet at big scale in the short term and, hence, its potential to guarantee the possibility to use coal in the power sector without compromising the effort to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The focus of the analysis of the technical viability concentrates strongly on the gasification process, since it the most critical process for the operation of the plant. The cost analysis contains three steps: a revision of cost estimates in scientific literature, a revision of reported cost for actually planned projects and a cost simulation that aims to analyze the influences of assumptions regarding the additional technology risk of IGCC plants. (author)

  11. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  13. Analytical model for erosion behaviour of impacted fly-ash particles on coal-fired boiler components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Godiwalla, K.M.; Mehrotra, S.P.; Sastry, K.K.M.; Dey, P.K.

    2006-10-15

    Fly ash particles entrained in the flue gas from boiler furnaces in coal-fired power stations can cause serious erosive wear on steel surfaces along the flow path. Such erosion can significantly reduce the operational life of the boiler components. A mathematical model, embodying the mechanisms of erosion on behaviour, has been developed to predict erosion rates of coal-fired boiler components at different temperatures. Various grades of steels used in fabrication of boiler components and published data pertaining to boiler fly ash have been used for the modelling. The model incorporates high temperature tensile properties of the target metal surface at room and elevated temperatures and has been implemented in an user-interactive in-house computer code (EROSIM-1), to predict the erosion rates of various grades of steel. Predictions have been found to be in good agreement with the published data. The model is calibrated with plant and experimental data generated from a high temperature air-jet erosion-testing facility. It is hoped that the calibrated model will be useful for erosion analysis of boiler components.

  14. Assessing the Exergy Costs of a 332-MW Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rangel-Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the exergy costs of a real large industrial boiler with the aim of improving efficiency. Specifically, the 350-MW front-fired, natural circulation, single reheat and balanced draft coal-fired boiler forms part of a 1050-MW conventional power plant located in Spain. We start with a diagram of the power plant, followed by a formulation of the exergy cost allocation problem to determine the exergy cost of the product of the boiler as a whole and the expenses of the individual components and energy streams. We also define a productive structure of the system. Furthermore, a proposal for including the exergy of radiation is provided in this study. Our results show that the unit exergy cost of the product of the boiler goes from 2.352 to 2.5, and that the maximum values are located in the ancillary electrical devices, such as induced-draft fans and coil heaters. Finally, radiation does not have an effect on the electricity cost, but affects at least 30% of the unit exergy cost of the boiler’s product.

  15. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  17. Analysis on exhaust secondary pollution of CO2 capture system using MEA in coal-fired power station%乙醇胺(MEA)法燃煤电厂CO2捕集系统尾气二次污染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 侯法柱; 尚航; 郭东方; 刘练波

    2015-01-01

    在某燃煤电厂用乙醇胺(MEA)作吸收剂进行了 CO2燃烧后捕集中试,并对系统的排放物进行了分析.吸收塔尾气和再生气用GASMET烟气监测系统进行在线监测,可得到二者组分及含量.结合电厂烟气、连续监测系统(CEMS)数据及实验室溶液分析,根据烟气数据对MEA的挥发及降解情况作了研究,比较了系统前后烟气组分的变化,讨论其尾气对环境是否造成二次污染.试验结果表明:MEA在吸收塔中主要发生氧化降解,在再生塔中主要发生热降解,且溶剂损耗主要来自氧化降解和挥发;降解的主要产物为 NH3和乙醛,二者在气体中含量变化情况与溶液中MEA浓度变化基本一致;预洗塔能除去原烟气中部分酸性气体.故CO2捕集系统可以进一步减少电厂净烟气中的原有污染物,但也会产生新的污染组分.新生成的污染物含量很少,符合国家标准,不会造成二次污染.%A pilot scale post-combustion CO2 capture test using mono ethanol amine(MEA)was conducted in a coal-fired power plant,and the exhaust gas was analyzed using GASMET analyzer. This research investigated MEA volatilization and degradation using GASMET data,CEMS (continuous emission monitoring system) data and laboratory analysis,compared the components of the flue gas before and after system,and discussed the effects of secondary pollution on environment. The results indicated that degradation of MEA mainly occurred in absorber and thermal degradation occurred in stripper,solvent loss was mainly caused by oxidative degradation and volatilization. The main degradation products were ammonia and acetaldehyde,the concentrations of which changed in accordance with MEA consumption rate in solution. And the pre-wash column could decrease acid gases. Therefore,the CO2 capture system could effectively reduce the original pollution from flue gas, even though new pollutions could be generated,considering the small amount (mush less than

  18. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  20. Maximizing economic and environmental performance of existing coal-fired assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Pat; Foucher, Jean-Claude; Hestermann, Rolf; Hilton, Bob; Keegan, Bill; Stephen, Don

