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Sample records for capture therapy jaeri

  1. Verification of the computational dosimetry system in JAERI (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakai, K.; Kageji, T.

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by using the medical irradiation facility installed in Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have been performed since 1999. To carry out the BNCT procedure based on proper treatment planning and its precise implementation, the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) which is applicable to dose planning has been developed in JAERI. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of JCDS. The experimental data with a cylindrical water phantom were compared with the calculation results using JCDS. Data of measurements obtained from IOBNCT cases at JRR-4 were also compared with retrospective evaluation data with JCDS. In comparison with phantom experiments, the calculations and the measurements for thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose were in a good agreement, except at the surface of the phantom. Against the measurements of clinical cases, the discrepancy of JCDS's calculations was approximately 10%. These basic and clinical verifications demonstrated that JCDS has enough performance for the BNCT dosimetry. Further investigations are recommended for precise dose distribution and faster calculation environment.

  2. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  3. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  4. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  5. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  6. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  7. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  8. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  9. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Tanaka

    2004-07-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in proteins. After developing an original neutron detector (neutron imaging plate) and a novel practical neutron monochromator (elastically bent perfect Si monochromator), BIX-type diffractometers which were equipped with these tools were e±ciently constructed at JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Japan and they have finished many protein crystallographic measurements and interesting results have come one after another. At the same time a method of growing large protein single crystals and a database of hydrogen and hydration have also been developed. In the near future, a pulsed neutron diffractometer for biological macromolecules has been proposed at J-PARC in JAERI.

  10. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  11. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  13. Neutron Science Project at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, is proposing the Neutron Science Project which aims at bringing about scientific and technological innovation in the fields of basic science and nuclear technology for the 21st century, using high intense spallation neutron source. The research areas to be promoted by the project are neutron structural biology, material science, nuclear physics and various technology developments for accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radionuclides which are associated with nuclear power generation. JAERI has been carrying out a R and D program for the partitioning and transmutation with the intention to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle backend. The accelerator-driven transmutation study is also covered with this program. In the present stage of the project, a conceptual design is being prepared for a research complex utilizing spallation neutrons, including a high intensity pulsed and steady spallation neutron source with 1.5 GeV and 8 MW superconducting proton linac. The idea and facility plan of the project is described, including the status of technological development of the accelerator, target and facilities. (author)

  14. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Furuya, Y. [Department of Surgery, Satukidai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Local recurrence breast cancer is one of the most difficult conditions to cure and there is a need for new therapy. If sufficient boron compound can be targeted to the tumor, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be applied to local recurrent breast cancer. In this study, we performed a preliminary dosimetry with a phantom model of the mammary gland at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), and a feasibility dosimetry with JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute. We performed preliminary dosimetry of a phantom model of the mammary gland with thermal neutron irradiation (OO-0011 mode) on LiF collimation at KUR. The thermal neutron flux was 5.16 E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the surface of phantom. The blood boron concentration is estimated to be 30 ppm; tumor boron concentration is also estimated to be 90 ppm according to tumor/blood ratio 3 and skin/blood ratio 1.2. Tumor RBE dose is estimated to be 47 Gy/h, and skin RBE dose is 12.4 Gy/h. In case of advanced breast cancer, we performed the feasibility estimation of 3D construction of tumor according to the MRI imaging of a patient with epithermal neutron mode at JRR4. The blood boron concentration (ppm) and tumor/normal tissue ratio are estimated to be 24 and 3.5, respectively. Skin RBE dose is restricted to 10 Gy/h, the maximum tumor RBE dose, minimum tumor RBE dose, and mean tumor RBE dose are 42.2, 11.3, and 28.9 Gy-Eq, respectively, in half hour irradiation. In this study, we showed the possibility to apply BNCT to local recurrent breast cancer. We can irradiate tumors selectively and as safely as possible, reducing the effects on neighboring healthy tissues.

  16. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  17. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  18. Research plans of heavy element nuclear chemistry in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry of heavy elements in JAERI is briefly introduced. Status and future prospects for studies of chemical and nuclear properties of the transactinide elements with the JAERI tandem accelerator are presented. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration.

  20. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  1. Neutron capture cross-section of fission products in the European activation file EAF-3. Presented at the NEA Specialists` Meeting on Fission Product Nuclear Data, JAERI, Japan, 25-27 May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, J.; Delfini, M.G.; Kamp, H.A.J. van der; Gruppelaar, H.; Nierop, D. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1992-05-01

    This paper contains a description of the work performed to extend and revise the neutron capture data in the European Activation File (EAF-3) with emphasis on nuclides in the fission-product mass range. The starter was the EAF-1 data file from 1989. The present version, EAF/NG-3, contains (n,{gamma}) excitation functions for all nuclides (729 targets) with half-lives exceeding 1/2 day in the mass range from H-1 to Cm-248. The data file is equipped with a preliminary uncertainty file, that will be improved in the near future. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs.

  2. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  3. Experience of boron neutron capture therapy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Keiji

    1997-02-01

    In Japan the boron neutron capture therapy has been applied to more than 200 patients, mostly brain tumors and some melanomas. For brain tumors, Kyoto University, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Tsukuba University and National Kagawa Children's Hospital accept patients, and for melanomas, Kobe University and Mishima Institute of Dermatological Research accept patients so far. Recently the heavy water facility of Kyoto University Reactor has been upgraded for epithermal neutron as well as thermal neutron irradiations, and for the patient treatment during the continuous operation of the KUR.

  4. The Swedish facility for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K.; Capala, J. [Studsvik Medical AB (Sweden); Kierkegaard, J.; Haakansson, R. [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Gudowska, I. [Karolinska Institute (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    A BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility has been constructed at the R2-0 reactor at Studsvik, Sweden. R2-0 is a 1 MW, open core, pool reactor. The reactor core is suspended on a movable tower and can be positioned anywhere in the pool. The BNCT facility includes two adjacent, parallel filter/moderator configurations and the reactor core is positioned in front of any of them as appropriate. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range and with an extended collimator for convenient patient positioning. The other beam has been designed for radiobiological research and is equipped with a heavy water moderator and a large irradiation cavity with a uniform field of thermal neutrons. (author)

  5. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  7. The accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatov, D.; Koshkarev, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Makarov, A.; Ostreinov, Yu; Shchudlo, I.; Sorokin, I.; Sycheva, T.; Taskaev, S.; Zaidi, L.

    2016-11-01

    The accelerator based epithermal neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is proposed, created and used in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. In 2014, with the support of the Russian Science Foundation created the BNCT laboratory for the purpose to the end of 2016 get the neutron flux, suitable for BNCT. For getting 3 mA 2.3 MeV proton beam, was created a new type accelerator - tandem accelerator with vacuum isolation. On this moment, we have a stationary proton beam with 2.3 MeV and current 1.75 mA. Generation of neutrons is carried out by dropping proton beam on to lithium target as a result of threshold reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be. Established facility is a unique scientific installation. It provides a generating of neutron flux, including a monochromatic energy neutrons, gamma radiation, alpha-particles and positrons, and may be used by other research groups for carrying out scientific researches. The article describes an accelerator neutron source, presents and discusses the result of experiments and declares future plans.

  8. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy in cancer: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Juvenal, Guilermo J. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Div. of Nuclear Biochemistry; University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). School of Medicine. Dept. of Human Biochemistry

    2007-07-15

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron non-radioactive compounds by a tumor, and the subsequent irradiation of the area with an appropriate neutron beam. {sup 10}B is then activated to {sup 11}B, which will immediately decay releasing alpha particles and {sup 7}Li, of high linear energy transfer (LET) and limited reach. Clinical trials are being performed in patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanoma. We have explored its possible application to UTC. Our results demonstrated that a cell line of human UTC has a selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) both in vitro and after transplantation to nude mice. Treatment of mice by BNCT led to a complete control of growth and cure of 100% of the animals. Moreover dogs with spontaneous UTC also have a selective uptake of BPA. At the present we are studying the biodistribution of BPA in patients with UTC before its application in humans. (author)

  10. The three dimensional map of dose components in a head phantom for boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bavarnegin Elham; Sadremomtaz Alireza; Khalafi Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The in-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution and construction of a convenient phantom is very important for boron neutron capture therapy planning validation. In this study we have simulated a head phantom, suggested for construction in boron neutron capture therapy facilities, and calculated all relevant dose components inside of it using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. A “generic” epithermal neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to beams used for neutron capture ...

