WorldWideScience

Sample records for capture therapy program

  1. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  2. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  3. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  4. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  5. Promising cancer treatment modality: the University of California Davis/McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center neutron capture therapy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autry-Conwell, Susan A.; Boggan, James E.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Hou, Yongjin; Vincente, Maria-Graca; Liu, Hungyuan; Richards, Wade J.

    2000-12-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising new binary therapeutic modality for the treatment of localized tumors. It is accomplished by injection and localization within the tumor of a neutron capture agent (NCA) that alone, is non- toxic. Whenthe tumor is then exposed to neutrons, a relatively non-toxic form of radiation, crytotoxic products are produced that directly or indirectly cause tumor cell death, and yet preserves normal surrounding tissue not contain the NCA. The UC Davis NCT program is currently working to develop and test new compounds or NCA in vitro and in vivo. Many groups worldwide are also working to develop the next generation NCA, but less than five facilities internationally are currently capable to treating clinical brain tumor patients by NCT and only two US facilities, MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition to compound development, the UC Davis NCT program is preparing the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's 2 megawatt TRIGA reactor for NCT clinical trials which would make it the only such facility on the West Coast.

  6. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

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    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  7. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

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    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  8. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  9. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  11. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  12. Neutron capture therapy beam design at Harwell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G

    1990-01-01

    At Harwell, we have progressed from designing, building, and using small-diameter beams of epithermal neutrons for radiobiology studies to designing a radiotherapy facility for the 25-MW research reactor DIDO. The program is well into the survey phase, where the main emphasis is on tailoring the neutron spectrum. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium in an aluminium spectrum shaper in the D2O reflector has been shown to yield a significant reduction in the mean energy of neutrons incident on the patient by suppression of streaming through the cross-section window in aluminium at 25 keV.

  13. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration.

  15. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  16. The radiative muon capture program at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, T. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); RMC Collaboration

    1998-11-01

    We describe recent measurements of radiative muon capture on hydrogen, [sup 3]He and [sup 58,60,62]Ni using the RMC pair spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron laboratory. Our determinations of the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon's weak current are discussed. (author) 5 refs, 1 fig

  17. Isodose Curves and Treatment Planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.

    The development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been progressing in both ^{10 }B compound development and testing and neutron beam delivery. Animal tests are now in progress with several ^{10}B compounds and once the results of these animal tests are promising, patient trials can be initiated. The objective of this study is to create a treatment planning method based on the dose calculations by a Monte Carlo code of a mixed radiation field to provide linkage between phantom dosimetry and patient irradiation. The research started with an overall review of the development of BNCT. Three epithermal neutron facilities are described, including the operating Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) beam, the designed Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) beam, and a designed accelerator based neutron source. The flux and dose distributions in a head model have been calculated for irradiation by these neutron beams. Different beam parameters were inter -compared for effectiveness. Dosimetric measurements in an elliptical lucite phantom and a cylindrical water phantom were made and compared to the MCNP calculations for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Repeated measurements were made and show consistent. To improve the statistical results calculated by MCNP, a neutron source plane was designed to start neutrons at the BMRR irradiation port. The source plane was used with the phantoms for dosimetric calculations. After being verified by different phantom dosimetry and in-air flux measurements at the irradiation port, the source plane was used to calculate the flux and dose distributions in the head model. A treatment planning program was created for use on a PC which uses the MCNP calculated results as input. This program calculates the thermal neutron flux and dose distributions of each component of radiation in the central coronal section of the head model for irradiation by a neutron beam. Different combinations of head orientations and irradiation

  18. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  19. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  20. Experience of boron neutron capture therapy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Keiji

    1997-02-01

    In Japan the boron neutron capture therapy has been applied to more than 200 patients, mostly brain tumors and some melanomas. For brain tumors, Kyoto University, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Tsukuba University and National Kagawa Children's Hospital accept patients, and for melanomas, Kobe University and Mishima Institute of Dermatological Research accept patients so far. Recently the heavy water facility of Kyoto University Reactor has been upgraded for epithermal neutron as well as thermal neutron irradiations, and for the patient treatment during the continuous operation of the KUR.

  1. The Swedish facility for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K.; Capala, J. [Studsvik Medical AB (Sweden); Kierkegaard, J.; Haakansson, R. [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Gudowska, I. [Karolinska Institute (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    A BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility has been constructed at the R2-0 reactor at Studsvik, Sweden. R2-0 is a 1 MW, open core, pool reactor. The reactor core is suspended on a movable tower and can be positioned anywhere in the pool. The BNCT facility includes two adjacent, parallel filter/moderator configurations and the reactor core is positioned in front of any of them as appropriate. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range and with an extended collimator for convenient patient positioning. The other beam has been designed for radiobiological research and is equipped with a heavy water moderator and a large irradiation cavity with a uniform field of thermal neutrons. (author)

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  4. The accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatov, D.; Koshkarev, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Makarov, A.; Ostreinov, Yu; Shchudlo, I.; Sorokin, I.; Sycheva, T.; Taskaev, S.; Zaidi, L.

    2016-11-01

    The accelerator based epithermal neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is proposed, created and used in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. In 2014, with the support of the Russian Science Foundation created the BNCT laboratory for the purpose to the end of 2016 get the neutron flux, suitable for BNCT. For getting 3 mA 2.3 MeV proton beam, was created a new type accelerator - tandem accelerator with vacuum isolation. On this moment, we have a stationary proton beam with 2.3 MeV and current 1.75 mA. Generation of neutrons is carried out by dropping proton beam on to lithium target as a result of threshold reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be. Established facility is a unique scientific installation. It provides a generating of neutron flux, including a monochromatic energy neutrons, gamma radiation, alpha-particles and positrons, and may be used by other research groups for carrying out scientific researches. The article describes an accelerator neutron source, presents and discusses the result of experiments and declares future plans.

  5. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy in cancer: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Juvenal, Guilermo J. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Div. of Nuclear Biochemistry; University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). School of Medicine. Dept. of Human Biochemistry

    2007-07-15

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron non-radioactive compounds by a tumor, and the subsequent irradiation of the area with an appropriate neutron beam. {sup 10}B is then activated to {sup 11}B, which will immediately decay releasing alpha particles and {sup 7}Li, of high linear energy transfer (LET) and limited reach. Clinical trials are being performed in patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanoma. We have explored its possible application to UTC. Our results demonstrated that a cell line of human UTC has a selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) both in vitro and after transplantation to nude mice. Treatment of mice by BNCT led to a complete control of growth and cure of 100% of the animals. Moreover dogs with spontaneous UTC also have a selective uptake of BPA. At the present we are studying the biodistribution of BPA in patients with UTC before its application in humans. (author)

  7. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  8. The three dimensional map of dose components in a head phantom for boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bavarnegin Elham; Sadremomtaz Alireza; Khalafi Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The in-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution and construction of a convenient phantom is very important for boron neutron capture therapy planning validation. In this study we have simulated a head phantom, suggested for construction in boron neutron capture therapy facilities, and calculated all relevant dose components inside of it using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. A “generic” epithermal neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to beams used for neutron capture ...

  9. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  10. Effect of diameter of nanoparticles and capture cross-section library on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of diameter of 10B nanoparticles and various neutron capture cross-section libraries on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of a 252Cf source, a soft tissue phantom and a tumor containing 10B nanoparticles. Using 252Cf as a neutron source, macroscopic dose enhancement factor (MDEF) and total dose rate in tumor in the presence of 100, 200, and 500 ppm of 10B nanoparticles with 25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm diameters were calculated. Additionally, the effect of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, and CENDL neutron capture cross-section libraries on MDEF was evaluated. Results There is not a linear relationship between the average MDEF value and nanoparticles’ diameter but the average MDEF grows with increased concentration of 10B nanoparticles. There is an increasing trend for average MDEF with the tumor distance. The average MDEF values were obtained the same for various neutron capture cross-section libraries. The maximum and minimum doses that effect on the total dose in tumor were neutron and secondary photon doses, respectively. Furthermore, the boron capture related dose component reduced in some extent with increase of diameter of 10B nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that from physical point of view, various nanoparticle diameters have no dominant effect on average MDEF value in tumor. Furthermore, it is concluded that various neutron capture cross-section libraries are resulted to the same macroscopic dose enhancements. However, it is predicted that taking into account the biological effects for various nanoparticle diameters will result in different dose enhancements. PMID:25834582

  11. Tetrakis(p-Carboranylthio-Tetrafluorophenyl)Chlorin (TPFC): Application for Photodynamic Therapy and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMATSU, RYO; KAWABATA, SHINJI; TANAKA, HIROKI; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; SUZUKI, MINORU; ONO, KOJI; MIYATAKE, SHIN-ICHI; KUROIWA, TOSHIHIKO; HAO, ERHONG; VICENTE, M. GRAÇA H.

    2015-01-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC’s applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm2) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 1012 n/cm2) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37–43 days). PMID:25546823

  12. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC): application for photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days).

  13. On-line beam monitoring for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Otto K.; Moulin, Damien J.; Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Solares, Guido R.

    1995-08-01

    Neutron capture therapy sets new requirements on the measurement and monitoring of the radiation fields used in this new form of therapy. Beams used for neutron capture therapy are comprised of mixed radiation fields which include slow, epithermal, and fast neutrons, as well as gamma rays. A computer-based beam monitoring system for epithermal or thermal neutron capture therapy is described. This system provides accurate, sensitive, and rapid on-line readout and recording of the various beam components. Readout of fluxes, fluences, and corresponding doses in the target are provided in color coded graphic analog as well as numerical form on the computer monitors. Variations in neutron spectrum or spatial distribution of the beam can be rapidly diagnosed with the aid of the monitor readout. Redundancy of fluence measurement is provided by an independent system using scalers and timers and by utilizing reactor power measuring instruments.

  14. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  15. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  16. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  17. Neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma: dosimetry and microdosimetry approaches; Therapie par capture de neutrons des melanomes oculaires: approches dosimetrique et microdosimetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Methlin, G. [Centre Paul Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Abbe, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Stampfler, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Lefebvre, O. [Faculte de Medecine, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sahel, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1994-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) aims at destroying cancerous cells with the {alpha} and {sup 7}Li particles produced by the neutron capture reaction on {sup 10}B. This note reports on the study of the boron distribution in tissues on an animal model (nude mice) xenografted with a human ocular melanoma after an i.p.injection of 2g/kg of {sup 10}B-BPA and in cells cultured in the presence of 530 {mu}mol/l of {sup 10}B-BPA. A concentration of 64 ppm of {sup 10}B in the active part of the tumour with a ratio of concentrations versus the skin of 3.7 are observed. Investigations on cells reveal the presence of boron in the cytoplasm. The biological, dosimetric and microdosimetric consequences of these findings are discussed. (authors). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. The three dimensional map of dose components in a head phantom for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavarnegin Elham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution and construction of a convenient phantom is very important for boron neutron capture therapy planning validation. In this study we have simulated a head phantom, suggested for construction in boron neutron capture therapy facilities, and calculated all relevant dose components inside of it using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. A “generic” epithermal neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to beams used for neutron capture therapy clinical trials, was used. The calculated distributions of all relevant dose components in brain tissue equivalent were compared with those in water. The results show that water is a suitable dosimetry material and that the simulated head phantom is a suitable design for producing accurate three-dimensional maps of dose components at enough points inside of the phantom for boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry measurements and the use of these dose maps in beam development and benchmarking of computer-based treatment codes.

  19. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  20. Monte Carlo based dosimetry for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Lilia; Belgaid, Mohamed; Khelifi, Rachid

    2016-11-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted, radiation therapy for cancer which combines neutron irradiation with a tumor targeting agent labeled with a boron10 having a high thermal neutron capture cross section. The tumor area is subjected to the neutron irradiation. After a thermal neutron capture, the excited 11B nucleus fissions into an alpha particle and lithium recoil nucleus. The high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) emitted particles deposit their energy in a range of about 10μm, which is of the same order of cell diameter [1], at the same time other reactions due to neutron activation with body component are produced. In-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution is very important for BNCT planning validation. Determination of total absorbed dose requires complex calculations which were carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNP code [2].

  1. Implications for clinical treatment from the micrometer site dosimetric calculations in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Trent L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States)], E-mail: tnichol2@utk.edu; Kabalka, George W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); Miller, Laurence F. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); McCormack, Michael T. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Johnson, Andrew [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy has now been used for several malignancies. Most clinical trials have addressed its use for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A few trials have focused on the treatment of malignant melanoma with brain metastases. Trial results for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme have been encouraging, but have not achieved the success anticipated. Results of trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma have been very promising, though with too few patients for conclusions to be drawn. Subsequent to these trials, regimens for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, hepatic metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon, and head and neck malignancies have been developed. These tumors have also responded well to boron neutron capture therapy. Glioblastoma is an infiltrative tumor with distant individual tumor cells that might create a mechanism for therapeutic failure though recurrences are often local. The microdosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy can provide an explanation for this observation. Codes written to examine the micrometer scale energy deposition in boron neutron capture therapy have been used to explore the effects of near neighbor cells. Near neighbor cells can contribute a significantly increased dose depending on the geometric relationships. Different geometries demonstrate that tumors which grow by direct extension have a greater near neighbor effect, whereas infiltrative tumors lose this near neighbor dose which can be a significant decrease in dose to the cells that do not achieve optimal boron loading. This understanding helps to explain prior trial results and implies that tumors with small, closely packed cells that grow by direct extension will be the most amenable to boron neutron capture therapy.

  2. A state-of-the-art epithermal neutron irradiation facility for neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-08-01

    At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) the first fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) has proven suitable for use in clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The modern facility provides a high intensity beam together with low levels of contamination that is ideally suited for use with future, more selective boron delivery agents. Prescriptions for normal tissue tolerance doses consist of 2 or 3 fields lasting less than 10 min each with the currently available beam intensity, that are administered with an automated beam monitoring and control system to help ensure safety of the patient and staff alike. A quality assurance program ensures proper functioning of all instrumentation and safety interlocks as well as constancy of beam output relative to routine calibrations. Beam line shutters and the medical room walls provide sufficient shielding to enable access and use of the facility without affecting other experiments or normal operation of the multipurpose research reactor at MIT. Medical expertise and a large population in the greater Boston area are situated conveniently close to the university, which operates the research reactor 24 h a day for approximately 300 days per year. The operational characteristics of the facility closely match those established for conventional radiotherapy, which together with a near optimum beam performance ensure that the FCB is capable of determining whether the radiobiological promise of NCT can be realized in routine practice.

  3. Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M. W.; Winkler, Alexander M. F.; Takken, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the demographics, medical diagnoses, and initial aerobic fitness levels of children participating in Fitkids: an exercise therapy program for children with chronic conditions or disabilities in the Netherlands. Methods: We reviewed data of children who were in the program on Sep

  4. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  5. Design for an accelerator-based orthogonal epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In particular, the option of producing a therapy beam at an orthogonal direction to the incoming protons is considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, both with and without a head phantom, have shown that an orthogonal beam geometry is not only acceptable but is indeed beneficial, in terms of a lower mean neutron energy and an enhanced therapeutic ratio for the same useful neutron fluence in the therapy beam. Typical treatment times for various beam options have been calculated, and range from 20 to 48 min with a 5 mA beam of 2.8 MeV protons, if the maximum photon-equivalent dose delivered to healthy tissue is to be 12.6 Gy Eq. The effects of proton beam diameter upon the therapy beam parameters have also been considered.

  6. Background of photon-capture therapy principle of malignant cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheino I.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study of the physical effect of the local dose increasing in biological tissue at the gadolinium-containing drug under the influence of X-ray radiation. Material and Methods. Experimental and three independent numerical methods are obtained distribution of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantom containing a model of the tumor with a given concentration of gadolinium. Results. The presence of a gadolinium-containing drug in the biological tissue (1% Gd by weight leads to a local increase of an absorbed dose up to 2 times under the influence of X-ray radiation. The difference in the results obtained calculated and experimental methods does not exceed 12%. Conclusion. The results of the study confirmed the basic theoretical background photon capture therapy, as well as the legal use of methods of mathematic modeling of the process of forming radiation in biological tissue, necessary for dosimetric photon capture therapy planning.

  7. In-phantom dose mapping in neutron capture therapy by means of solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Colombi, C.; Fiocca, M.; Gambarini, G.; Lietti, B.; Rosi, G.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been developed, based on thermoluminescent dosimeters and alanine, aimed at measuring the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam suitable for neutron capture therapy (NCT), separating the contributions due to the various secondary radiations generated by neutrons. Exposures have been made at the TAPIRO nuclear reactor (ENEA, Italy), in the epithermal column properly designed and set up for experiments on boron NCT.

  8. NCTPlan application for neutron capture therapy dosimetric planning at MEPhI nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyutina, A S; Kiger, W S; Portnov, A A

    2011-12-01

    The results of modeling of two therapeutic beams HEC-1 and HEC-4 at the NRNU "MEPhI" research nuclear reactor exploitable for preclinical treatments are reported. The exact models of the beams are constructed as an input to the NCTPlan code used for planning Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) procedure. The computations are purposed to improve the accuracy of prediction of a dose absorbed in tissue with the account of all components of radiation.

  9. Investigation of Isfahan miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) for boron neutron capture therapy by MCNP simulation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Z. Kalantari; H Tavakoli; Nami, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the important neutron sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a nuclear reactor. It needs a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The optimum conditions of the neutron spectra for BNCT are provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this paper, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) as a neutron source for BNCT was investigated. For this purpose, we designed a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for the reactor and the neutron transport from the core of the reactor t...

  10. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pazirandeh; Elham Shekarian

    2006-01-01

     In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b), the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM) requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage...

  11. First application of dynamic infrared imaging in boron neutron capture therapy for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Cruz, G. A.; Gonzalez, S. J.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J. [Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) as a functional, noninvasive technique for evaluating the skin acute toxicity and tumor control within the framework of the Argentine boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) program for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Methods: Two patients enrolled in the Argentine phase I/II BNCT clinical trial for cutaneous malignant melanoma were studied with DIRI. An uncooled infrared camera, providing a video output signal, was employed to register the temperature evolution of the normal skin and tumor regions in patients subjected to a mild local cooling (cold stimulus). In order to study the spatial correlation between dose and acute skin reactions, three-dimensional representations of the superficial dose delivered to skin were constructed and cameralike projections of the dose distribution were coregistered with visible and infrared images. Results: The main erythematous reaction was observed clinically between the second and fifth week post-BNCT. Concurrently, with its clinical onset, a reactive increase above the basal skin temperature was observed with DIRI in the third week post-BNCT within regions that received therapeutic doses. Melanoma nodules appeared as highly localized hyperthermic regions. 2 min after stimulus, these regions reached a temperature plateau and increased in size. Temperature differences with respect to normal skin up to 10 deg. C were observed in the larger nodules. Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that DIRI, enhanced by the application of cold stimuli, may provide useful functional information associated with the metabolism and vasculature of tumors and inflammatory processes related to radiation-induced changes in the skin as well. These capabilities are aimed at complementing the clinical observations and standard imaging techniques, such as CT and Doppler ultrasound.

  12. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  13. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  14. PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemby Yulio Vallenry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5. MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (Фepi > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (Ḋf/Фepi 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu Фepi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, Ḋf/Фepi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, Ḋγ/Фepi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, Фth/Фepi = 1,51 dan J/Фepi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA. Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator   One of the cancer therapy methods is

  15. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

  16. {sup 33}S for Neutron Capture Therapy: Nuclear Data for Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, I., E-mail: porras@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Esquinas, P.L. [Departament of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    A study of the nuclear data required for the Monte Carlo simulation of boron neutron capture therapy including the {sup 33}S isotope as an enhancer of the dose at small depths has been performed. In particular, the controversy on the available data for the {sup 33}S(n, α) cross section will be shown, which motivates new measurements. In addition to this, kerma factors for the main components of tissue are calculated with the use of fitting functions. Finally, we have applied these data to a potential neutron capture treatment with boron and sulfur addition to tissue in which part of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium, which improves the procedure.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.

  18. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake of B-10 compound. In this work, experimental methods are proposed and evaluated for the determination in vivo of B-10 compound in biological samples, in particular based on neutron radiography and gammaray spectroscopy by telescopic system. Measures and Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the possibility of executing imaging of the 10B distribution, both by radiography with thermal neutrons, using 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillator screen and a CCD camera, and by spectroscopy, based on the revelation of gamm...

  19. Boron containing magnetic nanoparticles for neutron capture therapy--an innovative approach for specifically targeting tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Rainer; Unterweger, Harald; Dürr, Stephan; Lyer, Stefan; Canella, Lea; Kudejova, Petra; Wagner, Franz M; Petry, Winfried; Taccardi, Nicola; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The selective delivery of (10)B into the tumor tissue remains to be further improved for successful and reliable Boron Neutron Capture Therapy applications. Magnetic Drug Targeting using intraarterially administered superparamagnetic nanoparticles and external magnetic fields already exhibited convincing results in terms of highly efficient and selective drug deposition. Using the same technique for the targeted (10)B delivery is a promising new approach. Here, systematic irradiation experiments of phantom cubes containing different concentrations of boron and nanoparticles as well as varying three-dimensional arrangements have been performed.

  20. Dose estimation for internal organs during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Masunaga, S; Kinashi, Y; Kondo, N; Ono, K; Maruhashi, A

    2014-06-01

    Radiation doses during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors were estimated for various internal organs, using data from patients treated at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Dose-volume histograms were constructed for tissues of the lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and bowel. For pleural mesothelioma, the target total dose to the normal lung tissues on the diseased side is 5Gy-Eq in average for the whole lung. It was confirmed that the dose to the liver should be carefully considered in cases of right lung disease.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland: technological and physical prospects after 20 years of experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika; Timonen, Marjut; Reijonen, Vappu; Kuusela, Linda; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Salli, Eero; Koivunoro, Hanna; Seppälä, Tiina; Lönnroth, Nadja; Välimäki, Petteri; Hyvönen, Heini; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Kuronen, Antti; Heikkinen, Sami; Kosunen, Antti; Auterinen, Iiro

    2013-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy method developed to treat patients with certain malignant tumours. To date, over 300 treatments have been carried out at the Finnish BNCT facility in various on-going and past clinical trials. In this technical review, we discuss our research work in the field of medical physics to form the groundwork for the Finnish BNCT patient treatments, as well as the possibilities to further develop and optimize the method in the future. Accordingly, the following aspects are described: neutron sources, beam dosimetry, treatment planning, boron imaging and determination, and finally the possibilities to detect the efficacy and effects of BNCT on patients.

  2. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  3. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT.

  4. Toward a final design for the Birmingham boron neutron capture therapy neutron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S; James, N D

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Details of the final moderator design, such as beam delimiter, shield, and beam exit surface shape are considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations with a head and body phantom have shown that a simple flat moderator beam exit surface is preferable to the previously envisioned spherical design. Dose rates to individual body organs during treatment have been calculated using a standard MIRD phantom. We have shown that a simple polyethylene shield, doped with natural lithium, is sufficient to provide adequate protection to the rest of the body during head irradiations. The effect upon the head phantom dose distributions of the use of such a shield to delimit the therapy beam has been evaluated.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: first clinical case report in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zhong; Song, Zewen; Zhou, Yongmao; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zizhu; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Yang; Jin, Congjun; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Jianyun; Han, Rui; Li, Pengzhou; Sun, Xulong; Wang, Guohui; Shi, Guangqing; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial for treating malignant melanoma by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was designed to evaluate whether the world’s first in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) was qualified for BNCT. In this clinical trial planning to enroll 30 patients, the first case was treated on August 19, 2014. We present the protocol of this clinical trial, the treating procedure, and the clinical outcome of this first case. Only grade 2 acute radiation injury was observed during the first four weeks after BNCT and the injury healed after treatment. No late radiation injury was found during the 24-month follow-up. Based on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, pathological analysis and gross examination, the patient showed a complete response to BNCT, indicating that BNCT is a potent therapy against malignant melanoma and IHNI has the potential to enable the delivery of BNCT in hospitals. PMID:28174492

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy offers the potentiality for treating brain tumors currently resistant to treatment. The success of this form of therapy is directly dependent upon the delivery of sufficient numbers of thermal-neutrons to tumor cells which possess high concentrations of B-10. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methodology to synthesize boron-containing compounds with the potential for becoming incorporated into rapidly-dividing malignant brain tumor cells and excluded from normal components of the brain and surrounding tissues, to develope biological methods for assessing the potential of the compound by use of cell culture or intratumoral injection, to develop analytical methodology for measuring boron in cells and tissue using direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) and alpha track autoradiography, to develop biochemical and HPLC procedures for evaluating compound uptake and tissue half-life, and to develop procedures required to assess both in vitro and vivo efficacy of BNCT with selected compounds.

  7. Study of characteristics for heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Danial; Sardari, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head, patient's body, and treatment room ambient. Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons, the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy. By varying the target thickness, an optimum thickness exists for which, at the given electron energy, maximum photon flux is achievable. If a source of high-energy photons i.e. bremsstrahlung, is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target, a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible. This study consists of two parts. 1. Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data. 2. Ev...

  8. Monte Carlo based treatment planning systems for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Petten, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievaart, V. A.; Daquino, G. G.; Moss, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiotherapy for the treatment of tumour lesions. Since the cancer cells in the treatment volume are targeted with 10B, a higher dose is given to these cancer cells due to the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction, in comparison with the surrounding healthy cells. In Petten (The Netherlands), at the High Flux Reactor, a specially tailored neutron beam has been designed and installed. Over 30 patients have been treated with BNCT in 2 clinical protocols: a phase I study for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a phase II study on the treatment of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, activities concerning the extra-corporal treatment of metastasis in the liver (from colorectal cancer) are in progress. The irradiation beam at the HFR contains both neutrons and gammas that, together with the complex geometries of both patient and beam set-up, demands for very detailed treatment planning calculations. A well designed Treatment Planning System (TPS) should obey the following general scheme: (1) a pre-processing phase (CT and/or MRI scans to create the geometric solid model, cross-section files for neutrons and/or gammas); (2) calculations (3D radiation transport, estimation of neutron and gamma fluences, macroscopic and microscopic dose); (3) post-processing phase (displaying of the results, iso-doses and -fluences). Treatment planning in BNCT is performed making use of Monte Carlo codes incorporated in a framework, which includes also the pre- and post-processing phases. In particular, the glioblastoma multiforme protocol used BNCT_rtpe, while the melanoma metastases protocol uses NCTPlan. In addition, an ad hoc Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based treatment planning system (BDTPS) has been implemented in order to integrate the real macroscopic boron distribution obtained from PET scanning. BDTPS is patented and uses MCNP as the calculation engine. The precision obtained by the Monte Carlo based TPSs exploited at Petten

  9. The dependency of compound biological effectiveness factors on the type and the concentration of administered neutron capture agents in boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Tano, Keizo; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Maruhashi, Akira; ONO, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of the type and the concentration of neutron capture agents on the values of compound biological effectiveness (CBE) in boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and materials After the subcutaneous administration of a 10 B-carrier, boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA) or sodium mercaptododecaborate- 10 B (BSH), at 3 separate concentrations, the 10 B concentrations in tumors were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. SCC VII tumor-bearing C3H/He mice received 5-bromo-2′-deoxyu...

  10. Monte Carlo assessment of boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundy Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer every year the avail able treatment options are effective, though physically and mentally taxing. This work is a starting point of a study of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy as an alternative treatment for HER-2+ breast tumors. Using HER-2-specific monoclonal anti bodies coupled with a boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diester, it may be possible to deliver sufficient amounts of 10B to a tumor of the breast to al low for selective cell destruction via irradiation by thermal neutrons. A comprehensive computational model (MCNP for thermal neutron irradiation of the breast is described, as well as the results of calculations made using this model, in order to determine the optimum boron concentration within the tumor for an effective boron neutron capture therapy treatment, as compared with traditional X-ray radiotherapy. The results indicate that a boron concentration of 50-60 mg per gram of tumor tissue is optimal when considering treatment times, dose distributions and skin sparing. How ever these results are based upon best-guess assumptions that must be experimentally verified.

  11. Program SPACECAP: software for estimating animal density using spatially explicit capture-recapture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, James E.; Singh, Pallavi; Jathanna, Devcharan; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2012-01-01

    1. The advent of spatially explicit capture-recapture models is changing the way ecologists analyse capture-recapture data. However, the advantages offered by these new models are not fully exploited because they can be difficult to implement. 2. To address this need, we developed a user-friendly software package, created within the R programming environment, called SPACECAP. This package implements Bayesian spatially explicit hierarchical models to analyse spatial capture-recapture data. 3. Given that a large number of field biologists prefer software with graphical user interfaces for analysing their data, SPACECAP is particularly useful as a tool to increase the adoption of Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture methods in practice.

  12. Development of JCDS, a computational dosimetry system at JAEA for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are being carried out using several research reactors throughout the world. In Japan, many medical groups perform clinical trials of BNCT using Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). JAEA has developed a treatment planning system, JCDS, in order to evaluate radiation dose given to a patient in the BNCT. JCDS employs a voxel calculation method to compute the radiation dose given to a patient. An initial version of JCDS created a voxel model, dividing a space into 1 × 1 × 1 cm3voxel cells. JCDS was improved to create a detailed voxel model consisting of minute voxel cells such as 2 × 2 × 2 mm3voxel cells. Verification of accuracy of calculations with the detailed voxel mode demonstrated that the detailed voxel model enables JCDS to evaluate more accurately the radiation doses to a patient undergoing BNCT. Furthermore, the calculation code of JCDS is being incorporated into the PHITS system as a Monte-Carlo transport code. By employing the PHITS system in the dose evaluation, total doses given to a patient by combined modality therapy such as BNCT and X-ray therapy can be estimated accurately. Here, an outline and the performances of the latest version of JCDS are presented, and a future system integrated with JCDS is introduced.

  13. Fission reactor neutron sources for neutron capture therapy--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Otto K; Riley, Kent J

    2003-01-01

    The status of fission reactor-based neutron beams for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is reviewed critically. Epithermal neutron beams, which are favored for treatment of deep-seated tumors, have been constructed or are under construction at a number of reactors worldwide. Some of the most recently constructed epithermal neutron beams approach the theoretical optimum for beam purity. Of these higher quality beams, at least one is suitable for use in high through-put routine therapy. It is concluded that reactor-based epithermal neutron beams with near optimum characteristics are currently available and more can be constructed at existing reactors. Suitable reactors include relatively low power reactors using the core directly as a source of neutrons or a fission converter if core neutrons are difficult to access. Thermal neutron beams for NCT studies with small animals or for shallow tumor treatments, with near optimum properties have been available at reactors for many years. Additional high quality thermal beams can also be constructed at existing reactors or at new, small reactors. Furthermore, it should be possible to design and construct new low power reactors specifically for NCT, which meet all requirements for routine therapy and which are based on proven and highly safe reactor technology.

  14. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P.-A.; Lorusso, G. F.; Andres, R.; Van Meir, E. G.; Brunet, J.-F.; Hamou, M.-F.; Suda, T.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Droubay, T. C.; Tonner, B. P.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, M.; DeStasio, Gelsomina

    1998-10-01

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of ? in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case ?, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope à emission de photoélectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy.

  15. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P-A. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)] [and others

    1998-10-07

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of {sup 10}B in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope a emission de photoelectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy. (author)

  16. Automatic Glass-Slide Capturing System for Cervical Cancer Pre-Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor R.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical glass-slide capturing system is becoming an important part of telemedicine, medical database and diagnostic system that involves of microscope and image acquisition device which is digital camera. One of the areas of interest is slide capturing system for cervical cancer pre-screening program. An automated microscope with FireWire digital camera will be used to acquire the image and store in digital lossless format. The capturing procedure involves of 100X and 400 X magnifications that are necessary for further diagnosis actions. The system that comes with software and hardware parts also provides image retrieval or displaying facilities for ease of user who are pathologist and cytologist to perform the screening program.

  17. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm.

  18. The filter/moderator arrangement-optimisation for the boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, G; Dabkowski, L; Dworak, D; Pytel, K; Woźnicka, U

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents results of the numerical modelling of the fission-converter-based epithermal neutron source designed for the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility to be located at the Polish research nuclear reactor MARIA at Swierk. The unique design of the fission converter has been proposed due to a specific geometrical surrounding of the reactor. The filter/moderator arrangement has been optimised to moderate fission neutrons to epithermal energies and to remove both fast neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. The selected filter/moderator set-up ensures both high epithermal neutron flux and suitably low level of beam contamination. Photons originating from the reactor core are almost eliminated what is the exceptional advantage of the proposed design. It yields one order of magnitude lower gamma radiation dose than the maximum allowed dose in such a type of therapeutic facility. The MCNP code has been used for the computations.

  19. A case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma treated effectively by boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Gen; Kawabata, Shinji; Siba, Hiroyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Minoru; Todo, Tomoki; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi

    2014-11-04

    We treated a 54-year-old Japanese female with a recurrent radiation-induced osteosarcoma arising from left occipital skull, by reactor-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Her tumor grew rapidly with subcutaneous and epidural extension. She eventually could not walk because of cerebellar ataxia. The tumor was inoperable and radioresistant. BNCT showed a marked initial therapeutic effect: the subcutaneous/epidural tumor reduced without radiation damage of the scalp except hair loss and the patient could walk again only 3 weeks after BNCT. BNCT seems to be a safe and very effective modality in the management of radiation-induced osteosarcomas that are not eligible for operation and other treatment modalities.

  20. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vujic, J L; Greenspan, E; Guess, S; Karni, Y; Kastenber, W E; Kim, L; Leung, K N; Regev, D; Verbeke, J M; Waldron, W L; Zhu, Y

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  1. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  2. Rational design of gold nanoparticles functionalized with carboranes for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Laura; Bortolussi, Silva; Postuma, Ian; Cansolino, Laura; Ferrari, Cinzia; Panza, Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Ristori, Sandra

    2013-12-31

    In this paper we propose a bottom-up approach to obtain new boron carriers built with ortho-carborane functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for applications in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The interaction between carboranes and the gold surface was assured by one or two SH-groups directly linked to the boron atoms of the B10C2 cage. This allowed obtaining stable, nontoxic systems, though optimal biological performance was hampered by low solubility in aqueous media. To improve cell uptake, the hydrophilic character of carborane functionalized GNPs was enhanced by further coverage with an appropriately tailored diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PCL). This polymer also contained pendant carboranes to provide anchoring to the pre-functionalized GNPs. In vitro tests, carried out on osteosarcoma cells, showed that the final vectors possessed excellent biocompatibility joint to the capacity of concentrating boron atoms in the target, which is encouraging evidenced to pursue applications in vivo.