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, Plant Owners and innovative suppliers such as ALSTOM have come to realize that existing coal-fired assets have in many cases hidden capacity. This largely results from the conservative nature of their original design, but also from the possibility of integrating the latest advances in technology without the need to buy complete power plant components. ALSTOM's Optimized Plant Retrofit (OPR) process is a proven method to identify the full potential of existing equipment, taking a systemic and holistic approach to achieve full optimisation. OPRs are supported by ALSTOM's comprehensive portfolio of available technologies and a proven capability to integrate retrofit opportunities encompassing innovative solutions for a variety of plant components such as coal mills, boiler, air pollution control equipment, turbogenerator, feedheating and condensing plant. By teaming utility representatives with ALSTOM's technical experts we can collectively identify solutions for enhancing both heat rate and net output, to maximise the value of existing assets. This often gives a return on investment significantly better than greenfield construction for supply margin improvement. This paper introduces the OPR concept in detail and presents case studies and insights into future developments, in particular retrofitting existing assets in an emissions constrained environment. (auth)

  1. Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and surface anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zeyang; Zhu Hongqing; Xu Jiyuan; Qin Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical studies on the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and their surface anomalies. Based on the single-particle reaction–diffusion model, a formula to estimate oxygen consumption rate at high temperature controlled by oxygen transport is proposed. Daily fluctuant atmospheric pressure was imposed on boundaries, including the abandoned gallery and cracks. Simulated results show that the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on coal fires and surface anomalies depend on two factors: the fluctuant amplitude and the pressure difference between inlet(s) and outlet(s) of the air ventilation system. If the pressure difference is close to the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations greatly enhance gas flow motion and tempera-tures of the combustion zone and outtake(s). If the pressure difference is much larger than the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations exert no impact on underground coal fires and surface anomalies.

  2. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  3. Numerical modeling for analyzing thermal surface anomalies induced by underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessling, Stefan; Kessels, Winfried; Wuttke, Manfred W. [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Kuenzer, Claudia [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, IPF, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstr. 27-29, A-1040 Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-07

    Coal seams burning underneath the surface are recognized all over the world and have drawn increasing public attention in the past years. Frequently, such fires are analyzed by detecting anomalies like increased exhaust gas concentrations and soil temperatures at the surface. A proper analysis presumes the understanding of involved processes, which determine the spatial distribution and dynamic behavior of the anomalies. In this paper, we explain the relevance of mechanical and energy transport processes with respect to the occurrence of temperature anomalies at the surface. Two approaches are presented, aiming to obtain insight into the underground coal fire situation: In-situ temperature mapping and numerical simulation. In 2000 to 2005, annual temperature mapping in the Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) coal fire area showed that most thermal anomalies on the surface are closely related to fractures, where hot exhaust gases from the coal fire are released. Those fractures develop due to rock mechanical failure after volume reduction in the seams. The measured signals at the surface are therefore strongly affected by mechanical processes. More insight into causes and effects of involved energy transport processes is obtained by numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of coal fires. Simulations show the inter-relation between release and transport of thermal energy in and around underground coal fires. Our simulation results show a time delay between the coal fire propagation and the observed appearance of the surface temperature signal. Additionally, the overall energy flux away from the burning coal seam into the surrounding bedrock is about 30-times higher than the flux through the surface. This is of particular importance for an estimation of the energy released based on surface temperature measurements. Finally, the simulation results also prove that a fire propagation rate estimated from the interpretation of surface anomalies can differ from the actual

  4. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  5. A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Marquis

    2007-05-31

    Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

  6. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

  7. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  9. 燃煤电厂周边地区积尘重金属污染特征与健康风险评价%Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in dust surrounding a coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耿; 刘军; 杨立辉; 柯钊跃

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the concentrations of heavy metals in house dust and soil samples as well as study the characteristics and distribution of heavy metal pollution in the surrounding ar-ea of coal-fired power plant in Guangdong Province.The risk assessment of heavy metals in dust was also carried out using US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model.The results revealed that the order of concen-trations of metals was Zn >Mn >Pb >Cu >Cr >As >Cd >Hg.The heavy metal pollution levels of dust were relatively high,which were higher than those in soil to varying degrees.The pollution of Zn,Pb, Cd and Cu in dust was likely to be anthropogenic,mainly due to industrial and traffic sources.However, the pollution of As,Hg and Mn in dust was not obviously anthropogenic.Spatial distribution of heavy metal in dust was clearly affected by soot emissions of power plant.Nemerow Indexes were significantly correlated with local wind direction and frequency,decreased with incremental distance from the power plant.It is evident that the concentrations of Pb,Zn and Hg also decreased with incremental distance from the power plant.Potential health risk for children was significantly higher than for adults.The non-cancer risk of metals was Pb >Mn >Cr >As >Zn >Cu >Hg >Cd,while the carcinogen risk of metals was As >Cr >Pb >Cd.In particular,the non-cancer risk of Pb for children was high,which required more attention.The non-cancer risks of other metals for children were low.Non-cancer risks for adults were ignorable.Carcinogen risks of metals were in an acceptable range,indicating no carcinogenic hazard to children and adults.%对广东某燃煤电厂周边地区的民宅积尘和土壤中重金属含量进行测定,分析重金属的污染特征和分布规律,并应用美国 EPA 健康风险评价模型对积尘重金属进行健康风险评价。结果表明,研究区域积尘重金属污染较重,含量表现为 Zn >Mn >Pb >Cu >Cr >As >Cd >Hg,均不同