  11. Progress report on neutron scattering at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    In the first half of fiscal year 1997, JRR-3M was operated for 97 days followed by a long term shut down for its annual maintenance. Three days were lost out of 100 scheduled operation days, due to a trouble in irradiation facility. Neutron scattering research activities at the JRR-3M have been extended from that of fiscal year 1996. In the Research Group for Quantum Condensed Matter System, experimental study under high pressures, low temperatures and high fields as well as coupling of these conditions were planned to find new quantum condensed matter systems. And, obtained experimental results were immediately provided to theorists for their investigations. In cooperation with new group, Research Group for Neutron Scattering of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems and Research Group for Neutron Scattering at Ultralow Temperatures were carrying neutron scattering experiments at JRR-3M. Research Group for Neutron Crystallography in Biology had opened a way for investigating biomatter neutron diffraction research with high experimental accuracy by growing a millimeter-class large single crystal. In fiscal year 1997, 39 research projects were conducted by these four groups and other staffs in JAERI, 27 projects collaborated with university researchers and 3 projects collaborated with private enterprises were also conducted as complementary researches. 2117 days of machine times were requested to use 8 neutron scattering instruments this year, which corresponded to 1.51 times larger than those planned at its beginning. (G.K.)

  12. Search for EC-decayed neutron-deficient actinide isotopes using gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    To study the nuclear properties of unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes which decay mainly via orbital electron capture (EC), we have developed a composite system consisting of a gas-jet transport apparatus and a thermal ion-source at the JAERI-ISOL. With this system, search for {sup 236}Am produced in the {sup 235}U({sup 6}Li, 5n) reaction has been performed. Pu KX-rays associated with the EC decay of {sup 236}Am are observed at the mass-236 fraction. The half-life of {sup 236}Am is evaluated to be 4.4min. The outline of the gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL system and typical performance are given. (author)

  13. Progress report on neutron scattering at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Progress in neutron scattering experiments at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for the year 1997-1998 is reported in brief. The superconducting gap was discovered in the spin excitation spectra of a heavy fermion superconductor UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, which proved the superconductivity of this compound to be due to magnetic origin. The magnetic and superconducting order parameter was found in UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, UNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, UPt{sub 3} and URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. It was concluded from this result that the coupling of the order parameter would be a characteristic property in heavy fermion superconductors. The correlation between strong magnetic interaction and the superconducting transition under high pressure was indicated from spin excitation in the strongly correlated electron system of a ladder material (Sr,Ca){sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}. The magnetic flux structure in a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} superconductor was examined by SANS (small angle neutron scattering) to observe the decomposition of the flux lines. A liquid-He-free dilution refrigerator was developed for neutron scattering experiments at ultralow temperature. The coherent scattering length of the {sup 69}Ga and {sup 71}Ga was evaluated by use of the apparatus for precise neutron optics. The structure of hen egg-white Lysozyne was investigated in detail. Detailed research report for the year 1997-1998 was published in the JAERI-Review 99-003. (Y. Kazumata)

  14. Isodose Curves and Treatment Planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.

    The development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been progressing in both ^{10 }B compound development and testing and neutron beam delivery. Animal tests are now in progress with several ^{10}B compounds and once the results of these animal tests are promising, patient trials can be initiated. The objective of this study is to create a treatment planning method based on the dose calculations by a Monte Carlo code of a mixed radiation field to provide linkage between phantom dosimetry and patient irradiation. The research started with an overall review of the development of BNCT. Three epithermal neutron facilities are described, including the operating Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) beam, the designed Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) beam, and a designed accelerator based neutron source. The flux and dose distributions in a head model have been calculated for irradiation by these neutron beams. Different beam parameters were inter -compared for effectiveness. Dosimetric measurements in an elliptical lucite phantom and a cylindrical water phantom were made and compared to the MCNP calculations for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Repeated measurements were made and show consistent. To improve the statistical results calculated by MCNP, a neutron source plane was designed to start neutrons at the BMRR irradiation port. The source plane was used with the phantoms for dosimetric calculations. After being verified by different phantom dosimetry and in-air flux measurements at the irradiation port, the source plane was used to calculate the flux and dose distributions in the head model. A treatment planning program was created for use on a PC which uses the MCNP calculated results as input. This program calculates the thermal neutron flux and dose distributions of each component of radiation in the central coronal section of the head model for irradiation by a neutron beam. Different combinations of head orientations and irradiation

  15. Evaluation of nuclear knowledge management: An outcome in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K. [Office of Planning, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 1233, Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: yanagisk@popsvr.tokai.jaeri.go.jp

    2006-07-01

    The author performed an ex post evaluation on the nuclear research of JAERI and revealed that the national funds invested in this field were 4 b$. With aid of NKM, it was revealed that the total outcome was 6 b$, where the creation of nuclear markets for electricity and nuclear facilities was the main stream. This implies that the cost benefit effect is 6 b$/4 b$ = 1.5 (>1). From this, it can be concluded that JAERI contributes not only to technological promotion of nuclear activity but also to the increase of gross domestic product (GDP). (author)

  16. Effect of diameter of nanoparticles and capture cross-section library on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of diameter of 10B nanoparticles and various neutron capture cross-section libraries on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of a 252Cf source, a soft tissue phantom and a tumor containing 10B nanoparticles. Using 252Cf as a neutron source, macroscopic dose enhancement factor (MDEF) and total dose rate in tumor in the presence of 100, 200, and 500 ppm of 10B nanoparticles with 25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm diameters were calculated. Additionally, the effect of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, and CENDL neutron capture cross-section libraries on MDEF was evaluated. Results There is not a linear relationship between the average MDEF value and nanoparticles’ diameter but the average MDEF grows with increased concentration of 10B nanoparticles. There is an increasing trend for average MDEF with the tumor distance. The average MDEF values were obtained the same for various neutron capture cross-section libraries. The maximum and minimum doses that effect on the total dose in tumor were neutron and secondary photon doses, respectively. Furthermore, the boron capture related dose component reduced in some extent with increase of diameter of 10B nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that from physical point of view, various nanoparticle diameters have no dominant effect on average MDEF value in tumor. Furthermore, it is concluded that various neutron capture cross-section libraries are resulted to the same macroscopic dose enhancements. However, it is predicted that taking into account the biological effects for various nanoparticle diameters will result in different dose enhancements. PMID:25834582

  17. Tetrakis(p-Carboranylthio-Tetrafluorophenyl)Chlorin (TPFC): Application for Photodynamic Therapy and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMATSU, RYO; KAWABATA, SHINJI; TANAKA, HIROKI; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; SUZUKI, MINORU; ONO, KOJI; MIYATAKE, SHIN-ICHI; KUROIWA, TOSHIHIKO; HAO, ERHONG; VICENTE, M. GRAÇA H.

    2015-01-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC’s applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm2) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 1012 n/cm2) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37–43 days). PMID:25546823

  18. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC): application for photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days).

  19. On-line beam monitoring for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Otto K.; Moulin, Damien J.; Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Solares, Guido R.

    1995-08-01

    Neutron capture therapy sets new requirements on the measurement and monitoring of the radiation fields used in this new form of therapy. Beams used for neutron capture therapy are comprised of mixed radiation fields which include slow, epithermal, and fast neutrons, as well as gamma rays. A computer-based beam monitoring system for epithermal or thermal neutron capture therapy is described. This system provides accurate, sensitive, and rapid on-line readout and recording of the various beam components. Readout of fluxes, fluences, and corresponding doses in the target are provided in color coded graphic analog as well as numerical form on the computer monitors. Variations in neutron spectrum or spatial distribution of the beam can be rapidly diagnosed with the aid of the monitor readout. Redundancy of fluence measurement is provided by an independent system using scalers and timers and by utilizing reactor power measuring instruments.