  3. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Valente, M. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Moss, R.L.; Daquino, G.G.; Nievaart, V.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755ZG Petten, The Netherlands (Netherlands); Mariani, M.; Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio, 34/3 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Medical Physics Department, National Cancer Institute, Via Venezian 1, I-20131, Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  4. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schutz, C.; Schmitz, T.; Kratz, J.V. [Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bortulussi, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Kudejova, P. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Appelman, K.; Moss, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bassler, N. [University of Aarhus, Norde Ringade, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M. [Molecular Medicine, Health and Environment Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (Austria); Sharpe, P.; Palmans, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Otto, G. [Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed in Pavia (Italy) a few years ago, where patients with liver metastases were treated by combining BNCT with auto-transplantation of the organ. Here, in Mainz, a preclinical trial has been started on patients suffering from liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro experiments and the first animal tests have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and the treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appears to be an appropriate dosimetry technique. (author)

  5. Characterization of neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy: in-air radiobiological dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Hori, Naohiko; Torii, Yoshiya; Shibata, Yasushi; Nose, Tadao

    2003-07-01

    The survival curves and the RBE for the dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were determined separately in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No. 4. The surviving fractions of V79 Chinese hamster cells with or without 10B were obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal (TNB-2) neutron beam; these beams were used or are planned for use in BNCT clinical trials. The cell killing effect of the neutron beam in the presence or absence of 10B was highly dependent on the neutron beam used and depended on the epithermal and fast-neutron content of the beam. The RBEs of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 4.07 +/- 0.22, 2.98 +/- 0.16 and 1.42 +/- 0.07, respectively. The RBEs of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50 +/- 0.32, 2.34 +/- 0.30 and 2.17 +/- 0.28 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The RBEs of the neutron and photon components were 1.22 +/- 0.16, 1.23 +/- 0.16, and 1.21 +/- 0.16 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The approach to the experimental determination of RBEs outlined in this paper allows the RBE-weighted dose calculation for each dose component of the neutron beams and contributes to an accurate inter-beam comparison of the neutron beams at the different facilities employed in ongoing and planned BNCT clinical trials.

  6. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Ali, S. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-05-01

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm-3 of boron carbide or 210 mg cm-3 of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 ± 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  7. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Ali, S J; Harling, O K

    2004-05-21

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm(-3) of boron carbide or 210 mg cm(-3) of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 +/- 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  8. DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy is partially repaired by DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Hirota, Yuki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo; Ono, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy that involves the use of a thermal or epithermal neutron beam in combination with a boron ((10)B)-containing compound that specifically accumulates in tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and the resultant fission reaction produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High-LET radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage, specifically of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of DNA ligase IV, a key player in the non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, in the repair of BNCT-induced DSBs. We analyzed the cellular sensitivity of the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines Lig4-/- p53-/- and Lig4+/+ p53-/- to irradiation using a thermal neutron beam in the presence or absence of (10)B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA). The Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line had a higher sensitivity than the Lig4+/+ p53-/-cell line to irradiation with the beam alone or the beam in combination with BPA. In BNCT (with BPA), both cell lines exhibited a reduction of the 50 % survival dose (D 50) by a factor of 1.4 compared with gamma-ray and neutron mixed beam (without BPA). Although it was found that (10)B uptake was higher in the Lig4+/+ p53-/- than in the Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line, the latter showed higher sensitivity than the former, even when compared at an equivalent (10)B concentration. These results indicate that BNCT-induced DNA damage is partially repaired using DNA ligase IV.

  9. Optimization of the geometry and composition of a neutron system for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of the treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), an optimized neutron system was proposed. This study (simulation) was conducted to optimize the geometry and composition of neutron system and increase the epithermal neutron flux for the treatment of deep tumors is performed. Materials and Methods: A neutron system for BNCT was proposed. The system included 252Cf neutron source, neutron moderator/reflector arrangement, filter and concrete. To capture fast ...

  10. A Project of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy System based on a Proton Linac Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshikai; Asano, Kenji; Arakawa, Akihiro; Fukuchi, Shin; Hiraga, Fujio; Kimura, Kenju; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Kubota, Michio; Kumada, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Akira; Sakae, Takeji; Saitoh, Kimiaki; Shibata, Tokushi; Yoshioka, Masakazu

    At present, the clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are being performed at research reactor facilities. However, an accelerator based BNCT has a merit that it can be built in a hospital. So, we just launched a development project for the BNCT based on an accelerator in order to establish and to spread the BNCT as an effective therapy in the near future. In the project, a compact proton linac installed in a hospital will be applied as a neutron source, and energy of the proton beam is planned to be less than about 10 MeV to reduce the radioactivity. The BNCT requires epithermal neutron beam with an intensity of around 1x109 (n/cm2/sec) to deliver the therapeutic dose to a deeper region in a body and to complete the irradiation within an hour. From this condition, the current of the proton beam required is estimated to be a few mA on average. Enormous heat deposition in the target is a big issue. We are aiming at total optimization of the accelerator based BNCT from the linac to the irradiation position. Here, the outline of the project is introduced and the moderator design is presented.

  11. Design of a californium-based epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Kim, J K; Wilson, M J

    1993-08-01

    The potential of the spontaneously fissioning isotope, 252Cf, to provide epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to design an assembly composed of a 26 cm long, 11 cm radius cylindrical D2O moderator followed by a 64 cm long Al filter. Lithium filters are placed between the moderator and the filter and between the Al and the patient. A reflector surrounding the moderator/filter assembly is required in order to maintain adequate therapy flux at the patient position. An ellipsoidal phantom composed of skull- and brain-equivalent material was used to determine the dosimetric effect of this beam. It was found that both advantage depths and advantage ratios compare very favourably with reactor and accelerator epithermal neutron sources. The dose rate obtainable, on the other hand, is 4.1 RBE cGy min-1, based on a very large (1.0 g) source of 252Cf. This dose rate is two to five times lower than those provided by existing reactor beams and can be viewed as a drawback of using 252Cf as a neutron source. Radioisotope sources, however, do offer the advantage of in-hospital installation.

  12. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  14. Characteristics of a heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danial Salehi; Dariush Sardari; M.Salehi Jozani

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors.Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head,patient's body,and treatment room ambient.Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons,the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy.By varying the target thickness,an optimum thickness exists for which,at the given electron energy,maximum photon flux is achievable.If a source of high-energy photons i.e.bremsstrahlung,is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target,a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible.This study consists of two parts.1.Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data.2.Evaluation of the heavy water photonuclear source.

  15. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  16. Selective uptake of p-boronophenylalanine by osteosarcoma cells for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, C. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ferraric@unipv.it; Zonta, C.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M.; Gaspari, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most common non-hematologic primary cancer type that develops in bone. Current osteosarcoma treatments combine multiagent chemotherapy with extensive surgical resection, which in some cases makes necessary the amputation of the entire limb. Nevertheless its infiltrative growth leads to a high incidence of local and distant recurrences that reduce the percentage of cured patients to less than 60%. These poor data required to set up a new therapeutic approach aimed to restrict the surgical removal meanwhile performing a radical treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a particular radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions by atoms of {sup 10}B, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, could be a valid alternative or integrative option in case of osteosarcoma management, thanks to its peculiarity in selectively destroying neoplastic cells without damaging normal tissues. Aim of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of employing BNCT to treat the limb osteosarcoma. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used to carry {sup 10}B inside the neoplastic cells. As a first step the endocellular BPA uptake is tested in vitro on the UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell line. The results show an adequate accumulation capability. For the in vivo experiments, an animal tumor model is developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by means of an intrafemoral injection of UMR-106 cells at the condyle site. The absolute amounts of boron loading and the tumor to normal tissue {sup 10}B ratio are evaluated 2 h after the i.v. administration of BPA. The boron uptake by the neoplastic tissue is almost twice the normal one. However, higher values of boron concentration in tumor are requested before upholding BNCT as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  17. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre......-incubated with boron nanoparticles for 12 hours, were injected subcutaneously into C57BL16J mice. The tumour sites were exposed to different doses of neutron radiation one, four, or eight days after tumour cell inoculation. Results: When the tumour site was irradiated with thermal neutrons one day after injection......, tumour growth was delayed and the treated mice survived longer than untreated controls (median survival time 20 days (N=8) compared with 10 days (N=7) for untreated mice). Conclusion: Boron nanoparticles significantly delay the growth of an aggressive B16-OVA tumour in vivo by boron neutron capture...

  18. Convection enhanced delivery of carboranylporphyrins for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shinji; Yang, Weilian; Barth, Rolf F; Wu, Gong; Huo, Tianyao; Binns, Peter J; Riley, Kent J; Ongayi, Owendi; Gottumukkala, Vijay; Vicente, M Graça H

    2011-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive 10B is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to produce α-particles (10B[n,α] Li). Carboranylporphyrins are a class of substituted porphyrins containing multiple carborane clusters. Three of these compounds, designated H2TBP, H2TCP, and H2DCP, have been evaluated in the present study. The goals were two-fold. First, to determine their biodistribution following intracerebral (i.c.) administration by short term (30 min) convection enhanced delivery (CED) or sustained delivery over 24 h by Alzet™ osmotic pumps to F98 glioma bearing rats. Second, to determine the efficacy of H2TCP and H2TBP as boron delivery agents for BNCT in F98 glioma bearing rats. Tumor boron concentrations immediately after i.c. pump delivery were high and they remained so at 24 h. The corresponding normal brain concentrations were low and the blood and liver concentrations were undetectable. Based on these data, therapy studies were initiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITR) with H2TCP and H2TBP 24 h after CED or pump delivery. Mean survival times (MST) ± standard deviations of animals that had received H2TCP or H2TBP, followed by BNCT, were of 35 ± 4 and 44 ± 10 days, compared to 23 ± 3 and 27 ± 3 days, respectively, for untreated and irradiated controls. However, since the tumor boron concentrations of the carboranylporphyrins were 3-5× higher than intravenous (i.v.) boronophenylalanine (BPA), we had expected that the MSTs would have been greater. Histopathologic examination of brains of BNCT treated rats revealed that there were large numbers of porphyrin-laden macrophages, as well as extracellular accumulations of porphyrins, indicating that the seemingly high tumor boron concentrations did not represent the true tumor cellular uptake. Nevertheless, our data are the first to show that carboranyl porphyrins can be

  19. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  20. A fast Monte Carlo program for pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1992-02-01

    A fast model for the pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tool has been developed. It is believed that the program produce valid results even though some approximation have been introduced. A correct {gamma} photon transport simulation, which is under preparation, has for instance not yet been included. Simulations performed so far has shown that the model, with respect to computing time and accuracy, fully lives up to expectations with respect to computing time and accuracy. (au).

  1. A fast Monte Carlo program for pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1992-02-01

    A fast model for the pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tool has been developed. It is believed that the program produce valid results even though some approximation have been introduced. A correct [gamma] photon transport simulation, which is under preparation, has for instance not yet been included. Simulations performed so far has shown that the model, with respect to computing time and accuracy, fully lives up to expectations with respect to computing time and accuracy. (au).

  2. The Anti-Proliferative Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Takahara

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiation treatment for tumors that preferentially accumulate drugs carrying the stable boron isotope, 10B. BNCT has been evaluated clinically as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors, and more recently, recurrent advanced head and neck cancer. Here we investigated the effect of BNCT on prostate cancer (PCa using an in vivo mouse xenograft model that we have developed.Mice bearing the xenotransplanted androgen-independent human PCa cell line, PC3, were divided into four groups: Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: Boronophenylalanine (BPA; Group 3: neutron; Group 4: BPA-mediated BNCT. We compared xenograft growth among these groups, and the body weight and any motility disturbance were recorded. Immunohistochemical (IHC studies of the proliferation marker, Ki-67, and TUNEL staining were performed 9 weeks after treatment.The in vivo studies demonstrated that BPA-mediated BNCT significantly delayed tumor growth in comparison with the other groups, without any severe adverse events. There was a significant difference in the rate of freedom from gait abnormalities between the BPA-mediated BNCT group and the other groups. The IHC studies revealed that BNCT treatment significantly reduced the number of Ki-67-positive cells in comparison with the controls (mean ± SD 6.9 ± 1.5 vs 12.7 ± 4.0, p<0.05, while there was no difference in the number of apoptotic cells, suggesting that BPA-mediated BNCT reduced PCa progression without affecting apoptosis at 9 weeks post-treatment.This study has provided the first preclinical proof-of-principle data to indicate that BPA-mediated BNCT reduces the in vivo growth of PCa. Although further studies will be necessary, BNCT might be a novel potential treatment for PCa.

  3. Can epithermal boron neutron capture therapy treat primary and metastatic liver cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A. [Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Carolan, M.C. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong (Australia); Allen, B.J. [St George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: The poor prognosis of metastatic cancer to the liver calls for the investigation of alternative treatment modalities. This paper analyses the possible use of epithermal boron neutron capture therapy for the palliative treatment of these cancers. We examine possible treatment planning scenarios for selected tumour to liver boron ratios, and specifically for the epithermal beam at the HFR, Petten. It is required that a therapeutic ratio> 1 be achieved over the entire organ. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP. The geometrical model used a `variable voxel` technique to reconstruct an anthropomorphic phantom from CT scans. Regions of interest such as the liver were modelled to a resolution of a few millimetres, whereas surrounding regions were modelled with lesser detail thereby facilitating faster computation time. Three dimensional dose distributions were calculated for a frontal beam directed at the liver, and found to be in satisfactory agreement with measurements using bare and cadmium covered gold foils, PIN and MOSFET dosimeters for fast neutron and gamma measurements respectively. Dose distributions were calculated for orthogonal epithermal neutron beams to the front and side, using the parameters of the epithermal beam at Petten, and assumed tumour and normal tissue boron-10 concentrations of 30 ppm and 7.5 ppm boron-10 respectively. The therapeutic ratio (i e the dose to the tumour relative to the maximum dose to normal tissue) was found to be about 1.8, reducing to unity for the limiting condition of a tumour in the posterior liver. This result opens up the possibility of palliative therapy for the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer.

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Furuya, Y. [Department of Surgery, Satukidai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Local recurrence breast cancer is one of the most difficult conditions to cure and there is a need for new therapy. If sufficient boron compound can be targeted to the tumor, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be applied to local recurrent breast cancer. In this study, we performed a preliminary dosimetry with a phantom model of the mammary gland at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), and a feasibility dosimetry with JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute. We performed preliminary dosimetry of a phantom model of the mammary gland with thermal neutron irradiation (OO-0011 mode) on LiF collimation at KUR. The thermal neutron flux was 5.16 E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the surface of phantom. The blood boron concentration is estimated to be 30 ppm; tumor boron concentration is also estimated to be 90 ppm according to tumor/blood ratio 3 and skin/blood ratio 1.2. Tumor RBE dose is estimated to be 47 Gy/h, and skin RBE dose is 12.4 Gy/h. In case of advanced breast cancer, we performed the feasibility estimation of 3D construction of tumor according to the MRI imaging of a patient with epithermal neutron mode at JRR4. The blood boron concentration (ppm) and tumor/normal tissue ratio are estimated to be 24 and 3.5, respectively. Skin RBE dose is restricted to 10 Gy/h, the maximum tumor RBE dose, minimum tumor RBE dose, and mean tumor RBE dose are 42.2, 11.3, and 28.9 Gy-Eq, respectively, in half hour irradiation. In this study, we showed the possibility to apply BNCT to local recurrent breast cancer. We can irradiate tumors selectively and as safely as possible, reducing the effects on neighboring healthy tissues.

  5. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  6. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  7. Boronated monoclonal antibody 225. 28S for potential use in neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamat, S.R.; Moore, D.E.; Patwardhan, A.; Hersey, P. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia))

    1989-07-01

    The concept of conjugating boron cluster compounds to monoclonal antibodies has been examined by several groups of research workers in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedures reported to date for boronation of monoclonal antibodies resulted in either an inadequate level of boron incorporation, the precipitation of the conjugates, or a loss of immunological activity. The present report describes the conjugation of dicesium-mercapto-undecahydrododecaborate (Cs2B12H11SH) to 225.28S monoclonal antibody directed against high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigens (HMW-MAA), using poly-L-ornithine as a bridge to increase the carrying capacity of the antibody and to minimize change in the conformational structure of antibody. The method produces a boron content of 1,300 to 1,700 B atoms per molecule 225.28S while retaining the immunoreactivity. Characterization in terms of the homogeneity of the conjugation of the boron-monoclonal antibody conjugates has been studied by gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange HPLC.

  8. Boron microquantification in oral mucosa and skin following administration of a neutron capture therapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiger, S.W. III; Micca, P.L.; Morris, G.M.; Coderre, J.A

    2002-07-01

    Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for intracranial tumours using boronphenylalanine-fructose undertaken at Harvard-MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory have observed acute normal tissue reactions in the skin and oral mucosa. Because the range of the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction products is very short, 10-14 {mu}m combined, knowledge of the 10B microdistribution in tissue is critical for understanding the microdosimetry and radiobiology of BNCT. This paper reports measurements of the microdistribution of {sup 10}B in an animal model, rat skin and tongue, using high resolution quantitative autoradiography (HRQAR), a neutron-induced track etch autoradiographic technique. The steep spatial gradient and high absolute value relative to blood of the {sup 10}B concentration observed in some strata of the rat tongue epithelium and skin are important for properly evaluating the radiobiology and the biological effectiveness factors for normal tissue reactions such as oral mucositis, which are generally assessed using the blood boron concentration rather than the tissue boron concentration. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  10. Dose monitoring for boron neutron capture therapy using a reactor-based epithermal neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, C. P. J.; Nottelman, E. L.; Konijnenberg, M. W.; Mijnheer, B. J.

    1996-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the variation with time of the relevant beam parameters of a clinical reactor-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and (ii) to test a monitoring system for its applicability to monitor the dose delivered to the dose specification point in a patient treated with BNCT. For this purpose two fission chambers covered with Cd and two GM counters were positioned in the beam-shaping collimator assembly of the epithermal neutron beam. The monitor count rates were compared with in-phantom reference measurements of the thermal neutron fluence rate, the gamma-ray dose rate and the fast neutron dose rate, at a constant reactor power, over a period of 2 years. Differences in beam output, defined as the thermal neutron fluence rate at 2 cm depth in a phantom, of up to 15% were observed between various reactor cycles. A decrease in beam output of about 5% was observed in each reactor cycle. An unacceptable decrease of 50% in beam output due to malfunctioning of the beam filter assembly was detected. For safe and accurate treatment of patients, on-line monitoring of the beam is essential. Using the calibrated monitor system, the standard uncertainty in the total dose at depth due to variations with time of the beam output parameters has been reduced to a clinically acceptable value of 1% (one standard deviation).

  11. Verification of the computational dosimetry system in JAERI (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakai, K.; Kageji, T.

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by using the medical irradiation facility installed in Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have been performed since 1999. To carry out the BNCT procedure based on proper treatment planning and its precise implementation, the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) which is applicable to dose planning has been developed in JAERI. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of JCDS. The experimental data with a cylindrical water phantom were compared with the calculation results using JCDS. Data of measurements obtained from IOBNCT cases at JRR-4 were also compared with retrospective evaluation data with JCDS. In comparison with phantom experiments, the calculations and the measurements for thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose were in a good agreement, except at the surface of the phantom. Against the measurements of clinical cases, the discrepancy of JCDS's calculations was approximately 10%. These basic and clinical verifications demonstrated that JCDS has enough performance for the BNCT dosimetry. Further investigations are recommended for precise dose distribution and faster calculation environment.

  12. Thermal neutron irradiation field design for boron neutron capture therapy of human explanted liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S

    2007-12-01

    The selective uptake of boron by tumors compared to that by healthy tissue makes boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an extremely advantageous technique for the treatment of tumors that affect a whole vital organ. An example is represented by colon adenocarcinoma metastases invading the liver, often resulting in a fatal outcome, even if surgical resection of the primary tumor is successful. BNCT can be performed by irradiating the explanted organ in a suitable neutron field. In the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor at Pavia University, a facility was created for this purpose and used for the irradiation of explanted human livers. The neutron field distribution inside the organ was studied both experimentally and by means of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP). The liver was modeled as a spherical segment in MCNP and a hepatic-equivalent solution was used as an experimental phantom. In the as-built facility, the ratio between maximum and minimum flux values inside the phantom ((phi(max)/phi(min)) was 3.8; this value can be lowered to 2.3 by rotating the liver during the irradiation. In this study, the authors proposed a new facility configuration to achieve a uniform thermal neutron flux distribution in the liver. They showed that a phi(max)/phi(min) ratio of 1.4 could be obtained without the need for organ rotation. Flux distributions and dose volume histograms were reported for different graphite configurations.

  13. Induced radioactivity in the blood of cancer patients following Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiko; Kinashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Kouta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2013-07-01

    Since 1990, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used for over 400 cancer patients at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). After BNCT, the patients are radioactive and their (24)Na and (38)Cl levels can be detected via a Na-I scintillation counter. This activity is predominantly due to (24)Na, which has a half-life of 14.96 h and thus remains in the body for extended time periods. Radioactive (24)Na is mainly generated from (23)Na in the target tissue that is exposed to the neutron beam in BNCT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the radioactivity of blood (24)Na following BNCT and the absorbed gamma ray dose in the irradiated field. To assess blood (24)Na, 1 ml of peripheral blood was collected from 30 patients immediately after the exposure, and the radioactivity of blood (24)Na was determined using a germanium counter. The activity of (24)Na in the blood correlated with the absorbed gamma ray doses in the irradiated field. For the same absorbed gamma ray dose in the irradiated field, the activity of blood (24)Na was higher in patients with neck or lung tumors than in patients with brain or skin tumors. The reasons for these findings are not readily apparent, but the difference in the blood volume and the ratio of bone to soft tissue in the irradiated field, as well as the dose that leaked through the clinical collimator, may be responsible.

  14. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  15. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia, A; Baccaro, S; Cemmi, A; Colli, V; Gambarini, G; Rosi, G; Scolari, L

    2004-01-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF2:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH3CH(NH2)COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT.

  16. Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Sidorov, A.; Maslennikova, A.; Volovecky, A.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O.

    2014-12-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D-D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm2 is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·1010 cm-2/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy outcomes for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Kato, Ituro; Aihara, Teruhito; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Niimi, Miyuki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Haginomori, Shin-ichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively review outcomes of applying boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers. Patients who were treated with BNCT for either local recurrent or newly diagnosed unresectable head or neck cancers between December 2001 and September 2007 were included. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from hospital records. Either a combination of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine (BPA) or BPA alone were used as boron compounds. In all the treatment cases, the dose constraint was set to deliver a dose <10–12 Gy-eq to the skin or oral mucosa. There was a patient cohort of 62, with a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 0.7–40.8). A total of 87 BNCT procedures were performed. The overall response rate was 58% within 6 months after BNCT. The median survival time was 10.1 months from the time of BNCT. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 43.1% and 24.2%, respectively. The major acute Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were hyperamylasemia (38.6%), fatigue (6.5%), mucositis/stomatitis (9.7%) and pain (9.7%), all of which were manageable. Three patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced carotid artery hemorrhage, two of whom had coexistent infection of the carotid artery. This study confirmed the feasibility of our dose-estimation method and that controlled trials are warranted. PMID:23955053

  18. Dosimetric effects of beam size and collimation of epithermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Harling, O K

    1993-08-01

    A series of studies of "ideal" beams has been carried out using Monte Carlo simulation with the goal of providing guidance for the design of epithermal beams for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). An "ideal" beam is defined as a monoenergetic, photon-free source of neutrons with user-specified size, shape and angular dependence of neutron current. The dosimetric behavior of monoenergetic neutron beams in an elliptical phantom composed of brain-equivalent material has been assessed as a function of beam diameter and neutron emission angle (beam angle), and the results are reported here. The simulation study indicates that substantial differences exist in the dosimetric behavior of small and large neutron beams (with respect to the phantom) as a function of the extent of beam collimation. With a small beam, dose uniformity increases as the beam becomes more isotropic (less collimated); the opposite is seen with large beams. The penetration of thermal neutrons is enhanced as the neutron emission angle is increased with a small beam; again the opposite trend is seen with large beams. When beam size is small, the dose delivered per neutron is very dependent on the extent of beam collimation; this does not appear to be the case with a larger beam. These trends in dose behavior are presented graphically and discussed in terms of their effect on several figures of merit, the advantage depth, the advantage ratio, and the advantage depth-dose rate. Tables giving quick summaries of these results are provided.

  19. Progress towards boron neutron capture therapy at the High Flux Reactor Petten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R L

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 the first positive steps were taken to proceed with the design and construction of a neutron capture therapy facility on the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. The immediate aim is to realise within a short time (summer 1989), an epithermal neutron beam for radiobiological and filter optimisation studies on one of the 10 small aperture horizontal beam tubes. The following summer, a much larger neutron beam, i.e., in cross section and neutron fluence rate, will be constructed on one of the two large beam tubes that replaced the old thermal column in 1984. This latter beam tube faces one whole side of the reactor vessel, extending from a 50 x 40 cm input aperture to a 35 x 35 cm exit hole. The radiotherapeutic facility will be housed here, with the intention to start clinical trials at the beginning of 1991. This paper describes the present status of the project and includes: a general description of the pertinent characteristics with respect to NCT of the HFR; results of the recently completed preliminary neutron metrology and computer modeling at the input end of the candidate beam tube; the structure and planning of the proposed Work Programme; and the respective direct and indirect participation and collaboration with the Netherlands Cancer Institute and the European Collaboration Group on BNCT.

  20. Designing accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, D L; Donahue, R J; Ludewigt, B A; Vujic, J

    1998-09-01

    The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been investigated as an accelerator-driven neutron source for proton energies between 2.1 and 2.6 MeV. Epithermal neutron beams shaped by three moderator materials, Al/AlF3, 7LiF, and D2O, have been analyzed and their usefulness for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments evaluated. Radiation transport through the moderator assembly has been simulated with the Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Fluence and dose distributions in a head phantom were calculated using BNCT treatment planning software. Depth-dose distributions and treatment times were studied as a function of proton beam energy and moderator thickness. It was found that an accelerator-based neutron source with Al/AlF3 or 7LiF as moderator material can produce depth-dose distributions superior to those calculated for a previously published neutron beam design for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, achieving up to approximately 50% higher doses near the midline of the brain. For a single beam treatment, a proton beam current of 20 mA, and a 7LiF moderator, the treatment time was estimated to be about 40 min. The tumor dose deposited at a depth of 8 cm was calculated to be about 21 Gy-Eq.

  1. Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga.vadim@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Maslennikova, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, 10/1 Minina Sq., 603005 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volovecky, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-21

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D–D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm{sup 2} is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA–BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) ? neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA–BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks posttreatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA–BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mgfell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA–BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA–BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA– BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  3. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  4. Design and Simulation of Photoneutron Source by MCNPX Monte Carlo Code for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Zolfaghari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electron linear accelerator (LINAC can be used for neutron production in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT is an external radiotherapeutic method for the treatment of some cancers. In this study, Varian 2300 C/D LINAC was simulated as an electron accelerator-based photoneutron source to provide a suitable neutron flux for BNCT. Materials and Methods Photoneutron sources were simulated, using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In this study, a 20 MeV LINAC was utilized for electron-photon reactions. After the evaluation of cross-sections and threshold energies, lead (Pb, uranium (U and beryllium deuteride (BeD2were selected as photoneutron sources. Results According to the simulation results, optimized photoneutron sources with a compact volume and photoneutron yields of 107, 108 and 109 (n.cm-2.s-1 were obtained for Pb, U and BeD2 composites. Also, photoneutrons increased by using enriched U (10-60% as an electron accelerator-based photoneutron source. Conclusion Optimized photoneutron sources were obtained with compact sizes of 107, 108 and 109 (n.cm-2.s-1, respectively. These fluxs can be applied for BNCT by decelerating fast neutrons and using a suitable beam-shaping assembly, surrounding electron-photon and photoneutron sources.

  5. Investigation of Isfahan miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR for boron neutron capture therapy by MCNP simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important neutron sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is a nuclear reactor. It needs a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The optimum conditions of the neutron spectra for BNCT are provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. In this paper, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR as a neutron source for BNCT was investigated. For this purpose, we designed a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA for the reactor and the neutron transport from the core of the reactor to the output windows of BSA was simulated by MCNPX code. To optimize the BSA performance, two sets of parameters should be evaluated, in-air and in-phantom parameters. For evaluating in-phantom parameters, a Snyder head phantom was used and biological dose rate and dose-depth curve were calculated in brain normal and tumor tissues. Our calculations showed that the neutron flux of the MNSR reactor can be used for BNCT, and the designed BSA in optimum conditions had a good therapeutic characteristic for BNCT.

  6. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pazirandeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b, the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage from recoil proton associated with fast neutrons however poses some constraints on maximum neutron energy that can be used in the treatment. For this reason neutrons in the epithermal energy range of 10eV-10keV are generally to be the most appropriate. The simulation carried out by Monte Carlo methods using MCBNCT and MCNP4C codes along with the cross section library in 290 groups extracted from ENDF/B6 main library. The optimal neutron energy for deep seated tumors depends on the size and depth of tumor. Our estimated optimized energy for the tumor of 5cm wide and 1-2cm thick stands at 5cm depth is in the range of 3-5keV

  7. Inborn errors in metabolism and 4-boronophenylalanine-fructose-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Juha; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Lapatto, Risto; Kallio, Merja

    2003-11-01

    Infusions of boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), at doses up to 900 mg/kg of BPA and 860 mg/kg of fructose, have been used to deliver boron to cancer tissue for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), phenylalanine accumulates, which is harmful in the long run. PKU has been an exclusion criterion for BPA-F-mediated BNCT. Fructose is harmful to individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) in amounts currently used in BNCT. The harmful effects are mediated through induction of hypoglycemia and acidosis, which may lead to irreversible organ damage or even death. Consequently, HFI should be added as an exclusion criterion for BNCT if fructose-containing solutions are used in boron carriers. Non-HFI subjects may also develop symptoms, such as gastrointestinal pain, if the fructose infusion rate is high. We therefore recommend monitoring of glucose levels and correcting possible hypoglycemia promptly. Except for some populations with extremely low PKU prevalence, HFI and PKU prevalences are similar, approximately 1 or 2 per 20,000.

  8. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  9. Dynamic infrared imaging for biological and medical applications in Boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; González, Sara J.; Dagrosa, Alejandra; Schwint, Amanda E.; Carpano, Marina; Trivillin, Verónica A.; Boggio, Esteban F.; Bertotti, José; Marín, Julio; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Albero, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality, currently focused on the treatment of cancer, which involves a tumor selective 10B compound and a specially tuned neutron beam to produce a lethal nuclear reaction. BNCT kills target cells with microscopic selectivity while sparing normal tissues from potentially lethal doses of radiation. In the context of the Argentine clinical and research BNCT projects at the National Atomic Energy Commission and in a strong collaboration with INVAP SE, we successfully implemented Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) in the clinical setting for the observation of cutaneous melanoma patients and included DIRI as a non invasive methodology in several research protocols involving small animals. We were able to characterize melanoma lesions in terms of temperature and temperature rate-of-recovery after applying a mild cold thermal stress, distinguishing melanoma from other skin pigmented lesions. We observed a spatial and temporal correlation between skin acute reactions after irradiation, the temperature pattern and the dose distribution. We studied temperature distribution as a function of tumor growth in mouse xenografts, observing a significant correlation between tumor temperature and drug uptake; we investigated temperature evolution in the limbs of Wistar rats for a protocol of induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA), DIRI being especially sensitive to RA induction even before the development of clinical signs and studied surface characteristics of tumors, precancerous and normal tissues in a model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch.

  10. Effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujita, Yusei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, Akira [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohmae, Masatoshi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Izimisano Municipal Hospital, Rinku General Hospital, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Environment and Life Science, Osaka prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan); CEO of Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sakrai, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Sumi, Tetsuro; Iwai, Soichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ono, Koji [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) to avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We have treated with BNCT 42 times for 26 patients (19 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results of (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 12 cases, PR: 10 cases, PD: 3 cases NE (not evaluated): 1 case. Response rate was 85%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-72 months (mean: 13.6 months). Six-year survival rate was 24% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) Adverse-events were transient mucositis and alopecia in most of the cases; three osteomyelitis and one brain necrosis were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM.

  11. Epithermal neutron formation for boron neutron capture therapy by adiabatic resonance crossing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, A.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.; Sadeghi, M.

    2014-05-01

    Low-energy protons from the cyclotron in the range of 15-30 MeV and low current have been simulated on beryllium (Be) target with a lead moderator around the target. This research was accomplished to design an epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using the moderated neutron on the average produced from 9Be target via (p, xn) reaction in Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) concept. Generation of neutron to proton ratio, energy distribution, flux and dose components in head phantom have been simulated by MCNP5 code. The reflector and collimator were designed in prevention and collimation of derivation neutrons from proton bombarding. The scalp-skull-brain phantom consisting of bone and brain equivalent material has been simulated in order to evaluate the dosimetric effect on the brain. Results of this analysis demonstrated while the proton energy decreased, the dose factor altered according to filters thickness. The maximum epithermal flux revealed using fluental, Fe and bismuth (Bi) filters with thicknesses of 9.4, 3 and 2 cm, respectively and also the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 103.85. The potential of the ARC method to replace or complement the current reactor-based supply sources of BNCT purposes.

  12. Nanostructured Boron Nitride With High Water Dispersibility For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Baban; Vij, Ankush; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Meena, Ramovatar; Singh, Ajay; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-10-01

    Highly water dispersible boron based compounds are innovative and advanced materials which can be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for cancer treatment (BNCT). Present study deals with the synthesis of highly water dispersible nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN). Unique and relatively low temperature synthesis route is the soul of present study. The morphological examinations (Scanning/transmission electron microscopy) of synthesized nanostructures showed that they are in transient phase from two dimensional hexagonal sheets to nanotubes. It is also supported by dual energy band gap of these materials calculated from UV- visible spectrum of the material. The theoretically calculated band gap also supports the same (calculated by virtual nano lab Software). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the synthesized material has deformed structure which is further supported by Raman spectroscopy. The structural aspect of high water disperse ability of BN is also studied. The ultra-high disperse ability which is a result of structural deformation make these nanostructures very useful in BNCT. Cytotoxicity studies on various cell lines (Hela(cervical cancer), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)) show that the synthesized nanostructures can be used for BNCT.