  10. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  11. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  12. UK signed an agreement with China on near zero emissions coal-fired electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On Dec. 22, Environment Secretary Margaret Beckett welcomed a UK/China landmark agreement on the development of clean coal technology with carbon dioxide capture and storage, which aims to reduce significantly the climate change impact from coal-fired electricity generation.

  13. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss predicted by the BP neural network model showed good agreement with the measured. Then, BP model and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II were combined to gain the optimal operating parameters which lead to lower NOx emissions and overall heat loss boiler. The optimization results showed that hybrid algorithm by combining BP neural network with NSGA-II can be a good tool to solve the problem of multi-objective optimization of a coal-fired combustion, which can reduce NOx emissions and overall heat loss effectively for the coal-fired boiler.

  15. 燃煤炉鼓风机中变频器的节能分析%Energy conservation analysis of the inverter in coal-fired furnace blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武欣

    2011-01-01

    In order to lower the power consumption rate of coal-fired furnace blower, to reduce the starting current, to increase the power factor, and to improve the fireman's working intensity, frequency converter was proposed to be used in coal-fired furnace blower. Compared to the traditional coal-fired furnace blower system,this system used converter to control the flow (air volume), which could save a lot of power. Through a detailed analysis of the pressure H-flow Q curve, it is clear that after the frequency conversion, the required power of blower is reduced. Meanwhile, the soft-start function of the converter and the feature of smooth speed governing could realized the smooth adjustment of the system,which made the system worked stable and extended the service life of various components of the boiler. Finally, the practice data shows it is energy-efficient to use the frequency converter in coal-fired furnace blower.%为了降低燃煤炉鼓风机的用电率、减少起动电流、提高功率因数、改善司炉工工作强度,提出了将变频器用在燃煤炉鼓风机中.与传统的燃煤炉鼓风机系统相比较,该系统利用变频器进行流量(风量)控制时,可节约大量电能.通过详细分析压力H-流量Q曲线,得出变频调速后风机所需功率明显减少.同时,变频器的软启动功能和平滑调速的特点可实现对系统的平稳调节,使系统工作状态稳定,延长锅炉各部件的使用寿命.最后通过实际数据可知使用变频器后的燃煤炉鼓风机是节能的.

  16. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, H.-Y.; Jiang, X.-G.; Song, X.-F.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Gao, C.-X.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development.

  17. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  18. Clean air or keeping up appearances? European regulations for the emission of NOx and particulates by modern coal-fired power plants; Schone lucht of schone schijn? Europese regulering van de emissies van NOx en fijn stof naar lucht door moderne kolencentrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giljam, R.A. [Groningen Centre of Energy Law, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The Dutch production capacity for energy generation is currently expanded significantly. A large part of this new capacity consists of coal-fired plants. This increases the dependence on fossil fuels. This development is at odds with the endeavour to create a more sustainable society, and particularly a more sustainable energy consumption. In view of this field of tension and the consequences the construction of these plants may have for the energy transition, this article examines the requirements with regard to environmental quality that these plants must meet. The article sketches the background of the research and offers an overview of the most important European regulations in this area. It also briefly touches upon the establishment of the concrete standard in the permits and discusses existing bottlenecks in current regulations. Finally, an analysis is conducted to find out how these developments will impact the level of environmental protection that is offered [Dutch] Momenteel wordt in Nederland de productiecapaciteit voor de opwekking van energie fors uitgebreid. Een groot deel van deze nieuwe capaciteit bestaat uit kolencentrales. Hierdoor zal sprake zijn van een toename van de afhankelijkheid van fossiele brandstoffen. Deze ontwikkeling staat op gespannen voet met het streven naar een duurzamere samenleving en, in het bijzonder, een duurzamer energiegebruik. Vanwege dit spanningsveld, en de consequenties die de bouw kan hebben voor de energietransitie, wordt in dit artikel gekeken naar de eisen aan de milieukwaliteit van deze centrales. Het artikel schetst de achtergrond van het onderzoek en geeft een overzicht van de voornaamste Europese regelgeving op dit terrein. Ook wordt beknopt ingegaan op de totstandkoming van de concrete normstelling in de vergunningen en worden de bestaande knelpunten in de huidige regelgeving besproken. Tenslotte wordt geanalyseerd wat dit alles betekent voor het niveau van milieubescherming dat wordt geboden.