  20. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  1. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  2. Neutron diffraction facility for internal stress measurements at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The Neutron Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis (RESA) is a two axis type neutron diffractometer with a goniometer controllable to specimen position in high precision for spatial distribution measurement of residual stress and with one- and zero-dimensional detectors, and has a characteristics of providing a pin-hole type neutron ray diaphragm to obtain local informations of the specimen. It is elucidated from the reported examples that the RESA in JAERI has a capacity of sufficient detection to a local strain with 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4}. The residual stress measurement in JAERI is just in beginning state, and has many necessities to do a lot of trial measurements on various materials in future. And, when finishing the construction of pulsed neutron source under planning in JAERI, it can be expected to realize a neutron intensity of more than one hundred for the residual stress measurement and to construct a powerful measurement instrument in combination with introduction of testing method for TOF. (G.K.)

  3. CRYOPAD on the triple-axis spectrometer TAS-1 at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Masayasu [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: takeda@neutrons.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Nakamura, Mitsutaka [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kakurai, Kazuhisa [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Lelievre-berna, Eddy [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tasset, Francis [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Regnault, Louis-Pierre [CEA-Grenoble, Department de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS-MDN, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-02-15

    CRYOgenic Polarization Analysis Device (CRYOPAD) has been introduced to the triple-axis spectrometer TAS-1 at JRR-3 in JAERI. ILL, CEA-Grenoble and JAERI assembled three third-generation CRYOPADs in the framework of EC/ENPI (ILL and CEA-Grenoble), and in the framework of the MoU between ILL and JAERI. One is installed on the ILL instrument D3 (Millennium Project) and the other on the CEA-Grenoble instrument IN22. The JAERI CRYOPAD is now in commissioning. The current status of the CRYOPAD on TAS-1 is reported.

  4. Neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma: dosimetry and microdosimetry approaches; Therapie par capture de neutrons des melanomes oculaires: approches dosimetrique et microdosimetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Methlin, G. [Centre Paul Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Abbe, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Stampfler, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Lefebvre, O. [Faculte de Medecine, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sahel, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1994-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) aims at destroying cancerous cells with the {alpha} and {sup 7}Li particles produced by the neutron capture reaction on {sup 10}B. This note reports on the study of the boron distribution in tissues on an animal model (nude mice) xenografted with a human ocular melanoma after an i.p.injection of 2g/kg of {sup 10}B-BPA and in cells cultured in the presence of 530 {mu}mol/l of {sup 10}B-BPA. A concentration of 64 ppm of {sup 10}B in the active part of the tumour with a ratio of concentrations versus the skin of 3.7 are observed. Investigations on cells reveal the presence of boron in the cytoplasm. The biological, dosimetric and microdosimetric consequences of these findings are discussed. (authors). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. The three dimensional map of dose components in a head phantom for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavarnegin Elham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution and construction of a convenient phantom is very important for boron neutron capture therapy planning validation. In this study we have simulated a head phantom, suggested for construction in boron neutron capture therapy facilities, and calculated all relevant dose components inside of it using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. A “generic” epithermal neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to beams used for neutron capture therapy clinical trials, was used. The calculated distributions of all relevant dose components in brain tissue equivalent were compared with those in water. The results show that water is a suitable dosimetry material and that the simulated head phantom is a suitable design for producing accurate three-dimensional maps of dose components at enough points inside of the phantom for boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry measurements and the use of these dose maps in beam development and benchmarking of computer-based treatment codes.

  7. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  8. Monte Carlo based dosimetry for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Lilia; Belgaid, Mohamed; Khelifi, Rachid

    2016-11-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted, radiation therapy for cancer which combines neutron irradiation with a tumor targeting agent labeled with a boron10 having a high thermal neutron capture cross section. The tumor area is subjected to the neutron irradiation. After a thermal neutron capture, the excited 11B nucleus fissions into an alpha particle and lithium recoil nucleus. The high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) emitted particles deposit their energy in a range of about 10μm, which is of the same order of cell diameter [1], at the same time other reactions due to neutron activation with body component are produced. In-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution is very important for BNCT planning validation. Determination of total absorbed dose requires complex calculations which were carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNP code [2].

  9. Implications for clinical treatment from the micrometer site dosimetric calculations in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Trent L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States)], E-mail: tnichol2@utk.edu; Kabalka, George W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); Miller, Laurence F. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); McCormack, Michael T. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Johnson, Andrew [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy has now been used for several malignancies. Most clinical trials have addressed its use for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A few trials have focused on the treatment of malignant melanoma with brain metastases. Trial results for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme have been encouraging, but have not achieved the success anticipated. Results of trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma have been very promising, though with too few patients for conclusions to be drawn. Subsequent to these trials, regimens for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, hepatic metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon, and head and neck malignancies have been developed. These tumors have also responded well to boron neutron capture therapy. Glioblastoma is an infiltrative tumor with distant individual tumor cells that might create a mechanism for therapeutic failure though recurrences are often local. The microdosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy can provide an explanation for this observation. Codes written to examine the micrometer scale energy deposition in boron neutron capture therapy have been used to explore the effects of near neighbor cells. Near neighbor cells can contribute a significantly increased dose depending on the geometric relationships. Different geometries demonstrate that tumors which grow by direct extension have a greater near neighbor effect, whereas infiltrative tumors lose this near neighbor dose which can be a significant decrease in dose to the cells that do not achieve optimal boron loading. This understanding helps to explain prior trial results and implies that tumors with small, closely packed cells that grow by direct extension will be the most amenable to boron neutron capture therapy.

  10. Publish literature on the research activities using the JMRT (II). Publication as JAERI research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu; Ishii, Tadahiko; Niimi, Motoji; Fujiki, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hidetake (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The published reports on the research and development activities using the JMTR since 1971 to date have been surveyed by the search of literature database and questionnaire survey. This report compiles the title lists and abstracts of reports published by JAERI and survey the trend of the research and development in JAERI using the JMTR. (author)

  11. Design for an accelerator-based orthogonal epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In particular, the option of producing a therapy beam at an orthogonal direction to the incoming protons is considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, both with and without a head phantom, have shown that an orthogonal beam geometry is not only acceptable but is indeed beneficial, in terms of a lower mean neutron energy and an enhanced therapeutic ratio for the same useful neutron fluence in the therapy beam. Typical treatment times for various beam options have been calculated, and range from 20 to 48 min with a 5 mA beam of 2.8 MeV protons, if the maximum photon-equivalent dose delivered to healthy tissue is to be 12.6 Gy Eq. The effects of proton beam diameter upon the therapy beam parameters have also been considered.

  12. Background of photon-capture therapy principle of malignant cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheino I.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study of the physical effect of the local dose increasing in biological tissue at the gadolinium-containing drug under the influence of X-ray radiation. Material and Methods. Experimental and three independent numerical methods are obtained distribution of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantom containing a model of the tumor with a given concentration of gadolinium. Results. The presence of a gadolinium-containing drug in the biological tissue (1% Gd by weight leads to a local increase of an absorbed dose up to 2 times under the influence of X-ray radiation. The difference in the results obtained calculated and experimental methods does not exceed 12%. Conclusion. The results of the study confirmed the basic theoretical background photon capture therapy, as well as the legal use of methods of mathematic modeling of the process of forming radiation in biological tissue, necessary for dosimetric photon capture therapy planning.

  13. In-phantom dose mapping in neutron capture therapy by means of solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Colombi, C.; Fiocca, M.; Gambarini, G.; Lietti, B.; Rosi, G.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been developed, based on thermoluminescent dosimeters and alanine, aimed at measuring the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam suitable for neutron capture therapy (NCT), separating the contributions due to the various secondary radiations generated by neutrons. Exposures have been made at the TAPIRO nuclear reactor (ENEA, Italy), in the epithermal column properly designed and set up for experiments on boron NCT.