  13. Basic and clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Tadao; Matsumura, Akira; Nakai, Kei; Nakagawa, Kunio; Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Shibata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Rat malignant cells (9L glioma cell) were exposed to neutron radiation after culturing with boron compounds; BSH and STA-BX909, and cell growing ability after the exposure was determined by colony forming assay. The effects of in vivo radiation were examined by measuring neutron flux levels in rat brain and skin aiming to use neutron radiation in clinical study. STA-BX909 was found to show a dose-dependent cell toxicity, which was higher than that of BSH. The radiation induced G2/M block in 9L-glioma cells and their cell cycles recovered thereafter in low-dose radiated cells, but high-dose radiated cells became aneuploidy. Furthermore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was applied in two patients, 41-year old woman with glioma grade 3 recurred and 45-year old man with glioblastoma multiforme. The former died from systemic deterioration due to ileus, but BNCT was made only one time although conventional radiotherapy is carried out for a relatively long period. Therefore, BNCT was thought to be beneficial from an aspect of `quality of life` and the effects to repress a recurrence of cancer also seemed larger than the conventional one. (M.N.)

  14. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae, E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jo Hong, Key [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sil Lee, Keum [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  15. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  16. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  17. Sexual Health Education in Massage Therapy Programs: A Survey of Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Healey, Dale K.

    2016-01-01

    Massage therapy program directors completed an online survey to explore sexual education in massage therapy programs. The overall data suggest that program directors are supportive of sexual health education in the training of massage therapists and that such education is integrated into several aspects of their training programs. To enhance…

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: an emerging therapeutic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Goodman, J H; Gahbauer, R A; Gupta, N; Blue, T E; Yang, W; Tjarks, W

    1999-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) lithium-7 reaction. There is a growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with high-grade gliomas and possibly metastatic brain tumors. The present review covers the biological and radiobiological considerations on which BNCT is based, boron-containing low- and high-molecular weight delivery agents, neutron sources, clinical studies, and future areas of research. Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine, and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These are discussed, as is optimization of their delivery. Nuclear reactors currently are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission reaction within the core produces a mixture of lower energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high-energy neutrons, and gamma-rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams now are being used in the United States and Europe because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Currently, there are clinical trials in progress in the United States, Europe, and Japan using a combination of debulking surgery and then BNCT to treat patients with glioblastomas. The American and European studies are Phase I trials using boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate, respectively

  19. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  20. Biodistribution of sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Nievas, Susana; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of ¹⁰B carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We previously proved the therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by the boron compounds boronophenylalanine and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Based on the clinical relevance of the boron carrier sodium borocaptate (BSH) and the knowledge that the most effective way to optimize BNCT is to improve tumor boron targeting, the specific aim of this study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and evaluate the feasibility of BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3. The general aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology and optimize BNCT for head and neck cancer. Sodium borocaptate (50 mg ¹⁰B/kg) was administered to tumor-bearing hamsters. Groups of 3-5 animals were killed humanely at nine time-points, 3-12 h post-administration. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous pouch tissue, normal pouch tissue and other clinically relevant normal tissues were processed for boron measurement by optic emission spectroscopy. Tumor boron concentration peaked to therapeutically useful boron concentration values of 24-35 ppm. The boron concentration ratio tumor/normal pouch tissue ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Pharmacokinetic curves showed that the optimum interval between BSH administration and neutron irradiation was 7-11 h. It is concluded that BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3 would be feasible.

  1. Feasibility study on epithermal neutron field for cyclotron-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Aoki, Takao; Nakamura, Takashi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Baba, Mamoru; Yokobori, Hitoshi; Tahara, Yoshihisa

    2003-08-01

    To realize the accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center of Tohoku University, the feasibility of a cyclotron-based BNCT was evaluated. This study focuses on optimizing the epithermal neutron field with an energy spectrum and intensity suitable for BNCT for various combinations of neutron-producing reactions and moderator materials. Neutrons emitted at 90 degrees from a thick (stopping-length) Ta target, bombarded by 50 MeV protons of 300 microA beam current, were selected as a neutron source, based on the measurement of angular distributions and neutron energy spectra. As assembly composed of iron, AlF3/Al/6LiF, and lead was chosen as moderators, based on the simulation trials using the MCNPX code. The depth dose distributions in a cylindrical phantom, calculated with the MCNPX code, showed that, within 1 h of therapeutic time, the best moderator assembly, which is 30-cm-thick iron, 39-cm-thick AlF3/Al/6LiF, and 1-cm-thick lead, provides an epithermal neutron flux of 0.7 x 10(9) [n cm(-2) s(-1)]. This results in a tumor dose of 20.9 Gy-eq at a depth of 8 cm in the phantom, which is 6.4 Gy-eq higher than that of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor at the equivalent condition of maximum normal tissue tolerance. The beam power of the cyclotron is 15 kW, which is much lower than other accelerator-based BNCT proposals.

  2. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Zhou, X L; Shefer, R E; Klinkowstein, R E

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in the production of epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has promoted an investigation into the feasibility of generating such neutrons with a high current proton accelerator. Energetic protons (2.5 MeV) on a 7Li target produce a spectrum of neutrons with maximum energy of roughly 800 keV. A number of combinations of D2O moderator, lead reflector, 6Li thermal neutron filtration, and D2O/6Li shielding will result in a useful epithermal flux of 1.6 x 10(8) n/s at the patient position. The neutron beam is capable of delivering 3000 RBE-cGy to a tumor at a depth of 7.5 cm in a total treatment time of 60-93 min (depending on RBE values used and based on a 24-cm diameter x 19-cm length D2O moderator). Treatment of deeper tumors with therapeutic advantage would also be possible. Maximum advantage depths (RBE weighted) of 8.2-9.2 (again depending on RBE values and precise moderator configuration) are obtained in a right-circular cylindrical phantom composed of brain-equivalent material with an advantage ratio of 4.7-6.3. A tandem cascade accelerator (TCA), designed and constructed at Science Research Laboratory (SRL) in Somerville MA, can provide the required proton beam parameters for BNCT of deep-seated tumors. An optimized configuration of materials required to shift the accelerator neutron spectrum down to therapeutically useful energies has been designed using Monte Carlo simulation in the Whitaker College Biomedical Imaging and Computation Laboratory at MIT. Actual construction of the moderator/reflector assembly is currently underway.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): implications of neutron beam and boron compound characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, F J; Nigg, D W; Capala, J; Watkins, P R; Vroegindeweij, C; Auterinen, I; Seppälä, T; Bleuel, D

    1999-07-01

    The potential efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant glioma is a significant function of epithermal-neutron beam biophysical characteristics as well as boron compound biodistribution characteristics. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to evaluate the relative significance of these factors on theoretical tumor control using a standard model. The existing, well-characterized epithermal-neutron sources at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), and the Finnish Research Reactor (FiR-1) were compared. Results for a realistic accelerator design by the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) are also compared. Also the characteristics of the compound p-Boronophenylaline Fructose (BPA-F) and a hypothetical next-generation compound were used in a comparison of the BMRR and a hypothetical improved reactor. All components of dose induced by an external epithermal-neutron beam fall off quite rapidly with depth in tissue. Delivery of dose to greater depths is limited by the healthy-tissue tolerance and a reduction in the hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose allow for longer irradiation and greater dose at a depth. Dose at depth can also be increased with a beam that has higher neutron energy (without too high a recoil dose) and a more forward peaked angular distribution. Of the existing facilities, the FiR-1 beam has the better quality (lower hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose) and a penetrating neutron spectrum and was found to deliver a higher value of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) than other existing beams at shallow depth. The greater forwardness and penetration of the HFR the FiR-1 at greater depths. The hypothetical reactor and accelerator beams outperform at both shallow and greater depths. In all cases, the hypothetical compound provides a significant improvement in efficacy but it is shown that the full benefit of improved compound is not realized until the neutron beam is fully

  4. Thick beryllium target as an epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Moore, B R

    1994-10-01

    Accelerator-based intense epithermal neutron sources for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) have been considered as an alternative to nuclear reactors. Lithium (Li) has generally received the widest attention for this application, since the threshold energy is low and neutron yield is high. Because of the poor thermal and chemical properties of Li and the need for heat removal in the target, the design of Li targets has been quite difficult. Beryllium (Be) has been thought of as an alternative target because of its good thermal and chemical properties and reasonable neutron yield. However, in order to have a neutron yield comparable to that of a thick Li target bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons, the proton energy required for a thick Be target must be approaching 4 MeV. Consequently, the neutrons emitted are more energetic. In addition, a significant amount of high-energy gamma rays, which is undesirable, will occur when Be is bombarded with low-energy protons. Regardless of the more energetic neutrons and additional gamma rays, in this paper it is shown that it is possible to develop a high-quality and high-intensity epithermal neutron beam based on a thick Be target for NCT treatment. For a fixed proton current, the optimal Be-target-based beam (with 4-MeV protons) can produce a neutron beam, with both quality and intensity slightly better than those produced by the optimal Li-target-based beam (with 2.5-MeV protons). The single-session NCT treatment time for the optimal Be-target-based beam is estimated to be 88 min for a proton current of 50 mA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  6. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  7. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  8. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to {gamma}-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup -2}/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  9. Early clinical experience utilizing scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector in clinical boron neutron capture therapy: its issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Itsuro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kumada, Hiroaki; Shrestha, Shubhechha J.; ONO, KOJI

    2016-01-01

    Background Real-time measurement of thermal neutrons in the tumor region is essential for proper evaluation of the absorbed dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment. The gold wire activation method has been routinely used to measure the neutron flux distribution in BNCT irradiation, but a real-time measurement using gold wire is not possible. To overcome this issue, the scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector has been developed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate...

  10. Measurement of in-phantom neutron flux and gamma dose in Tehran research reactor boron neutron capture therapy beam line

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Bavarnegin; Alireza Sadremomtaz; Hossein Khalafi; Yaser Kasesaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Determination of in-phantom quality factors of Tehran research reactor (TRR) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beam. Materials and Methods: The doses from thermal neutron reactions with 14N and 10B are calculated by kinetic energy released per unit mass approach, after measuring thermal neutron flux using neutron activation technique. Gamma dose is measured using TLD-700 dosimeter. Results: Different dose components have been measured in a head phantom which has been designed an...

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n) reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    OpenAIRE

    Bassem Elshahat; Akhtar Naqvi; Nabil Maalej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n) reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensio...

  12. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron; Espectro de neutrones para terapia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with {sup 10}B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the {sup 10}B and produce a nucleus of {sup 7}Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  13. Gantry orientation effect on the neutron and capture gamma ray dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasi Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of gantry orientation on the photoneutron and capture gamma dose calculations for maze entrance door was evaluated. A typical radiation therapy room made of ordinary concrete was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Gantry rotation was simulated at eight different angles around the isocenter. Both neutron and capture gamma dose vary considerably with gantry angle. The ratios of the maximum to the minimum values for neutron and capture gamma dose equivalents were 1.9 and 1.4, respectively. On the other hand, comparison of the Monte Carlo calculated mean value over all orientations with Monte Carlo calculated neutron and gamma dose showed that the Wu-McGinley method differed by 5% and 2%, respectively. However, for more conservative shielding calculations, factors of 1.6 and 1.3 should be applied to the calculated neutron and capture gamma doses at downward irradiation. Finally, it can be concluded that the gantry angle influences neutron and capture gamma dose at the maze entrance door and it should be taken into account in shielding considerations.

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: past history, current status, and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Brugger, R M

    1996-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. High-grade astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, and metastatic brain tumors constitute a major group of neoplasms for which there is no effective treatment. There is growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with primary, and possibly metastatic brain tumors. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must reach and be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B(n, alpha)7 Li reaction. Two major questions will be addressed in this review. First, how can a large number of 10B atoms be delivered selectively to cancer cells? Second, how can a high fluence of neutrons be delivered to the tumor? Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA), and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These will be discussed, and potential problems associated with their use as boron delivery agents will be considered. Nuclear reactors, currently, are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission process within the core produces a mixture of lower-energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high (> 10,000 eV) energy neutrons, and gamma rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams should be more useful because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Beam sources and characteristics will be discussed in the context of current and future BNCT trials. Finally, the past and present

  15. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  17. Reference dosimetry calculations for neutron capture therapy with comparison of analytical and voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorley, J T; Kiger, W S; Zamenhof, R G

    2002-02-01

    As clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) are initiated in the U.S. and other countries, new treatment planning codes are being developed to calculate detailed dose distributions in patient-specific models. The thorough evaluation and comparison of treatment planning codes is a critical step toward the eventual standardization of dosimetry, which, in turn, is an essential element for the rational comparison of clinical results from different institutions. In this paper we report development of a reference suite of computational test problems for NCT dosimetry and discuss common issues encountered in these calculations to facilitate quantitative evaluations and comparisons of NCT treatment planning codes. Specifically, detailed depth-kerma rate curves were calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4B for four different representations of the modified Snyder head phantom, an analytic, multishell, ellipsoidal model, and voxel representations of this model with cubic voxel sizes of 16, 8, and 4 mm. Monoenergetic and monodirectional beams of 0.0253 eV, 1, 2, 10, 100, and 1000 keV neutrons, and 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 MeV photons were individually simulated to calculate kerma rates to a statistical uncertainty of neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to epithermal beams currently used or proposed for NCT clinical trials, was computed for all models. The thermal neutron, fast neutron, and photon kerma rates calculated with the 4 and 8 mm voxel models were within 2% and 4%, respectively, of those calculated for the analytical model. The 16 mm voxel model produced unacceptably large discrepancies for all dose components. The effects from different kerma data sets and tissue compositions were evaluated. Updating the kerma data from ICRU 46 to ICRU 63 data produced less than 2% difference in kerma rate profiles. The depth-dose profile data, Monte Carlo code input, kerma factors, and model construction files are available

  18. Determination and production of an optimal neutron energy spectrum for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, Darren Leo

    An accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility employing an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been proposed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this dissertation, the properties of an ideal neutron beam for delivering a maximized dose to a glioblastoma multiforme tumor in a reasonable time while minimizing the dose to healthy tissue is examined. A variety of materials, beam shaping assemblies, and neutron sources were considered to deliver a neutron spectrum as close to the calculated idealized spectrum as possible. Several optimization studies were performed to determine the best proton energy and moderator material to maximize the efficacy of an accelerator-based BNCT facility utilizing the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutron source. A new, faster method of performing such an optimization was developed, known as the "Ubertally" method, in which data from a single Monte Carlo simulation is reweighted to produce results for any neutron spatial, energy and angular source distribution. Results were confirmed experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88″ cyclotron. Thermal fluxes in this experiment were found to be approximately 30% lower than expected, but the depth-dose profile was confirmed to within 8% maximum deviation. A final beam shaping assembly is then recommended. Utilizing a material known as Fluental as a moderating material, deep-seated tumor doses 50% higher than that delivered by clinical trials at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are predicted. The final recommended design should contain a 37 cm thickness of Fluental(TM) moderator, a 1--2 cm gamma shield, an Al2O3 reflector, a V-shaped aluminum-backed or copper-backed source with heavy water cooling, and a 13 cm lithiated polyethylene delimiter. This design would be operated at 2.4 MeV proton energy at 20 mA to conduct treatments in less than an hour and a half. However, this design may be easily altered

  19. Personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students: a survey of AMTA program coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardstrom, Susan C; Jackson, Nancy A

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to gather information in order to understand if and how various modalities of personal therapy are employed with undergraduate music therapy students in the United States. AMTA degree program coordinators were asked about 3 therapy modalities, in particular: verbal therapy, music therapy, and expressive arts therapy (excluding music therapy). It was predicted that less than a quarter of the respondents would indicate that personal therapy of any modality was required in their undergraduate curricula, but that a larger percentage would indicate that it was encouraged. Both hypotheses were supported, with just over 14% of the respondents indicating that they require some form of personal therapy and 32% indicating that they encourage it, with 73% of this latter subgroup encouraging verbal therapy and 46% encouraging music therapy. It was further predicted that, when therapy was required or encouraged, it was most often provided by an individual who was associated with the college/university and that therapy was usually provided in a group format. Respondent comments related to these 2 questions revealed considerable confusion between experiential exercises and personal therapy, leading to dubious validity of some of the numerical data. Qualitative treatment of narrative responses illuminated 4 salient issues regarding personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students, as follows: (a) the legal and ethical feasibility of making personal therapy a requirement; (b) the cost and availability of qualified professionals; (c) the benefits of personal therapy as an integral facet of undergraduate music therapy training and education; and (d) the appropriateness of personal therapy at the undergraduate level of training.

  20. A coupled deterministic/stochastic method for computing neutron capture therapy dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Thomas Richard

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is an experimental method of treating brain tumors and other cancers by: (1) injecting or infusing the patient with a tumor-seeking, neutron target-labeled drug; and (2) irradiating the patient in an intense epithermal neutron fluence. The nuclear reaction between the neutrons and the target nuclei (e.g. sp{10}B(n,alpha)sp7Lirbrack releases energy in the form of high-LET (i.e. energy deposited within the range of a cell diameter) reaction particles which selectively kill the tumor cell. The efficacy of NCT is partly dependent on the delivery of maximum thermal neutron fluence to the tumor and the minimization of radiation dose to healthy tissue. Since the filtered neutron source (e.g. research reactor) usually provides a broad energy spectrum of highly-penetrating neutron and gamma-photon radiation, detailed transport calculations are necessary in order to plan treatments that use optimal treatment facility configurations and patient positioning. Current computational methods for NCT use either discrete ordinates calculation or, more often, Monte Carlo simulation to predict neutron fluences in the vicinity of the tumor. These methods do not, however, accurately calculate the transport of radiation throughout the entire facility or the deposition of dose in all the various parts of the body due to shortcomings of using either method alone. A computational method, specifically designed for NCT problems, has been adapted from the MASH methodology and couples a forward discrete ordinates (Ssb{n}) calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo run to predict the dose at any point within the patient. The transport from the source through the filter/collimator is performed with a forward DORT run, and this is then coupled to adjoint MORSE results at a selected coupling parallelepiped which surrounds human phantom. Another routine was written to allow the user to generate the MORSE models at various angles and positions within the treatment room. The

  1. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  2. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  3. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT.

  4. The Knowledge Program: an innovative, comprehensive electronic data capture system and warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Irene; Speck, Micheal; Dopler, Chris; Urchek, John; Bielawski, Kay; Dunphy, Cheryl; Jehi, Lara; Bae, Charles; Parchman, Alandra

    2011-01-01

    Data contained in the electronic health record (EHR) present a tremendous opportunity to improve quality-of-care and enhance research capabilities. However, the EHR is not structured to provide data for such purposes: most clinical information is entered as free text and content varies substantially between providers. Discrete information on patients' functional status is typically not collected. Data extraction tools are often unavailable. We have developed the Knowledge Program (KP), a comprehensive initiative to improve the collection of discrete clinical information into the EHR and the retrievability of data for use in research, quality, and patient care. A distinct feature of the KP is the systematic collection of patient-reported outcomes, which is captured discretely, allowing more refined analyses of care outcomes. The KP capitalizes on features of the Epic EHR and utilizes an external IT infrastructure distinct from Epic for enhanced functionality. Here, we describe the development and implementation of the KP.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  6. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  7. Biodistribution of Amine-Amide Chlorin e6 Derivative Conjugate with a Boron Nanoparticle for Boron Neutron-Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    А.B. Volovetsky; N.Y. Shilyagina; V.V. Dudenkova; S.О. Pasynkova; М.А. Grin; А.F. Mironov; А.V. Feofanov; I.V. Balalaeva; А.V. Maslennikova

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the biodistribution of amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide as a potential boron transporter for the tasks of boron neutron-capture therapy. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on Balb/c mice with induced murine colon carcinoma CT-26. Amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide was administered intravenously, the dose being 5 and 10 mg/kg body mass. The sampling for m...

  8. Perspectives on best practices for gene therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheever, Thomas R; Berkley, Dale; Braun, Serge; Brown, Robert H; Byrne, Barry J; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Cwik, Valerie; Duan, Dongsheng; Federoff, Howard J; High, Katherine A; Kaspar, Brian K; Klinger, Katherine W; Larkindale, Jane; Lincecum, John; Mavilio, Fulvio; McDonald, Cheryl L; McLaughlin, James; Weiss McLeod, Bonnie; Mendell, Jerry R; Nuckolls, Glen; Stedman, Hansell H; Tagle, Danilo A; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wang, Hao; Wernett, Pamela J; Wilson, James M; Porter, John D; Gubitz, Amelie K

    2015-03-01

    With recent successes in gene therapy trials for hemophilia and retinal diseases, the promise and prospects for gene therapy are once again garnering significant attention. To build on this momentum, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Muscular Dystrophy Association jointly hosted a workshop in April 2014 on "Best Practices for Gene Therapy Programs," with a focus on neuromuscular disorders. Workshop participants included researchers from academia and industry as well as representatives from the regulatory, legal, and patient advocacy sectors to cover the gamut from preclinical optimization to intellectual property concerns and regulatory approval. The workshop focused on three key issues in the field: (1) establishing adequate scientific premise for clinical trials in gene therapy, (2) addressing regulatory process issues, and (3) intellectual property and commercialization issues as they relate to gene therapy. The outcomes from the discussions at this workshop are intended to provide guidance for researchers and funders in the gene therapy field.

  9. An overview on gene therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The 11th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene Therapy focused on clinical trials for the treatment of various pathological conditions, preclinical studies, use of gene transfer technology for genetic immunization purposes and problems related to the improvement of vector design. In this respect, a major emphasis was placed on safety issues, such as insertional mutagenesis and host immune responses to gene delivery systems.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new boron-containing chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    New boron-containing chlorin derivatives 9 and 13 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized from photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (2) and L-4-boronophenylalanine-related compounds. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 9 and 13 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 13 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 9, and compound 13 showed rapid clearance from normal tissues within 24h after injection. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 13 was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 3h after injection of 13. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 13. These results suggested that 13 might be a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer.

  11. The Association between Program Characteristics and Enrollment in Postprofessional Doctorate Programs in Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Stephanie W.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly three decades, there has been a shortage of doctoral-trained faculty and researchers in physical therapy and currently only a small number of programs offer an advanced doctoral degree in the field. Little is known about factors related to program choice for students in these programs. This study examined the following research problem:…

  12. The radiobiological principles of boron neutron capture therapy: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J.W., E-mail: john.hopewell@gtc.ox.ac.uk [Green Templeton College and Particle Therapy Cancer Research Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, G.M. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schwint, A. [Department of Radiobiology, Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Coderre, J.A. [Ora Inc, 300 Brickstone Square, Andover, MA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The radiobiology of the dose components in a BNCT exposure is examined. The effect of exposure time in determining the biological effectiveness of {gamma}-rays, due to the repair of sublethal damage, has been largely overlooked in the application of BNCT. Recoil protons from fast neutrons vary in their relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as a function of energy and tissue endpoint. Thus the energy spectrum of a beam will influence the RBE of this dose component. Protons from the neutron capture reaction in nitrogen have not been studied but in practice protons from nitrogen capture have been combined with the recoil proton contribution into a total proton dose. The relative biological effectiveness of the products of the neutron capture reaction in boron is derived from two factors, the RBE of the short range particles and the bio-distribution of boron, referred to collectively as the compound biological effectiveness factor. Caution is needed in the application of these factors for different normal tissues and tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiobiological properties of different dose components in BNCT are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of {gamma}-ray dose depends strongly on exposure time due to sublethal damage repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of fast neutron dose depends on neutron energy spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-ray and fast neutron characteristics vary between beams and thus weighting factors will differ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weighing factors for boron dose depend on the carrier, the tissue and its mode of administration.

  13. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  14. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile.

  15. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. MAGIC polymer gel for dosimetric verification in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Heikkinen, Sami; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Seppälä, Tiina; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli

    2007-04-30

    Radiation sensitive polymer gels are among the most promising three-dimensional dose verification tools developed to date. Polymer gel dosimeter known by the acronym MAGIC has been tested for evaluation of its use in boron neutron capture (BNCT) dosimetry. We irradiated a large (diameter 10 cm, length 20 cm) cylindrical gel phantom in the epithermal neutron beam of the Finnish BNCT facility at the FiR 1 nuclear reactor. Neutron irradiation was simulated with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP. Gel samples from the same production batch were also irradiated with 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator to compare dose response in the two different types of beams. Irradiated gel phantoms were imaged using MRI to determine their relaxation rate R2 maps. The measured and normalized dose distribution in the epithermal neutron beam was compared to the dose distribution calculated by computer simulation. The results support the feasibility MAGIC gel in BNCT dosimetry.

  17. Human Sexuality Education in Marriage and Family Therapy Graduate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian D; Zaid, Samantha J

    2017-02-20

    Given the likelihood that marriage and family therapists will encounter clients with sexual concerns, it is important to know how graduate training programs are preparing future clinicians to work with this domain of life. Sixty-nine marriage and family therapy (MFT) program directors completed an online survey to examine how sexual health education is integrated into graduate training programs. Findings indicate that while the majority of program directors value sexuality curriculum, and most programs require at least one course in this area, there are barriers to privileging sex topics in MFT graduate programs. Barriers include few MFT faculties with expertise in human sexuality and marginalized sexual health topics. Implications for training MFT graduate students and their work with future clients are discussed.

  18. Computational characterization and experimental validation of the thermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, J. D. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211-3400 (United States); Nigg, D. W. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hawthorne, M. F. [University of Missouri, International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, 1514 Research Park Dr., Columbia, MO 65211-3450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline constructed for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. Validation protocols based on neutron activation spectrometry measurements and rigorous least-square adjustment techniques show that the beam produces a neutron spectrum that has the anticipated level of thermal neutron flux and a somewhat higher than expected, but radio-biologically insignificant, epithermal neutron flux component. (authors)

  19. Optimization of the Epithermal Neutron Beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Rorer, David C.; Reciniello, Richard N.; Holden, Norman E.

    2003-06-01

    Clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumor had been carried out for half a decade, using an epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a higher intensity, more forward-directed neutron beam with less contamination from gamma rays, fast and thermal neutrons are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  20. Optimization of the epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Reciniello, Richard N; Holden, Norman E

    2004-05-01

    The use of epithermal neutron beam in clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumors had been carried out for half a decade at the Brookhaven's Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new BNCT protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a highly intensified and focused neutron beam with less gamma and neutron contamination in tissues are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Neutron-photon coupled Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux, current, heating, and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  1. Self-shielding effects in neutron spectra measurements for neutron capture therapy by means of activation foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Józefowicz, Krystyna; Pytel, Beatrycze; Koziel, Alina

    2004-01-01

    The design and optimisation of a neutron beam for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is accompanied by the neutron spectra measurements at the target position. The method of activation detectors was applied for the neutron spectra measurements. Epithermal neutron energy region imposes the resonance structure of activation cross sections resulting in strong self-shielding effects. The neutron self-shielding correction factor was calculated using a simple analytical model of a single absorption event. Such a procedure has been applied to individual cross sections from pointwise ENDF/B-VI library and new corrected activation cross sections were introduced to a spectra unfolding algorithm. The method has been verified experimentally both for isotropic and for parallel neutron beams. Two sets of diluted and non-diluted activation foils covered with cadmium were irradiated in the neutron field. The comparison of activation rates of diluted and non-diluted foils has demonstrated the correctness of the applied self-shielding model.

  2. Investigation of Dose Distribution in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy using N-Isopropylacrylamide Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bavarnegin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gel dosimeters have unique advantages in comparison with other dosimeters. Until now, these gels have been used in different radiotherapy techniques as a reliable dosimetric tool. Because dose distribution measurement is an important factor for appropriate treatment planning in different radiotherapy techniques, in this study, we evaluated the ability of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM polymer gel to record the dose distribution resulting from the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT. In this regard, a head phantom containing NIPAM gel was irradiated using the Tehran Research Reactor BNCT beam line, and then by a magnetic resonance scanner. Eventually, the R2 maps were obtained in different slices of the phantom by analyzing T2-weighted images. The results show that NIPAM gel has a suitable potential for recording three-dimensional dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field dosimetry.

  3. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles. The first step toward T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Björkdahl, O; Sørensen, P G; Hansen, T; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

  4. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, A., E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carpano, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Perona, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, L. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Nievas, S. [Department of Chemistry, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Cabrini, R. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Juvenal, G. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Department of Biochemistry, UBA School of Medicine (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with {sup 131}I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  5. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian

    2006-12-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle.

  6. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  7. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  8. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  9. From radiation-induced chromosome damage to cell death: modelling basic mechanisms and applications to boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Altieri, S

    2011-02-01

    Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed to interpret radiation-induced cell killing; after briefly discussing some of these models, in this paper, a mechanistic approach based on an experimentally observed link between chromosome aberrations and cell death was presented. More specifically, a model and a Monte Carlo code originally developed for chromosome aberrations were extended to simulate radiation-induced cell death applying an experimentally observed one-to-one relationship between the average number of 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and deletions) per cell and -ln S, S being the fraction of surviving cells. Although such observation was related to X rays, in the present work, the approach was also applied to protons and alpha particles. A good agreement between simulation outcomes and literature data provided a model validation for different radiation types. The same approach was then successfully applied to simulate the survival of cells enriched with boron and irradiated with thermal neutrons at the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia, to mimic a typical treatment for boron neutron capture therapy.

  10. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakeine, G.J. [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com; Di Salvo, M. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Marchetti, A. [Scientific Research Office, Fondazione San Matteo University Policlinic, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy at the Institute of Medical Radiobiology (IMR) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentini, M.; Arkuszewski, J.; Crawford, John F.; Larsson, B.; Stepanek, Jiri; Teichmann, Sarah; Weinreich, R.

    1997-02-01

    Although all of the over 200 patients treated with NCT have been irradiated by reactor-produced neutrons, in the present climate of public opinion one cannot expect the routine use of nuclear reactors in hospitals or clinics to be tolerated. While there are several other methods of producing neutrons in the necessary quantities, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is very well placed to develop techniques base don spallation, in which a beam of protons hits a production target of some convenient material such as tungsten. Because spallation produces neutrons of very similar energies to reactors, the problem of moderating them to keV energies is rather similar. However, there is an additional component of high-energy neutrons, whose intensity depends on the energy of the initial beam, which has to be taken into account in any practical design. Simulations using the well-known codes LAHET, MCNP and GEANT show that a 100 (mu) A beam of 72 MeV protons, well within the capabilities of PSI, could produce enough keV neutrons for therapy.

  12. Relative biological effectiveness and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin for a potential combination of neutron capture therapy and fast-neutron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito; Nishimura, Ryohei; Sasaki, Nobuo; Saito, Isao; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the potential efficacy of fission neutrons from a fast-neutron reactor for the treatment of radioresistant tumors, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin were determined. The forelimbs of 34 healthy mongrel dogs received a single dose of fission neutrons (5.6, 6.8, 8.2, 9.6 or 11 Gy) or 137Cs gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gy). Based on observations of radiodermatitis for each radiation, the single-fraction RBE of fission neutrons in the sixth month was calculated as approximately 3. The tolerance doses of fission neutrons and gamma rays, defined as the highest doses giving no moist desquamation on the irradiated skin in the recovery phase, were estimated as 7.6 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The tolerance dose of 7.6 Gy of fission neutrons included 5.0 Gy of fast neutrons possessing high anti-tumor effects and 1.4 x 10(12) n/cm2 of thermal neutrons, which could be applicable to neutron capture therapy (NCT). The combination of fast-neutron therapy and NCT using a fast-neutron reactor might be useful for the treatment of radioresistant tumors.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.;

    2006-01-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  14. Application of adjoint Monte Carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R.L.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Van der Hagen, T.H.; Van Dam, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the adjoint transport theory in order to optimize Monte Carlo based radiotherapy treatment planning. The technique is applied to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy where most often mixed beams of neutrons and gammas are involved. In normal forward Monte Carlo simu

  15. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  16. Optimization of the geometry and composition of a neutron system for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Gheisari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of the treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT, an optimized neutron system was proposed. This study (simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry and composition of neutron system and increase the epithermal neutron flux for the treatment of deep tumors is performed. Materials and Methods: A neutron system for BNCT was proposed. The system included 252Cf neutron source, neutron moderator/reflector arrangement, filter and concrete. To capture fast neutrons, different neutron filters Fe, Pb, Ni and PbF2 with various thicknesses were simulated and studied. Li (with 1 mm thick was used for filtering of thermal neutrons. Bi with thickness of 1 cm was used to minimize the intensity of gamma rays. Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX 2.4.0 was used for design of the neutron system and calculation of the neutron components at the output port of the system. Results: For different thicknesses of the filters, the fast neutron flux, the epithermal and thermal flux were calculated at the output port of the system. The spatial distribution of the fast neutron flux, the epithermal flux and gamma flux in human head phantom with the presence of 40 ppm of 10B were obtained. The present calculations showed that Pb filter (about 1 cm at the output port is suitable for fast neutron capture. The thickness of Li filter was determined due to its high absorption cross-section in thermal region. Bi was used as a gamma filter by the reason of it is good for shielding gamma rays, while having high transmission epithermal neutrons. Conclusion: The epithermal neutron flux has enhanced about 38 percent at the output port of the present system, compared with recent system proposed by Ghassoun et al. At 2 cm depth inside the head phantom, the neutron flux reaches a maximum value about . At this depth, the ratio of the thermal neutron flux to the epithermal flux is about three times, that suggests such a neutron system to treat tumors in the

  17. Monte Carlo methods of neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S D; Choi, J R; Zamenhof, R G; Yanch, J C; Harling, O K

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods of coupled neutron/photon transport are being used in the design of filtered beams for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). This method of beam analysis provides segregation of each individual dose component, and thereby facilitates beam optimization. The Monte Carlo method is discussed in some detail in relation to NCT epithermal beam design. Ideal neutron beams (i.e., plane-wave monoenergetic neutron beams with no primary gamma-ray contamination) have been modeled both for comparison and to establish target conditions for a practical NCT epithermal beam design. Detailed models of the 5 MWt Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) together with a polyethylene head phantom have been used to characterize approximately 100 beam filter and moderator configurations. Using the Monte Carlo methodology of beam design and benchmarking/calibrating our computations with measurements, has resulted in an epithermal beam design which is useful for therapy of deep-seated brain tumors. This beam is predicted to be capable of delivering a dose of 2000 RBE-cGy (cJ/kg) to a therapeutic advantage depth of 5.7 cm in polyethylene assuming 30 micrograms/g 10B in tumor with a ten-to-one tumor-to-blood ratio, and a beam diameter of 18.4 cm. The advantage ratio (AR) is predicted to be 2.2 with a total irradiation time of approximately 80 minutes. Further optimization work on the MITR-II epithermal beams is expected to improve the available beams.