  19. Reducing the cost of Post Combustion Capture technology for Pulverized Coal Power Plants by flexible operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kler, R.C.F.; Verbaan, M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Currently the low carbon prices, low Spreads and regulatory uncertainties hampers the business cases for coal-fired power plants with post-combustion capture (PCC) in Europe. Improvement of the business case of coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture requires a different approach in ter

  20. Aluminum Production Cost Drops to 375 Yuan/Tonne After On-Grid Power Tariff Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Following the cut of coal-fired on-grid power tariff in April 2015,in 2016 the coal-fired ongrid power tariff experienced another cut.The average nationwide cut was about0.03yuan/k Wh,the reduced amount will be used to lower general industrial and commercial electricity sales price by the same

  1. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  2. Integrative flue-gas pollutants removal technology for coal-fired utility boilers%燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚明宇; 聂剑平; 张立欣; 李红智

    2016-01-01

    Against the increasingly serious pollutant emissions from coal-fired utility boilers,this paper puts forward the integrative removing technology for flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants. In this technology,the removal of each single pollutant depends on the synergistic effect of two or more equipments.Integrative design and layout are necessary for the existing environmental protection equip-ments.The practical engineering application shows that,the synergistic integration of flue gas pollutants removal technology is an effective way to achieve ultra-low flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants.%针对燃煤电站污染物排放日益严重的问题,提出了燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术,即对单一污染物,采取多设备协同治理,设备设置和系统参数一体化考虑,从整体的角度对各环保设备的工程设计及运行进行优化。实际工程应用表明,采用烟气污染物一体化协同脱除技术是实现燃煤电站烟气超低排放的有效途径。

  3. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal; Jitendra Vaish; Sahadev Kumar; Abhay Kumar Bharti

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from −1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050–1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  4. High temperature erosion wear of flame and plasma-sprayed nickel-chromium coatings under simulated coal-fired boiler atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, V.H.; Varela, J.B.; Menendez, A.C.; Martinez, S.P. [Universidad de Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Departamento Energia

    2001-02-01

    Erosive high temperature wear of heat exchanger tubes and other structural materials in coal-fired boilers are recognised as being the main cause of downtime at power generation plants. This study concerns the behaviour of plasma and flame sprayed modified nickel-chromium alloy (with small aluminium and titanium additions) subjected to the action of simulated post-combustion gases from a coal-fired boiler combustor. The study first evaluates the effects of thermal exposure at high temperature on the adherence between the substrate (austenitic stainless steel) and coatings. Then, the oxidation rates of these coatings in atmospheres with 3-3.5% of free oxygen at 500 and 800{degree}C (773 and 1073 K) were evaluated. The low velocity corrosion-erosion behaviour produced by the impact of fly ashes in the gas stream at high temperatures (773 and 1073 K) was also evaluated under impact angles of 30 and 90{degree}C. Finally, the eroded surfaces were analysed using scanning electron microscopy to characterise the ash embedment phenomena and the operating erosive micromechanisms. 24 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Long-term energy and climate implications of carbon capture and storage deployment strategies in the US coal-fired electricity fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric

    2012-09-04

    To understand the long-term energy and climate implications of different implementation strategies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the US coal-fired electricity fleet, we integrate three analytical elements: scenario projection of energy supply systems, temporally explicit life cycle modeling, and time-dependent calculation of radiative forcing. Assuming continued large-scale use of coal for electricity generation, we find that aggressive implementation of CCS could reduce cumulative greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O) from the US coal-fired power fleet through 2100 by 37-58%. Cumulative radiative forcing through 2100 would be reduced by only 24-46%, due to the front-loaded time profile of the emissions and the long atmospheric residence time of CO(2). The efficiency of energy conversion and carbon capture technologies strongly affects the amount of primary energy used but has little effect on greenhouse gas emissions or radiative forcing. Delaying implementation of CCS deployment significantly increases long-term radiative forcing. This study highlights the time-dynamic nature of potential climate benefits and energy costs of different CCS deployment pathways and identifies opportunities and constraints of successful CCS implementation.