  14. NCTPlan application for neutron capture therapy dosimetric planning at MEPhI nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyutina, A S; Kiger, W S; Portnov, A A

    2011-12-01

    The results of modeling of two therapeutic beams HEC-1 and HEC-4 at the NRNU "MEPhI" research nuclear reactor exploitable for preclinical treatments are reported. The exact models of the beams are constructed as an input to the NCTPlan code used for planning Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) procedure. The computations are purposed to improve the accuracy of prediction of a dose absorbed in tissue with the account of all components of radiation.

  15. Investigation of Isfahan miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) for boron neutron capture therapy by MCNP simulation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Z. Kalantari; H Tavakoli; Nami, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the important neutron sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a nuclear reactor. It needs a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The optimum conditions of the neutron spectra for BNCT are provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this paper, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) as a neutron source for BNCT was investigated. For this purpose, we designed a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for the reactor and the neutron transport from the core of the reactor t...

  16. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pazirandeh; Elham Shekarian

    2006-01-01

     In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b), the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM) requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage...

  17. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  18. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  19. Post irradiation examinations for IASCC study at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Takashi; Miwa, Yukio; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a research program on the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) was initiated in 1989. Its objective is to investigate the synergistic effects of high temperature water and neutron radiation on the austenitic stainless steel for core internals of both the light water reactors (LWRs) and water-cooled fusion reactor, i.e., the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). IASCC has been recently recognized as one of the key issues for the integrity of core-internals of aging LWRs including both BWR and PWR. Majorities of experimental data on IASCC have been obtained through the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) such as the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in high temperature water. This paper presents the outline and requirements for the PIEs conducted for IASCC study. (author)

  20. Outline of application plans of accelerator beams in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has various application plans of accelerators such as; Neutron Science Research Complex (NSRC), Positron Factory, International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), and Spring-8 Project. Each application plan has its own research program and its own core accelerator. The NSRC is a multi-purpose research complex composed of seven research facilities: slow neutron scattering facility for material science, the nuclear energy research facility like nuclear transmutation and so on. The Positron Factory will be applied to the research of precise analysis of material structure by novel method of positron probing. The IFMIF aims at simulating the wall loading of a demo fusion reactor by producing high intense neutron flux. The SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. More than 60 X-ray beam lines will be equipped for the various researches. (author)

  1. {sup 33}S for Neutron Capture Therapy: Nuclear Data for Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, I., E-mail: porras@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Esquinas, P.L. [Departament of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    A study of the nuclear data required for the Monte Carlo simulation of boron neutron capture therapy including the {sup 33}S isotope as an enhancer of the dose at small depths has been performed. In particular, the controversy on the available data for the {sup 33}S(n, α) cross section will be shown, which motivates new measurements. In addition to this, kerma factors for the main components of tissue are calculated with the use of fitting functions. Finally, we have applied these data to a potential neutron capture treatment with boron and sulfur addition to tissue in which part of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium, which improves the procedure.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.

  3. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake of B-10 compound. In this work, experimental methods are proposed and evaluated for the determination in vivo of B-10 compound in biological samples, in particular based on neutron radiography and gammaray spectroscopy by telescopic system. Measures and Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the possibility of executing imaging of the 10B distribution, both by radiography with thermal neutrons, using 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillator screen and a CCD camera, and by spectroscopy, based on the revelation of gamm...

  4. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the third JAERI-KAERI joint seminar on post irradiation examination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Between the Department of JMTR of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research Group of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it has been periodically carried out the collaboration on technical information exchange by specialists and scientists, under the Arrangement of the Implementation of Cooperative Research Program in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear between JAERI and KAERI. And JAERI-KAERI joint seminar has been held every three years. The 1st and 2nd JAERI-KAERI Joint Seminars were held in November 1992 at JAERI and in September 1995 at KAERI, respectively. The 3rd JAERI-KAERI Joint Seminar was held on 25 and 26 March, 1999 at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI. In this seminar, total participants of 84 were joined from JAERI, KAERI, Hanyang University, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Oarai Branch of Institute for Materials Research (IMR) of Tohoku University, Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., Nuclear Development Corporation and others. Contributed presentations were in three sessions; Current status and future perspectives on PIE, PIE techniques and Evaluation of PIE data. Re-assembling technique for JOYO fuel, Nd-YAG laser welding technique, grain boundary analysis using FEG-TEM, lift time estimation of PWR Rod Cluster Control Assembly (RCCA) rodlet and failure analysis of Korea Nuclear Power Plant (KNP) fuel have been widely noticed as topic items on PIE. And some comments from PIE user, were pointed out that the nano-PIE technique, the flexibility to ad-hoc demands on testing space or utilization, and the international collaboration were very important for the next generation's PIE. The 34 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Status and Future Plans of JAERI Eergy-Recovery Linac FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M; Yamauchi, T

    2005-01-01

    An energy-recovery linac for a high-power free-electron laser is in operation at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In this paper, we report results of research activities and future plans of JAERI ERL-FEL, which are the construction of FEL transport line, the operation of newly-installed RF controller and IOTs, the development of super-lattice photo cathode.

  7. Boron containing magnetic nanoparticles for neutron capture therapy--an innovative approach for specifically targeting tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Rainer; Unterweger, Harald; Dürr, Stephan; Lyer, Stefan; Canella, Lea; Kudejova, Petra; Wagner, Franz M; Petry, Winfried; Taccardi, Nicola; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The selective delivery of (10)B into the tumor tissue remains to be further improved for successful and reliable Boron Neutron Capture Therapy applications. Magnetic Drug Targeting using intraarterially administered superparamagnetic nanoparticles and external magnetic fields already exhibited convincing results in terms of highly efficient and selective drug deposition. Using the same technique for the targeted (10)B delivery is a promising new approach. Here, systematic irradiation experiments of phantom cubes containing different concentrations of boron and nanoparticles as well as varying three-dimensional arrangements have been performed.

  8. Dose estimation for internal organs during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Masunaga, S; Kinashi, Y; Kondo, N; Ono, K; Maruhashi, A

    2014-06-01

    Radiation doses during boron neutron capture therapy for body-trunk tumors were estimated for various internal organs, using data from patients treated at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Dose-volume histograms were constructed for tissues of the lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and bowel. For pleural mesothelioma, the target total dose to the normal lung tissues on the diseased side is 5Gy-Eq in average for the whole lung. It was confirmed that the dose to the liver should be carefully considered in cases of right lung disease.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland: technological and physical prospects after 20 years of experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika; Timonen, Marjut; Reijonen, Vappu; Kuusela, Linda; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Salli, Eero; Koivunoro, Hanna; Seppälä, Tiina; Lönnroth, Nadja; Välimäki, Petteri; Hyvönen, Heini; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Kuronen, Antti; Heikkinen, Sami; Kosunen, Antti; Auterinen, Iiro

    2013-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy method developed to treat patients with certain malignant tumours. To date, over 300 treatments have been carried out at the Finnish BNCT facility in various on-going and past clinical trials. In this technical review, we discuss our research work in the field of medical physics to form the groundwork for the Finnish BNCT patient treatments, as well as the possibilities to further develop and optimize the method in the future. Accordingly, the following aspects are described: neutron sources, beam dosimetry, treatment planning, boron imaging and determination, and finally the possibilities to detect the efficacy and effects of BNCT on patients.

  10. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  11. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT.