  18. A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2016-06-28

    Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.

  19. Designing an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy for a DIDO type reactor using MCNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.; Constantine, G.; Weaver, D. R.; Beynon, T. D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to design an epithermal neutron beam for a DIDO type reactor for use in boron neutron capture therapy, a form of cancer treatment. It involved extensive use of MCNP, a Monte Carlo computer code. Initially, calculations were made with MCNP to simulate earlier experiments with an epithermal beam on the DIDO reactor. This comparison made it possible both to validate the Monte Carlo modelling of the reactor and to gain an insight into the important features of the simulation. Following this, MCNP was used to design a filtered epithermal neutron beam facility for DIDO's largest beam tube, a 13.7 cm radius horizontal tube which extends radially away from the core. First a selection was made of the optimum filter components for the beam. Then the research concentrated on combining these filter elements to construct a practical epithermal beam design. The results suggest that the optimum method of generating the epithermal neutron source is to employ a filter combination consisting principally of liquid argon with the addition of cadmium, aluminium, titanium and possibly tin. The calculations also show that the resultant neutron beam would have a flux greater than 1.0 × 10 9 n cm -2 s -1 and have sufficiently low fast-neutron and gamma-ray contamination.

  20. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of `hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of carboranylmethylbenzo[b]acridones as novel agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A Filipa F; Seixas, Raquel S G R; Silva, Artur M S; Coimbra, Joana; Fernandes, Ana C; Santos, Joana P; Matos, António; Rino, José; Santos, Isabel; Marques, Fernanda

    2014-07-28

    Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of benzo[b]acridin-12(7H)-ones bearing carboranyl moieties and test their biological effectiveness as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents in cancer treatment. The cellular uptake of these novel compounds into the U87 human glioblastoma cells was evaluated by boron analysis (ICP-MS) and by fluorescence imaging (confocal microscopy). The compounds enter the U87 cells exhibiting a similar profile, i.e., preferential accumulation in the cytoskeleton and membranes and a low cytotoxic activity (IC50 values higher than 200 μM). The cytotoxic activity and cellular morphological alterations after neutron irradiation in the Portuguese Research Reactor (6.6 × 10(7) neutrons cm(-2) s(-1), 1 MW) were evaluated by the MTT assay and by electron microscopy (TEM). Post-neutron irradiation revealed that BNCT has a higher cytotoxic effect on the cells. Accumulation of membranous whorls in the cytoplasm of cells treated with one of the compounds correlates well with the cytotoxic effect induced by radiation. Results provide a strong rationale for considering one of these compounds as a lead candidate for a new generation of BNCT agents.

  2. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Kumada, H.; Shibata, Y.; Nose, T.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours.

  3. Spectrum evaluation at the filter-modified neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy in Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2004-10-01

    The Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR-HWNIF) was updated in March 1996, mainly to improve the facility for neutron capture therapy (NCT). In this facility, neutron beams with various energy spectra, from almost pure thermal to epithermal, are available. The evaluation of the neutron energy spectra by multi-activation-foil method was performed as a series of the facility characterization. The spectra at the normal irradiation position were evaluated for the combinations of heavy-water thickness of the spectrum shifter and the open-close condition of the cadmium and boral filters. The initial spectra were made mainly using a two-dimensional transport code, and the final spectra were obtained using an adjusting code. For the verification of the evaluated spectra, simulation calculations using a phantom were performed on the assumption of NCT-clinical-irradiation conditions. It resulted that the calculated data for the depth neutron-flux distributions were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Elshahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensions of the moderator and the reflector were optimized through optimization of epithermal / fast neutron intensity ratio as a function of geometric parameters of the setup. Results: The results of our calculation showed the capability of our setup to treat the tumor within 4 cm of the head surface. The calculated peak therapeutic ratio for the setup was found to be 2.15. Conclusion: With further improvement in the polyethylene moderator design and brain phantom irradiation arrangement, the setup capabilities can be improved to reach further deep-seated tumor.

  5. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  6. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  7. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  9. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  10. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, the United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized

  11. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  12. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  13. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  14. Preclinical studies of neutron capture therapy effectiveness in the treatment of malignant tumours, at the nuclear reactor hvr-sm InP as of RUz Preclinical studies of neutron capture therapy effectiveness in the treatment of malignant tumours, at the nuclear reactor hvr-sm InP as of RUz

    OpenAIRE

    KHODJAEVA NAZIMA KHAYRULLAEVNA; NAVRUZOV SARIMBEK NAVRUZOVICH; KAHHOROV JAMAL NEMATOVICH; KULABDULLAEV GAYRAT ASATOVICH; КIM ANDREY ALEKSEEVICH

    2016-01-01

    Developed for treatment of radio resistant malignant tumors the Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is based on the nuclear capture and reactions that occur when 155Gd and 157Gd, which are non-radioactive constituents of natural elemental gadolinium, are irradiated by thermal neutrons with low energy, In this article, results of scientific researches on development GdNCT in Uzbekistan are presented. The beam of epithermal neutrons with characteristics satisfying the all requirements of...

  15. An University-based masters program in occupational therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Peoples, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to share and discuss educational methods to foster master level education. Rationale Among the challenges of the post graduate master program in Occupational Therapy at University of Southern Denmark is the educational change towards an academic culture required...... of students to ascertain master level learning competencies. Through individual study plans and by use of Rubrics as tools for evaluation and feedback processes self-responsible learning is facilitated. Journal Clubs are used to qualify critical research understanding as an integrated part of the curriculum...

  16. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the TRIGA Mark II of Pavia, Italy - The BNCT of the diffuse tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Gadan, M.A. [University of Pavia (Italy); INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, of Pavia (Italy)

    2008-10-29

    The selectivity based on the B distribution rather than on the irradiation field makes Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) a valid option for the treatment of the disseminated tumours. As the range of the high LET particles is shorter than a cell diameter, the normal cells around the tumour are not damaged by the reactions occurring in the tumoral cells. PAVIA 2001: first treatment of multiple hepatic metastases from colon ca by BNCT and auto-transplantation technique: TAOrMINA project. The liver was extracted after BPA infusion, irradiated in the Thermal Column of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II reactor, and re-implanted in the patient. Two patients were treated, demonstrating the feasibility of the therapy and the efficacy in destroying the tumoral nodules sparing the healthy tissues. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research are presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,{alpha}) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. The dose distribution in the thorax are simulated using MCNP and the anthropomorphic model ADAM. To have a good thermal flux distribution inside the lung epithermal neutrons must be used, which thermalize crossing the first tissue layers. Thermal neutrons do not penetrate and the obtained uniformity is poor. In the future, the construction of a PGNAA facility using a horizontal channel of the TRIGA Mark II is planned. With this method the B concentration can be measured also in liquid samples (blood, urine) and

  17. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of spontaneous nasal planum squamous cell carcinoma in felines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, María A; Itoiz, Maria E; Nigg, David W; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was successfully applied to treat experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa, with no damage to normal tissue. It was also shown that treating spontaneous nasal planum SCC in terminal feline patients with low dose BNCT is safe and feasible. In an extension of this work, the present study aimed at evaluation of the response of tumor and dose-limiting normal tissues to potentially therapeutic BNCT doses. Biodistribution studies with (10)B-boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in (10)B) as a (10)B carrier were performed on three felines that showed advanced nasal planum SCC without any standard therapeutic option. Following the biodistribution studies, BNCT mediated by (10)BPA was done using the thermalized epithermal neutron beam at the RA-6 Nuclear Reactor. Follow-up included clinical evaluation, assessment of macroscopic tumor and normal tissue response and biopsies for histopathological analysis. The treated animals did not show any apparent radiation-induced toxicity. All three animals exhibited partial tumor control and an improvement in clinical condition. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was associated with a high (10)B content of the tumor and a small tumor size. BNCT is therefore believed to be potentially effective in the treatment of spontaneous SCC. However, improvement in targeting (10)B into all tumor cells and delivering a sufficient dose at a greater depth are still required for the treatment of deep-seated, large tumors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of the dual mode cellular (e.g. BPA-BNCT) and vascular (e.g. GB-10-BNCT) targeting protocol in a preclinical scenario, employing combinations of (10)B compounds with different properties and complementary uptake mechanisms.

  19. Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.; Kashino, G.; Liu, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.

    2009-06-01

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), 275 clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been performed as of March 2006, and the effectiveness of BNCT has been revealed. In order to further develop BNCT, it is desirable to supply accelerator-based epithermal-neutron sources that can be installed near the hospital. We proposed the method of filtering and moderating fast neutrons, which are emitted from the reaction between a beryllium target and 30-MeV protons accelerated by a cyclotron accelerator, using an optimum moderator system composed of iron, lead, aluminum and calcium fluoride. At present, an epithermal-neutron source is under construction from June 2008. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator, beam transport system, neutron-yielding target, filter, moderator and irradiation bed. In this article, an overview of this system and the properties of the treatment neutron beam optimized by the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code are presented. The distribution of biological effect weighted dose in a head phantom compared with that of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is shown. It is confirmed that for the accelerator, the biological effect weighted dose for a deeply situated tumor in the phantom is 18% larger than that for KUR, when the limit dose of the normal brain is 10 Gy-eq. The therapeutic time of the cyclotron-based neutron sources are nearly one-quarter of that of KUR. The cyclotron-based epithermal-neutron source is a promising alternative to reactor-based neutron sources for treatments by BNCT.

  20. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo or mutant-type (SAS/mp53 p53 was examined. Methods Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. Results When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. Conclusion These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners.

  1. NOTE: Computational study of the required dimensions for standard sized phantoms in boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunoro, H.; Auterinen, I.; Kosunen, A.; Kotiluoto, P.; Seppälä, T.; Savolainen, S.

    2003-11-01

    The minimum size of a water phantom used for calibration of an epithermal neutron beam of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at the VTT FiR 1 research reactor is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The criteria for the size of the phantom were established relative to the neutron and photon radiation fields present at the thermal neutron fluence maximum in the central beam axis (considered as the reference point). At the reference point, for the most commonly used beam aperture size at FiR 1 (14 cm diameter), less than 1% disturbance of the neutron and gamma radiation fields in a phantom were achieved with a minimum a 30 cm × 30 cm cross section of the phantom. For the largest 20 cm diameter beam aperture size, a minimum 40 cm × 40 cm cross-section of the phantom and depth of 20 cm was required to achieve undisturbed radiation field. This size can be considered as the minimum requirement for a reference phantom for dosimetry at FiR 1. The secondary objective was to determine the phantom dimensions for full characterization of the FiR 1 beam in a rectangular water phantom. In the water scanning phantom, isodoses down to the 5% level are measured for the verifications of the beam model in the dosimetric and treatment planning calculations. The dose distribution results without effects caused by the limited phantom size were achieved for the maximum aperture diameter (20 cm) with a 56 cm × 56 cm × 28 cm rectangular phantom. A similar approach to study the required minimum dimensions of the reference and water scanning phantoms can be used for epithermal neutron beams at the other BNCT facilities.

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  3. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB(0,+) became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20-25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB(0,+), respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB(0,+), as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose.

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  5. Midazolam as an adjunctive therapy for capture myopathy in Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) with prognostic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Janelle M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Battley, Phil F.

    2011-01-01

    Capture myopathy is a complication of capture and handling in many species of birds and mammals. Muscular necrosis leads to ataxia, paralysis, and pain, whereas metabolic disturbances can result in death. We conducted an opportunistic clinical trial on Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) th

  6. The use of art and music therapy in substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents.

  7. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-09-01

    This monthly bulletin describes activities in the following project areas during this reporting period: supporting technology development, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support, and PBF operations. (FI)

  8. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1990-10-01

    This bulletin discusses activities during this reporting period in the areas of: supporting technology development; large animal model studies; melanoma project; human studies; stability, pharmacology, and toxicology of drugs; and PBF technical support. (FL)

  9. Irradiation facility for boron neutron capture therapy application based on a rf-driven D-T neutron source and a new beam shaping assembly (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Leung, K. N.

    2002-02-01

    Selecting the best neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires optimizing neutron beam parameters. This involves solving many complex problems. Safety issues related to the use of nuclear reactor in hospital environments, as well as lower costs have led to interest in the development of accelerator-driven neutron sources. The BNCT research programs at the Nuclear Departments of Pisa and Genova Universities (DIMNP and DITEC) focus on studies of new concepts for accelerator-based DT neutron sources. Simple and compact accelerator designs using relatively low deuteron beam energy, ˜100 keV, have been developed which, in turn, can generate high neutron yields. New studies have been started for optimization of moderator materials for the 14.1 MeV DT neutrons. Our aim is to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for therapeutic application at the exit end, with minimal beam intensity losses, the specific goal is to achieve an epithermal neutron flux of at least of 1×109 n/cm2 s at the beam port, with low gamma and fast neutron dose contamination. According to the most recent neutron BNCT beam parameters some moderating and spectrum shifter materials and geometrical configurations have thus far been tested, and neutron and gamma beam data at beam port have been computed. A possible beam shaping assembly model has been designed. This research demonstrates that a DT neutron source could be successfully implemented for BNCT application, with performance surpassing the minimum requirements stated above, using DT neutron sources with yields in the range 1013-1014 n/s. The latest Monte Carlo simulation results of an accelerator based facility which relies on a rf-driven DT fusion neutron generator will be presented.

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme using p-boronophenylalanine and epithermal neutrons: trial design and early clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, J A; Elowitz, E H; Chadha, M; Bergland, R; Capala, J; Joel, D D; Liu, H B; Slatkin, D N; Chanana, A D

    1997-05-01

    A Phase I/II clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme is underway using the amino acid analog p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and the epithermal neutron beam at the Brook-haven Medical Research Reactor. Biodistribution studies were carried out in 18 patients at the time of craniotomy using an i.v. infusion of BPA, solubilized as a fructose complex (BPA-F). There were no toxic effects related to the BPA-F administration at doses of 130, 170, 210, or 250 mg BPA/kg body weight. The tumor/ blood, brain/blood and scalp/blood boron concentration ratios were approximately 3.5:1, 1:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Ten patients have received BNCT following 2-hr infusions of 250 mg BPA/kg body weight. The average boron concentration in the blood during the irradiation was 13.0 +/- 1.5 micrograms 10B/g. The prescribed maximum dose to normal brain (1 cm3 volume) was 10.5 photon-equivalent Gy (Gy-Eq). Estimated maximum and minimum doses (mean +/- sd, n = 10) to the tumor volume were 52.6 +/- 4.9 Gy-Eq (range: 64.4-47.6) and 25.2 +/- 4.2 Gy-Eq (range: 32.3-20.0), respectively). The estimated minimum dose to the target volume (tumor +2 cm margin) was 12.3 +/- 2.7 Gy-Eq (range: 16.2-7.8). There were no adverse effects on normal brain. The scalp showed mild erythema, followed by epilation in the 8 cm diameter field. Four patients developed recurrent tumor, apparently in the lower dose (deeper) regions of the target volume, at post-BNCT intervals of 7,5,3.5 and 3 months, respectively. The remaining patients have had less than 4 months of post-BNCT follow-up. BNCT, at this starting dose level, appears safe. Plans are underway to begin the dose escalation phase of this protocol.

  11. Radiation injury of boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageji, T. E-mail: kageji@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Nagahiro, S.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Toi, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiation injury in acute or delayed stage after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma. Eighteen patients with malignant glioma underwent mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beam and sodium borocaptate between 1998 and 2004. The radiation dose (i.e. physical dose of boron n-alpha reaction) in the protocol used between 1998 and 2000 (Protocol A, n=8) prescribed a maximum tumor volume dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a new dose-escalated protocol was introduced (Protocol B, n=4); it prescribes a minimum tumor volume dose of 18 Gy or, alternatively, a minimum target volume dose of 15 Gy. Since 2002, the radiation dose was reduced to 80-90% dose of Protocol B because of acute radiation injury. A new Protocol was applied to 6 glioblastoma patients (Protocol C, n=6). The average values of the maximum vascular dose of brain surface in Protocol A, B and C were 11.4{+-}4.2 Gy, 15.7{+-}1.2 and 13.9{+-}3.6 Gy, respectively. Acute radiation injury such as a generalized convulsion within 1 week after BNCT was recognized in three patients of Protocol B. Delayed radiation injury such as a neurological deterioration appeared 3-6 months after BNCT, and it was recognized in 1 patient in Protocol A, 5 patients in Protocol B. According to acute radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 15.8{+-}1.3 Gy in positive and was 12.6{+-}4.3 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. According to the delayed radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 13.8{+-}3.8 Gy in positive and was 13.6{+-}4.9 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. The dose escalation is limited because most patients in Protocol B suffered from acute radiation injury. We conclude that the maximum vascular dose does not exceed over 12 Gy to avoid the delayed radiation injury, especially, it should be limited under 10 Gy in the case that tumor

  12. Implementing a Computer Program that Captures Students' Work on Customizable, Periodic-System Data Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiediger, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    The periodic table and the periodic system are central to chemistry and thus to many introductory chemistry courses. A number of existing activities use various data sets to model the development process for the periodic table. This paper describes an image arrangement computer program developed to mimic a paper-based card sorting periodic table…

  13. PROGRAMMED CAPTURE SCRUTINY AND PANIC SCHEME USING BACKDROP WORKING OUT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pughazendi.N,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost intelligent web cam-based wireless video surveillance solution using moving object recognition technology is proposed in this paper. The proposed solution can be applied not only to various security systems, but also to environmental surveillance. Firstly, the basic principle of moving object detecting is given. Limited by the memory consuming and computing capacity of a web cam, a backdrop working out algorithm presented for adaptation. Then, a self-adaptive background model that can update automatically and timely to adapt to the slow and slight changes of natural environment is detailed. When the subtraction of the current captured image and the background reaches a certain threshold, a moving object is considered to be in the current view, and the web cam will automatically notify the central control unit or the user through phone call, SMS. The proposedalgorithm can be implemented in an embedded system with little memory consumption and storage space, so it’s feasible for web cams and other embedded platforms, and the proposed solution can be used in constructing mobile security monitoring system with low-cost hardware and equipments. Thus our first result implemented in Wireless toolkit and the results show the effectiveness of proposed solution.

  14. A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fauziah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni as collimator wall, 60 cm thick of Al as moderator, 15 cm thick of 60Ni as filter, 2 cm thick of Bi as γ-ray shielding, 3 cm thick of 6Li2CO3-polyethylene as beam delimiter, with 1 to 5 cm varied aperture size, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 7.65 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 1.76 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1 and 1.32 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.008, and maximum directionality of 0.73. It did not fully pass the IAEA’s criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. When it was assumed that the graphite inside the thermal column was not discharged but only the part which was going to be replaced by the collimator, the performance of the collimator became better within the positive effect from the surrounding graphite that the beam resulted passed all criteria with epithermal neutron flux up to 1.68 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Keywords: design, collimator, epithermal neutron beam, BNCT, MCNP, criteria   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang desain kolimator yang menghasilkan radiasi netron epitermal untuk uji in vitro dan in vivo pada Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT di Reaktor Riset Kartini dengan menggunakan program Monte

  15. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  16. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  17. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  18. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  19. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  20. Optimum design and criticality safety of a beam-shaping assembly with an accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier for boron neutron capture therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, F

    2015-12-01

    The beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapies with a compact accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier was designed so that an epithermal neutron flux of 1.9×10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) at the treatment position was generated by 5 MeV protons in a beam current of 2 mA. Changes in the atomic density of (135)Xe in the nuclear fuel due to the operation of the beam-shaping assembly were estimated. The criticality safety of the beam-shaping assembly in terms of Xe poisoning is discussed.

  1. A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Fauziah; Andang Widiharto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2015-01-01

    Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each ...

  2. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  3. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Sørensen, P G; Björkdahl, O; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-03-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and chemical assays and reveal profound changes in surface chemistry and structural characteristics. In vitro thermal neutron irradiation of B16 melanoma cells incubated with sub-100 nm nanoparticles (381.5 microg/g (10)B) induces complete cell death. The nanoparticles alone induce no toxicity.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  5. Prevention of transmitted infections in a pet therapy program: An exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Pam; Brown, Janice; Wright, Mary Ellen

    2016-07-01

    The focus of the patient experience in health care delivery has afforded the opportunity to integrate pet therapy as a part of patient care. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a pet therapy program that includes guidelines for the prevention of transmitted infections. Consideration of infection prevention strategies has resulted in a 16-year program with no documented incidences of transmitted infections, averaging 20,000 pet therapy interactions per year.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors. Technical progress report No. 1, May 1, 1990--January 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.

    1990-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy offers the potentiality for treating brain tumors currently resistant to treatment. The success of this form of therapy is directly dependent upon the delivery of sufficient numbers of thermal-neutrons to tumor cells which possess high concentrations of B-10. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methodology to synthesize boron-containing compounds with the potential for becoming incorporated into rapidly-dividing malignant brain tumor cells and excluded from normal components of the brain and surrounding tissues, to develope biological methods for assessing the potential of the compound by use of cell culture or intratumoral injection, to develop analytical methodology for measuring boron in cells and tissue using direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) and alpha track autoradiography, to develop biochemical and HPLC procedures for evaluating compound uptake and tissue half-life, and to develop procedures required to assess both in vitro and vivo efficacy of BNCT with selected compounds.

  7. Characterisation of neutron and gamma-ray emission from thick target Be(p,n) reaction for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzek, J.; Mateva, T.; Tapper, U.A.S. [De Beers Diamond Res. Lab., Southdale (South Africa); McMurray, W.R. [National Accelerator Centre, Van de Graaff Group, P.O. Box 72, Faure 7131 (South Africa); Franklyn, C.B. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1998-04-01

    Low energy accelerator-based neutron sources have promising potential for use in a clinical treatment of cancer with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS). Such sources often utilise a thick target Be(p,n) reaction using incident proton energies from several hundred keV to 1-2 MeV above the reaction threshold of 2.06 MeV. The resulting neutron and gamma-ray beams require considerable moderation and filtration in order to obtain thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes for therapy. The detailed knowledge of neutron and gamma-ray spectra, yield and angular distribution are necessary in order to design effective moderators and filters to be used for the treatment. Thick and thin beryllium target neutron and gamma spectra have been investigated in detail using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique, for incident proton energies from above threshold to 4 MeV. The results show characteristics of neutron and gamma-ray production of importance for the application of this neutron source for BNCT and BNCS. (orig.) 6 refs.

  8. Microanalysis system of ppm-order 10B concentrations in tissue for neutron capture therapy by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    For neutron capture therapy, a new technique for measuring 10B concentrations of ppm order in tissue has been developed by using 10B(n, α) 7Li ∗ prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. The measuring system consists of a Ge(Li) detector and a 6LiF tile neutron shield attached to the neutron guide tube of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) with very low background gamma-rays. The 10B concentrations of unknown samples were determined in comparison with gamma-ray data obtained from known samples. The detection limit of the system is 0.1-0.5 ppm 10B concentration. In the practical use of the system for neutron capture therapy, 10B concentrations of 10 ppm, which is ordinarily pre-injected into the tumor, can be measured in less than 30 s with 10% accuracy by using 1 g samples. Moreover, the system has the advantage that pre-treatment of the sample is not required. As a neutron monitor in a homogeneous sample, gamma-rays emitted from H(n, γ)D reactions are used. Therefore, neutron irradiation conditions of this system, i.e. fluence rate, energy spectrum, and distribution in the sample do not affect the analyzing results, and the quantity and dimensions of the sample are also not restricted.

  9. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  10. The Effect of ICD Programming on Inappropriate and Appropriate ICD Therapies in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedláček, Kamil; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The MADIT-RIT trial demonstrated reduction of inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies and mortality by high-rate cut-off and 60-second-delayed VT therapy ICD programming in patients with a primary prophylactic ICD indication. The aim of this analysis was to study effects of MADIT......-RIT ICD programming in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: First and total occurrences of both inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies were analyzed by multivariate Cox models in 791 (53%) patients with ischemic and 707 (47%) patients with nonischemic......-rate cut-off (arm B) and delayed VT therapy ICD programming (arm C) compared with conventional (arm A) ICD programming were associated with a significant risk reduction of first inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (HR range 0.11-0.34, P

  11. Art Enrichment: Evaluating a Collaboration between Head Start and a Graduate Art Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klorer, P. Gussie; Robb, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Head Start, a U.S. federally funded program, prepares children for school through early childhood intervention in social-emotional and cognitive arenas. This article describes program evaluation survey results from the past 5 years of an 18-year collaboration between a university graduate art therapy program and 8 Head Start centers. Graduate art…

  12. Play Therapy Training among School Psychology, Social Work, and School Counseling Graduate Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Christina Bechle

    2012-01-01

    This study examined play therapy training across the nation among school psychology, social work, and school counseling graduate training programs. It also compared current training to previous training among school psychology and school counseling programs. A random sample of trainers was selected from lists of graduate programs provided by…

  13. Integrating Therapy Dog Teams in a Physical Activity Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Bibik, Janice M.; Cavalier, Albert R.; Manley, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    The use of therapy-dog teams in programs for children with disabilities is becoming increasingly popular in school and therapeutic settings and has been shown to provide physical, social, and emotional benefits for the children. This article describes the basic steps for implementing therapy dog-assisted activities in physical activity programs…

  14. The Impact of a Therapy Dog Program on Children's Reading Skills and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirnan, Jean; Siminerio, Steven; Wong, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    An existing school program in which therapy dogs are integrated into the reading curriculum was analyzed to determine the effect on student reading. Previous literature suggests an improvement in both reading skills and attitudes towards reading when students read in the presence of a therapy dog. Using a mixed method model, the researchers…

  15. Promoting Well-Being and Gerotranscendence in an Art Therapy Program for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Raquel Chapin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a community art therapy program that was designed to promote health and well-being in old age. Observations of diverse participant interactions in the nondirective therapy studio over the course of 6 years revealed the benefits of art making and how it may influence well-being during the process of advancing age. Program…

  16. Effectiveness of a graded exercise therapy program for patients with chronic shoulder complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, J.J.; Goossens, M.E.J.B.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Bruijn, C.P. de; Bie, R.A. de; Dinant, G.J.; Heijden, G.W. van der; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    An operant behavioural and time-contingent graded exercise therapy program was developed to improve functional ability irrespective of pain experience in patients with chronic shoulder complaints. The clinical effectiveness of graded exercise therapy compared to usual care was evaluated in a randomi

  17. Take a Paws: Fostering Student Wellness with a Therapy Dog Program at Your University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannon, Amber; Harrison, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Therapy dogs are trained and socialized to provide comfort to individuals who are ill or experiencing stress. The following article explores therapy dog outreach programs in academic libraries by describing a successful venture at McGill University Library. Background, planning advice, assessment results, and recommendations are presented with an…

  18. Medical Music Therapy: A Model Program for Clinical Practice, Education, Training and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph evolved from the unique, innovative partnership between the Florida State University Music Therapy Program and Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare. Its purpose is to serve as a model for music therapy educators, students, clinicians, and the hospital administrators who might employ them. This book should prove a valuable resource for…

  19. Development of an optical fiber type detector using a Eu:LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator for neutron monitoring in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi, E-mail: k-watanabe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Kawabata, Yuya; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro [Tokuyama Corp., 1-1 Mikage-cho, Shunan-shi, Yamaguchi, 745-8648 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0192 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a small neutron detector probe as a thermal neutron flux monitor for boron neutron capture therapy. The detector consists of an optical fiber and a small Eu:LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator. In order to improve neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability, we use the small-size scintillator, whose size is controlled to be smaller than fast electron range produced by gamma-rays and larger than the range of charged particles induced by {sup 6}Li(n,t) reactions. We confirmed the improved neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability by comparing the detector responses between a small-size scintillator and a slab one. We also evaluated the neutron sensitivity of the fabricated optical fiber type neutron detector to be 2×10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}.

  20. Monitoring the distribution of prompt gamma rays in boron neutron capture therapy using a multiple-scattering Compton camera: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Hyounggun; Lee, Wonho, E-mail: wonhol@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-21

    This study evaluated the use of Compton imaging technology to monitor prompt gamma rays emitted by {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applied to a computerized human phantom. The Monte Carlo method, including particle-tracking techniques, was used for simulation. The distribution of prompt gamma rays emitted by the phantom during irradiation with neutron beams is closely associated with the distribution of the boron in the phantom. Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was applied to the information obtained from the detected prompt gamma rays to reconstruct the distribution of the tumor including the boron uptake regions (BURs). The reconstructed Compton images of the prompt gamma rays were combined with the cross-sectional images of the human phantom. Quantitative analysis of the intensity curves showed that all combined images matched the predetermined conditions of the simulation. The tumors including the BURs were distinguishable if they were more than 2 cm apart.

  1. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  2. Improved methods for the generation of 24.5 keV neutron beams with possible application to boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G.; Baker, L. J.; Taylor, N. P.

    1986-09-01

    The production of epithermal neutron beams, filtered to provide a spectrum in which a small energy range predominates, is of importance for radiobiological research and in the development and calibration of instruments for monitoring intermediate energy neutrons. The penetration characteristics of intermediate energy neutrons in tissue lead to the possibility of application in the field of neutron capture therapy if beams of sufficient intensity and adequate spectral properties can be generated. In this paper methods of utilising the 24.5 keV antiresonance in the iron neutron cross section are described, and the DENIS (depth enhanced neutron intense source) principle by which beam intensities may be optimised is explained. Calculations and experimental measurements in an in-core facility in the DIDO reactor at Harwell have indicated that a DENIS scatterer can achieve a 6-fold improvement in 24.5 keV beam intensity compared with a conventional titanium disc scatterer.

  3. A conceptual design of a beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapy based on deuterium-tritium neutron generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Guido; Abrahantes, Arian

    2004-05-01

    A conceptual design of a beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapy using deuterium-tritium accelerator based neutrons source is developed. Calculations based on a simple geometry model for the radiation transport are initially performed to estimate the assembly materials and their linear dimensions. Afterward, the assembly geometry is produced, optimized and verified. In order to perform these calculations the general-purpose MCNP code is used. Irradiation time and therapeutic gain are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation. In the present beam-shaping assembly proposal, the therapeutic gain is improved by 23% and the accelerator current required for a fixed irradiation period is reduced by six times compared to previous proposals based on the same D-T reaction.

  4. Quantitative bioimaging of p-boronophenylalanine in thin liver tissue sections as a tool for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifschneider, Olga; Schütz, Christian L; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hampel, Gabriele; Ross, Tobias; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed and applied to assess enrichment of 10B-containing p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) and its pharmacokinetic distribution in human tissues after application for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). High spatial resolution (50 μm) and limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range were achieved using a Nd:YAG laser of 213 nm wavelength. External calibration by means of 10B-enriched standards based on whole blood proved to yield precise quantification results. Using this calibration method, quantification of 10B in cancerous and healthy tissue was carried out. Additionally, the distribution of 11B was investigated, providing 10B enrichment in the investigated tissues. Quantitative imaging of 10B by means of LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated as a new option to characterise the efficacy of boron compounds for BNCT.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanostructured materials with potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging, neutron-capture therapy and targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F., E-mail: ghanotakis@chemistry.uoc.g [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Two Gadolinium nanostructured materials, Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} nanoparticles and Gd(OH){sub 3} nanorods, were synthesized and extensively characterized by various techniques. In addition to the potential use of Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) application, it could also be used in targeted drug delivery. An antibiotic (nalidixic acid), two amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid), a fatty acid and a surfactant (SDS) were intercalated in the nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic acid in order to be capable of targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing sites, such as tumor human cells.

  6. A new graduate education program in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beldham-Collins, Rachael [Radiation Oncology Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, PO Box 533, Wentworthville NSW 2145 (Australia); School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Milinkovic, Danielle [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: d.milinkovic@fhs.usyd.edu.au

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: The evaluation of the Radiation Oncology Network's (RON) in house professional development year (PDY) support program was implemented to determine the appropriate teaching, learning and transfer of learning strategies that assist the newly practicing radiation therapists' transition into the busy working environment. As the AIR program saw little clinical support offered to participating new graduates and thus a need for further educational support was felt. The RON support program was initially introduced as the clinical education support component of the NSW PDY program that was introduced in 1995 by the Australian Institute of Radiography. Method: Following the facilitation of the RON PDY program over a twelve month period, qualitative feedback was obtained using a focus group consisting of new graduates from the program. Two moderators facilitated the focus group: one moderator facilitated the discussion while the second moderator transcribed it. The graduate practitioners were asked a number of questions related to the teaching and learning strategies employed by the program as well as the structure of the program. Results/discussion: The responses were analysed into the following themes: teaching and learning strategies, transfer of learning, facilitation and future learning needs. Overall the graduate practitioners found the program nurtured their skill, knowledge and attitudes appropriately at such a critical stage in their career.

  7. Cross-modality grief therapy : description and assessment of a new program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, H A; de Keijser, J; van den Bout, J; Stroebe, M S

    1996-01-01

    A recently developed program for extensive inpatient grief therapy in groups, administered on a time-limited basis, is outlined, an illustrative case study is described, and empirical assessment of the program's efficacy is provided. During a 3-month stay in a Dutch Health Care Centre, a combined tr

  8. Evaluation of an Occupational Therapy Mentorship Program: Effects on Therapists' Skills and Family-Centered Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation…

  9. Research Update: Two-Year Follow-up Report for the Wilderness Therapy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene S.