  6. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Pan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for being the site of occurrence of the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in China and worldwide, and is chosen as our study area. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities and limitations of ALOS PALSAR data for monitoring the land subsidence that accompanies coal fires by means of satellite differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR observations. An approach to map the large and highly non-linear subsidence based on a small number of SAR images was applied to the Wuda coalfield to reveal the spatial and temporal signals of land subsidence in areas affected by coal fires. The DInSAR results agree well with coal fire data obtained from field investigations and thermal anomaly information, which demonstrates that the capability of ALOS PALSAR data and the proposed approach have remarkable potential to detect this land subsidence of interest. In addition, our results also provide a spatial extent and temporal evolution of the land subsidence behavior accompanying the coal fires, which indicated that several coal fire zones suffer accelerated ongoing land subsidence, whilst other coal fire zones are newly subsiding areas arising from coal fires in the period of development.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  8. Significance of RuO2 modified SCR catalyst for elemental mercury oxidation in coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Naiqiang; Chen, Wanmiao; Chen, Jie; Qu, Zan; Guo, Yongfu; Yang, Shijian; Jia, Jinping

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic conversion of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to its oxidized form has been considered as an effective way to enhance mercury removal from coal-fired power plants. In order to make good use of the existing selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) (SCR) catalysts as a cobenefit of Hg(0) conversion at lower level HCl in flue gas, various catalysts supported on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and commercial SCR catalysts were investigated at various cases. Among the tested catalysts, ruthenium oxides (RuO(2)) not only showed rather high catalytic activity on Hg(0) oxidation by itself, but also appeared to be well cooperative with the commercial SCR catalyst for Hg(0) conversion. In addition, the modified SCR catalyst with RuO(2) displayed an excellent tolerance to SO(2) and ammonia without any distinct negative effects on NO(x) reduction and SO(2) conversion. The demanded HCl concentration for Hg(0) oxidation can be reduced dramatically, and Hg(0) oxidation efficiency over RuO(2) doped SCR catalyst was over 90% even at about 5 ppm HCl in the simulated gases. Ru modified SCR catalyst shows a promising prospect for the cobenefit of mercury emission control.

  9. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  11. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  14. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  17. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  20. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Liu; Jie Wang; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution.The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment.Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration.The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors.The most important and controversial factor is frequency.Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coalfired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency.Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis,experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined.The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash.Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 μm the particles agglomerated to adhere together,and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 μm.The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%,and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased.Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition.According to the results of orthogonal analysis,frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  1. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  2. A proposed scheme for coal fired combined cycle and its concise performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, R.X.; Gou, C.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-06-15

    For IGCC, the primary investment is too high due to the demand of high gasification efficiency. For PFBCC, the thermal efficiency is too low due to the relatively low turbine inlet temperature and the hot working medium of the gas turbine is not easy to clean. A new scheme is proposed for coal fired combined cycle to overcome the main drawbacks of IGCC and PFBCC. The research targets are developing a new cycle construction of coal fired combined cycle to raise the efficiency and reduce the primary investment. Actually, the new scheme is a synthesis of some existing proposals. It adopts partial gasification to reduce the primary investment of the gasification equipment. The un-gasified surplus solid is then fed to a pressurized fluidized bed boiler, but adopting Curtiss Wright type external combustion to lower the ash content in the working medium. The gas fuel from the partial gasifier is combusted in a top combustor to further increase the working medium temperature. An extremely concise performance estimation method for the new scheme and its equations is proposed in order to easily understand the basic physical meaning of the new system. Some typical calculations based on this concise method are given. Then, a more detailed computation is accomplished with Aspen Plus code. The basic feasibility of this scheme is proven to be favorable.

  3. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  4. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  5. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  6. Numerical study on the impact of varying operation conditions on NOx emissions of large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue-yun [Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Trade Technology, Nanjing (China); Gao, Xiao-tao [Jiangsu Electric Power Test and Research CO., LTD, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Ming-yao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    For complying with the increasingly strengthened regulation on NOx emission from coal fired power plant, newly built large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boilers are all installed with low-NOx combustion systems to low NOx emissions. Understanding the characteristics of the system is essential for fully utilizing the system without affecting the combustion performance. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to simulate the combustion and NOx formation processes in the furnace of 1,000 MW ultra- supercritical boiler equipped with an advanced low-NOx combustion system so as to study the impacts of varying the operation conditions on its NOx emission as well as combustion characteristics. The combustion system is the Mitsubishi Advanced Combustion Technology system consisting of six levels corner-fired pollution minimum (PM) coal burners and additional air to achieve air staging combustion. With the help of CFD simulation, the distributions of the combustion temperature and CO, O{sub 2} and NO concentrations were calculated and analyzed. The main influential operation parameters studied include coal type, additional air flow rate, excess air level and mill groups in service. The CFD simulations indicated that the main reasons of the low NOx emission from this boiler are on two aspects: rationally organizing the combustion process to achieve relatively uniform temperature distribution and reducing combustion environment in the main combustion zone, and combining the utilizations of the large amount of additional air to achieve deep air stage and the low excess air level as well as PM burners. It was also found that varying the operational parameters had considerable effects on the performance of the combustion system.