  12. Toward a final design for the Birmingham boron neutron capture therapy neutron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D A; Beynon, T D; Green, S; James, N D

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the proposed Birmingham accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Details of the final moderator design, such as beam delimiter, shield, and beam exit surface shape are considered. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations with a head and body phantom have shown that a simple flat moderator beam exit surface is preferable to the previously envisioned spherical design. Dose rates to individual body organs during treatment have been calculated using a standard MIRD phantom. We have shown that a simple polyethylene shield, doped with natural lithium, is sufficient to provide adequate protection to the rest of the body during head irradiations. The effect upon the head phantom dose distributions of the use of such a shield to delimit the therapy beam has been evaluated.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: first clinical case report in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zhong; Song, Zewen; Zhou, Yongmao; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zizhu; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Yang; Jin, Congjun; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Jianyun; Han, Rui; Li, Pengzhou; Sun, Xulong; Wang, Guohui; Shi, Guangqing; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial for treating malignant melanoma by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was designed to evaluate whether the world’s first in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) was qualified for BNCT. In this clinical trial planning to enroll 30 patients, the first case was treated on August 19, 2014. We present the protocol of this clinical trial, the treating procedure, and the clinical outcome of this first case. Only grade 2 acute radiation injury was observed during the first four weeks after BNCT and the injury healed after treatment. No late radiation injury was found during the 24-month follow-up. Based on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, pathological analysis and gross examination, the patient showed a complete response to BNCT, indicating that BNCT is a potent therapy against malignant melanoma and IHNI has the potential to enable the delivery of BNCT in hospitals. PMID:28174492

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy offers the potentiality for treating brain tumors currently resistant to treatment. The success of this form of therapy is directly dependent upon the delivery of sufficient numbers of thermal-neutrons to tumor cells which possess high concentrations of B-10. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methodology to synthesize boron-containing compounds with the potential for becoming incorporated into rapidly-dividing malignant brain tumor cells and excluded from normal components of the brain and surrounding tissues, to develope biological methods for assessing the potential of the compound by use of cell culture or intratumoral injection, to develop analytical methodology for measuring boron in cells and tissue using direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) and alpha track autoradiography, to develop biochemical and HPLC procedures for evaluating compound uptake and tissue half-life, and to develop procedures required to assess both in vitro and vivo efficacy of BNCT with selected compounds.

  15. Study of characteristics for heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Danial; Sardari, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head, patient's body, and treatment room ambient. Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons, the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy. By varying the target thickness, an optimum thickness exists for which, at the given electron energy, maximum photon flux is achievable. If a source of high-energy photons i.e. bremsstrahlung, is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target, a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible. This study consists of two parts. 1. Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data. 2. Ev...

  16. The dependency of compound biological effectiveness factors on the type and the concentration of administered neutron capture agents in boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Tano, Keizo; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Maruhashi, Akira; ONO, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of the type and the concentration of neutron capture agents on the values of compound biological effectiveness (CBE) in boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and materials After the subcutaneous administration of a 10 B-carrier, boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA) or sodium mercaptododecaborate- 10 B (BSH), at 3 separate concentrations, the 10 B concentrations in tumors were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. SCC VII tumor-bearing C3H/He mice received 5-bromo-2′-deoxyu...

  17. Monte Carlo assessment of boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundy Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer every year the avail able treatment options are effective, though physically and mentally taxing. This work is a starting point of a study of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy as an alternative treatment for HER-2+ breast tumors. Using HER-2-specific monoclonal anti bodies coupled with a boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diester, it may be possible to deliver sufficient amounts of 10B to a tumor of the breast to al low for selective cell destruction via irradiation by thermal neutrons. A comprehensive computational model (MCNP for thermal neutron irradiation of the breast is described, as well as the results of calculations made using this model, in order to determine the optimum boron concentration within the tumor for an effective boron neutron capture therapy treatment, as compared with traditional X-ray radiotherapy. The results indicate that a boron concentration of 50-60 mg per gram of tumor tissue is optimal when considering treatment times, dose distributions and skin sparing. How ever these results are based upon best-guess assumptions that must be experimentally verified.

  18. Development of JCDS, a computational dosimetry system at JAEA for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are being carried out using several research reactors throughout the world. In Japan, many medical groups perform clinical trials of BNCT using Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). JAEA has developed a treatment planning system, JCDS, in order to evaluate radiation dose given to a patient in the BNCT. JCDS employs a voxel calculation method to compute the radiation dose given to a patient. An initial version of JCDS created a voxel model, dividing a space into 1 × 1 × 1 cm3voxel cells. JCDS was improved to create a detailed voxel model consisting of minute voxel cells such as 2 × 2 × 2 mm3voxel cells. Verification of accuracy of calculations with the detailed voxel mode demonstrated that the detailed voxel model enables JCDS to evaluate more accurately the radiation doses to a patient undergoing BNCT. Furthermore, the calculation code of JCDS is being incorporated into the PHITS system as a Monte-Carlo transport code. By employing the PHITS system in the dose evaluation, total doses given to a patient by combined modality therapy such as BNCT and X-ray therapy can be estimated accurately. Here, an outline and the performances of the latest version of JCDS are presented, and a future system integrated with JCDS is introduced.

  19. Fission reactor neutron sources for neutron capture therapy--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Otto K; Riley, Kent J

    2003-01-01

    The status of fission reactor-based neutron beams for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is reviewed critically. Epithermal neutron beams, which are favored for treatment of deep-seated tumors, have been constructed or are under construction at a number of reactors worldwide. Some of the most recently constructed epithermal neutron beams approach the theoretical optimum for beam purity. Of these higher quality beams, at least one is suitable for use in high through-put routine therapy. It is concluded that reactor-based epithermal neutron beams with near optimum characteristics are currently available and more can be constructed at existing reactors. Suitable reactors include relatively low power reactors using the core directly as a source of neutrons or a fission converter if core neutrons are difficult to access. Thermal neutron beams for NCT studies with small animals or for shallow tumor treatments, with near optimum properties have been available at reactors for many years. Additional high quality thermal beams can also be constructed at existing reactors or at new, small reactors. Furthermore, it should be possible to design and construct new low power reactors specifically for NCT, which meet all requirements for routine therapy and which are based on proven and highly safe reactor technology.

  20. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P.-A.; Lorusso, G. F.; Andres, R.; Van Meir, E. G.; Brunet, J.-F.; Hamou, M.-F.; Suda, T.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Droubay, T. C.; Tonner, B. P.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, M.; DeStasio, Gelsomina

    1998-10-01

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of ? in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case ?, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope à emission de photoélectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy.

  1. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P-A. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)] [and others

    1998-10-07

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of {sup 10}B in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope a emission de photoelectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy. (author)

  2. JAERI tandem-accelerator and tandem-booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In 1982, aiming at the new development of atomic energy research, the tandem accelerator of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was installed. In fiscal year 1993, the superconducting boosters which can increase the ion energy by up to 4 times were added, and the research in the region below 1000 MeV became possible. Those are electrostatic type accelerators which are easy to be used especially in basic research field, and are useful for future research. The tandem accelerator has been operated while maintaining the first class performance as the accelerator for various kinds of heavy ion beam. It has the special shape among electrostatic type accelerators, and is excellent in the easiness of control and stability. The main particulars of the tandem accelerator are shown. As for the ion sources of the tandem accelerator, three cesium sputter type ion sources are installed on two high voltage stands. The kinds of the ions which can be accelerated are mainly negative ions. As the improvement, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are expected to be adopted. As for the tandem boosters, the 1/4 wavelength type resonance hollow cylinder was adopted. The constitution of the tandem boosters is explained. The way of utilizing the tandem accelerator system and the aim for hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm.

  4. The filter/moderator arrangement-optimisation for the boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, G; Dabkowski, L; Dworak, D; Pytel, K; Woźnicka, U

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents results of the numerical modelling of the fission-converter-based epithermal neutron source designed for the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility to be located at the Polish research nuclear reactor MARIA at Swierk. The unique design of the fission converter has been proposed due to a specific geometrical surrounding of the reactor. The filter/moderator arrangement has been optimised to moderate fission neutrons to epithermal energies and to remove both fast neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. The selected filter/moderator set-up ensures both high epithermal neutron flux and suitably low level of beam contamination. Photons originating from the reactor core are almost eliminated what is the exceptional advantage of the proposed design. It yields one order of magnitude lower gamma radiation dose than the maximum allowed dose in such a type of therapeutic facility. The MCNP code has been used for the computations.