    1994-01-01

    Follow-up surveys of 23 adolescent participants in the Wilderness Therapy Program examined self-efficacy, behavioral symptoms, and locus of control at 4 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the program. Results suggest a regression to pretest levels at 4 months, with a return to the original posttest change levels at 1 and 2 years. (Author/SV)

  10. Designing post-graduate Master's degree programs: the advanced training program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy as one example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzmann, Anja; Ruge, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Kristin; Kordaß, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The decision to consolidate European higher education was reached by the Bologna Conference. Based on the Anglo-American system, a two-cycle degree program (Bachelor and Master) has been introduced. Subjects culminating in a state examination, such as Medicine and Dentistry, were excluded from this reform. Since the state examination is already comparable in its caliber to a Master’s degree in Medicine or Dentistry, only advanced Master’s degree programs with post-graduate specializations come into consideration for these subjects. In the field of dentistry numerous post-graduate study programs are increasingly coming into existence. Many different models and approaches are being pursued. Method: Since the 2004-2005 winter semester, the University of Greifswald has offered the Master’s degree program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy. Two and a half years in duration, this program is structured to allow program participation while working and targets licensed dentists who wish to attain certified skills for the future in state-of-the-art functional analysis and therapy. Aim: The design of this post-graduate program and the initial results of the evaluation by alumni are presented here. Conclusion: Our experiences show that the conceptual idea of an advanced Master’s program has proved successful. The program covers a specialty which leads to increased confidence in handling challenging patient cases. The sharing of experiences among colleagues was evaluated as being especially important. PMID:24872853

  11. Gender and Diversity Topics Taught in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Ebony Joy; Piercy, Fred P.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how the topics of gender and diversity are being taught and defined in accredited marriage and family therapy programs through syllabi content analysis and interviews with selected faculty. We examined findings by program (master's and doctoral) and type of training (those that taught specific gender and culture courses and…

  12. Making Space for Racial Dialogue: Our Experience in a Marriage and Family Therapy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Fang, Shi-Ruei; Young, Cecilia Gomez; Khanna, Anchal; Sherman, Brooke; Brownlee, Kenya

    2003-01-01

    Marriage and family therapy (MFT) training programs need to create opportunities for all students to develop cultural competency by raising their racial awareness and sensitivity. Likewise, therapists of color need to be offered space in MFT programs to voice their experiences and venues for their voices to be heard. This article reports on the…

  13. Emotional Safety in Adventure Therapy Programs: Can It Be Defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Ninety-eight adventure therapy professionals analyzed a proposed definition of emotional safety and rated 26 factors hypothesized to affect an individual's level of emotional safety during adventure activities. Factors were related to specific techniques used by instructors, instructor skills and abilities, the physical environment, and group…

  14. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  15. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  16. Folate receptor-mediated boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for boron neutron capture therapy of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Congxin; Cai, Feng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Zhou, Yongmao; Zhang, Zizhu; Liu, Xiaohai; Ma, Sihai; Yang, Yakun; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Bao, Xinjie; Li, Guilin; Wei, Junji; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2013-02-01

    Invasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are difficult to completely resect and often develop tumor recurrence after initial surgery. Currently, no medications are clinically effective in the control of NFPA. Although radiation therapy and radiosurgery are useful to prevent tumor regrowth, they are frequently withheld because of severe complications. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy that selectively and maximally damages tumor cells without harming the surrounding normal tissue. Folate receptor (FR)-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles is a novel boron delivery agent that can be selectively taken up by FR-expressing cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. In this study, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles were selectively taken up by NFPAs cells expressing FR but not other types of non-FR expressing pituitary adenomas. After incubation with boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles and following irradiation with thermal neutrons, the cell viability of NFPAs was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were simultaneously increased. However, cells administered the same dose of FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles without neutron irradiation or received the same neutron irradiation alone did not show significant decrease in cell viability or increase in apoptotic cells. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated and the expression of Bax was up-regulated in NFPAs after treatment with FR-mediated BNCT. In conclusion, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles may be an ideal delivery system of boron to NFPAs cells for BNCT. Furthermore, our study also provides a novel insight into therapeutic strategies for invasive NFPA refractory to conventional therapy, while exploring these new applications of BNCT for tumors, especially benign tumors.

  17. The effects of animal-assisted therapy on wounded warriors in an Occupational Therapy Life Skills program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christine E; Gonzales, Florie; Sells, Carol Haertlein; Jones, Cynthia; Reer, Theresa; Zhu, Yao Yao

    2012-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has gained much attention in civilian and military health care. Evidence supports its benefits with varied populations with diseases and disabilities, but no research has been done with injured or ill service members. This pretest, posttest nonrandomized control group study evaluated the effects of AAT on Warriors in transition (N=24) attending an Occupational Therapy Life Skills program with the long-term goal of improving their successful reintegration. Although significant differences were not found between the groups on most measures, anecdotal reports by participants and observers indicate that participants eagerly anticipated being with the therapy dogs, expressed pleasure and satisfaction with the experience, and regretted seeing it end. There were significant correlations between mood, stress, resilience, fatigue, and function at various measurement points. This is the first study to formally assess the benefits of AAT with wounded service members in garrison. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  18. Use of Gestalt Therapy Within a Drug Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideroff, Stephen I.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a Gestalt therapeutic approach that has shown promise within a drug treatment program. The major issues discussed include the acquisition of self-support, taking responsibility, dealing with anxiety, contact, and the expression of pent-up feelings. (Author)

  19. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  20. Sensitivity studies of beam directionality, beam size, and neutron spectrum for a fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Kiger, W S; Harling, O K

    1999-09-01

    Sensitivity studies of epithermal neutron beam performance in boron neutron capture therapy are presented for realistic neutron beams with varying filter/moderator and collimator/delimiter designs to examine the relative importance of neutron beam spectrum, directionality, and size. Figures of merit for in-air and in-phantom beam performance are calculated via the Monte Carlo technique for different well-optimized designs of a fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam with head phantoms as the irradiation target. It is shown that increasing J/phi, a measure of beam directionality, does not always lead to corresponding monotonic improvements in beam performance. Due to the relatively low significance, for most configurations, of its effect on in-phantom performance and the large intensity losses required to produce beams with very high J/phi, beam directionality should not be considered an important figure of merit in epithermal neutron beam design except in terms of its consequences on patient positioning and collateral dose. Hardening the epithermal beam spectrum, while maintaining the specific fast neutron dose well below the inherent hydrogen capture dose, improves beam penetration and advantage depth and, as a desirable by-product, significantly increases beam intensity. Beam figures of merit are shown to be strongly dependent on beam size relative to target size. Beam designs with J/phi approximately 0.65-0.7, specific fast neutron doses of 2-2.6x10(-13) Gy cm2/n and beam sizes equal to or larger than the size of the head target produced the deepest useful penetration, highest therapeutic ratios, and highest intensities.

  1. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  2. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model.

  3. Quarterly Report for LANL Activities: FY12-Q2 National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Rajesh J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-17

    This report summarizes progress of LANL activities related to the tasks performed under the LANL FWP FE102-002-FY10, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program. This FWP is funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Overall, the NRAP activities are focused on understanding and evaluating risks associated with large-scale injection and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations. One of the primary risks during large-scale injection is due to changes in geomechanical stresses to the storage reservoir, to the caprock/seals and to the wellbores. These changes may have the potential to cause CO{sub 2} and brine leakage and geochemical impacts to the groundwater systems. While the importance of these stresses is well recognized, there have been relatively few quantitative studies (laboratory, field or theoretical) of geomechanical processes in sequestration systems. In addition, there are no integrated studies that allow evaluation of risks to groundwater quality in the context of CO{sub 2} injection-induced stresses. The work performed under this project is focused on better understanding these effects. LANL approach will develop laboratory and computational tools to understand the impact of CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical stress by creating a geomechanical test bed using inputs from laboratory experiments, field data, and conceptual approaches. The Geomechanical Test Bed will be used for conducting sensitivity and scenario analyses of the impacts of CO{sub 2} injection. The specific types of questions will relate to fault stimulation and fracture inducing stress on caprock, changes in wellbore leakage due to evolution of stress in the reservoir and caprock, and the potential for induced seismicity. In addition, the Geomechanical Test Bed will be used to investigate the coupling of stress-induced leakage pathways with impacts on groundwater quality. LANL activities are performed under two tasks

  4. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in a partial hospital program for women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E B; Pistorello, J; Begin, A; Costello, E; Levinson, J; Mulberry, S; Pearlstein, T; Rosen, K; Stevens, M

    1998-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy, an outpatient psychosocial treatment for chronically suicidal women with borderline personality disorder, has been adapted for use in a partial hospital program for women. Patients attend the program for a minimum of five days of individual and group therapy, and full census is 12 women. About 65 percent of participants meet at least three criteria for borderline personality disorder, and most have suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Their comorbid diagnoses include trauma-related diagnoses and anxiety disorders, severe eating disorders, substance abuse, and depression. The partial hospital program is linked to an aftercare program offering six months of outpatient skills training based on dialectical behavior therapy. Both programs focus on teaching patients four skills: mindfulness (attention to one's experience), interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Two years of operation of the women's partial hospital program provides promising anecdotal evidence that dialectical behavioral therapy, an outpatient approach, can be effectively modified for partial hospital settings and a more diverse population.

  5. The efficacy of mirror therapy combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on motor and functional recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Selen Kuzgun; Merih Özgen; Onur Armağan; Funda Taşcıoğlu; Canan Baydemir

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A variety of methods is used in the treatment of upper extremity functional impairment after stroke.In recent years, a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of stroke rehabilitation is the mirror therapy.The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of mirror therapy,which is applied through motor imagination training, combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in patients with subacute stroke...

  6. Directory of Experiential Therapy and Adventure-Based Counseling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Jackie, Ed.

    This directory lists 257 organizations with therapeutic adventure and experiential programs for special needs populations. The information was generated from a survey of members of the Association for Experiential Education. Special needs populations include youth-at-risk, persons with addictions, juvenile and adult offenders, inpatient and…

  7. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulati...

  8. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: The New Eclectic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Nicoletta C.

    Richard Bandler and John Grinder developed neuro-linguisitc programming (NLP) after observing "the magical skills of potent psychotherapists" Frederick Perls, Virginia Satir, and Milton Erikson. They compiled the most effective techniques for building rapport, gathering data, and influencing change in psychotherapy, offering them only as…

  9. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: The New Eclectic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Nicoletta C.

    Richard Bandler and John Grinder developed neuro-linguisitc programming (NLP) after observing "the magical skills of potent psychotherapists" Frederick Perls, Virginia Satir, and Milton Erikson. They compiled the most effective techniques for building rapport, gathering data, and influencing change in psychotherapy, offering them only as an…

  10. An art therapy in-service program model for medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca Beers

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the author's experience implementing an art therapy in-service program into the training of medical students and residents in an urban hospital teaching facility. Emphasis is placed on specific aspects of planning and implementation, including formal and informal assessment, as well as methods of engaging medical students in art therapy experientials relevant to their experience as helping professionals. Benefits and challenges encountered throughout the process are also discussed. This paper is based on a presentation given at the 36th annual American Art Therapy Association conference.

  11. [Impact of a music therapy program on the stress level of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taets, Gunnar Glauco de Cunto; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; de Figueiredo, Nébia Maria Almeida; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

  12. Value and Clinical Impact of an Infectious Disease-Supervised Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Russell M.; Skorodin, Nathan C.; Fliegelman, Robert M.; Hines, David W.; Chundi, Vishnu V.; Harting, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered infectious disease (ID) private practice setting. Methods. Over a period of 32 months, 6120 patients were treated using 19 outpatient ID offices in 6 states. Analysis included patient demographics, indications of OPAT, diagnoses, therapeutic agent, duration of therapy, and site of therapy initiation. Outcomes were stratified by therapeutic success, clinical relapse, therapeutic complications, and hospitalizations after initiating therapy. Statistical analysis included an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results. Forty-three percent of patients initiated therapy in an outpatient office, and 57% began therapy in a hospital. Most common diagnoses treated were bone and joint (32.2%), abscesses (18.8%), cellulitis (18.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.8%). Ninety-four percent of patients were successfully treated, and only 3% were hospitalized after beginning therapy. Most common cause of treatment failure was a relapse of primary infection (60%), progression of primary infection (21%), and therapeutic complication (19%). Conclusions. An ID-supervised OPAT program is safe, efficient, and clinically effective. By maximizing the delivery of outpatient care, OPAT provides a tangible value to hospitals, payers, and patients. This program is a distinctive competency available to ID physicians who offer this service to patients.

  13. A 12-Week Exercise Therapy Program in Middle-Aged Patients With Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Roos, Ewa M.; Risberg, May Arna

    2012-01-01

    , progression, tolerance, and potential benefit from an exercise therapy program in these patients who have not had surgery. This study describes a progressive exercise therapy program aiming at improving neuromuscular function and muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears......Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 STUDY DESIGN: Case Series. BACKGROUND: Exercise is a viable treatment alternative to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscus tears. No study has reported in detail type of exercises...

  14. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  15. Design of a rotating facility for extracorporal treatment of an explanted liver with disseminated metastases by boron neutron capture therapy with an epithermal neutron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L; Kloosterman, J L; van der Hagen, T H J J; van Dam, H; Wittig, A; Malago, M; Sauerwein, W

    2006-07-01

    In 2001, at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia (Italy), a patient suffering from diffuse liver metastases from an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid was successfully treated by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedure involved boron infusion prior to hepatectomy, irradiation of the explanted liver at the thermal column of the reactor, and subsequent reimplantation. A complete response was observed. This encouraging outcome stimulated the Essen/Petten BNCT group to investigate whether such an extracorporal irradiation could be performed at the BNCT irradiation facility at the HFR Petten (The Netherlands), which has very different irradiation characteristics than the Pavia facility. A computational study has been carried out. A rotating PMMA container with a liver, surrounded by PMMA and graphite, is simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Due to the rotation and neutron moderation of the PMMA container, the initial epithermal neutron beam provides a nearly homogeneous thermal neutron field in the liver. The main conditions for treatment as reported from the Pavia experiment, i.e. a thermal neutron fluence of 4 x 10(12) +/- 20% cm(-2), can be closely met at the HFR in an acceptable time, which, depending on the defined conditions, is between 140 and 180 min.

  16. The medical-irradiation characteristics for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    At the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, the mix irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, and the solo irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons are available additionally to the thermal neutron irradiation, and then the neutron capture therapy (NCT) at this facility became more flexible, after the update in 1996. The estimation of the depth dose distributions in NCT clinical irradiation, were performed for the standard irradiation modes of thermal, mixed and epi-thermal neutrons, from the both sides of experiment and calculation. On the assumption that the 10B concentration in tumor part was 40 ppm and the ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 3.5, the advantage depth were estimated to 5.4, 6.0, and 8.0, for the respective standard irradiation modes. It was confirmed that the various irradiation conditions can be selected according to the target-volume conditions, such as size, depth, etc. Besides, in the viewpoint of the radiation shielding for patient, it was confirmed that the whole-body exposure is effectively reduced by the new clinical collimators, compared with the old one.

  17. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  18. Design calculations of an epithermal neutron beam and development of a treatment planning system for the renovation of thor for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y-W H.; Teng, Y.H.; Liao, M.Z. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Department of Engineering and System Science, Taiwan (China)

    2000-10-01

    Tsing Hua University was recently granted by National Science Council a five-year project to renovate its Open-Pool reactor (THOR) for boron neutron capture therapy. With this support, the whole graphite blocks in the original thermal column region can be removed for redesigning and constructing a better epithermal neutron beam. THOR is a 1 MW research reactor. The cross section area of the core facing the thermal column is 60 cm x 50 cm. By using 60 cm FLUENTAL plus 10 cm Pb, with cross section area of 70 cm x 60 cm and surrounded by 6 cm thick PbF{sub 2} reflector, the epithermal neutron flux at the filter/moderator exit can reach {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}/s. When the collimator is added, the epithermal neutron beam intensity at the beam exit is reduced to 3 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}/sec, but is still six times higher than the previous beam. Facing the clinical trials scheduled 3 and half years from now, a preliminary version of treatment planning system is developed. It includes a pre-processor to read CT scan and post-processors to display dose distributions. (author)

  19. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  20. Effect of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients with moderate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda, Pablo; Cervelló, Eduardo; Cocca, Armando; Viciana, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients suffering from moderate depression. 82 female patients weredivided into a group that received traditional pharmacotherapy (Fluoxetine 20 mg) and a group that received pharmacotherapy plus an aerobic training program. This program was carried out for eight consecutive weeks, three days per week, and included gymnastics, dancing, and walking. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory and the ICD-10 Guide for Depression Diagnosis, both administered before and after treatments. The results confirm the effectiveness of the aerobic training program as a complementary therapy to diminish depressive symptoms in patients suffering from moderate depression.

  1. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  2. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  3. Monte-Carlo simulation of primary stochastic effects induced at the cellular level in boron neutron capture therapy; Simulation Monte-Carlo des effets stochastiques primaires induits au niveau cellulaire lors de la therapie par capture de neutrons sur le {sup 10}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P.; Nepveu, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1998-04-01

    A Monte Carlo code is developed to study the action of particles in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Our aim is to calculate the probability of dissipating a lethal dose in cell nuclei. Cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes are considered as non-concentric ellipsoids. All geometrical parameters may be adjusted to fit actual configurations. The reactions {sup 10}B(n,{gamma} {alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 14}N(n,p) {sup 14}C create heavy ions which slow clown losing their energy. Their trajectories can be simulated taking into account path length straggling. The contribution of each reaction to the deposited dose in different cellular compartments can be studied and analysed for any distribution of {sup 10}B. (authors)

  4. Piloting a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Infused Skills Group in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…

  5. Feasibility of a Prototype Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Prevention Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Seeley, John R.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of a prototype Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) program for preventing mental health problems among college students. Participants: Undergraduate first-year students ("N" = 76) participated between May and November 2011. Methods: Participants were randomized to ACT or a…

  6. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  7. 75 FR 17412 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property... Treatment and Diagnosis, is seeking comments on a proposed revision to its policy on intellectual property...) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OPTION. The proposed policy, if finalized, would establish that potential applicants...

  8. Occupational Therapy Home Program for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Ho, Guang-Sheng; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed occupational therapy home program (OTHP) for children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Children with ID were randomly and equally assigned to OTHP or to no OTHP groups. The primary outcome measures were Canadian Occupational Performance, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor…

  9. Prevalence of Physical Disability and Accommodation Needs among Students in Physical Therapy Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Martha R.; Peterson, Cathryn A.; Gibbs, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on graduate students with disabilities (SWDs) has focused on medical education. The purposes of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of students with physical disabilities (SWPDs) in physical therapy programs, (2) identify common types of physical disabilities, (3) document the types of accommodations requested by SWPDs,…

  10. Multicultural training in the United States: a survey of occupational therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elena Verdine Donoso; Muñoz, Jaime Phillip; Powell, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was designed to describe multicultural training practices in occupational therapy programs. A survey was sent to occupational therapy programs in the United States to gather information on multicultural content, skills, and teaching methods as well as diversity context and challenges. The response rate was 54%. The most frequently covered multicultural content was related to cultural background and sociopolitical factors. Multicultural skills covered most often were practice oriented and interpersonal skills. Teaching methods reported as used most often differed from the methods thought by the respondents to be most effective. Programs reported multiple challenges to multicultural training including lack of time and lack of diversity in the student body, faculty, and environment. Results suggest that educators may need to expand multicultural content and skills to prepare occupational therapy students for providing care in increasingly diverse practice settings. In addition, increased use of teaching methods that focus on exposure to diverse populations and reflection may be needed to improve the effectiveness of multicultural training in occupational therapy programs.

  11. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  12. RESULTS OF OUTPATIENT PROGRAM ON EFFECTIVE THERAPY OF REFRACTORY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Batyushin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To increase in efficacy of antihypertensive therapy in patients with refractory arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients with refractory HT were revealed during first month of program. The causes of refractory HT were analyzed. Combined antihypertensive therapy was prescribed to reach target level of blood pressure (BP. This therapy lasted 24 weeks and included angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, thiazid diuretic (indapamide and dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (nifedipine XL.Results. 200 patients with refractory HT were revealed. True refractory HT took place in 59,9% of patients and pseudo refractory HT – in 40,1% of patients. Lack of diuretics or combined antihypertensive therapy were the main reason of insufficient BP control. Proposed 3-drugs therapy resulted in reduction of systolic BP from 190 to 132 Hg mm and diastolic BP from 104 to 81 Hg mm. Target level of BP was reached in 94% patients. There were no side effects which demanded to stop therapy.Conclusion. High incidence of pseudorefractory HT (40,1% is revealed. Significant prevalence of renal disturbances especially chronic interstitial inflammatory could be responsible for refractory HT development. Use of 3-drugs therapy (ACE inhibitor, indapamide and nifedipine XL provides effective control of BP in refractory and pseudorefractory HT.

  13. Evaluation of a Home-Based Physical Therapy Program in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sîrbu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation therapy should begin in the acute-care hospital as soon as possible after the stroke and continued after discharging patients from the hospital to their home environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a home-based physical therapy program in the improvement of motor function, balance and activities of daily living. Material and methods. Fourteen ischemic first stroke patients (8 women and 6 men, aged from 49 to 84 (mean 69 were recruited from the Neurology Department of the Emergency County Hospital Timişoara. After hospital discharge, they were assigned to a 12-week home physical therapy program in order to improve motor function, balance and activities of daily living (ADL. All patients were assessed before and after the training program with the following tests: (1 Barthel index; (2 Berg Balance Scale; (3 Motricity index; (4 Functional Independence Measure. Results. After 12 weeks of physical therapy, the motricity index showed a significant improvement in the study group which means a better motor outcome (p= 0,08. The mean score of the Barthel index was significantly increased (p=0.02, showing improvement in ADL ability. There was a benefit in reducing disability suggesting a better functional capacity and a higher level of independence (p= 0.03. Finally, our results showed that hemiplegic patients presented a better balance function after completing the rehabilitation program (p= 0,05.Conclusions.The intervention of a 12-week home physical therapy program in stroke survivors provided significantly better outcomes in motor function, balance function and activities of daily living.

  14. The practice of clinical research in accredited marriage and family therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWey, Lenore M; West, Stacy Hernandez; Ruble, Nikki M; Handy, Amy K; Handy, David G; Koshy, Mathen; Mills, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence of clinic-based research among accredited marriage and family therapy (MFT) programs and reveal rationales explaining why academic settings may or may not be conducting clinical research. Findings of this project are the result of electronic-mail surveys completed by 26 accredited MFT programs. Approximately one-half of the respondents reported currently conducting clinic-based research. Open-ended responses reveal factors that lead to research success and failure, as well as reasons research was not being conducted at training programs.

  15. An exercise-based physical therapy program for patients with patellar tendinopathy after platelet-rich plasma injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Meijer, L.T.B.; Zwerver, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a post platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection, exercise-based physical therapy program, investigate feasibility and report the first results of patellar tendinopathy patients treated with PRP injection combined with the physical therapy program. Study Design: Case-series. Setti

  16. Improvement of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by the previous administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, M; Rodríguez, C; Carpano, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Kahl, S; Pisarev, M; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa, A

    2013-08-01

    We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) like sodium butyrate (NaB) cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and show capacity to increase the gamma irradiation effect. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the use of the NaB as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT for PDTC. Follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO) and rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were incubated with 1 mM NaB and then treated with boronophenylalanine ¹⁰BPA (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with 2, 4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ¹⁰BOPP (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with a neutron beam alone. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10¹⁰ n cm⁻² s⁻¹). Cell survival decreased as a function of the physical absorbed dose in both cell lines. Moreover, the addition of NaB decreased cell survival (p < 0.05) in WRO cells incubated with both boron compounds. NaB increased the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic cells in both BNCT groups (p < 0.05). An accumulation of cells in G2/M phase at 24 h was observed for all the irradiated groups and the addition of NaB increased this percentage. Biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) 24 h after NaB injection were performed. The in vivo studies showed that NaB treatment increases the amount of boron in the tumor at 2-h post-BPA injection (p < 0.01). We conclude that NaB could be used as a radiosensitizer for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma by BNCT.

  17. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  18. Effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Liu, Y; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Kinashi, Y; Ono, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by measuring the response of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours received reactor thermal neutron beam irradiation following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)] in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results BPA-BNCT increased the sensitivity of the total tumour cell population more than BSH-BNCT. However, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. With or without a 10B–carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Without irradiation, nicotinamide treatment decreased the number of lung metastases. With irradiation, BPA-BNCT, especially in combination with nicotinamide treatment, showed the potential to reduce the number of metastases more than BSH-BNCT. Conclusion BSH-BNCT in combination with MTH improves local tumour control, while BPA-BNCT in combination with nicotinamide may reduce the number of lung metastases. PMID:22391496

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-11

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  20. The Introduction of Capturing Package-Remotely Platform Guided by the Batch Program%批处理程序引导的远程抓包平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀云帅; 潘益民

    2014-01-01

    批处理程序运行在DOS系统,具有使用方便、灵活、自动化程度高的特点。利用批处理程序、Plink软件、Wireshark网络分析软件在Windows平台上搭建一个远程抓包平台,可以抓取远程Linux系统终端网卡上的数据报文并进行分析。该平台具有使用方便、高效、快捷的技术特点,是工程技术人员的良好助手。%The batch program runs in DOS system, and has the features such as used conveniently、flexibly、high degree of automation. This paper constructs a capturing package-remotely platform on windows system which can captures and analyzes data package from network adapter of the remote Linux terminal. This platform is composed of batch program,Plink software and Wireshark network analysis software, and has the features such as used conveniently、efficiently and quickly, is a good assistant of engineering and technical personnel.

  1. Centering the voices of international students in family studies and family therapy graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Fang, Shi-Ruei; Kosutic, Iva; Griggs, Julie

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we report the results of a survey that accessed the perceptions of family studies and family therapy international master's and doctoral students across the United States. Our goals included giving collective voice to the experience of international students and gathering their suggestions for improving programs. Themes that emerged from responses to open- and closed-ended questions included feeling (mis)understood and (de)valued; forming personal connections and experiencing marginalization; the importance of including international perspectives in curricula; considering the relevance/transferability of knowledge; and attending to barriers to learning. Based on the results, we share suggestions for improving family studies and family therapy graduate programs relative to program planning, curricula revision, teaching strategies, and faculty development.

  2. The effects of exercise programming vs traditional outpatient therapy in the rehabilitation of severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuzzo, N A; Ferrando, A; Herndon, D N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and effects of exercise programming (Study group, n = 11) vs traditional outpatient therapy (Home group, n = 10) in burned children (> 40% body surface area). This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in a hospital-based children's wellness center. Twenty-one patients (13 boys and 8 girls) averaging 10.6 +/- 0.9 years and TBSA = 59.7 +/- 3.1% were evaluated 6 and 9 months postburn. Moderate intensity, progressive resistance and aerobic exercise conducted 3 times weekly for 1 hour were a supplement to standard therapy over 12 weeks. Muscular strength and functional outcome significantly increased in both groups (P exercise programming may be safely included in rehabilitation programs for severely burned children and can be effective in increasing muscular strength and functional outcome.

  3. The efficacy of mirror therapy combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on motor and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Kuzgun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A variety of methods is used in the treatment of upper extremity functional impairment after stroke.In recent years, a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of stroke rehabilitation is the mirror therapy.The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of mirror therapy,which is applied through motor imagination training, combined with conventional stroke rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in patients with subacute stroke. MATERIAL and METHODS: This is a randomized,prospective,controlled single-blind trial.The study included 20 patients who were diagnosed with stroke.Patients were randomly divided into two groups:first group received conventional rehabilitation program and the second group received conventional rehabilitation program plus mirror therapy on nonparetic upper extremity consisting of wrist extension daily 4 times for 15minutes per session. Both groups received the conventional rehabilitation program for 4 weeks, 5 days a week and daily 1-2h. All patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment(week 4.The evaluations were performed by using Brunnstrom Staging, Fugl Meyer Motor Function Scale(FM,Barthel Index(BI and goniometric measurement of wrist extension. RESULTS: The Brunnstrom stage(p<0.01, total score on FM and BI scores (p<0.01 were improved at week 4 compared to the baseline, whereas wrist subscore on FM and the goniometric measurements of the wrist and wrist extension were significantly improved only in group II.The two treatment groups were not statistically different in terms of posttreatment evaluation parameters. CONCLUSION: In our study,the mirror therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation program was not superior to conventional rehabilitation program alone in terms of upper extremity motor and functional recovery.

  4. Evaluation of a Prison Occupational Therapy Informal Education Program: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Ohm, David; Wall, Jarrod M; Ray, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    This pilot study explored the strengths and weaknesses of an informal education program and identified elements of the program valued by participants. Participants were men living in a minimum security prison who had been incarcerated for ten or more years. The outside researcher was joined by three former program participants as co-researchers. Together, they interviewed 27 residents who completed the informal education program. Interviews were transcribed and de-identified. Researchers used the summative content analysis approach to analyze the data. Initial content analysis yielded five concepts: doing (engaging in purposeful activities); information (program handouts and discussions that included data and descriptions of all of the topics discussed); re-entry fears (socialization; making amends with victims and/or reuniting with family and friends); technology (includes, but not limited to, using smartphones, internet and other technology in all areas of occupation); and self-worth as a person. Further interpretation per the summative content analysis method yielded three themes: doing (engaged in purposeful activities), validation of self-worth (confirmation of being a valued human being in spite of having committed a serious crime) and concerns about the future (being able to successfully engage in virtually all occupations). Whilst informal education programs may help people who are incarcerated gain information, gain a sense of self-worth and allay some reentry fears, understanding the long-term affect such programs may have such as preparing them for successful re-entry to society or reducing recidivism rates, will require long-term follow-up. Regardless of the occupational therapy intervention, the practice of occupational therapy in the criminal justice system needs to be client-centred. Because of the small number of participants and limited access to participants, one should not generalize the findings of this study to other situations or populations

  5. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  6. Phase II clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray radiotherapy/temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme-Study design and current status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shinji, E-mail: neu046@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Hirota, Yuki; Miyata, Shiro; Takekita, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8931 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, we reported our clinical experiences of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The major differences of our protocol from the other past studies were simultaneous use of both sodium borocapate and boronophenylalanine, and combination with fractionated X-ray irradiation. These results showed the efficacy of combination therapy with external beam X-ray irradiation and BNCT. For our future study, we planned the multi-centric phase II clinical study for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients in Japan (OSAKA-TRIBRAIN0902, NCT00974987).

  7. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  8. Development of education program for physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to develop an education program for physical therapy assistants in order to provide high quality physical therapy for the province of Quang Tri in Vietnam. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects consisted of 9 professors in Quang Tri medical college and 1 physical therapist in Quang Tri General hospital. The survey research to lecturer for education of physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri medical college was conducted as pre-analysis of demand for the physical therapy assistant curriculum development. The priority rank of expectation and consciousness were measured in curriculum subjects. [Results] Results of educational expectation of the curriculum total educational expectation were presented as minimum 4 to maximum 5. In the result of educational expectation according to background variable, the differences of educational expectation on scores according to the educational experience were significant. Among the consciousness priority of each curriculum subject, the priority rank of basic kinesiology and physical therapy for international medicine & surgery were 9, the highest first rank frequency. [Conclusion] The curriculum for physical therapy assistant was developed to 5 main subjects including a total of 420 hours (120 hours of theory and 300 hours of practice).

  9. Development of education program for physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri province of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to develop an education program for physical therapy assistants in order to provide high quality physical therapy for the province of Quang Tri in Vietnam. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects consisted of 9 professors in Quang Tri medical college and 1 physical therapist in Quang Tri General hospital. The survey research to lecturer for education of physical therapy assistant in Quang Tri medical college was conducted as pre-analysis of demand for the physical therapy assistant curriculum development. The priority rank of expectation and consciousness were measured in curriculum subjects. [Results] Results of educational expectation of the curriculum total educational expectation were presented as minimum 4 to maximum 5. In the result of educational expectation according to background variable, the differences of educational expectation on scores according to the educational experience were significant. Among the consciousness priority of each curriculum subject, the priority rank of basic kinesiology and physical therapy for international medicine & surgery were 9, the highest first rank frequency. [Conclusion] The curriculum for physical therapy assistant was developed to 5 main subjects including a total of 420 hours (120 hours of theory and 300 hours of practice). PMID:28265176

  10. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  11. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  12. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Dire need for targeted left ventricular lead placement and optimal device programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sokratis; Pastromas; Antonis; S; Manolis

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy(CRT) effected via biventricular pacing has been established as prime therapy for heart failure patients of New York Heart Association functional class Ⅱ, Ⅲ and ambulatory Ⅳ, reduced left ventricular(LV) function, and a widened QRS complex. CRT has been shown to improve symptoms, LV function, hospitalization rates, and survival. In order to maximize the benefit from CRT and reduce the number of non-responders, consideration should be given to target the optimal site for LV lead implantation away from myocardial scar and close to the latest LV site activation; and also to appropriately program the device paying particular attention to optimal atrioventricular and interventricular intervals. We herein review current data related to both optimal LV lead placement and device programming and their effects on CRT clinical outcomes.

  13. Feasibility of an acceptance and commitment therapy adjunctive web-based program for counseling centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Hayes, Steven C; Seeley, John R; Levin, Crissa

    2015-07-01

    Web-based adjunctive tools provide a promising method for addressing the challenges college counseling centers face in meeting the mental health needs of students. The current study tested an initial adjunctive prototype based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in a pre-post open trial with 30 counselors and 82 student clients across 4 counseling centers. Results indicated high ratings of program satisfaction and usability with counselors and students. The majority of students completed at least part of the program. Significant improvements were found across almost all outcome and ACT process measures with student clients. Improvements in student outcomes were predicted by both changes in psychological inflexibility and how often counselors discussed the program with students. Results are discussed in relation to support for and future development of a flexible, adjunctive ACT program for counseling centers.

  14. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  15. Faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields.

  16. Reality therapy oriented intervention program for cyberbullying behaviors and testing its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşkın Tanrıkulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an intervention program for cyberbullying based on reality therapy and also to investigate the efficiency of this program for such behavior. For the study, firstly, the concept of cyberbullying is analyzed and discussed within the framework of choice theory. Secondly, a psychological counseling program intended to reduce cyberbullying behaviors is developed and a pilot scheme is launched. Remarks of experts are taken into consideration in analyzing the pilot scheme and the program’s suitability with reality therapy is established. An intervention program is implemented at a high school in Istanbul in the first half of the 2012-2013 school year. In the study, designed with 2x3 split-plot method, experimental and control groups consisting of 12 people are formed and a ten-session program is implemented for the experimental group. Analyses show that cyberbullying behaviors decreased in the experimental group, while there was no change in the level of cyberbullying behaviors in the control group.

  17. Career Practices and Training Perspectives of Marriage and Family Therapy Program Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Pankow, Shannon Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Using survey data gathered by both Internet and mailed questionnaires, 125 graduates of COAMFTE-accredited marriage and family therapy (MFT) programs imparted information about their perspectives on their MFT training, their current and desired career practices, and their advice to MFT trainees and graduates about maximizing career options. The results demonstrated that MFT graduates attach many different meanings to the training and career experiences they've had. Marriage ...