  7. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Syed, Tajdarul H.; Athiphro, Ashiihrii

    2013-10-01

    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India's vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10-27.8 mm), low (0-10 mm) and upliftment (-10-0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

  8. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishant Gupta; Tajdarul H Syed; Ashiihrii Athiphro

    2013-10-01

    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India’s vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10–27.8 mm), low (0–10 mm) and upliftment (−10–0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

  9. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  13. Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiro, C.L.; Chen, C.C.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Schields, P.W. (GE Corporate Research and Development Lab., Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper, is to modify the mineral matter/ash chemistry to render it non-adherent through the use of additives. In this way, the complexity and expense of hot gas cleanup is obviated. To date, alumina, boehmite, and a variety of kaolin clay additives have been tested in a coal-water mixture fired gas turbine simulator. A washed kaolin clay has proved to be most effective in reducing airfoil deposition. A mechanism involving in-situ slag decomposition, exsolution, and spontaneous spalling is proposed.

  14. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  15. Numerical simulation of NOx formation in a cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-qin; REN Jian-xing; WEI Dun-song

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, FLUENT software was used to simulate the burning process in a utility boiler. Chose the kinetics/diffusion-limited as combustion model, two-compet-ingrates as devolatjlization model, RNG k-εmodel as viscous model, and PDF model as combustion turbulent flow model. Numerical calculation of NOx formation in a 330 MW cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler with 32 double air registers was done. The distribution characteristics of temperature, NOx and oxygen concentration in furnace were studied. They were symmetrically distributed in furnace. In the combustion area, temperature and NOx concentration are high, while oxygen concentration is low. Temperature and NOx concentration are declined gradually along with furnace height, while oxygen concentration is raised. The higher the temperature is and the greater the excess air coefficient is, the more NOx formation.

  16. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  17. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  18. Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

    1981-08-01

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  1. Evaluation on Energy-saving and Emission Reduction of Pneumatic Induced Draft Fan of 600 MW Coal-fired Units%600 MW燃煤机组汽动引风机节能减排评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂才; 徐齐胜; 吴婕; 马晓茜; 彭晓为; 余岳溪

    2014-01-01

    针对大型燃煤机组改造项目,将给水泵汽轮机驱动引风机的方式应用于600 MW燃煤机组,对其节能减排效果进行评估和分析。计算和分析结果表明:相比于电动机驱动方式,给水泵汽轮机驱动方式具有减少厂用电量、降低供电煤耗、提高发电厂收益、减少污染物排放等优点,其中在亚临界压力机组上应用的节能减排效果最佳。%In the large coal-fired units transformation,the driving mode of induced draft fan of feed pump steam turbine is applied to 600 MW coal-fired units.The effect of energy-saving and emission reduction is evaluated.The calculation and anal-ysis results show that the driving mode,compared to electric driving mode,can reduce auxiliary power consumption,coal consumption for power supply,improve benefit of power plant and reduce pollutant emissions.The application of this mode in subcritical units is more significant in energy-saving and emission reduction.

  2. How to address data gaps in life cycle inventories: a case study on estimating CO2 emissions from coal-fired electricity plants on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Venkatesh, Aranya; Hauck, Mara; Schipper, Aafke M; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Laurenzi, Ian J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-05-06

    One of the major challenges in life cycle assessment (LCA) is the availability and quality of data used to develop models and to make appropriate recommendations. Approximations and assumptions are often made if appropriate data are not readily available. However, these proxies may introduce uncertainty into the results. A regression model framework may be employed to assess missing data in LCAs of products and processes. In this study, we develop such a regression-based framework to estimate CO2 emission factors associated with coal power plants in the absence of reported data. Our framework hypothesizes that emissions from coal power plants can be explained by plant-specific factors (predictors) that include steam pressure, total capacity, plant age, fuel type, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the resident nations of those plants. Using reported emission data for 444 plants worldwide, plant level CO2 emission factors were fitted to the selected predictors by a multiple linear regression model and a local linear regression model. The validated models were then applied to 764 coal power plants worldwide, for which no reported data were available. Cumulatively, available reported data and our predictions together account for 74% of the total world's coal-fired power generation capacity.