  5. A case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma treated effectively by boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Gen; Kawabata, Shinji; Siba, Hiroyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Minoru; Todo, Tomoki; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi

    2014-11-04

    We treated a 54-year-old Japanese female with a recurrent radiation-induced osteosarcoma arising from left occipital skull, by reactor-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Her tumor grew rapidly with subcutaneous and epidural extension. She eventually could not walk because of cerebellar ataxia. The tumor was inoperable and radioresistant. BNCT showed a marked initial therapeutic effect: the subcutaneous/epidural tumor reduced without radiation damage of the scalp except hair loss and the patient could walk again only 3 weeks after BNCT. BNCT seems to be a safe and very effective modality in the management of radiation-induced osteosarcomas that are not eligible for operation and other treatment modalities.

  6. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vujic, J L; Greenspan, E; Guess, S; Karni, Y; Kastenber, W E; Kim, L; Leung, K N; Regev, D; Verbeke, J M; Waldron, W L; Zhu, Y

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  7. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  8. Rational design of gold nanoparticles functionalized with carboranes for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Laura; Bortolussi, Silva; Postuma, Ian; Cansolino, Laura; Ferrari, Cinzia; Panza, Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Ristori, Sandra

    2013-12-31

    In this paper we propose a bottom-up approach to obtain new boron carriers built with ortho-carborane functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for applications in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The interaction between carboranes and the gold surface was assured by one or two SH-groups directly linked to the boron atoms of the B10C2 cage. This allowed obtaining stable, nontoxic systems, though optimal biological performance was hampered by low solubility in aqueous media. To improve cell uptake, the hydrophilic character of carborane functionalized GNPs was enhanced by further coverage with an appropriately tailored diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PCL). This polymer also contained pendant carboranes to provide anchoring to the pre-functionalized GNPs. In vitro tests, carried out on osteosarcoma cells, showed that the final vectors possessed excellent biocompatibility joint to the capacity of concentrating boron atoms in the target, which is encouraging evidenced to pursue applications in vivo.

  9. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Valente, M. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Moss, R.L.; Daquino, G.G.; Nievaart, V.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755ZG Petten, The Netherlands (Netherlands); Mariani, M.; Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio, 34/3 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Medical Physics Department, National Cancer Institute, Via Venezian 1, I-20131, Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  10. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schutz, C.; Schmitz, T.; Kratz, J.V. [Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bortulussi, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Kudejova, P. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Appelman, K.; Moss, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bassler, N. [University of Aarhus, Norde Ringade, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M. [Molecular Medicine, Health and Environment Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (Austria); Sharpe, P.; Palmans, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Otto, G. [Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed in Pavia (Italy) a few years ago, where patients with liver metastases were treated by combining BNCT with auto-transplantation of the organ. Here, in Mainz, a preclinical trial has been started on patients suffering from liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro experiments and the first animal tests have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and the treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appears to be an appropriate dosimetry technique. (author)

  11. Characterization of neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy: in-air radiobiological dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Hori, Naohiko; Torii, Yoshiya; Shibata, Yasushi; Nose, Tadao

    2003-07-01

    The survival curves and the RBE for the dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were determined separately in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No. 4. The surviving fractions of V79 Chinese hamster cells with or without 10B were obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal (TNB-2) neutron beam; these beams were used or are planned for use in BNCT clinical trials. The cell killing effect of the neutron beam in the presence or absence of 10B was highly dependent on the neutron beam used and depended on the epithermal and fast-neutron content of the beam. The RBEs of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 4.07 +/- 0.22, 2.98 +/- 0.16 and 1.42 +/- 0.07, respectively. The RBEs of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50 +/- 0.32, 2.34 +/- 0.30 and 2.17 +/- 0.28 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The RBEs of the neutron and photon components were 1.22 +/- 0.16, 1.23 +/- 0.16, and 1.21 +/- 0.16 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The approach to the experimental determination of RBEs outlined in this paper allows the RBE-weighted dose calculation for each dose component of the neutron beams and contributes to an accurate inter-beam comparison of the neutron beams at the different facilities employed in ongoing and planned BNCT clinical trials.

  12. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Ali, S. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-05-01

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm-3 of boron carbide or 210 mg cm-3 of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 ± 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  13. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Ali, S J; Harling, O K

    2004-05-21

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm(-3) of boron carbide or 210 mg cm(-3) of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 +/- 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  14. DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy is partially repaired by DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Hirota, Yuki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo; Ono, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy that involves the use of a thermal or epithermal neutron beam in combination with a boron ((10)B)-containing compound that specifically accumulates in tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and the resultant fission reaction produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High-LET radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage, specifically of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of DNA ligase IV, a key player in the non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, in the repair of BNCT-induced DSBs. We analyzed the cellular sensitivity of the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines Lig4-/- p53-/- and Lig4+/+ p53-/- to irradiation using a thermal neutron beam in the presence or absence of (10)B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA). The Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line had a higher sensitivity than the Lig4+/+ p53-/-cell line to irradiation with the beam alone or the beam in combination with BPA. In BNCT (with BPA), both cell lines exhibited a reduction of the 50 % survival dose (D 50) by a factor of 1.4 compared with gamma-ray and neutron mixed beam (without BPA). Although it was found that (10)B uptake was higher in the Lig4+/+ p53-/- than in the Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line, the latter showed higher sensitivity than the former, even when compared at an equivalent (10)B concentration. These results indicate that BNCT-induced DNA damage is partially repaired using DNA ligase IV.

  15. Optimization of the geometry and composition of a neutron system for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of the treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), an optimized neutron system was proposed. This study (simulation) was conducted to optimize the geometry and composition of neutron system and increase the epithermal neutron flux for the treatment of deep tumors is performed. Materials and Methods: A neutron system for BNCT was proposed. The system included 252Cf neutron source, neutron moderator/reflector arrangement, filter and concrete. To capture fast ...

  16. An upgraded version of the nucleon meson transport code: NMTC/JAERI97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Kosako, Kazuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1998-02-01

    The nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI is upgraded to NMTC/JAERI97 which has new features not only in physics model and nuclear data but also in computational procedure. NMTC/JAERI97 implements the following two new physics models: an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process more accurately, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. Other than those physical aspects, a new geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique are implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The resultant NMTC/JAERI97 is tuned to be executed on the UNIX system. This paper explains about the function, physics models and geometry model adopted in NMTC/JAERI97 and guides how to use the code. (author)

  17. A Project of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy System based on a Proton Linac Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshikai; Asano, Kenji; Arakawa, Akihiro; Fukuchi, Shin; Hiraga, Fujio; Kimura, Kenju; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Kubota, Michio; Kumada, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Akira; Sakae, Takeji; Saitoh, Kimiaki; Shibata, Tokushi; Yoshioka, Masakazu

    At present, the clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are being performed at research reactor facilities. However, an accelerator based BNCT has a merit that it can be built in a hospital. So, we just launched a development project for the BNCT based on an accelerator in order to establish and to spread the BNCT as an effective therapy in the near future. In the project, a compact proton linac installed in a hospital will be applied as a neutron source, and energy of the proton beam is planned to be less than about 10 MeV to reduce the radioactivity. The BNCT requires epithermal neutron beam with an intensity of around 1x109 (n/cm2/sec) to deliver the therapeutic dose to a deeper region in a body and to complete the irradiation within an hour. From this condition, the current of the proton beam required is estimated to be a few mA on average. Enormous heat deposition in the target is a big issue. We are aiming at total optimization of the accelerator based BNCT from the linac to the irradiation position. Here, the outline of the project is introduced and the moderator design is presented.