  18. Effect of Educational Program Based On Exercise Therapy on Burned Hand Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddes Ardebili, Fatemeh; Manzari, Zahra Sadat; Bozorgnejad, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hands burn was associated with significant functional disorders that severely affected patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational program based on exercise therapy on burned hand function. METHODS This experimental research was conducted in a period of ten months in 2010-2011 in Mottahari Hospital in Tehran in Iran. The sample included 60 patients, who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups, half in intervention an...

  19. Action Plan to Improve State Examination Results. Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Program. Cienfuegos, 2008-2012

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    María Cristina Núñez Martínez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the analysis of the state examination results in the 21 programs of the Health Technology undergraduate studies in the province of Cienfuegos during the 2008-2010 academic years showed four programs with largest number of failing students. Among them, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation had the highest failure rates in the 2009-2010 academic year. Objective: to implement an action plan to improve academic performance of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation students on the theoretical exercise of the state examination. Methods: a before-after intervention study was conducted from September 2008 to July 2012. It included 52 students who failed the written state examination and 100% of the students who took the exam in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years to whom the plan was applied. Results: an improvement plan validated by experts was developed. It included actions that had an impact on low academic performance on the theoretical exercise of the state examination, as well as on the shortcomings of the design and implementation of the evaluation system. The quality of results on state examinations improved after putting the action plan into practice. Conclusion: this action plan allowed changing the unfavorable performance on state examinations in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation program during the 2008-2010 period.

  20. Adverse effects of pharmacological therapy for nicotine addiction in smokers following a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrueco, Miguel; Otero, María José; Palomo, Luis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Torrecilla, Miguel; Romero, Pedro; Riesco, Juan Antonio

    2005-06-01

    This multicenter, community-based, prospective, longitudinal study evaluated the safety of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and combined therapy of NRT and bupropion for smokers seeking to quit, when these therapies were used under real-world conditions following a smoking cessation program. Participants were smokers aged 18 years or older who attended five smoking cessation clinics. Evaluations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. We investigated the possible existence of adverse effects as well as the severity of each adverse effect and its influence on the treatment course. The study included 904 smokers: 370 received NRT, 413 received bupropion, and 121 received combined therapy. At 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, adverse effects were reported by 43.8%, 33.1%, 22.3%, and 5.7% of subjects, respectively. Adverse effects were significantly more frequent in subjects receiving combined therapy or bupropion alone than in NRT-treated subjects at the 15-, 30-, and 60-day follow-ups. A total of 83 smokers (9.3%) withdrew from treatment and 116 (12.8%) stopped temporarily because of adverse effects. No differences were found in the percentages of discontinuation among the different treatment options. Adverse effects rarely were severe (n=10). Nevertheless, 41 subjects (4.5%) discontinued drug therapy indefinitely and 55 (6.1%) discontinued it temporarily because of mild adverse effects. Pharmacological therapies for smoking cessation are safe as long as they are appropriately prescribed and supervised by clinicians according to clinical practice guidelines. Adverse effects are primarily mild. Nonetheless, mild adverse effects may be perceived by patients as a serious enough problem to cause them to discontinue treatment.

  1. A decade of building massage therapy services at an academic medical center as part of a healing enhancement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Nancy J; Cutshall, Susanne M; Dion, Liza J; Dreyer, Nikol E; Hauschulz, Jennifer L; Ristau, Crystal R; Thomley, Barb S; Bauer, Brent A

    2015-02-01

    The use of complementary and integrative medicine therapies is steadily becoming an integral part of health care. Massage therapy is increasingly offered to hospitalized patients for various conditions to assist with the management of common symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and tension. This article summarizes a decade of building the massage therapy service at a large tertiary care medical center, from the early pilot studies and research to the current program offerings, and the hopes and dreams for the future.

  2. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  3. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  4. Family Therapy Training at the Ackerman Institute: Thoughts of Form and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPerriere, Kitty

    1979-01-01

    Presents the history, philosophy, and form of training at the Ackerman Institute for Family Therapy, and attempts to capture the spirit and atmosphere of the program rather than enumerate details. The program teaches family therapy and a systems perspective on human behavior to professionals who have completed basic professional training. (Author)

  5. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  6. Cultivations...and potting on a strategic plan for a social and horticultural therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilski, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This research endeavored to develop a strategic growth plan for St. Ann's Garden Club (SAGC), a Non-Profit Social and Horticultural Therapy program, located at Providence Farm in Duncan, British Columbia. SAGC is a day program for older adults with mental illness and/or drug/alcohol addiction. The aim of the program is to be sustainable within the context of stakeholders needs, preferences, and resources and therefore they sought a strategic analysis prior to launching a growth strategy. SAGC has valuable intangible resources that contribute to strong core competencies and effectiveness despite facing many program issues requiring change in order for them to be sustainable. These same issues are shared by many public and non-profit health and wellness programs as they struggle to remain relevant in today's changing healthscape. To adequately focus the study and provide sound direction, the strategic analysis highlighted SAGC's environment, opportunities, issues, priorities, and requirements and was conducted through multiple iterations of the action research cycle. Data was gathered using surveys, interviews, and a focus group. The findings supported a capital campaign to build as new larger clubhouse and establish a more diverse sustainable funding base. Using a resource based perspective, a three year strategic plan was formulated for SAGC to help them cultivate growth and sustainability.

  7. Model for implementing cognitive behavioural therapy for smartphone app based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alsharif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation programs are widely implemented to assist smokers in the process of quitting smoking. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT is a psychological approach that is increasingly used in smoking cessation programs. CBT has also been implemented for smoking cessation programs and has been successful in helping smokers to quit. Another advantage of CBT is that it can be combined with different tools and technologies and hence made to deliver effective health intervention programs. The recent advancements in smartphone technologies have been widely explored to develop smoking cessation apps as tools to assist with quitting smoking. However, most existing smartphone apps lack follow-up and adherence to clinical guidelines for treatment. To date, there are no studies which have explored implementing CBT modules into smoking cessation apps. Therefore, there is a need for implementing behavioural change mechanisms in smoking cessation apps to help smokers quit effectively. In this study, we propose a new approach that combines mobile health technology and CBT methods to provide an effective smoking cessation program. The ubiquitous presence of smartphones and the various communication benefits they provide are utilized by our proposed system to provide a CBT paradigm into smoking cessation app systems and hence enhance their success potential. Currently, the proposed system is at the implementation stage, which is soon to be followed by a clinical trial to study the impact of this system on smoking cessation.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF MIRROR THERAPY AS A HOME PROGRAM IN REHABILITATION OF HAND FUNCTION IN SUB-ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femy Mol Baby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Back ground and introduction: Purpose is to study the effectiveness of Mirror Therapy as a home program in rehabilitation of hand function in sub-acute stroke. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with sub-acute stroke with impaired hand function randomly allocated 15 subjects into each Mirror therapy and Sham mirror therapy group. Sham mirror therapy group received sham mirror therapy with conventional exercises while Mirror therapy group received home based Mirror therapy with conventional exercises. Subjects were asked to review once in a week and follow the treatment at home for 4 weeks. Hand functions were measured using Chedoke Arm and Hand Activities Inventory-9 (CAHAI-9 Scale before and after 4 weeks of intervention. Results: When means of post intervention compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups found there is a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in means of CAHAI-9 score for hand functions. When analyzed within groups using Paired ‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test there is a statistically significant improvement in means of CAHAI-9 score in both the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Mirror therapy as a home program with conventional exercises significantly found effective than Sham mirror therapy in improving hand functions in sub-acute stroke.

  9. Competencies for 2020: Revalidation of the Curricular Competencies of the Emory University Doctor of Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Patricia H.; Carter, Vincent M.; Phillips, Tami; Chong, Hyun; Conwell, Ryan; Hensley, Brittany; Kimbrell, Alyson; Sigle, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transformation in the healthcare environment prompted Emory University's Doctor of Physical Therapy Program (DPT) to revalidate its competency-based education program. The goal was to revalidate the essentialness of its curricular competencies: Provision of Patient Care, Interpersonal Relationships, Teaching and Learning, Research,…

  10. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  11. The Cultural Genogram: experiences from within a marriage and family therapy training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K; Dolbin, Megan; Hill, Jennifer; Karuppaswamy, Nithyakala; Liu, Ting; Natrajan, Rajeswari; Poulsen, Shruti; Robbins, Natashia; Robinson, Pamela

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate and demonstrate the use of the Cultural Genogram (CG) in a graduate-level course in gender and culture for family therapists-in-training at a large Midwestern university's accredited program in family therapy. Although the importance of the CG as a training tool is delineated by Hardy and Laszloffy, very little information exists about the actual implementation and usefulness of this tool within a training program for family therapists. In this article, we present a qualitative research study of the lived experiences of a class of women from diverse cultures as they constructed and presented their CGs. We discuss the basic curriculum and structure of the course in which the CG was used, the process the class members developed to create and present their CGs, the effects of presenting the CGs, and a set of recommendations and ideas for further exploration.

  12. Policies and programs to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosarin Sruamsiri

    Full Text Available Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time.We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product.Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007-2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366-923 to 3683 (95% CI 2,748-4,618; for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72-174 to 350 (95% CI 307-398; and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45-118 to 412 (95% CI 344-563.Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to assess clinical and economic impacts of these

  13. Effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program in patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SÎRBU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program on pain, spine mobility and quality of daily activities in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. We also want to show that patients who undergo this program decreased their intake in analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: 18 patients with chronic low back pain were assessed with the following tests: VAS pain scale, Schober’s test and Rolland-Morris questionnaire. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID consumption was recorded. Over a period of six months all subjects participated in a 45 minutes home-based physical therapy program, three times per week. Before starting this intervention all patients were instructed and exercises were demonstrated in front of them by a physical therapist. Moreover, they received written brochures in order to exercise correctly at home. Follow-up examinations took place at baseline and six months later. Results: We obtained significant differences between pre- and post-intervention assessments of pain (p=0.001, lumbar flexion (p=0.0001 and functional status (p=0.0005 in our group. Moreover, the number of patients who were taken analgesics decreased from 7 (39% to 5 patients (28%. Likewise the number of patients who were taken anti-inflammatory drugs decreased from 11 (61% to 8 (44%. Conclusion: The home-based rehabilitation program was effective in improving the ranges of active lumbar flexion and in decreasing the physical disability caused by low back pain, as well as in reducing the levels of pain. We note that a larger number of patients have given up to the intake of NSAIDs comparative to those who have given up to analgesics.

  14. A review of targeted therapies evaluated by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program for osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSampson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, is a high grade primary bone sarcoma that occurs mostly in adolescence. Standard treatment consists of surgery in combination with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The development and approval of imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in children and the fully human monoclonal antibody, anti-GD2, as part of an immune therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients have established the precedent for use of targeted inhibitors along with standard chemotherapy backbones. However, few targeted agents tested have achieved traditional clinical end points for osteosarcoma. Many biological agents demonstrating anti-tumor responses in preclinical and early phase clinical testing have failed to reach response thresholds to justify randomized trials with large numbers of patients. The development of targeted therapies for pediatric cancer remains a significant challenge. To aid in the prioritization of new agents for clinical testing, the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP has developed reliable and robust preclinical pediatric cancer models to rapidly screen agents for activity in multiple childhood cancers and establish pharmacological parameters and effective drug concentrations for clinical trials. In this article, we examine a range of standard and novel agents that have been evaluated by the PPTP, and we discuss the preclinical and clinical development of these for the treatment of osteosarcoma. We further demonstrate that committed resources for hypothesis-driven drug discovery and development are needed to yield clinical successes in the search for new therapies for this pediatric disease.

  15. Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a community-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konanur, Sheila; Muller, Robert T; Cinamon, Julie S; Thornback, Kristin; Zorzella, Karina P M

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a widely used treatment model for trauma-exposed children and adolescents (Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). The Healthy Coping Program (HCP) was a multi-site community based intervention carried out in a diverse Canadian city. A randomized, waitlist-control design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT with trauma-exposed school-aged children (Muller & DiPaolo, 2008). A total of 113 children referred for clinical services and their caregivers completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1996) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (Briere, 2005). Data were collected pre-waitlist, pre-assessment, pre-therapy, post-therapy, and six months after the completion of TF-CBT. The passage of time alone in the absence of clinical services was ineffective in reducing children's posttraumatic symptoms. In contrast, children and caregivers reported significant reductions in children's posttraumatic stress (PTS) following assessment and treatment. The reduction in PTS was maintained at six month follow-up. Findings of the current study support the use of the TF-CBT model in community-based settings in a diverse metropolis. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Music in the mountains: creating sustainable therapy programs from short-term missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Foxell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This field report describes the experiences of a Registered Music Therapist (RMT living, working, and musicking1 during a short-term health mission to Northern India. Using a sustainability approach, collaboration with several local and global health organisations resulted in the development of a therapeutic music program for children with disabilities. Disability is a complex phenomenon, and in rural areas of India, disability is viewed as a foundation for shame and exclusion. The Community-based project, Samvedna, oversees the therapy, healthcare, and education of over 100 children with a disability in remote villages and is heavily involved in disability advocacy in the area. Sustainable programs are more effective for individuals and communities in both the short and long term. RMTs and other health professionals can be instrumental in setting up sustainable programs, such as teaching specific skills and knowledge to local teams, provided there is thorough preparation and ongoing collaboration to determine the priorities and expectations of the program.

  17. Progress of the National Pediatric Free Antiretroviral Therapy program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Xin; He, Yun; Tang, Zhirong; Peng, Guoping; Liu, Aiwen; Qiao, Xiaochun; Li, Huiqin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dou, Zhihui; Ma, Ye; Liu, Zhongfu; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-10-01

    In 2003, the Chinese Government initiated a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program focusing on adult AIDS patients. Pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations were yet unavailable. It was not until July 2005, with the initiation of a two-stage program implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Health, that pediatric formulations became accessible in China. Initially, the pediatric ART program was piloted in six provinces with the highest incidences of pediatric HIV/AIDS. The pilot stage allowed the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) to finalize entry criteria, treatment regimen, and patient monitoring and follow-up procedures. The second stage commenced at the end of 2006 when the program was scaled-up nationally. In order to guarantee treatment of pediatric patients, extensive training in the selection of appropriate ARV drug regimen and dosage was provided to doctors, often through on-site collaboration with domestic and international experts. The CCDC simultaneously established a pediatric ARV management system and a pediatric ART information system. CD4 count and other laboratory tests are being routinely performed on these pediatric patients. By the end of June 2009, 1529 pediatric patients had received ARV under the national program. However, challenges remain. Firstly, many children infected with HIV/AIDS live in rural areas where the treatment quality is hindered by the limited number of medical facilities and skilled medical workers. Secondly, much of the pediatric ARV drug supply depends on donation. An effort needs to be made by the Chinese Government to establish China's own drug procurement and supply system.

  18. CARL: a LabVIEW 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Getz, T; Milgrom, P; Prall, C W; Spadafora, A; Ramsay, D S

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes CARL (Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning), a computerized, exposure-based therapy program for the treatment of dental injection fear. The CARL program operates primarily in two different modes; in vitro, which presents a video-taped exposure hierarchy, and in vivo, which presents scripts for a dentist or hygienist to use while working with a subject. Two additional modes are used to train subjects to use the program and to administer behavioral assessment tests. The program contains five different modules, which function to register a subject, train subjects to use physical and cognitive relaxation techniques, deliver an exposure hierarchy, question subjects about the helpfulness of each of the therapy components, and test for memory effects of anxiolytic medication. Nine subjects have completed the CARL therapy program and 1-yr follow-up as participants in a placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the effects of alprazolam on exposure therapy for dental injection phobia. All nine subjects were able to receive two dental injections, and all reduced their general fear of dental injections. Initial results therefore indicate that the CARL program successfully reduces dental injection fear.

  19. Effectiveness of a home exercise program in combination with ultrasound therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Mehmet; Sarp, Ümit; Koca, İrfan; Eroğlu, Selma; Yetisgin, Alparslan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyacı, Ahmet

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effectiveness of home exercise alone versus home exercise combined with ultrasound for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 23 female and 15 male patients who were divided randomly into two groups. The home exercise group performed a home exercise program consisting of an exercise program and patient education, and the home exercise combined with ultrasound group received ultrasound therapy in addition to the home exercise program. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Pain free maximum mouth opening was evaluated at baseline and 2 weeks after the treatment. [Results] There was no difference between the two groups in baseline values. After the treatment, the visual analogue scale decreased and pain free maximum mouth opening scores improved significantly in each group. Additionally, both values were higher in the home exercise combined with ultrasound group than in the home exercise group. [Conclusion] The combination of home exercise combined with ultrasound appears to be more effective at providing pain relief and increasing mouth opening than does home exercise alone for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

  20. Long-Term Outcomes on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Scale-Up Program in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Seema T.; Chang, Charlotte A.; Eisen, Geoffrey; Jolayemi, Toyin; Banigbe, Bolanle; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Background While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria. Methods We conducted a retrospective multi-site program evaluation of adult patients (age ≥15 years) initiating antiretroviral therapy between June 2004 and February 2012 in Nigeria. The baseline characteristics of patients were described and longitudinal analyses using primary endpoints of immunologic recovery, virologic rebound, treatment failure and long-term adherence patterns were conducted. Results Of 70,002 patients, 65.2% were female and median age was 35 (IQR: 29–41) years; 54.7% were started on a zidovudine-containing and 40% on a tenofovir-containing first-line regimen. Median CD4+ cell counts for the cohort started at 149 cells/mm3 (IQR: 78–220) and increased over duration of ART. Of the 70,002 patients, 1.8% were reported as having died, 30.1% were lost to follow-up, and 0.1% withdrew from treatment. Overall, of those patients retained and with viral load data, 85.4% achieved viral suppression, with 69.3% achieving suppression by month 6. Of 30,792 patients evaluated for virologic failure, 24.4% met criteria for failure and of 45,130 evaluated for immunologic failure, 34.0% met criteria for immunologic failure, with immunologic criteria poorly predicting virologic failure. In adjusted analyses, older age, ART regimen, lower CD4+ cell count, higher viral load, and inadequate adherence were all predictors of virologic failure. Predictors of immunologic failure differed slightly, with age no longer predictive, but female sex as protective; additionally, higher baseline CD4+ cell count was also predictive of failure. Evaluation of long-term adherence patterns revealed that the majority of patients

  1. The iSBTc/SITC primer on tumor immunology and biological therapy of cancer: a summary of the 2010 program

    OpenAIRE

    Urba Walter J; Hwu Patrick; Balwit James M; Marincola Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC (formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc), aims to improve cancer patient outcomes by advancing the science, development and application of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The society and its educational programs have become premier destinations for interaction and innovation in the cancer biologics community. For over a decade, the society has offered the Primer on Tumor Immunology and Biological ...

  2. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  3. A multidimensional physical therapy program for individuals with cerebellar ataxia secondary to traumatic brain injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor-Glittenberg, Cecelia; Brickner, Lori

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this case series is to describe changes in impairments and activity limitations in three individuals with severe cerebellar ataxia from traumatic brain injury (TBI) who participated in a long-term, multidimensional physical therapy program. A secondary purpose is to document use of a climbing wall for these persons. Each of the individuals had a TBI, severe ataxia and was admitted to a transitional neuro-rehabilitation day treatment program. The first person, a 22-year-old, was 6 years post injury and had 127 individual physical therapy sessions over 12 months. The second person, a 16-year-old, was 5½ months post injury and had 187 individual therapy sessions over 19 months. The third person, a 20-year-old, was 6 months post injury and had 89 individual therapy sessions over 23 months. An integrative treatment approach was used, and the individuals participated in activities to minimize ataxia and improve mobility. Each of them made gains in coordination, balance, balance confidence, endurance and mobility. The three individuals with cerebellar ataxia participated in a long-term, individualized, multidimensional physical therapy treatment program, and made improvements in all areas of impairment and activity limitations. This study reinforces the need for long-term, multidimensional physical therapy for individuals with ataxia.

  4. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours.

  5. Finding the Client in Their Environment: A Systems Approach to Music Therapy Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha M. Woodward

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Most extended care environments are fraught with noise pollution, resident distress, and staff busyness. The continual clamour of random sound events such as call bells, public paging systems, TVs, loud conversations, kitchen clatter and continuous foot traffic contribute to an alarming sense of frenetic activity and impervious indifference. The Emergent Voice is the sum of all sounds we hear. It is the qualitative and identifiable personification of health or illness in a system. An Emergent Voice that reveals disturbing sounds and disruptive behaviours can be influenced towards health through the experiencing of the aesthetic, temporal and structural properties of music. This perspective introduces an environmental approach to music therapy programming in institutional facilities and necessitates a basic understanding of systems and field theories, the physiology and phenomenology of sound, and a willingness to engage in, and listen to, the environment in a new way.

  6. Department of pharmacy-initiated program for streamlining empirical antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, D A; Chang, S; Nessim, S; Shane, R; Morgan, M A

    1992-07-01

    The outcome of a department of pharmacy-initiated "streamlining" study designed to promote cost-conscious modifications of empirically selected antibiotic therapy is described. Two hundred forty-one evaluable adult patients started on restricted-use antibiotics at this university-affiliated community private teaching hospital were enrolled in a 9-week prospective streamlining study. Patients were alternately assigned to a Control (i.e., no pharmacist-initiated streamlining recommendations offered based on culture and susceptibility reports) or a Pharmacist Intervention group (i.e., pharmacist offers recommendations to streamline therapy). A statistically significant greater number of patients had their empiric antibiotic treatment courses modified to more appropriate antibiotic choices after receipt of culture and susceptibility reports among private prescribers in the Pharmacist Intervention group (83%) than in the Control group (38%) (p = .006). Additionally, pharmacists were overall successful in gaining prescriber acceptance for 64% of recommended changes of empiric antibiotic treatment courses before the receipt of culture and susceptibility reports (e.g., dose and/or frequency changes). There was no program effect observed with respect to improved physician response to microbiologic data that would allow streamlining empirical antibiotic choices in the Housestaff (i.e., medical or surgical residents), or infectious disease consultant prescriber groups. Projected overall annual cost savings that would be achieved as a result of continued efforts by pharmacists directed at streamlining empirical "restricted" antibiotic regimens is approximately +40,000.

  7. The use of central laboratories and remote electronic data capture to risk-adjust therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Devidas, Meenakshi; London, Wendy B.; Anderson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is a National Cancer Institute sponsored cooperative clinical trials group with the primary mission of conducting pediatric cancer clinical trials. COG has complex risk classification systems that are used to deliver risk-stratified therapy for many pediatric cances, including clinical trials for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and Neuroblastoma (NB). Classification of patients is based on biological, clinical, and genomic data obtained at initial diagno...

  8. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  9. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  10. Promotional Model: A New Direction for National Program in Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    P.EKERETE, Paulinus

    2000-01-01

    The National Program on Immunization (NPI), formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), were relaunched in1984 after the problems of vaccine supply have been corrected. The NPI aimed to protect children against six childhood killer disease and ORT, to remedy dehydration. In order to achieve these objectives, Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and community to accept the programme....

  11. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  12. High effectiveness of self-help programs after drug addiction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Øistein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The self-help groups Alcoholics Anonymous (AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA are very well established. AA and NA employ a 12-step program and are found in most large cities around the world. Although many have argued that these organizations are valuable, substantial scepticism remains as to whether they are actually effective. Few treatment facilities give clear recommendations to facilitate participation, and the use of these groups has been disputed. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of self-help groups after addiction treatment is associated with higher rates of abstinence. Methods One hundred and fourteen patients, 59 with alcohol dependency and 55 with multiple drug dependency, who started in self-help groups after addiction treatment, were examined two years later using a questionnaire. Return rate was 66%. Six (5% of the patients were dead. Results Intention-to-treat-analysis showed that 38% still participated in self-help programs two years after treatment. Among the regular participants, 81% had been abstinent over the previous 6 months, compared with only 26% of the non-participants. Logistic regression analysis showed OR = 12.6, 95% CI (4.1–38.3, p Conclusion The study has several methodological problems; in particular, correlation does not necessarily indicate causality. These problems are discussed and we conclude that the probability of a positive effect is sufficient to recommend participation in self-help groups as a supplement to drug addiction treatment. Previous publication This article is based on a study originally published in Norwegian: Kristensen O, Vederhus JK: Self-help programs in drug addiction therapy. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2005, 125:2798–2801.

  13. The Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male Veterans Treated in a VHA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; McLean, Caitlin; Harris, Alex H. S.; Rosen, Craig S.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Kimerling, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of group cognitive processing therapy (CPT) relative to trauma-focused group treatment as usual (TAU) in the context of a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) residential rehabilitation program. Method: Participants were 2 cohorts of male patients in the same program…

  14. Recording of hormone therapy and breast density in breast screening programs: summary and recommendations of the International Cancer Screening Network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, B.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Dowling, E.; Malila, N.; Shumak, R.; Taplin, S.; Buist, D.; Miglioretti, D.

    2010-01-01

    Breast density and the use of hormone therapy (HT) for menopausal symptoms alter the risk of breast cancer and both factors influence screening mammography performance. The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) surveyed its 29 member countries and found that few programs record breast densit

  15. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  17. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: boron biodistribution study in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Abramson, David B; Bumaguin, Gaston E; Bruno, Leandro J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Feldman, Sara; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is explored for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in female New Zealand rabbits, with the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) to assess the potential feasibility of BNCS for RA. Rabbits in chronic phase of AIA were used for biodistribution studies employing the following protocols: intra-articular (ia) (a) BPA-f 0.14 M (0.7 mg (10)B), (b) GB-10 (5 mg (10)B), (c) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B) and intravenous (iv), (d) BPA-f 0.14 M (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), (e) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg), and (f) BPA-f (15.5 mg (10)B/kg) + GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg). At different post-administration times (13-85 min for ia and 3 h for iv), samples of blood, pathological synovium (target tissue), cartilage, tendon, muscle, and skin were taken for boron measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intra-articular administration protocols at boron concentrations (>20 ppm) in the pathological synovium. Dosimetric estimations suggest that BNCS would be able to achieve a therapeutically useful dose in pathological synovium without exceeding the radiotolerance of normal tissues in the treatment volume, employing boron carriers approved for use in humans. Radiobiological in vivo studies will be necessary to determine the actual therapeutic efficacy of BNCS to treat RA in an experimental model.

  18. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science

    1997-02-01

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in {sup 10}B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of {sup 10}B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin ({sup 10}B-PEG-BSA). {sup 10}B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 10{sup 5} /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 {+-} 1.74 ppm. The number of {sup 10}B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 10{sup 11} at 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of {sup 10}B atoms (more than 10{sup 9} atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  19. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  20. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-08-09

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided.

  1. Effects of an aquatic therapy program on vital capacity, quality of life and physical activity index in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Adrian Maniu; Emese Agnes Maniu; Ileana Benga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to track the aspects and results of applying an aquatic therapy intervention program adapted and integrated in the treatment of neuromotor reeducation of children with cerebral palsy on gross motor function, spasticity and range of motion. Material and methods: The aquatic therapy program had a duration of 6 months, 2 weekly sessions. The average duration of a session was 45 minutes. The water temperature was 36°C. Besides the aquatic therapy sessions the chi...

  2. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN.

  3. For lack of wanting: Discourses of desire in Ukrainian opiate substitution therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J

    2016-04-01

    Available treatments for addiction and substance abuse in Ukraine have been shaped by the economic, political, and social shifts that have followed the country's independence. The introduction of methadone-based opiate substitution therapy (OST) for opiate addicts is especially representative of this. Biomedical paradigms of addiction, its etiology, and its treatment, promoted and paid for by international donors and elite global health entities, are being met by Ukrainian notions of personhood and psychology in both public discourse and clinical settings. Ukrainian physicians who work in OST programs frequently reference desire (желание) as the most significant factor in determining the success or failure of treatment. They refer to a desire to be treated, desire to get better, desire to live. The moralized imperative to possess this desire to get better is, in many ways, a reflection of how addiction and the addicted psyche is constructed and understood in the Ukrainian context. By exploring discourses of desire in narratives of addiction and treatment, I examine how notions of psychology, will, and self-control intersect, shaping the subjectivity, agency, and daily experiences of this vulnerable population.

  4. Photodynamic therapy-induced programmed cell death in carcinoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Sikes, Robert A.; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Chung, L.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1993-06-01

    The mode of cell death following photodynamic therapy (PDT) was investigated from the perspective of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Human prostate carcinoma cells (PC3), human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H322a), and rat mammary carcinoma (MTF7) were treated by PDT following sensitization with dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE). The response of these carcinoma cell lines to PDT was variable. An examination of extracted cellular DNA by gel electrophoresis showed the characteristic DNA ladder pattern indicative of internucleosomal cleavage of DNA during apoptosis. MTF7 and PC3 responded to PDT by inducing apoptosis while H322a had no apoptotic response. The magnitude of the response and the PDT dosage required to induce the effect were different in PC3 and MTF7. MTF7 cells responded with rapid apoptosis at the dose of light and drug that yielded 50% cell death (LD50). In contrast, PC3 showed only marginal apoptosis at the LD50 but had a marked response at the LD85. Furthermore, the onset of apoptosis followed slower kinetics in PC3 (2 hr - 4 hr) than in MTF7 (cells were killed by PDT but failed to exhibit any apoptotic response. This study indicates that apoptosis may occur during PDT induced cell death, but this pathway is not universal for all cancer cell lines.

  5. Analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET imaging data captured before and after Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors in the athymic nude rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Spring-Robinson, Chandra; Sharma, Rahul; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, D.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Several workers have proposed the use of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging for the outcome assessment of photodynamic therapy (PDT), especially for deep-seated tumors. We report on our study of 18Ffluorodeoxy- glucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging following brain tumor Pc4-PDT. Our working hypothesis was that the tumor's metabolic activity would decline dramatically following Pc 4-PDT owing to tumor necrosis. Methods: Seven days after intraparenchymal implantation of U87 cells, the brains of 12 athymic nude rats were imaged by micro-CT and/or micro-MR. These animals were also 18F-FDG micro-PET (μPET) scanned before and after Pc 4-PDT. 18F-FDG was used to trace metabolic activity that was monitored via μPET. Occurrence of PDT was confirmed on histology. The analysis of 18F-FDG dose and animal weight normalized μPET activity was studied over the 90 minute µPET scan. Results: Currently, μPET data have been studied for: (1) three of the animals that did not indicate tumor necrosis on histology and were assigned to a "Non-PDT" group, and (2) six animals that exhibited tumor necrosis on histology and were assigned to a "PDT" group. The μPET-detected 18F-FDG uptake activity in the tumor region before and after photoirradiation increased in the Non-PDT group an average of 2.28 times, and in the PDT group it increased an average of 1.15 times. Discussion: We are investigating the cause of the increase in 18F-FDG μPET activity that we observed in the PDT group. The methodology used in this study should be useful in determining whether this or other PET, SPECT, or MR functional imaging protocols will detect both the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor necrosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  6. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  7. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  8. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  9. The iSBTc/SITC primer on tumor immunology and biological therapy of cancer: a summary of the 2010 program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urba Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC (formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc, aims to improve cancer patient outcomes by advancing the science, development and application of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The society and its educational programs have become premier destinations for interaction and innovation in the cancer biologics community. For over a decade, the society has offered the Primer on Tumor Immunology and Biological Therapy of Cancer™ in conjunction with its Annual Scientific Meeting. This report summarizes the 2010 Primer that took place October 1, 2010 in Washington, D.C. as part of the educational offerings associated with the society's 25th anniversary. The target audience was basic and clinical investigators from academia, industry and regulatory agencies, and included clinicians, post-doctoral fellows, students, and allied health professionals. Attendees were provided a review of basic immunology and educated on the current status and most recent advances in tumor immunology and clinical/translational caner immunology. Ten prominent investigators presented on the following topics: innate immunity and inflammation; an overview of adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; tumor microenvironment; regulatory immune cells; immune monitoring; cytokines in cancer immunotherapy; immune modulating antibodies; cancer vaccines; and adoptive T cell therapy. Presentation slides, a Primer webinar and additional program information are available online on the society's website.

  10. Effects of an experiential learning program on the clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills of occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Patty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.

  11. STUDENTS AND FACULTY MEMBERS IN MARRIAGE AND FAMILY THERAPY PROGRAMS: NAVIGATING SUCCESSFUL NON-SEXUAL DUAL RELATIONSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Dual relationships in the family therapy field are currently under debate. Within this debate extreme viewpoints and opinions, on what is the best way to navigate dual relationships, are being voiced. These views range from avoiding non-sexual dual relationships at all costs to glorifying the possibilities of such a relationship. To obtain a snap shot of faculty and student experiences a web survey was sent to fifteen masters and ten doctoral COAMFTE-accredited programs. Participants were 76 ...

  12. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  13. Capture programs, analysis, data graphication for the study of the thermometry of the TRIGA Mark III reactor core; Programas de captura, analisis y graficado de datos para el estudio de la termometria del nucleo del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C

    1991-05-15

    This document covers the explanation of the capture programs, analysis and graphs of the data obtained during the measurement of the temperatures of the instrumented fuel element of the TRIGA Mark III reactor and of the coolant one near to this fuel, using the conversion card from Analogic to Digital of 'Data Translation', and using a signal conditioner for five temperature measurers with the help of thermo par type K, developed by the Simulation and Control of the nuclear systems management department, which gives a signal from 0 to 10 Vcd for an interval of temperature of 0 to 1000 C. (Author)

  14. Changes of body composition during weight reduction program based on the diet and physical exercises and long term effectiveness of this therapy in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates to what extent long term effectiveness of weight reduction program in obese adolescents depends on the body composition before therapy and its changes during therapy. Studies were conducted on 78 obese adolescents aged 12-16 years, who participated in a 4-week weight reduction program, which consisted of low energy diet (5.47 MJ per day, 18% protein, 26% fat, 56% carbohydrate and physical ex-ercises. Body weight (BW and body composition (fat mass – FM, lean body mass – LBM were measured using bioimpedance method before and during therapy as well as six months later. After 4-week BW, FM, LBM decreased significantly (p < 0.001. Six months after termination of therapy the mean BW increased, but mainly due to LBM. Mean changes FM (0.29 kg ±3.93 were not significant however in 50% of population FM increased. Correlation between loss of LBM during therapy and FM gain after six months was statistically significant. FM after six months correlated with BW and FM before ther-apy and changes BW during therapy. Effectiveness of the program could be well pre-dicted by BC before therapy and its changes during therapy. Results permitted to formu-late detailed recommendations for weight reduction program for obese adolescents regarding the individual degree of obesity and BC.