  3. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Assessment of CO2 reduction potentials through clean coal technologies for future power plants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monna Rozana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CO2 reduction potentials employing clean coal technologies for power plants in Indonesia. Whenlow ranked coal from huge reserves cannot be excluded from coal-fired power plants to meet electricity demand, it is criticalfor Indonesia to adopt the best available clean coal technologies for its future coal-fired power plants in order to minimizeCO2 emissions in a long term. Several types of coal-fired technologies are considered to be the best match with Indonesia’ssituation by assessing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, levelized costs of electricity generation, and the cost ofCO2 avoidance. As a result, supercritical PC, IGCC, CFB, and PFBC technologies are presented as a consideration for policymaker in Indonesia.

  5. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  6. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  7. MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Brosnan, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF) are described. On Task 1, the first phase of the downstream quench system was completed. On Task 2, all three combustor sections were completed, hydrotested, ASME code stamped, and delivered to UTSI. The nozzle was also delivered. Fabrication of support stands and cooling water manifolds for the combustor and vitiation heater were completed, heat transfer and thermal stress analysis, along with design development, were conducted on the generator and radiant furnace and secondary combustor installation progressed as planned. Under Task 3 an Elemental Analyzer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer/Graphite Furnace were received and installed, sites were prepared for two air monitoring stations, phytoplankton analysis began, and foliage and soil sampling was conducted using all study plots. Some 288 soil samples were combined to make 72 samples which were analyzed. Also, approval was granted to dispose of MHD flyash and slag at the Franklin County landfill. Task 4 effort consisted of completing all component test plans, and establishing the capability of displaying experimental data in graphical format. Under Task 7, a preliminary testing program for critical monitoring of the local current and voltage non-uniformities in the generator electrodes was outlined, electrode metal wear characteristics were documented, boron nitride/refrasil composite interelectrode sealing was improved, and several refractories for downstream MHD applications were evaluated with promising results.

  8. Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future

    CERN Document Server

    McNerney, James; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-01-01

    We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant determinants of costs at present are the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 - 1970, increasing from 1970 - 1990, and leveling off or decreasing a little since then. This leads us to forecast that even without carbon capture and storage, and even under an optimistic scenario in which construction costs resume their previously decreasing trending behavior, the cost of coal-based electricity will drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which varies stochastically but shows no long term decreasing trends. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and compari...

  9. Deep Treatment Process Selection of the Wet Desulphurization Wastewater of the Boiler Flue Gas in Coal Fired Power Plant%燃煤电厂锅炉烟气湿法脱硫废水深度处理工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政修; 李磊; 王斌

    2016-01-01

    为满足 GB13223-2011《火电厂大气污染物排放》标准,燃煤电厂锅炉烟气均进行脱硫处理。锅炉烟气脱硫(FGD)的方法很多,其中石灰石湿法烟气脱硫技术因其成熟、可靠、脱硫率高,在烟气脱硫中占有主导地位。为防止脱硫设备腐蚀,保证石膏质量,脱硫吸收塔需要排除一定量脱硫废水。该废水一般呈酸性,并含有大量的悬浮物、钙镁离子、氯化物、重金属、COD和氟化物等,不易处理。随着越来越严格的环保要求,传统的脱硫废水“中和、沉降、絮凝”三联箱处理工艺已难以满足要求。不同的处理工艺,对设备投资费用及运行成本影响很大,因此,脱硫废水深度处理工艺研究引发广泛关注。%To meet GB13223-2011 standard for coal-ifred power plant air pollutants emission and coal-ifred power plant boiler flue gas desulfurization processing. Boiler flue gasdesulfurization (FGD) a lot of methods, including limestone wet flue gas desulfurization technology because of its mature and reliable, high desulfurization efficiency, dominant in the flue gas desulfurization. Desulfurization equipment to prevent corrosion, ensure the quality of gypsum, desulfurization absorption tower need to exclude certain desulfurization wastewater. The general acidic waste water, and contains a lot of suspended solids, calcium and magnesium ion, chlorine, heavy metals, such as COD and fluoride, not easy to handle. With the increasingly stringent environmental requirements, the traditional desulfurization wastewater "neutralization, sedimentation, flocculation," the joint box process has been difficult to meet the requirements. Different processing technology, a great influence on equipment investment cost and operation cost, therefore, desulfurization wastewater advanced treatment technology research caused wide public concern.