  18. Design of a californium-based epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Kim, J K; Wilson, M J

    1993-08-01

    The potential of the spontaneously fissioning isotope, 252Cf, to provide epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to design an assembly composed of a 26 cm long, 11 cm radius cylindrical D2O moderator followed by a 64 cm long Al filter. Lithium filters are placed between the moderator and the filter and between the Al and the patient. A reflector surrounding the moderator/filter assembly is required in order to maintain adequate therapy flux at the patient position. An ellipsoidal phantom composed of skull- and brain-equivalent material was used to determine the dosimetric effect of this beam. It was found that both advantage depths and advantage ratios compare very favourably with reactor and accelerator epithermal neutron sources. The dose rate obtainable, on the other hand, is 4.1 RBE cGy min-1, based on a very large (1.0 g) source of 252Cf. This dose rate is two to five times lower than those provided by existing reactor beams and can be viewed as a drawback of using 252Cf as a neutron source. Radioisotope sources, however, do offer the advantage of in-hospital installation.

  19. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  1. Characteristics of a heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danial Salehi; Dariush Sardari; M.Salehi Jozani

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors.Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head,patient's body,and treatment room ambient.Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons,the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy.By varying the target thickness,an optimum thickness exists for which,at the given electron energy,maximum photon flux is achievable.If a source of high-energy photons i.e.bremsstrahlung,is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target,a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible.This study consists of two parts.1.Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data.2.Evaluation of the heavy water photonuclear source.

  2. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  3. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M. [FEL Laboratory at Tokai, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (JP)] (and others)

    2000-03-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  4. Extended abstracts of the 12th JAERI workshop on high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojou, Kiichi; Okayasu, Satoru; Sasase, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishida, Takekazu [Osaka Prefectual Univ., Sakai (JP)] (eds.)

    2001-03-01

    This workshop was held on December 7-8, 2000 at JAERI (Tokai). The research group at JAERI shares a responsibility for material modification of high-Tc superconductors by irradiation in 'the multi-core project II of the high temperature superconducting material research' organized by STA (Science and Technology Agency) of Japan. This report contains the extended abstracts of workshop presentations covering basic theories, various experimental results and material improvement studies of the superconductivity by high energy ion irradiation. The twelve presentations of the workshop were devoted to a mini symposium where the direct observations of vortices were discussed in view of the various sophisticated techniques. (author)

  5. Present status of spallation target development. JAERI/KEK Joint Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, R.; Kaminaga, M.; Haga, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct a neutron scattering facility under the JAERI/KEK Joint Project. Design and R and D works are being carried out vigorously for realizing the mercury target system consisting of the mercury target, moderators and reflectors working as a spallation neutron source, as well as a remote handling system for exchanging such components which will be highly irradiated. This report introduces an outline of the present status of design and development activities on the spallation target system. (author)

  6. Production of heavy element and search for new isotopes at JAERI-RMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron deficient isotope {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa have been produced in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation reactions. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight by the JAERI recoil mass separator (JAERI-RMS). The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa are 8.080(50) MeV and 8.270(30) MeV, respectively. The corresponding half-lives are 3.8{sub -1.5}{sup +6.9} ms and 5.1{sub -1.9}{sup +6.1} ms. (author)

  7. Selective uptake of p-boronophenylalanine by osteosarcoma cells for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, C. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ferraric@unipv.it; Zonta, C.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M.; Gaspari, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most common non-hematologic primary cancer type that develops in bone. Current osteosarcoma treatments combine multiagent chemotherapy with extensive surgical resection, which in some cases makes necessary the amputation of the entire limb. Nevertheless its infiltrative growth leads to a high incidence of local and distant recurrences that reduce the percentage of cured patients to less than 60%. These poor data required to set up a new therapeutic approach aimed to restrict the surgical removal meanwhile performing a radical treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a particular radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions by atoms of {sup 10}B, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, could be a valid alternative or integrative option in case of osteosarcoma management, thanks to its peculiarity in selectively destroying neoplastic cells without damaging normal tissues. Aim of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of employing BNCT to treat the limb osteosarcoma. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used to carry {sup 10}B inside the neoplastic cells. As a first step the endocellular BPA uptake is tested in vitro on the UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell line. The results show an adequate accumulation capability. For the in vivo experiments, an animal tumor model is developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by means of an intrafemoral injection of UMR-106 cells at the condyle site. The absolute amounts of boron loading and the tumor to normal tissue {sup 10}B ratio are evaluated 2 h after the i.v. administration of BPA. The boron uptake by the neoplastic tissue is almost twice the normal one. However, higher values of boron concentration in tumor are requested before upholding BNCT as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  8. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre......-incubated with boron nanoparticles for 12 hours, were injected subcutaneously into C57BL16J mice. The tumour sites were exposed to different doses of neutron radiation one, four, or eight days after tumour cell inoculation. Results: When the tumour site was irradiated with thermal neutrons one day after injection......, tumour growth was delayed and the treated mice survived longer than untreated controls (median survival time 20 days (N=8) compared with 10 days (N=7) for untreated mice). Conclusion: Boron nanoparticles significantly delay the growth of an aggressive B16-OVA tumour in vivo by boron neutron capture...

  9. Convection enhanced delivery of carboranylporphyrins for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shinji; Yang, Weilian; Barth, Rolf F; Wu, Gong; Huo, Tianyao; Binns, Peter J; Riley, Kent J; Ongayi, Owendi; Gottumukkala, Vijay; Vicente, M Graça H

    2011-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive 10B is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to produce α-particles (10B[n,α] Li). Carboranylporphyrins are a class of substituted porphyrins containing multiple carborane clusters. Three of these compounds, designated H2TBP, H2TCP, and H2DCP, have been evaluated in the present study. The goals were two-fold. First, to determine their biodistribution following intracerebral (i.c.) administration by short term (30 min) convection enhanced delivery (CED) or sustained delivery over 24 h by Alzet™ osmotic pumps to F98 glioma bearing rats. Second, to determine the efficacy of H2TCP and H2TBP as boron delivery agents for BNCT in F98 glioma bearing rats. Tumor boron concentrations immediately after i.c. pump delivery were high and they remained so at 24 h. The corresponding normal brain concentrations were low and the blood and liver concentrations were undetectable. Based on these data, therapy studies were initiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITR) with H2TCP and H2TBP 24 h after CED or pump delivery. Mean survival times (MST) ± standard deviations of animals that had received H2TCP or H2TBP, followed by BNCT, were of 35 ± 4 and 44 ± 10 days, compared to 23 ± 3 and 27 ± 3 days, respectively, for untreated and irradiated controls. However, since the tumor boron concentrations of the carboranylporphyrins were 3-5× higher than intravenous (i.v.) boronophenylalanine (BPA), we had expected that the MSTs would have been greater. Histopathologic examination of brains of BNCT treated rats revealed that there were large numbers of porphyrin-laden macrophages, as well as extracellular accumulations of porphyrins, indicating that the seemingly high tumor boron concentrations did not represent the true tumor cellular uptake. Nevertheless, our data are the first to show that carboranyl porphyrins can be

  10. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  11. The Anti-Proliferative Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Takahara

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiation treatment for tumors that preferentially accumulate drugs carrying the stable boron isotope, 10B. BNCT has been evaluated clinically as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors, and more recently, recurrent advanced head and neck cancer. Here we investigated the effect of BNCT on prostate cancer (PCa using an in vivo mouse xenograft model that we have developed.Mice bearing the xenotransplanted androgen-independent human PCa cell line, PC3, were divided into four groups: Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: Boronophenylalanine (BPA; Group 3: neutron; Group 4: BPA-mediated BNCT. We compared xenograft growth among these groups, and the body weight and any motility disturbance were recorded. Immunohistochemical (IHC studies of the proliferation marker, Ki-67, and TUNEL staining were performed 9 weeks after treatment.The in vivo studies demonstrated that BPA-mediated BNCT significantly delayed tumor growth in comparison with the other groups, without any severe adverse events. There was a significant difference in the rate of freedom from gait abnormalities between the BPA-mediated BNCT group and the other groups. The IHC studies revealed that BNCT treatment significantly reduced the number of Ki-67-positive cells in comparison with the controls (mean ± SD 6.9 ± 1.5 vs 12.7 ± 4.0, p<0.05, while there was no difference in the number of apoptotic cells, suggesting that BPA-mediated BNCT reduced PCa progression without affecting apoptosis at 9 weeks post-treatment.This study has provided the first preclinical proof-of-principle data to indicate that BPA-mediated BNCT reduces the in vivo growth of PCa. Although further studies will be necessary, BNCT might be a novel potential treatment for PCa.