  15. Dose distributions in a human head phantom for neutron capture therapy using moderated neutrons from the 2.5 MeV proton-7Li reaction or from fission of 235U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2001-10-01

    The feasibility of neutron capture therapy (NCT) using an accelerator-based neutron source of the 7Li(p,n) reaction produced by 2.5 MeV protons was investigated by comparing the neutron beam tailored by both the Hiroshima University radiological research accelerator (HIRRAC) and the heavy water neutron irradiation facility in the Kyoto University reactor (KUR-HWNIF) from the viewpoint of the contamination dose ratios of the fast neutrons and the gamma rays. These contamination ratios to the boron dose were estimated in a water phantom of 20 cm diameter and 20 cm length to simulate a human head, with experiments by the same techniques for NCT in KUR-HWNIF and/or the simulation calculations by the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code system version 4B (MCNP-4B). It was found that the 7Li(p,n) neutrons produced by 2.5 MeV protons combined with 20, 25 or 30 cm thick D2O moderators of 20 cm diameter could make irradiation fields for NCT with depth-dose characteristics similar to those from the epithermal neutron beam at the KUR-HWNIF.

  16. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  17. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  18. Environmental quality for jaguar, puma and ocelot in Guaratuba Bay, State of Paraná, using the programs Capture and Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ludwig Alfons Hammer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two month-long expeditions to Guaratuba Bay in the southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil were conducted in 2006. Parameters calculated from vestiges and camera-trap sampling were mammalian richness and proportion of area occupied (PAO by jaguar, puma, and opportunistically, by ocelot. Eight quadrats 4km2 in size were sampled, over an area of 130km2, where fourteen species of mammals were recorded (CI(Nˆ =14 to 14, CAPTURE. PAO was 25% for puma, and 100% for both jaguar and ocelot. It is argued that jaguar was expected to have capture probabilities similar to those of puma, as they both leave signs on open trails when present. The resulting PAO for jaguar is thus likely to be an artifact derived from low area substantiated by the reduced presence of important prey species in many of the sampling quadrats. The results do not diminish the importance of the study site for jaguar conservation; instead, these observations objectively identify the need to restore prey populations in the area.

  19. Paws for a Study Break: Running an Animal-Assisted Therapy Program at the Gerstein Science Information Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstein Science Information Centre is the Science and Health Sciences library serving the University of Toronto community. As the second largest library on campus, Gerstein is a mecca for studying and can accommodate 1100 students. Research has shown that high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders are prevalent among both medical students and the student population as a whole. In recent years, Gerstein staff members have seen evidence of the rising levels of student stress in their dealings with the public while providing reference and research help. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT is often used in hospital and rehabilitation settings and, most recently, to help young children learn to read by providing a stress-free learning environment in public libraries and schools. Studies on animal-assisted therapy have shown that AAT decreases blood pressure, cortisol, and reduces anxiety overall. In response to these findings, staff at Gerstein decided to implement an AAT program, “Paws for a Study Break,” comprised of several sessions when a therapy dog and her handler would visit the library to hold ‘office hours’ and give students a break from their studying during the Winter 2012 exam period. Through a total of six visits of ninety minutes each, 417 visitors were received. Best practices and lessons learned are discussed, including steps involved in coordination of the event, working with volunteers, publicity avenues, dealing with media requests, costs involved, and evaluation techniques. Based on the completed evaluation forms, the response to the therapy dog program at Gerstein was overwhelmingly positive; students were very appreciative, and there are plans underway to repeat this program on an ongoing basis.

  20. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  1. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular-scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Ahmad, T; Barth, R F; Kabalka, G W

    2014-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 ((10)B) atoms to individual tumour cells. Cell killing results from the (10)B (n, α)(7) Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of (10)B atoms are localized in the tumour cells. Intranuclear (10)B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of (10)B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumour cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular-scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high-grade gliomas, recurrent tumours of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumour cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This

  2. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a…

  3. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  4. Management of pain induced by exercise and mobilization during physical therapy programs: views of patients and care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannou François

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expectations of patients for managing pain induced by exercise and mobilization (PIEM have seldom been investigated. We identified the views of patients and care providers regarding pain management induced by exercise and mobilization during physical therapy programs. Methods We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with a stratified sample of 12 patients (7 women and 14 care providers (6 women: 4 general practitioners [GPs], 1 rheumatologist, 1 physical medicine physician, 1 geriatrician, 2 orthopedic surgeons, and 5 physical therapists. Results Patients and care providers have differing views on PIEM in the overall management of the state of disease. Patients' descriptions of PIEM were polymorphic, and they experienced it as decreased health-related quality of life. The impact of PIEM was complex, and patient views were sometimes ambivalent, ranging from denial of symptoms to discontinuation of therapy. Care providers agreed that PIEM is generally not integrated in management strategies. Care providers more often emphasized the positive and less often the negative dimensions of PIEM than did patients. However, the consequences of PIEM cited included worsened patient clinical condition, fears about physical therapy, rejection of the physical therapist and refusal of care. PIEM follow-up is not optimal and is characterized by poor transmission of information. Patients expected education on how better to prevent stress and anxiety generated by pain, education on mobilization, and adaptations of physical therapy programs according to pain intensity. Conclusion PIEM management could be optimized by alerting care providers to the situation, improving communication among care providers, and providing education to patients and care providers.

  5. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

  6. Computational assessment of deep-seated tumor treatment capability of the 9Be(d,n)10B reaction for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoulat, M E; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-03-01

    The 9Be(d,n)10B reaction was studied as an epithermal neutron source for brain tumor treatment through Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In BNCT, neutrons are classified according to their energies as thermal (epithermal (from 0.5 eV to 10 keV) or fast (>10 keV). For deep-seated tumors epithermal neutrons are needed. Since a fraction of the neutrons produced by this reaction are quite fast (up to 5-6 MeV, even for low-bombarding energies), an efficient beam shaping design is required. This task was carried out (1) by selecting the combinations of bombarding energy and target thickness that minimize the highest-energy neutron production; and (2) by the appropriate choice of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) geometry, for each of the combinations found in (1). The BSA geometry was determined as the configuration that maximized the dose deliverable to the tumor in a 1 h treatment, within the constraints imposed by the healthy tissue dose adopted tolerance. Doses were calculated through the MCNP code. The highest dose deliverable to the tumor was found for an 8 μm target and a deuteron beam of 1.45 MeV. Tumor weighted doses ≥40 Gy can be delivered up to about 5 cm in depth, with a maximum value of 51 Gy at a depth of about 2 cm. This dose performance can be improved by relaxing the treatment time constraint and splitting the treatment into two 1-h sessions. These good treatment capabilities strengthen the prospects for a potential use of this reaction in BNCT.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  8. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) toxicity and permeability assessment after L-(4-¹⁰Boronophenyl)alanine, a conventional B-containing drug for boron neutron capture therapy, using an in vitro BBB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E; Nion, S; Bernocchi, G; Coccini, T

    2014-10-01

    Since brain tumours are the primary candidates for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, one major challenge in the selective drug delivery to CNS is the crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present pilot study investigated (i) the transport of a conventional B-containing product (i.e., L-(4-(10)Boronophenyl)alanine, L-(10)BPA), already used in medicine but still not fully characterized regarding its CNS interactions, as well as (ii) the effects of the L-(10)BPA on the BBB integrity using an in vitro model, consisting of brain capillary endothelial cells co-cultured with glial cells, closely mimicking the in vivo conditions. The multi-step experimental strategy (i.e. Integrity test, Filter study, Transport assay) checked L-(10)BPA toxicity at 80 µg Boron equivalent/ml, and its ability to cross the BBB, additionally by characterizing the cytoskeletal and TJ's proteins by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. In conclusion, a lack of toxic effects of L-(10)BPA was demonstrated, nevertheless accompanied by cellular stress phenomena (e.g. vimentin expression modification), paralleled by a low permeability coefficient (0.39 ± 0.01 × 10(-3)cm min(-1)), corroborating the scarce probability that L-(10)BPA would reach therapeutically effective cerebral concentration. These findings emphasized the need for novel strategies aimed at optimizing boron delivery to brain tumours, trying to ameliorate the compound uptake or developing new targeted products suitable to safely and effectively treat head cancer. Thus, the use of in vitro BBB model for screening studies may provide a useful early safety assessment for new effective compounds.

  9. Influence of antiretroviral therapy on programmed death-1 (CD279) expression on T cells in lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhard, Simone; Wernli, Marion; Dürmüller, Ursula; Battegay, Manuel; Gudat, Fred; Erb, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection leads to T-cell exhaustion and involution of lymphoid tissue. Recently, the programmed death-1 pathway was found to be crucial for virus-specific T-cell exhaustion during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Programmed death-1 expression was elevated on human immunodeficiency virus-specific peripheral blood CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and correlated with disease severity. During human immunodeficiency infection, lymphoid tissue acts as a major viral reservoir and is an important site for viral replication, but it is also essential for regulatory processes important for immune recovery. We compared programmed death-1 expression in 2 consecutive inguinal lymph nodes of 14 patients, excised before antiretroviral therapy (antiretroviral therapy as of 1997-1999) and 16 to 20 months under antiretroviral therapy. In analogy to lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals, in all treated patients, the germinal center area decreased, whereas the number of germinal centers did not significantly change. Programmed death-1 expression was mostly found in germinal centers. The absolute extent of programmed death 1 expression per section was not significantly altered after antiretroviral therapy resulting in a significant-relative increase of programmed death 1 per shrunken germinal center. In colocalization studies, CD45R0+ cells that include helper/inducer T cells strongly expressed programmed death-1 before and during therapy, whereas CD8+ T cells, fewer in numbers, showed a weak expression for programmed death-1. Thus, although antiretroviral therapy seems to reduce the number of programmed death-1-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes within germinal centers, it does not down-regulate programmed death-1 expression on the helper/inducer T-cell subset that may remain exhausted and therefore unable to trigger immune recovery.

  10. Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-motivational therapy program for the initial phase of schizophrenia: a 6-month assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Palma-Sevillano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the relative effectiveness of routine care (RC in addition to a specific early intervention program (PIPE compared to routine care alone. Methods: A total of 34 participants in the initial phase of schizophrenia took part in randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive either routine care (RC; n = 13 or routine integrated with Cognitive-Motivational Therapy (PIPE; n = 21. PIPE comprised individual and family Cognitive-Motivational therapy plus routine care for 12 months. In this paper we present preliminary results at 6 months after the beginning of the intervention. Clinical assessments were carried out at pre-treatment, and in this manuscript the results at 3 and 6 months after starting the intervention by external raters are presented, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and relapses. Mann-Whitney test and MANOVAs analysis for variance effects were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Significant greater clinical effects were observed in those patients treated in RC+PIPE at three months from baseline assessment and at six months in PANSS scale (Mann-Whitney test; p < 0.000. Other benefits of the program included increase in global activity, reduced relapse rates, and reduction of the pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: These findings show the effectiveness of a program of routine care integrated with cognitive-motivational interventions (individual and family therapy over routine psychiatric care alone for patients who are in the initial phase of schizophrenia.

  11. Use of a pretest strategy for physical therapist assistant programs to predict success rate on the national physical therapy exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, Stacey B; Keith, Becky; Whitehead, Malcolm T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a pretest strategy that identified physical therapist assistant (PTA) students who were at risk of failure on the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE). Program assessment data from five cohorts of PTA students (2005-2009) were used to develop a stepwise multiple regression formula that predicted first-time NPTE licensure scores. Data used included the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, grades from eight core courses, grade point average upon admission to the program, and scores from three mock NPTE exams given during the program. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the 15 variables and NPTE scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using data collected at the ends of the first, second, and third (final) semesters of the program. Data from the class of 2010 were then used to validate the formula. The end-of-program formula accounted for the greatest variance (57%) in predicted scores. Those students scoring below a predicted scaled score of 620 were identified to be at risk of failure of the licensure exam. These students were counseled, and a remedial plan was developed based on regression predictions prior to them sitting for the licensure exam.

  12. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  13. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  14. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  16. "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out": A Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This brief report describes a mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) intervention, "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out," which was piloted in 2010 and has since been offered at the Abramson Cancer Center at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. The author adapted the original MBAT intervention using a walkabout conceptual model, which was…

  17. Art Therapy Programs with At-Risk Students in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varallo, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    Educating and meeting the multiple needs of students at risk of low academic achievement has been a growing concern for public schools in the United States. Many at-risk students require alternative school-based interventions. This study examined the operation, premise, and objectives of art therapy integrated in 14 school districts across the…

  18. Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Sluijs, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Hermans, I.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. Subjects: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132

  19. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... minimum standards for pharmacy practice as established by the States. (2) Concurrent drug utilization... dosage or duration of drug therapy. (vi) Drug-allergy contraindications. (vii) Clinical abuse/misuse. (3... by CMS. (5) Considerations in pharmacy fees. An applicant to become a Part D sponsor must—...

  20. Coming Together to Calm the Hunger: Group Therapy Program for Adults Diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponech, Heather; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on anorexia nervosa in female adults and concludes by offering 14 group therapy lesson plans for anorexia nervosa that therapists may use in their practice. There is a remarkable lack of research on the efficacy of treatment designed for individuals diagnosed with anorexia…

  1. Creating Sustainable Community Engagement Initiatives in a Graduate Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Lattanzi, Jill B.; Dole, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    Many institutions of higher learning engage in activities related to community building. At Widener University, the Institute for Physical Therapy Education has undergone a process to build on relationships with those in its community to create service-learning and community engagement activities that were first initiated with short-term, one-time…

  2. Case Report Writing in a Doctor of Physical Therapy Education Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillyaw, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Case reports are an established form of scholarship used for teaching and learning in medicine and health care, but there are few examples of the teaching and learning activities used to prepare students to write a case report. This report describes the implementation of two courses that prepare physical therapy students to write and disseminate a…

  3. Students' Perspectives on Problem-Based Learning in a Transitional Doctorate of Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Helene M.; Buccieri, Kathleen M.; Wessel, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Doctor of physical therapy (DPT) graduates are expected to be competent in professional behaviors, communication, critical inquiry, clinical decision making, and evidence-based practice. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experience of students enrolled in a single, problem-based learning (PBL) course within a conventional…

  4. Program Evaluations of Occupational Therapy Level II Fieldwork Environments: A Naturalistic Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Susan K.

    1989-01-01

    Three occupational therapy fieldwork environments--mental health, adult physical disabilities, and pediatrics--were evaluated with the naturalistic inquiry methodology. Students and supervisors described and compared ideal clinical education environments with actual fieldwork environments. Different priorities emerged in the three environments,…

  5. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  6. Designing post-graduate Master's degree programs: the advanced training program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy as one example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzmann, Anja; Ruge, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Kristin; Kordass, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Einleitung: Auf der Bologna-Konferenz wurde eine europaweite Konsolidierung der Hochschulausbildung beschlossen. Basierend auf dem anglo-amerikanischen System wurde ein zweizyklischer Studienaufbau (Bachelor- und Masterabschluss) eingeführt. Ausgenommen waren Fächer, die mit einem Staatsexamen abschließen, wie z.B. Medizin und Zahnmedizin. Da das Staatsexamen in seiner Wertigkeit bereits mit einem Masterabschluss in Medizin oder Zahnmedizin vergleichbar ist, kommen für diese Fächer nur weiterbildende Masterstudiengänge mit Spezialisierungen in postgradualer Form in Frage. Im zahnmedizinischen Bereich entstanden nach und nach zahlreiche postgraduale Studiengänge. Viele unterschiedliche Modelle und Ansätze wurden verfolgt.Methode: Seit dem Wintersemester 2004/2005 bietet die Universität Greifswald den Masterstudiengang „Zahnärztliche Funktionsanalyse und -therapie“ an. Er dauert 2,5 Jahre, ist berufsbegleitend aufgebaut und richtet sich an approbierte Zahnärzte (innen), die sich für die Zukunft einer modernen zahnärztlichen Funktionsanalyse und -therapie qualifizieren wollen.Ziel: Dargestellt wird die Konzeption dieses postgradualen Studiengangs sowie erste Ergebnisse der Alumni-Evaluation.Fazit: Unseren Erfahrungen zufolge hat sich das Weiterbildungskonzept „Masterstudiengang“ bewährt. Der Studiengang stellt eine Spezialisierung dar, welche zu mehr Sicherheit im Umgang mit problematischen Patientenfällen führt. Als besonders wichtig wurde der Erfahrungsaustausch mit anderen Kollegen eingeschätzt.

  7. Comparison between Kinesio Taping and a Traditional Physical Therapy Program in Treatment of Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M.; Seif, Hamada Eid; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Alroumim, Meshari Abdulmohsen

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a very common but largely self-limiting condition. Several types of tape and their associated application methods are available for different conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) compared with traditional management of NSLBP. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male and female patients with a mean age of 34.8±7.54 years were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 (n=20) which underwent conventional physical therapy with KT, and group 2 (n=20), which underwent only conventional physical therapy. The intervention sessions for both groups were three times per week for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed for activities of daily living (ADL) using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, pain severity using a visual analogue scale, and ranges of motion (ROMs) of trunk flexion and extension using the modified Schober’s test. [Results] Significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs were observed post intervention within each group. In comparison, there were no significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs post intervention between groups. [Conclusion] A physical therapy program involving strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles and stretching exercises for back, hamstring, and iliopsoas muscles with or without Kinesio taping was beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain. PMID:25202177

  8. Comparison between Kinesio Taping and a Traditional Physical Therapy Program in Treatment of Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Seif, Hamada Eid; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Alroumim, Meshari Abdulmohsen

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a very common but largely self-limiting condition. Several types of tape and their associated application methods are available for different conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) compared with traditional management of NSLBP. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male and female patients with a mean age of 34.8±7.54 years were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 (n=20) which underwent conventional physical therapy with KT, and group 2 (n=20), which underwent only conventional physical therapy. The intervention sessions for both groups were three times per week for four weeks. Outcomes were assessed for activities of daily living (ADL) using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, pain severity using a visual analogue scale, and ranges of motion (ROMs) of trunk flexion and extension using the modified Schober's test. [Results] Significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs were observed post intervention within each group. In comparison, there were no significant differences in measures of pain, ADL, and trunk flexion and extension ROMs post intervention between groups. [Conclusion] A physical therapy program involving strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles and stretching exercises for back, hamstring, and iliopsoas muscles with or without Kinesio taping was beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

  9. Developing a systematic evaluation approach for training programs within a train-the-trainer model for youth cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Brad J; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra; Okamura, Kelsie; Chang, Jaime; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this small pilot study was three-fold: (a) to begin development of a coding scheme for supervisor and therapist skill acquisition, (b) to preliminarily investigate a pilot train-the-trainer paradigm for skill development, and (c) to evaluate self-reported versus observed indicators of skill mastery in that pilot program. Participants included four supervisor-therapist dyads (N = 8) working with public mental health sector youth. Master trainers taught cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques to supervisors, who in turn trained therapists on these techniques. Supervisor and therapist skill acquisition and supervisor use of teaching strategies were repeatedly assessed through coding of scripted role-plays with a multiple-baseline across participants and behaviors design. The coding system, the Practice Element Train the Trainer - Supervisor/Therapist Versions of the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy, was developed and evaluated though the course of the investigation. The coding scheme demonstrated excellent reliability (ICCs [1,2] = 0.81-0.91) across 168 video recordings. As calculated through within-subject effect sizes, supervisor and therapist participants, respectively, evidenced skill improvements related to teaching and performing therapy techniques. Self-reported indicators of skill mastery were inflated in comparison to observed skill mastery. Findings lend initial support for further developing an evaluative approach for a train-the-trainer effort focused on disseminating evidence-based practices.

  10. Longitudinal RF capture simulation and BPM signal estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Chen, Yu-Cong; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Ruan, Shuang; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Kang, Xin-Cai; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Li, Peng; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical aspects behind longitudinal RF capture are reviewed and the capture process is simulated via a program based on this theory. Four kinds of cases with different initial distribution and capture curve are considered, i.e. uniform distribution with adiabatic capture, uniform distribution with non-adiabatic capture, Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture and Gaussian distribution with non-adiabatic capture. The simulation results are compared each other and discussed, and Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture is demonstrated having a higher capture efficiency and leading to a shorter bunch length. In addition, the BPM induced signal is simulated with high input impendence, i.e. $1M\\Omega$, and low input impendence, i.e. $50\\Omega$, respectively. Finally, the BPM signal of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) is estimated and compared with measured one, and a good agreement is achieved.

  11. Guidelines for establishing a telemental health program to provide evidence-based therapy for trauma-exposed children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrea M; Shealy, Kristen M; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn; Moreland, Angela D; Davidson, Tatiana M; López, Cristina M; Barr, Simone C; de Arellano, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although similar rates of traumatic experiences exist in both rural and urban settings, mental health resources available to those living in rural areas are often scarce. Limited resources pose a problem for children and families living in rural areas, and several barriers to service access and utilization exist including reduced anonymity, few "after hours" services, decreased availability of evidence-based treatments, few specialty clinics, and expenses associated with travel, taking time off work, and provision of childcare. As a solution, the authors discuss the utility, use, and set-up of a telemental health program within an existing community outreach program. Suggestions for establishing a telemental health clinic are presented along with guidelines for the delivery of trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) via telemental health videoconferencing technology. Specific guidelines discussed include (1) establishing and using community partnerships, (2) Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), (3) equipment setup and technological resources, (4) videoconferencing software, (5) physical setup, (6) clinic administration, (7) service reimbursement and start-up costs, (8) therapy delivery modifications, and (9) delivering culturally competent services to rural and remote areas.

  12. Acceptance and commitment therapy program for distressed adults with a primary brain tumor: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye; Williams, Janet R; Smee, Robert I

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that adults diagnosed with a primary brain tumor (BT) are susceptible to experiencing anxiety and depressive problems post-diagnosis. However, there is a notable paucity of psychological interventions which have been tested with adult BT patients. An acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based manualized program was developed for anxious and/or depressed BT patients. The preliminary efficacy of this program was initially tested using a proof-of-concept study design based on a case series of four clinically distressed BT patients. Three of the four participants no longer met criteria for anxiety and/or depressive disorders at post-therapy, and these effects were maintained at 3 months of follow-up. The fourth participant, who had a premorbid psychiatric history, experienced a stabilization of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Given the current dearth of studies which have tested psychological interventions for distressed BT survivors, these preliminary findings have promising clinical utility. However, the efficacy of psychological interventions tailored for clinically distressed BT patients needs to be further tested using larger-scale controlled trial designs.

  13. National Dissemination of Motivation Enhancement Therapy in the Veterans Health Administration: Training Program Design and Initial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Wilbourne, Paula; Manuel, Jennifer K; Baer, John; Karlin, Bradley; Raffa, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) can be defined most simply as the "….combination of Motivational Interviewing (MI) with assessment feedback…." (Miller & Rollnick, 2013, p. 250). MET has a clear evidence-base promoting its use especially for treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite its efficacy and utility, MET is not widely used in clinical settings. In 2012, to facilitate the dissemination of MET, the Veterans Health Administration [VHA; the health care component of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)] launched a national training program that provided competency-based training in MET to VA staff working in SUD specialty care clinics. All VA facilities are required to implement EBPs for SUDs, such as MET, and ensure that they are available to veterans. This paper describes the VA MET training program and examines the impact of the MET training program on participants' knowledge of MET and self-reported MET skills. We review the components of the training and consultation and discuss adaptations made from the Project MATCH MET model to a real-world clinical setting. Of the 264 training participants we trained 2012-2013, 213 (81%) successfully completed all requirements of the training program, including requirements for demonstrating competency and attending at least 75% of scheduled consultation calls. After completion of the training program, approximately 85% of the clinicians reported implementing MET often (either 1-3 times per week or daily). Furthermore, we saw significant increases in MI knowledge from pretraining assessment to post-workshop and from pretraining to post-consultations. Additional training program details and revisions are discussed.

  14. Tuberculosis in Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballif, Marie; Renner, Lorna; Claude Dusingize, Jean;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global burden of childhood tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be 0.5 million new cases per year. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at high risk for TB. Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge. METHODS: We describe TB diagnosis...... and screening practices of pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. We used web-based questionnaires to collect data on ART programs and patients seen from March to July 2012. Forty-three ART programs treating children in 23 countries...... participated in the study. RESULTS: Sputum microscopy and chest Radiograph were available at all programs, mycobacterial culture in 40 (93%) sites, gastric aspiration in 27 (63%), induced sputum in 23 (54%), and Xpert MTB/RIF in 16 (37%) sites. Screening practices to exclude active TB before starting ART...

  15. [A daycare program of animal assisted therapy for affective disorder patients during psychotropic drug therapy: evaluation of the relaxation effect by fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Aoki, Jun; Kurihara, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Eiji; Inoue, Masao; Shibanai, Hiroko; Ishigooka, Jun

    2010-06-01

    During daycare programs of animal assisted therapy (AAT), we collected data on the brain function of two affective disorder patients who received psychotropic drug therapy with fNIRS, after written informed consent was obtained. A male patient at first showed a bloodstream drop, seen in the lower inside part of frontal lobe. In both patients, at least a slight activation of the function of the frontal lobe was seen during the therapy. Therefore, an activation effect of AAT was seen at least objectively by fNIRS.

  16. 用于硼中子俘获治疗的超热中子束理论设计%Theoretical design of an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏; 潘洁; 宁静; 谢向东; 杨国山

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design a scheme of epithermal neutron beam used for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).Methods Based on Tsinghua University experimental reactor and its No.1 passage,five schemes comprised of moderate materials,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials were designed according to different locations of materials placed in No.1 passage.To select a proper scheme from five schemes,the neutron fluence rate,the neutron dose rate and γ dose rate at exit of beam in each scheme were calculated with Monte Carlo simulating methods and then contrasted with BNCT technique criterion.Results The scheme of epithermal neutron beam meeting technical requirements of BNCT was obtained,in which the thickness of moderate material,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials are 53.5 cm,2 mm and 9 cm,respectively.Conclusions The theoretical scheme could provide some reference to realize BNCT on reactor.%目的 设计用于硼中子俘获治疗(BNCT)的超热中子束理论方案.方法 基于清华大学试验核反应堆,以其1号孔道为材料布放孔道,设计了由慢化材料、热中子吸收材料、γ屏蔽材料组成,但材料布放位置具有差异的5种理论方案;利用蒙特卡罗(MC)模拟方法,分别计算5种方案束出口处的中子注量率、剂量率及γ剂量率值,通过与BNCT技术指标对比,从5种方案中选择一种合适的方案.结果 得到了一个符合BNCT各项技术指标的超热中子束理论方案,其慢化材料厚度为53.5 cm、热中子吸收材料厚度为2 mm、γ屏蔽材料厚度为9 cm.结论 本研究给出的超热中子束理论方案为基于反应堆实现BNCT提供一定的理论参考.

  17. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  18. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  19. Effect of an art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia (GBTS) on prison inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China-A randomized, longitudinal, and controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-Zhong; Ye, Zeng-Jie; Liang, Mu-Zi; Huang, Yue-Qun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhi-Dong

    2017-01-12

    Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia. This article concludes that the art brut therapy was effective for the inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China and provides encouraging data on how to enhance mental health for inmates with schizophrenia.

  20. Bespoke program design for school-aged therapy disability service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, Pamela; Bahn, Susanne; Cooper, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the evaluation of a school-aged therapy service for children with disabilities in Western Australia to investigate models of service delivery. The current literature on family-centered practice, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, and 4 models of service are reviewed. The models include the life needs model, the relational goal-orientated model of optimal service delivery to children and families, the quality of life model, and the collaborative model of service delivery. Analysis of the data is presented together with a bespoke model of service delivery for children with disabilities, arguing that local contexts benefit from custom-made service design.

  1. Evaluation of a Pilot Medication-Assisted Therapy Program in Kazakhstan: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Scaleup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizbek A. Boltaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Aims. Evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the medication-assisted therapy (MAT pilot in Kazakhstan and review implementation context and related challenges. Methods. We performed a desk review of MAT policy and program documents and reviewed medical records at three MAT sites in Kazakhstan. MAT patients (n=93 were interviewed to assess their perceptions of the program and its impact on their health, criminal, drug use, and HIV risk related behaviors as well as expenditures on nonprescribed psychoactive drugs. Persons injecting drugs who are not in treatment, MAT program staff, and other stakeholders were interviewed to obtain their perspectives on MAT. Results. Legislation supports introducing MAT as a standard of care for treatment of opioid dependence; however, its progress has been hampered by active opposition. Inadequate access and coverage, insufficient supply management, scarce infrastructure of narcological facilities, limited opportunities for staff development, and restrictive methadone dispensing policies compromise the quality of the intervention and limit its potential benefits. There were significant reductions in criminal, drug use, and HIV risk related behaviors in patients receiving MAT. Conclusions. The MAT pilot in Kazakhstan demonstrated its feasibility and effectiveness in the local context and is recommended for scaleup throughout the country.

  2. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  3. Investigating the efficacy of an individualized metacognitive therapy program (MCT+) for psychosis: study protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological interventions are increasingly recommended as adjunctive treatments for psychosis, but their implementation in clinical practice is still insufficient. The individualized metacognitive therapy program (MCT+; www.uke.de/mct_plus) represents a low-threshold psychotherapeutic approach that synthesizes group metacognitive training (MCT) and cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis, and addresses specific cognitive biases that are involved in the onset and maintenance of...

  4. A pet-type robot AIBO-assisted therapy as a day care program for chronic schizophrenia patients: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Narita; Nobuyo Ohtani; Chikako Waga; Mitsuaki Ohta; Jun Ishigooka; Kazuhiko Iwahashi

    2016-01-01

    Background AAT (Animal-assisted therapy) was developed to promote human social and emotional functioning as a day care program for psychiatric patients. Aims In this study, we performed AAT using a pet-type robot, AIBO for schizophrenic patients. Methods After obtaining informed consent, we performed the AIBO-assisted therapy for three schizophrenic (ICD-10, F20.x2) patients (male: 1, female: 2) whose medication did not change over the 8 weeks study period in a ward. Results...

  5. MARS therapy, the bridging to liver retransplantation – Three cases from the Hungarian liver transplant program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakas, János; Zádori, Gergely; Görög, Dénes; Kóbori, László; Dabasi, Eszter; Mándli, Tamás; Piros, László; Smudla, Anikó; Szabó, Tamás; Toronyi, Éva; Tóth, Szabolcs; Tőzsér, Gellért; Végső, Gyula; Doros, Attila; Nemes, Balázs

    2013-01-01

    Besides orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) there is no long-term and effective replacement therapy for severe liver failure. Artificial extracorporeal liver supply devices are able to reduce blood toxin levels, but do not replace any synthetic function of the liver. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is one of the methods that can be used to treat fulminant acute liver failure (ALF) or acute on chronic liver failure (AoCLF). The primary non-function (PNF) of the newly transplanted liver manifests in the clinical settings exactly like acute liver failure. MARS treatment can reduce the severity of complications by eliminating blood toxins, so that it can help hepatic encephalopathy (HE), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), and the high rate mortality of cerebral herniation. This might serve as a bridging therapy before orthotopic liver retransplantation (reOLT). Three patients after a first liver transplantation became candidate for urgent MARS treatment as a bridging solution prior to reOLT in our center. Authors report these three cases, fo-cusing on indications, MARS sessions, clinical courses, and final outcomes. PMID:24265893

  6. Potential for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease using genetically programmed human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Dolatabadi, Nima; Nutter, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer; Mckercher, Scott R; Lipton, Stuart A

    2014-08-15

    Neural transplantation is a promising strategy for restoring dopaminergic dysfunction and modifying disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential resource in this regard because of their ability to provide a virtually limitless supply of homogenous dopaminergic progenitors and neurons of appropriate lineage. The recent advances in developing robust cell culture protocols for directed differentiation of hESCs to near pure populations of ventral mesencephalic (A9-type) dopaminergic neurons has heightened the prospects for PD cell therapy. Here, we focus our review on current state-of-the-art techniques for harnessing hESC-based strategies toward development of a stem cell therapeutic for PD. Importantly, we also briefly describe a novel genetic-programming approach that may address many of the key challenges that remain in the field and that may hasten clinical translation.

  7. Sustaining International Partnerships: The European Master of Science Program In Occupational Therapy: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions...... in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort...... comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize...

  8. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Lühr, Armin;

    2014-01-01

    -HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET....... We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction...... of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More...

  9. [Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) program with workers in an industrial setting: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Lionel; Tarquinio, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the implementation of a pilot program in the tradition of secondary prevention interventions aimed at reducing the severity of stress symptom. Developed from the MBCT protocol, designed to prevent depressive relapse, its specificity lies in the adaptation of its teaching materials resting on the mindfulness meditation-cognition-psycho-education triptych. The transposition of the princeps model has been the subject of a controlled and randomized experimental trial performed on a non-clinical population working in an industrial environment to assess the effect of the aforesaid program on stress and associated symptoms. The outcomes suggest preliminary contributions as for the benefits generated on the psychic health of a group of workers.

  10. Patient attrition from the HIV antiretroviral therapy program at two hospitals in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy H.; Zeliadt, Steven B.; Baseman, Janet G.; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Coq, Nancy Rachel Labbé; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Tegger, Mary; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) attrition among patients initiating therapy in 2005–2011 at two large, public-sector department-level hospitals, and to inform interventions to improve ART retention. Methods This retrospective cohort study used data from the iSanté electronic medical record (EMR) system. The study characterized ART attrition levels and explored the patient demographic, clinical, temporal, and service utilization factors associated with ART attrition, using time-to-event analysis methods. Results Among the 2 023 patients in the study, ART attrition on average was 17.0 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.8–18.3). In adjusted analyses, risk of ART attrition was up to 89% higher for patients living in distant communes compared to patients living in the same commune as the hospital (hazard ratio: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.54–2.33; P < 0.001). Hospital site, earlier year of ART start, spending less time enrolled in HIV care prior to ART initiation, receiving a non-standard ART regimen, lacking counseling prior to ART initiation, and having a higher body mass index were also associated with attrition risk. Conclusions The findings suggest quality improvement interventions at the two hospitals, including: enhanced retention support and transportation subsidies for patients accessing care from remote areas; counseling for all patients prior to ART initiation; timely outreach to patients who miss ART pick-ups; “bridging services” for patients transferring care to alternative facilities; routine screening for anticipated interruptions in future ART pick-ups; and medical case review for patients placed on non-standard ART regimens. The findings are also relevant for policymaking on decentralization of ART services in Haiti. PMID:25563149

  11. Determinants of retention in care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART program in urban Cameroon, 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Retention in long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART program remains a major challenge for effective management of HIV infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (ART discontinuation raises concerns about drug resistance and could negate much of the benefit sought by ART programs. Methods:Based on existing patient records, we assessed determinants of retention in HIV care among HIV patients enrolled in an urban ART at two urban hospitals in Cameroon. Extended Cox regression procedures were used to identify significant predictors of retention in HIV care. Results:Of 455 patients, 314 (69% were women, median (IQR age and baseline CD4 cell count were respectively 36 years (30 – 43 and 110 cells/µL (39 – 177. Forty patients (9% had active tuberculosis (TB at enrollment. After a median (IQR follow-up of 18 months (10–18, 346 (75% were still in care, 8 (2% were known dead, and 101 (22% were lost to follow-up (LFU. Severe immunosuppression (CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/µL at baseline (aHR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4 - 3.7 and active tuberculosis upon enrollment (aHR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0 - 3.6 were independent predictors of cohort losses to follow-up within the first 6 months after HAART initiation. Conclusion:These data suggest that three-quarter of HIV patients initiated on HAART remained in care and on HAART by 18 months; however, those with compromised immunologic status at treatment initiation, and those co-infected with TB were at increased risk for being lost to follow-up within the first 6 months on treatment.