  10. The influence of coal mixtures on the performance of NO{sub x}-free pulverised coal firing on Unit 9 at Amer Power Station in The Netherlands; Einfluss von Kohlemischungen auf die Leistung der NO{sub x}-armen Kohlenstaubfeuerung des Blockes 9 im Kraftwerk Amer in den Niederlanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozendaal, C.M. [N.V. Kema, Arnheim (Netherlands); Korthout, A.J.C. [EPZ Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland N.V., Geertruidenberg (Netherlands); Meerkerk, A. [Schelde Industrial Engineers and Contractors, Breda (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    Unit 9 at Amer Power Station is designed with tangential firing for a wide range of fuel and is fitted with effective primary NO{sub x} reduction equipment. Three coals with different proportions of volatile matter have been burned in order to investigate the influence of coal mixtures of NO{sub x} emissions and on burn-up rate. Two different methods of mixing have been tested: Mixing of fuel prior to drying in the mills (normal method) and mixing during firing with injection at various burner levels. This paper reports on the results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Block 9 des Kraftwerkes Amer ist mit einer Tangentialfeuerung fuer ein breites Brennstoffband ausgelegt und mit wirksamen Primaer-NO{sub x}-Minderungseinrichtungen ausgeruestet. Drei Kohlen mit unterschiedlichem Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen wurden verfeuert, um den Einfluss von Kohlemischungen auf die NO{sub x}-Emissionen und den Ausbrand zu untersuchen. Zwei unterschiedliche Mischmethoden wurden getestet: Mischung der Brennstoffe vor der Mahltrocknung (uebliches Verfahren) und Mischung in der Feuerung mit Einblasung in verschiedenen Brennerebenen. Ueber die Ergebnisse wird berichtet. (orig.)

  11. 双碱法在本钢发电厂220t/h燃煤锅炉烟气脱硫技术中的应用%APPLICATION OF DOUBLE ALKALI PROCESS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FGD OF ELECTRIC POWER PLANT UNDER BENXI IRON & STEEL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红; 王析明; 李建萍; 吕永吉

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas desulfuration(FGD) plays a key role in energy conservation and emission reduction,and the electric power plant of Benxi Iron Steel Group has managed to deal with 4 220 t/h coal-frid boilers' fule gas desulfurization using WSCM type stone swirl desulphurization and dust removal equipment,and the desulfurization process continually is improved through equipped with NaOH and CaO system,and the appropriate concentration pool and pump,as well as other facilities are installed.Desulfurization process changed its name to "dual-alkali(CaO/NaOH)" process.Through the control of pollutants,online monitoring data and strengthening the management,the expected result of energy saving is achieved.%烟气脱硫对节能减排起着关键性的作用,本钢发电厂3年内先后对4台220 t/h燃煤锅炉进行烟气脱硫,采用WSCM型石质旋流式脱硫除尘设备,在运行中不断完善脱硫工艺,配备了NaOH、CaO系统,建成安装了浓缩池及相应的泵房等配套设施,脱硫工艺更名为"双碱法(CaO/NaOH)"。通过对污染物的控制、在线监控及监测数据,加强管理达到节能减排的预期效果。

  12. 75 FR 32504 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With American Municipal Power, Inc. Under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... regulations, which occurred at the R.H. Gorsuch Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant owned and... retire all four units at the Gorsuch Station, pay a $850,000 civil penalty, and spend $15 million...

  13. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    that would interfere with accurate measurement at U.S. hazardous air pollutant emission limits for existing coal-fired power plant units. Longer sampling times employed during this test program did appear to improve comparative results for these metals. Although the sorbent contribution to the sample was reduced through improved trap design, additional research is still needed to explore lower-background materials before the MEST-M application can be considered as a potential alternative method for all of the trace metals. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Electric Power Research Institute, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute, Southern Illinois Power Company, and the Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program.

  14. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R. [DTE Energy Services (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  15. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  16. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  17. Formation and emission of fine particles from two coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.T.; Livbjerg, H.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    , and Fe under reducing conditions. Several other ash-contained elements, e.g., P, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ph, V, and Zn, are partly vaporized in the boiler and enrich the small particles when they condense during cooling of the flue gas. Due to the higher penetration of the small particles through the filter...

  18. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2002-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of August 2001 through January of 2002. The major activity during this project period was the continuation of the ambient monitoring effort. Work also progressed on organizing the upcoming source characterization effort, and there was continued development of several three-dimensional air quality models. The first PAQS data analysis workshop for the project was held at Carnegie Mellon in December 2001. Two new instruments were added to site during this project period: a single particle mass spectrometer and an in situ VOC instrument. The single particle mass spectrometer has been deployed since the middle of September and has collected more than 150 days of data. The VOC instrument was only deployed during the intensive sampling period. Several instruments experienced operational issues during this project period. The overall data recovery rate for the project has been high.

  19. Solar Booster Augmentation for Existing Coal Fired Power Plant (A Feasibility Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Vir, Arun

    2012-01-01

    The fast depletion of fossil fuel has increased the havoc and need of finding an alternative for the existing fossil fuel based energy indus