  12. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  13. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  14. Review of Quantitative Monitoring Methodologies for Emissions Verification and Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage for California’s Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade and Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2014-12-23

    The Cap-and-Trade and Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) programs being administered by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) include Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) as a potential means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there is currently no universal standard approach that quantifies GHG emissions reductions for CCS and that is suitable for the quantitative needs of the Cap-and-Trade and LCFS programs. CCS involves emissions related to the capture (e.g., arising from increased energy needed to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from a flue gas and compress it for transport), transport (e.g., by pipeline), and storage of CO2 (e.g., due to leakage to the atmosphere from geologic CO2 storage sites). In this project, we reviewed and compared monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) protocols for CCS from around the world by focusing on protocols specific to the geologic storage part of CCS. In addition to presenting the review of these protocols, we highlight in this report those storage-related MVA protocols that we believe are particularly appropriate for CCS in California. We find that none of the existing protocols is completely appropriate for California, but various elements of all of them could be adopted and/or augmented to develop a rigorous, defensible, and practical surface leakage MVA protocol for California. The key features of a suitable surface leakage MVA plan for California are that it: (1) informs and validates the leakage risk assessment, (2) specifies use of the most effective monitoring strategies while still being flexible enough to accommodate special or site-specific conditions, (3) quantifies stored CO2, and (4) offers defensible estimates of uncertainty in monitored properties. California’s surface leakage MVA protocol needs to be applicable to the main CO2 storage opportunities (in California and in other states with entities participating in California

  15. Conformal radiation therapy with hadron beams and the programs of the TERA Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U

    1998-01-01

    Proposed fifty years ago, tumor therapy with charged hadron beams has been under rapid development since 1993-94. Indeed hadrontherapy was born in 1938, when neutron beams have been used in cancer therapy, but it has become an accepted therapeutical modality only in the last five years. Fast neutrons are still in use, even if their limitations are now apparent. Charged hadron beams are more favorable, since the largest specific energy deposition occurs at the end of their range in matter. The most used hadrons are at present protons and carbon ions. Both allow a dose deposition which conforms to the tumor target. Radiobiology experiments and the results of the first clinical trials indicate that carbon ions have, on top of this macroscopic property, a different way of interacting with cells at the microscopic level. There are thus solid hopes to use carbon beams of about 4500 MeV to control tumors which are radioresistant both to X-rays and protons. After discussing these macroscopic and microscopic properties of hadrontherapy, the twelve dedicated hadrontherapy centres, which will be treating patients from 2001-2002, are shortly described. Five of them are in the USA and seven in Japan, while no hospital based centre for deep protontherapy is fully financed in Europe. The second part of this review is devoted to the Italian hadrontherapy programme, based on the development of the network RITA, the construction in Rome by the "Istituto Superiore di Sanità" of a novel proton accelerator based on a 3 GHz linac, the design of a linac to boost the energy of protons extracted from a 50-70 MeV cyclotron and the construction in Mirasole, near Milano, of a center for protons and ions known as "CNAO". This center will have a synchrotron, which is under design at CERN in the framework of a collaboration of TERA with AUSTRON and GSI which is called PIMMS (Proton Ion Medical Machine Study) and is headed by Dr. Phyl Bryant.

  16. 硼中子俘获疗法诱导U87胶质瘤细胞凋亡%Boron neutron capture therapy inducing apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 章翔; 江新标; 程光; 赵英; 曹锐峰; 刘红; 王剑博

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)对人脑胶质瘤细胞株U87的增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的作用及可能机制.方法 实验分为未照射组(0 Gy)、γ射线对照组(4、8 Gy)、反应堆组(3.5 Gy)、BNCT组(4、8 Gy).采用形态观察、流式细胞仪Annexin V/PI荧光染色、四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法等方法观察BNCT对U87细胞的增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的作用,以免疫组织化学技术检测P53蛋白的表达,应用western blot检测BCL-2、BAX蛋白表达的变化.结果 硼中子照射后细胞出现典型的凋亡形态改变.BNCT 4、8 Gy组处理后48 h细胞的凋亡率分别为65.1%、85.9%.BNCT 4、8 Gy组细胞生长抑制作用显著高于同等剂量的γ射线照射组(P<0.01).未照射的U87细胞P53蛋白表达阴性,BNCT4、8 Gy照射后P53蛋白表达阳性.BNCT4、8 Gy照射后BCL-2蛋白表达下降,BAX蛋白上升.结论 BNCT对U87细胞具有显著的增殖抑制作用,并有剂量、时间依赖性特点.%Objective To explore the effect of boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT)on human brain glioma U87 cell line and its mechanisms.Method U87 cells in exponential phase were divided into 6 groups:untreated control,60Co γ 4 Gy,60Co γ 8 Gy,nuclear reactor exposure without boronophenylalanine (BPA)3.5 Gy,BNCT 4 Gy and BNCT 8 Gy.The anti-tumor effects were analyzed through cell morphology,the Annexin V/PI assay by flow cytometer(FCM),and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay.The expression of P53 protein was studied by immunocytochemistry and the expression of BCL-2 protein and BAX protein were measured by western blot.Results Typical morphological changes were observed after BNCT irradiation.The apoptotic rates were observed 48 h after irradiation with 65.1%and 85.9%for BNCT 4 Gy and 8 Gy.BNCT showed higher apoptotic rates than those of γ-ray control irradiation (P<0.01).The expression level of P53 protein was negative in U87,while positive expression of P53 protein was observed in BNCT 4 Gy and 8 Gy groups

  17. Tratamiento del cáncer por captura neutrónica de boro: Su aplicación al carcinoma indiferenciado de tiroides Boron neutron capture therapy applied to undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Pisarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides es un tumor muy agresivo, de muy mal pronóstico y sin tratamiento efectivo. La terapia por captura neutrónica de boro (BNCT podría ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Se basa en la captación selectiva de boro por el tumor y su activación por un haz de neutrones. El boro activado libera un núcleo de litio-7 y una partícula alfa, las cuales tienen una alta transmisión linear de energía (linear energy transfer, LET y un alcance de 5-9 µm, destruyendo el tumor. En estudios previos hemos mostrado que la línea celular humana de cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides (ARO tiene una captación selectiva de borofenilalanina (10BPA tanto in vitro como después de ser implantada en ratones NIH nude. También demostramos en estos animales inyectados con BPA e irradiados con un haz de neutrones térmicos, un 100% de control sobre el crecimiento tumoral y un 50% de cura histológica. En trabajos posteriores mostramos que la porfirina 10BOPP tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester de 2,4-bis-(a,b-dihydroxyethyl-deutero-porphyrin IX cuando es inyectada 5-7 días antes que el BPA se obtiene una concentración tumoral de boro de aproximadamente el doble que el BPA solo (45-38 ppm vs. 20 ppm. La posterior irradiación con neutrones mostró un 100% de remisión completa en animales con tumores cuyo volumen pre-tratamiento era de 50 mm³ o menor. Los perros padecen CIT espontáneo, con un comportamiento biológico similar al humano, y una captación selectiva de BPA, abriendo la posibilidad de su tratamiento por BNCT.Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to the lack of an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET. In previous

  18. Studies on preparation of folate-targeted boron liposomes as potential delivery agents for neutron capture therapy%叶酸靶向含硼脂质体的制备及其包封率的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志会; 钱林学; 刘冬

    2012-01-01

    To prepare folate-targeted liposomes with high encapsulation efficiency is an effective targeted drug delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The double emulsion method is used to prepare liposomes. The combination of thin film hydration and ultrasonic dispersion method is used to prepare liposomes loaded with HBA,TBA or BBA. The content and the encapsulation efficiency of HBA,TBA or BBA liposomes are evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). As the basis of the encapsulation efficiency, the optimal conditions for preparing liposomes were explored by the single factor method. The optimal chromatographic conditions of the three drugs were filtered out. They had a good linear relation in a range of 1 ~ 100 μg/mL. The encapsulation efficiency of HBA, TBA and BBA liposomes were 25. 7 % , 38. 9 % and 94. 8 % at the optimal preparation and condition. The optimal conditions for preparing BBA liposomes are as follows; the mass ratio of cholesterol and phospholipid is 1: 1, the ratio of drug and lipid is 1: 50 and the optimal pH value is 7. 4. The entrapment efficiency for BBA liposomes in the optimal groups reached 94. 8 % . The technique of preparing folate-tar-geted liposomes is feasible and the method of quality control is simple and high accuracy. The liposomes appeare to be round, and well separated with high entrapment efficiency.%制备具有良好靶向性及包封率高的硼脂质体,为硼中子俘获治疗方法的研究与应用建立了一个有效的靶向给药途径.采用复乳法及薄膜—超声分散法制备叶酸靶向硼脂质体,利用高效液相色谱法检测4—羟基苯硼酸4—Hydroxyphenylboronicacid (HBA)脂质体、2—噻吩硼酸2—thiophenylboric acid(TBA)脂质体、4—叔丁基苯硼酸4—tert-Butylphenylboronic Acid(BBA)脂质体的含量及包封率,以包封率为评价指标,采用单因素法优化脂质体的制备处方和工艺条件.筛选出HBA、TBA、BBA最优的色谱条件,分

  19. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  20. Treatment outcomes in a decentralized antiretroviral therapy program: a comparison of two levels of care in north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Prosper; Sagay, Atiene S; Agaba, Patricia A; Yohanna, Stephen; Agbaji, Oche O; Imade, Godwin E; Banigbe, Bolanle; Adeola, Juliet; Oyebode, Tinuade A; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services is a key strategy to achieving universal access to treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS. Our objective was to assess clinical and laboratory outcomes within a decentralized program in Nigeria. Methods. Using a tiered hub-and-spoke model to decentralize services, a tertiary hospital scaled down services to 13 secondary-level hospitals using national and program guidelines. We obtained sociodemographic, clinical, and immunovirologic data on previously antiretroviral drug naïve patients aged ≥15 years that received HAART for at least 6 months and compared treatment outcomes between the prime and satellite sites. Results. Out of 7,747 patients, 3729 (48.1%) were enrolled at the satellites while on HAART, prime site patients achieved better immune reconstitution based on CD4+ cell counts at 12 (P < 0.001) and 24 weeks (P < 0.001) with similar responses at 48 weeks (P = 0.11) and higher rates of viral suppression (<400 c/mL) at 12 (P < 0.001) and 48 weeks (P = 0.03), but similar responses at 24 weeks (P = 0.21). Mortality was 2.3% versus 5.0% (P < 0.001) at prime and satellite sites, while transfer rate was 8.7% versus 5.5% (P = 0.001) at prime and satellites. Conclusion. ART decentralization is feasible in resource-limited settings, but efforts have to be intensified to maintain good quality of care.

  1. A programmed release multi-drug implant fabricated by three-dimensional printing technology for bone tuberculosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weigang; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong; Sun, Jianhua; Liu, Yudong

    2009-12-01

    In the world, bone tuberculosis is still very difficult to treat and presents a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we utilized 3D printing technology to fabricate a programmed release multi-drug implant for bone tuberculosis therapy. The construction of the drug implant was a multi-layered concentric cylinder divided into four layers from the center to the periphery. Isoniazid and rifampicin were distributed individually into the different layers in a specific sequence of isoniazid-rifampicin-isoniazid-rifampicin. The drug release assays in vitro and in vivo showed that isoniazid and rifampicin were released orderly from the outside to the center to form the multi-drug therapeutic alliance, and the peak concentrations of drugs were detected in sequence at 8 to 12 day intervals. In addition, no negative effect on the proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was detected during the cytocompatibility assay. Due to its ideal pharmacologic action and cytocompatibility, the programmed release multi-drug implant with a complex construction fabricated by 3D printing technology could be of interest in prevention and treatment of bone tuberculosis.

  2. A programmed release multi-drug implant fabricated by three-dimensional printing technology for bone tuberculosis therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Weigang; Zheng Qixin; Guo Xiaodong; Sun Jianhua; Liu Yudong, E-mail: Zheng-qx@163.co [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In the world, bone tuberculosis is still very difficult to treat and presents a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we utilized 3D printing technology to fabricate a programmed release multi-drug implant for bone tuberculosis therapy. The construction of the drug implant was a multi-layered concentric cylinder divided into four layers from the center to the periphery. Isoniazid and rifampicin were distributed individually into the different layers in a specific sequence of isoniazid-rifampicin-isoniazid-rifampicin. The drug release assays in vitro and in vivo showed that isoniazid and rifampicin were released orderly from the outside to the center to form the multi-drug therapeutic alliance, and the peak concentrations of drugs were detected in sequence at 8 to 12 day intervals. In addition, no negative effect on the proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was detected during the cytocompatibility assay. Due to its ideal pharmacologic action and cytocompatibility, the programmed release multi-drug implant with a complex construction fabricated by 3D printing technology could be of interest in prevention and treatment of bone tuberculosis.

  3. Immunologic checkpoints in cancer therapy: focus on the programmed death-1 (PD-1 receptor pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Momtaz,1,2 Michael A Postow1,2 1Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: T-lymphocytes have the potential to recognize cancer antigens as foreign and therefore eliminate them. However, immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death (PD-1 receptor and its ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2 suppress the activity of T-lymphocytes. Advances in the understanding of immunology and its role in cancer have led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors that block CTLA-4 and PD-1 and result in durable responses in patients with a wide range of cancers. PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are currently in many stages of clinical investigation, and the anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Many questions remain to be answered, such as the optimal administration schedule, biomarkers that associate with benefit, and potential for use of PD-1 agents in combination approaches. Nonetheless, immunotherapy with PD-1 blocking antibodies is now becoming an integral part in the management of cancer. Keyword: immune checkpoints, immunotherapy, programmed cell death protein-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4

  4. Iv antibiotic therapy in an outpatient setting: report of a joint venture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, L J

    1988-05-01

    Intracare, a joint venture between infectious disease consultants and Fairfax Hospital, Virginia, represents an ambulatory model for the delivery of intravenous antibiotics on an outpatient basis. This article reviews the cost effectiveness and clinical effectiveness of the program in the first 2,096 enrollees over a 6-year period. The most commonly treated infection was osteomyelitis and the most frequently used antibiotic was ceftriaxone sodium. The infections responded satisfactorily in 89% of patients in the program. A total of 39,829 hospital days were saved, which represented a cost savings for hospital bed charges alone of $15,931,600. The authors conclude that because of changes in the hospital environment--constraints on the expansion of hospital beds, and the reservation of hospital beds for the most acutely ill patients (a future prediction resulting from an increased elderly population)--Intracare may serve as a prototype of a clinic rendering all types of outpatient care to chronically ill or less acutely ill patients who would ordinarily have been hospitalized.

  5. Cellular Programming and Reprogramming: Sculpting Cell Fate for the Production of Dopamine Neurons for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Aguila

    2012-01-01

    success of clinical applications depends on our ability to steer pluripotent stem cells towards the right neuronal identity. In Parkinson disease, the loss of dopamine neurons is more pronounced in the ventrolateral population that projects to the sensorimotor striatum. Because synapses are highly specific, only neurons with this precise identity will contribute, upon transplantation, to the synaptic reconstruction of the dorsal striatum. Thus, understanding the developmental cell program of the mesostriatal dopamine neurons is critical for the identification of the extrinsic signals and cell-intrinsic factors that instruct and, ultimately, determine cell identity. Here, we review how extrinsic signals and transcription factors act together during development to shape midbrain cell fates. Further, we discuss how these same factors can be applied in vitro to induce, select, and reprogram cells to the mesostriatal dopamine fate.

  6. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  7. The relationship between the level of program integrity and pre- and post-test changes of Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Hendriks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the int

  8. Effect of Home Exercise Program Performance in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee or the Spine on the Visual Analog Scale after Discharge from Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hamilton; Onishi, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of the frequency of home exercise program (HEP) performance on pain [10-point visual analog scale (VAS)] in patients with osteoarthritis of the spine or knee after more than 6 months discharge from physical therapy (PT). We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 adult patients with a clinical…

  9. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M. W.; de Groot, Janke F.; Winkler, Alexander M. F.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Takken, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective. The study obje

  10. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Three-Month Follow-Up Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Craig; Misurell, Justin R.; Hiller, Atara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for addressing problems typically found among elementary school-aged victims of child sexual abuse immediately after treatment and at three months following treatment. It was hypothesized that positive gains would be observed among the following domains:…

  11. An Immediate and Long-Term Study of a Temperament and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Based Community Program for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Hadas; Taube, Daniel O.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Reiser, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The immediate and long-term effects of a Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) derived program offered at a Kaiser Permanente facility were evaluated. There were 73 participants in the initial sample and 23 in the 5-6 year follow-up sample. Child behaviors improved significantly immediately following treatment and some improvements were…

  12. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  13. Capturing Creative Program Management Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Extensive Oversight—A Serious Issue Acquisition oversight began in the 1960s ( Acker , 1993). Numerous studies and reports on defense acquisition have...research to industry. References Acker , D. D. (1993). Acquiring defense systems: A quest for the best. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Systems Management

  14. Adherence and retention on antiretroviral therapy in a public-private partnership program in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Torpey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Nigeria was restricted to secondary and tertiary level hospitals due to weak health systems in primary health centres (PHCs. Shell Petroleum Development Company (SDPC Nigeria and FHI 360 using a systems strengthening approach, piloted ART enrolment in a PHC in south-eastern Nigeria. This study sought to evaluate patients’ adherence and mortality on ART, and associated risk factors. We reviewed clinic records of adult patients initiating ART between January 2007 and December 2009. Adherence was calculated as the number of days of medication dispensed as a percentage of total number of days evaluated. Outcome measures were probability of being alive and retained in care at 12 and 24 months on ART. Competing risks regression models were used to assess potential predictors associated with mortality. Total of 196 patients (64.8% males were initiated on ART. Patients’ median age was 35 years (IQR 30–44; median CD4 at initiation was 132 cells/mm3 (IQR 82–212, Patients in WHO stage III and IV constituted 73 (37.6% and 83 (42.8% respectively. Majority (108 [55.1%] of patients had adherence rates >95%. Adherence levels ranged: 70–85%, 50–65% and <50% in 29 (14.8%, 30 (15.3% and 29 (14.8% of patients respectively. Nucleoside backbone use were AZT/3TC (69.4% d4T/3TC (28.6% and TDF/FTC (2%. At 12 months of follow up, 80.6% (158 were alive and on ART, mortality accounted for 12.8% (25, 11 (5.6% were LTFU and 2 (1.1% transferred out. At 24 months on ART survival decreased to 64.3% (126, 20.4% (40 died, 9.2% (18 were LTFU and 12 (6.1% transferred out. Competing risks regression models revealed that patients’ factors significantly associated with mortality include: bedridden patients (HR=3.6 [95% CI: 1.11–11.45], p=0.03, referent: working, <50% adherence levels (HR=27.7 [95% CI: 8.55–89.47], p<0.0001, referent: >95% adherence level. In conclusion, majority of attrition was

  15. Bright light therapy as part of a multicomponent management program improves sleep and functional outcomes in delirious older hospitalized adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong MS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mei Sian Chong,1 Keng Teng Tan,2 Laura Tay,1 Yoke Moi Wong,1 Sonia Ancoli-Israel3,41Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 2Department of Pharmacy, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 3Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health (CESAMH, San Diego, CA, USAObjective: Delirium is associated with poor outcomes following acute hospitalization. A specialized delirium management unit, the Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU, was established. Evening bright light therapy (2000–3000 lux; 6–10 pm daily was added as adjunctive treatment, to consolidate circadian activity rhythms and improve sleep. This study examined whether the GMU program improved sleep, cognitive, and functional outcomes in delirious patients.Method: A total of 228 patients (mean age = 84.2 years were studied. The clinical characteristics, delirium duration, delirium subtype, Delirium Rating Score (DRS, cognitive status (Chinese Mini–Mental State Examination, functional status (modified Barthel Index [MBI], and chemical restraint use during the initial and predischarge phase of the patient’s GMU admission were obtained. Nurses completed hourly 24-hour patient sleep logs, and from these, the mean total sleep time, number of awakenings, and sleep bouts (SB were computed.Results: The mean delirium duration was 6.7 ± 4.6 days. Analysis of the delirium subtypes showed that 18.4% had hypoactive delirium, 30.2% mixed delirium, and 51.3% had hyperactive delirium. There were significant improvements in MBI scores, especially for the hyperactive and mixed delirium subtypes (P < 0.05. Significant improvements were noted on the DRS sleep–wake disturbance subscore, for all delirium-subtypes. The mean total sleep time (7.7 from 6.4 hours (P < 0.05 and length of first SB (6.0 compared with 5.3 hours (P < 0.05 improved, with decreased mean number of SBs and awakenings. The

  16. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  17. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    changing the affinity ligand, we can use capture matrices to detect other chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, nerve and blister agents, pesticides...require significant chemical additives and complex equipment, generate a large secondary waste stream, and are difficult to automate. Magnetically...secondary wastes . 2 Other advantages are a large active surface area for a given mass of particles; the ability to process a solution that

  18. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... educational methodologies. —Must be credentialed in radiation therapy technology or possess suitable..., with suitable experience, qualified in radiation therapy technology and educational methodologies and... written course syllabi which describe competencies and learning objectives to be achieved. The...

  19. Treatment Outcomes in a Decentralized Antiretroviral Therapy Program: A Comparison of Two Levels of Care in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Okonkwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Decentralization of antiretroviral therapy (ART services is a key strategy to achieving universal access to treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS. Our objective was to assess clinical and laboratory outcomes within a decentralized program in Nigeria. Methods. Using a tiered hub-and-spoke model to decentralize services, a tertiary hospital scaled down services to 13 secondary-level hospitals using national and program guidelines. We obtained sociodemographic, clinical, and immunovirologic data on previously antiretroviral drug naïve patients aged ≥15 years that received HAART for at least 6 months and compared treatment outcomes between the prime and satellite sites. Results. Out of 7,747 patients, 3729 (48.1% were enrolled at the satellites while on HAART, prime site patients achieved better immune reconstitution based on CD4+ cell counts at 12 (P<0.001 and 24 weeks (P<0.001 with similar responses at 48 weeks (P=0.11 and higher rates of viral suppression (<400 c/mL at 12 (P<0.001 and 48 weeks (P=0.03, but similar responses at 24 weeks (P=0.21. Mortality was 2.3% versus 5.0% (P<0.001 at prime and satellite sites, while transfer rate was 8.7% versus 5.5% (P=0.001 at prime and satellites. Conclusion. ART decentralization is feasible in resource-limited settings, but efforts have to be intensified to maintain good quality of care.

  20. Medical criteria for active physical therapy. Physician guidelines for patient participation in a program of functional electrical rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C A

    1987-10-01

    Medical guidelines are presented by which the physician may evaluate a patient for participation in a program of active physical therapy (A.P.T.). A.P.T. system modalities are introduced and defined as: a) isokinetic leg trainer, b) stationary bicycle ergometer, c) outdoor exercise bicycle, and d) Functional Electrical Stimulation (F.E.S.)--Orthosis for ambulation. The physiological responses to these F.E.S. exercise modalities are reviewed. Initial and interim patient evaluations are discussed. The initial patient evaluation includes a history, physical examination, lab tests, and a report summary, all of which culminate in an F.E.S. exercise prescription. The interim patient evaluation is performed for continuation-termination purposes as well as to progress the patient through the various F.E.S. exercise modalities. Specific F.E.S. exercise progression criteria are summarized. The medical criteria are presented with respect to both patient participation in the F.E.S. exercise program and patient monitoring during the exercise itself. Specific medical criteria for patient participation in A.P.T. are organized around eight functional categories: a) level of neurological injury, b) muscular system, c) skeletal system, subdivided into bone criteria and joint criteria, d) cardiovascular system, e) respiratory system, f) urogenital system, g) cutaneous system, and h) psychological system. The medical criteria for patient monitoring during F.E.S. exercise are discussed with respect to: a) cardiovascular monitoring, b) objective patient monitoring, and c) F.E.S. exercise system monitoring. The article concludes with a discussion of informed consent when applied to an emerging treatment modality.

  1. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice-weekly 1-h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  2. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human–animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6–month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre–program with post–program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre–session with post–session salivary cortisol and alpha–amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty–two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6–month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT–treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice–weekly 1–h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT–treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT–treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology

  3. Animal assisted therapy (AAT program as a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia: results of a small-scale randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eCalvo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal-assisted therapy (AAT for specific profiles of patients or participants.The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D, pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program.We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning, a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration and a family program. Each member of the control group (n=8 participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n=14 participated in twice-weekly 1-hour sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  4. Effect of a 12-week yoga therapy program on mental health status in elderly women inmates of a hospice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Meena; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2017-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga on the mental health status of elderly women inmates residing in a hospice in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly women were randomly divided into yoga and wait-listed control group. A yoga therapy program of 60 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This protocol was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations that included simple warm-up and breath-body movement coordination practices (jathis and kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), and relaxation. Hamilton anxiety scale for measuring anxiety, Hamilton rating scale for depression, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure self-esteem were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were applied for intra- and inter-group comparisons. Results: Overall, intra- and inter-group comparison of prepost data showed statistically significant (P negative thoughts, and give them a sense of purpose and hope. PMID:28149064

  5. Interprofessional clinical education for occupational therapy and psychology students: a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana M; Wittman, Peggy; Bundy, Myra Beth

    2012-01-01

    An interprofessional clinical learning experience was developed for pre-licensure occupational therapy (OT) and psychology graduate students. Students worked in interprofessional teams to plan and implement a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objectives were to provide a hands-on, student-led clinical experience; facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning through leadership partnerships and teach children with ASD to engage in appropriate social skill behaviors. Concurrently, faculty performed qualitative research to explore how the students worked together to provide intervention to the children. Data were collected via interview, direct observation of student planning sessions and student interprofessional interactions, and collection of posts from an online social network site used for session planning. There were six student participants and two faculty participants. Four themes emerged: learning who I am as a professional, learning to appreciate our professional differences, learning to communicate with each other and figuring it out, for the benefit of the kids. This interprofessional clinical learning experience and research helps ensure that students are adequately prepared to represent their profession as part of a diverse interprofessional health care team.

  6. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  7. A televideo exercise and nutrition program for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in maintenance therapy: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson CA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Gibson,1 Keith J August,2 Jerry L Greene,3 Stephen D Herrmann,4 Jaehoon Lee,5 Susan P Harvey,6 Kate Lambourne,3 Debra K Sullivan7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General and Geriatric Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA; 2Children's Mercy Hospital, MO, USA; 3Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 4Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, SD, USA; 5Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy, Texas Tech University, TX, USA; 6Center for Research on Learning, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 7Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA Abstract: Changes in nutrient intake and decreased exercise resulting from cancer therapies as well as their side effects may be contributing factors in the increased body weight and differences in physical fitness observed in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. This article will describe the study protocol for an intervention program designed to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of ALL survivors. Twenty-four children aged between 4 years and 12 years with ALL will be randomized to a 6-month technology-based exercise and nutrition program (TLC4ALLKids or to enhanced usual care (eUC. The participants randomized to the TLC4ALLKids will participate in weekly, 1-hour coaching sessions on nutrition and physical activity and 1-hour physical activity classes delivered by group video conferencing. Participants will be provided with iPad tablets loaded with video conferencing software and the Healthy Lifestyle Tracking calendar to track daily nutrition and physical activity goals and weight. Both groups will be provided with Fitbit™ Zip to monitor physical activity. To assess feasibility, participant recruitment (achievement of proposed sample size, attendance (per weekly online sessions/assessment sessions, and adherence (number of

  8. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  9. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  10. Neutron capture strategy and technique developments for GNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The initial three years of neutron capture measurements have been very successful in providing data for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative/Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (AFCI/GNEP) program. Now that the most straightforward measurements have been completed, additional technical challenges face future measurements. In particular, techniques are needed to perform measurements that exhibit at least one of three major problems -- large fission:capture ratios, large capture:capture ratios, and high intrinsic activity samples. This paper will set forward a plan for attacking these technical challenges and moving forward with future measurements.

  11. Program Energy of the CNRS. Topic 10 combustion and capture of CO{sub 2}. PRI 10.1. Capture by adsorption of the CO{sub 2} in thermal power plants gas and their injection in petroleum wells. Final report period 2002-2004; Programme energie du CNRS. Theme 10 combustion et capture du CO2. PRI 10.1. Capture par adsorption du CO2 dans des gaz de centrales thermiques et leur injection en puits de petrole. Rapport final periode 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondeur, D

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of the global warming resulting of the greenhouse gases emission increase, the carbon dioxide capture and storage in deep underground cavities of old petroleum and gas deposits, are studied. This report presents the researches realized by the CNRS (France) in the domain: technology and knowledge assessment concerning the carbon dioxide capture and storage, active coals for the CO{sub 2} capture, methodology of thermo-economical optimization of the combined cycle, global simulation of an IGCC (Integrated gasification combined cycle) with CO{sub 2} capture and integration in the process scheme, petroleum recovery-aided by CO{sub 2} injection, storage in geological deposits. (A.L.B.)

  12. Particle capture into the lung made simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Talita Felipe; Sapoval, Bernard; Andrade, José S; Grotberg, James B; Hu, Yingying; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the impact distribution of particles entering the human respiratory system is of primary importance as it concerns not only atmospheric pollutants or dusts of various kinds but also the efficiency of aerosol therapy and drug delivery. To model this process, current approaches consist of increasingly complex computations of the aerodynamics and particle capture phenomena, performed in geometries trying to mimic lungs in a more and more realistic manner for as many airway generations as possible. Their capture results from the complex interplay between the details of the aerodynamic streamlines and the particle drag mechanics in the resulting flow. In contrast, the present work proposes a major simplification valid for most airway generations at quiet breathing. Within this context, focusing on particle escape rather than capture reveals a simpler structure in the entire process. When gravity can be neglected, we show by computing the escape rates in various model geometries that, although still complicated, the escape process can be depicted as a multiplicative escape cascade in which each elementary step is associated with a single bifurcation. As a net result, understanding of the particle capture may not require computing particle deposition in the entire lung structure but can be abbreviated in some regions using our simpler approach of successive computations in single realistic bifurcations. Introducing gravity back into our model, we show that this multiplicative model can still be successfully applied on up to nine generations, depending on particle type and breathing conditions.

  13. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  14. A pet-type robot AIBO-assisted therapy as a day care program for chronic schizophrenia patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Narita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background AAT (Animal-assisted therapy was developed to promote human social and emotional functioning as a day care program for psychiatric patients. Aims In this study, we performed AAT using a pet-type robot, AIBO for schizophrenic patients. Methods After obtaining informed consent, we performed the AIBO-assisted therapy for three schizophrenic (ICD-10, F20.x2 patients (male: 1, female: 2 whose medication did not change over the 8 weeks study period in a ward. Results It was found that the AAT using AIBO may be useful for the patients with negative and general psychopathological symptoms such as “Anxiety” and “Uncooperativeness”. Conclusion We make use of this result, and we want to develop the AAT program using a pet-type robot, AIBO which may be suitable for Japanese psychiatric patients.

  15. Vascular programming in twins: the effects of chorionicity and fetal therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, H M; Barlas, A; Matsui, H; Diemert, A; Taylor, M J O; Preece, J; Gordon, F; Greenwald, S E; Hecher, K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed vascular programming in genetically identical monochorionic twin pairs with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated differently in utero by serial amnioreduction or fetal laser arterial photocoagulation. This case-control study re-assessed four twin groups at median 11 years comprising 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins: nine treated by amnioreduction (TTTS-amnio) and eleven by laser (TTTS-laser) with seven monochorionic and six dichorionic control pairs. Outcome measures were current blood pressure (BP), brachio-radial arterial stiffness derived from pulse wave velocity (PWV), resting microcirculation (Flux) and response to heating and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia measured using laser Doppler. Potential confounders [PWV and BP at first study, current height, weight, heart rate and twin type (ex-recipient, ex-donor or heavier/lighter of pair)] were accounted for by Mixed Linear Models statistical methodology. PWV dichorionic > monochorionic (P = 0.024); systolic and diastolic BP dichorionic > TTTS-amnio and TTTS-laser (P = 0.004, P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, P = 0.02, respectively). Within-twin pair pattern of PWV discordance was similar in laser treated and dichorionic controls (heavier-born > lighter), opposite to TTTS-amnio and monochorionic controls. Flux monochorionic > dichorionic (P = 0.044) and heavier > lighter-born (P = 0.024). TTTS-laser and dichorionic diamniotic showed greatest hyperaemic responses (dichorionic > TTTS-amnio or monochorionic controls (P = 0.007, P = 0.025). Hyperaemic responses were slower in heavier-born twins (P = 0.005). In summary, monochorionic twins had lower BP, arterial stiffness and increased resting vasodilatation than dichorionic twins implying shared fetal circulation affects vascular development. Vascular responses in laser-TTTS were similar to dichorionic and opposite to TTTS-amnio suggesting a lasting effect of fetal therapy on vascular health.

  16. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  17. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  18. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  19. Employment Selections of Resident and Non-Resident Graduates of Physical Therapy Programs in Underserved Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Kathryn D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapy (PT) is an essential component of the healthcare system in providing a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with functional limitations. The demand for physical therapy services is projected to expand in the next eight years, leading to an increased need for practicing physical therapists. The Mountain…

  20. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. Music Therapy is an established health ...