  12. Can epithermal boron neutron capture therapy treat primary and metastatic liver cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A. [Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Carolan, M.C. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong (Australia); Allen, B.J. [St George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: The poor prognosis of metastatic cancer to the liver calls for the investigation of alternative treatment modalities. This paper analyses the possible use of epithermal boron neutron capture therapy for the palliative treatment of these cancers. We examine possible treatment planning scenarios for selected tumour to liver boron ratios, and specifically for the epithermal beam at the HFR, Petten. It is required that a therapeutic ratio> 1 be achieved over the entire organ. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP. The geometrical model used a `variable voxel` technique to reconstruct an anthropomorphic phantom from CT scans. Regions of interest such as the liver were modelled to a resolution of a few millimetres, whereas surrounding regions were modelled with lesser detail thereby facilitating faster computation time. Three dimensional dose distributions were calculated for a frontal beam directed at the liver, and found to be in satisfactory agreement with measurements using bare and cadmium covered gold foils, PIN and MOSFET dosimeters for fast neutron and gamma measurements respectively. Dose distributions were calculated for orthogonal epithermal neutron beams to the front and side, using the parameters of the epithermal beam at Petten, and assumed tumour and normal tissue boron-10 concentrations of 30 ppm and 7.5 ppm boron-10 respectively. The therapeutic ratio (i e the dose to the tumour relative to the maximum dose to normal tissue) was found to be about 1.8, reducing to unity for the limiting condition of a tumour in the posterior liver. This result opens up the possibility of palliative therapy for the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer.

  13. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  14. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  15. Boronated monoclonal antibody 225. 28S for potential use in neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamat, S.R.; Moore, D.E.; Patwardhan, A.; Hersey, P. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia))

    1989-07-01

    The concept of conjugating boron cluster compounds to monoclonal antibodies has been examined by several groups of research workers in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedures reported to date for boronation of monoclonal antibodies resulted in either an inadequate level of boron incorporation, the precipitation of the conjugates, or a loss of immunological activity. The present report describes the conjugation of dicesium-mercapto-undecahydrododecaborate (Cs2B12H11SH) to 225.28S monoclonal antibody directed against high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigens (HMW-MAA), using poly-L-ornithine as a bridge to increase the carrying capacity of the antibody and to minimize change in the conformational structure of antibody. The method produces a boron content of 1,300 to 1,700 B atoms per molecule 225.28S while retaining the immunoreactivity. Characterization in terms of the homogeneity of the conjugation of the boron-monoclonal antibody conjugates has been studied by gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange HPLC.

  16. Boron microquantification in oral mucosa and skin following administration of a neutron capture therapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiger, S.W. III; Micca, P.L.; Morris, G.M.; Coderre, J.A

    2002-07-01

    Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for intracranial tumours using boronphenylalanine-fructose undertaken at Harvard-MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory have observed acute normal tissue reactions in the skin and oral mucosa. Because the range of the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction products is very short, 10-14 {mu}m combined, knowledge of the 10B microdistribution in tissue is critical for understanding the microdosimetry and radiobiology of BNCT. This paper reports measurements of the microdistribution of {sup 10}B in an animal model, rat skin and tongue, using high resolution quantitative autoradiography (HRQAR), a neutron-induced track etch autoradiographic technique. The steep spatial gradient and high absolute value relative to blood of the {sup 10}B concentration observed in some strata of the rat tongue epithelium and skin are important for properly evaluating the radiobiology and the biological effectiveness factors for normal tissue reactions such as oral mucositis, which are generally assessed using the blood boron concentration rather than the tissue boron concentration. (author)

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  18. Dose monitoring for boron neutron capture therapy using a reactor-based epithermal neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, C. P. J.; Nottelman, E. L.; Konijnenberg, M. W.; Mijnheer, B. J.

    1996-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the variation with time of the relevant beam parameters of a clinical reactor-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and (ii) to test a monitoring system for its applicability to monitor the dose delivered to the dose specification point in a patient treated with BNCT. For this purpose two fission chambers covered with Cd and two GM counters were positioned in the beam-shaping collimator assembly of the epithermal neutron beam. The monitor count rates were compared with in-phantom reference measurements of the thermal neutron fluence rate, the gamma-ray dose rate and the fast neutron dose rate, at a constant reactor power, over a period of 2 years. Differences in beam output, defined as the thermal neutron fluence rate at 2 cm depth in a phantom, of up to 15% were observed between various reactor cycles. A decrease in beam output of about 5% was observed in each reactor cycle. An unacceptable decrease of 50% in beam output due to malfunctioning of the beam filter assembly was detected. For safe and accurate treatment of patients, on-line monitoring of the beam is essential. Using the calibrated monitor system, the standard uncertainty in the total dose at depth due to variations with time of the beam output parameters has been reduced to a clinically acceptable value of 1% (one standard deviation).

  19. Thermal neutron irradiation field design for boron neutron capture therapy of human explanted liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S

    2007-12-01

    The selective uptake of boron by tumors compared to that by healthy tissue makes boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an extremely advantageous technique for the treatment of tumors that affect a whole vital organ. An example is represented by colon adenocarcinoma metastases invading the liver, often resulting in a fatal outcome, even if surgical resection of the primary tumor is successful. BNCT can be performed by irradiating the explanted organ in a suitable neutron field. In the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor at Pavia University, a facility was created for this purpose and used for the irradiation of explanted human livers. The neutron field distribution inside the organ was studied both experimentally and by means of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP). The liver was modeled as a spherical segment in MCNP and a hepatic-equivalent solution was used as an experimental phantom. In the as-built facility, the ratio between maximum and minimum flux values inside the phantom ((phi(max)/phi(min)) was 3.8; this value can be lowered to 2.3 by rotating the liver during the irradiation. In this study, the authors proposed a new facility configuration to achieve a uniform thermal neutron flux distribution in the liver. They showed that a phi(max)/phi(min) ratio of 1.4 could be obtained without the need for organ rotation. Flux distributions and dose volume histograms were reported for different graphite configurations.

  20. Induced radioactivity in the blood of cancer patients following Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiko; Kinashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Kouta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2013-07-01

    Since 1990, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used for over 400 cancer patients at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). After BNCT, the patients are radioactive and their (24)Na and (38)Cl levels can be detected via a Na-I scintillation counter. This activity is predominantly due to (24)Na, which has a half-life of 14.96 h and thus remains in the body for extended time periods. Radioactive (24)Na is mainly generated from (23)Na in the target tissue that is exposed to the neutron beam in BNCT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the radioactivity of blood (24)Na following BNCT and the absorbed gamma ray dose in the irradiated field. To assess blood (24)Na, 1 ml of peripheral blood was collected from 30 patients immediately after the exposure, and the radioactivity of blood (24)Na was determined using a germanium counter. The activity of (24)Na in the blood correlated with the absorbed gamma ray doses in the irradiated field. For the same absorbed gamma ray dose in the irradiated field, the activity of blood (24)Na was higher in patients with neck or lung tumors than in patients with brain or skin tumors. The reasons for these findings are not readily apparent, but the difference in the blood volume and the ratio of bone to soft tissue in the irradiated field, as well as the dose that leaked through the clinical collimator, may be responsible.

  1. A state-of-the-art epithermal neutron irradiation facility for neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-08-01

    At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) the first fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) has proven suitable for use in clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The modern facility provides a high intensity beam together with low levels of contamination that is ideally suited for use with future, more selective boron delivery agents. Prescriptions for normal tissue tolerance doses consist of 2 or 3 fields lasting less than 10 min each with the currently available beam intensity, that are administered with an automated beam monitoring and control system to help ensure safety of the patient and staff alike. A quality assurance program ensures proper functioning of all instrumentation and safety interlocks as well as constancy of beam output relative to routine calibrations. Beam line shutters and the medical room walls provide sufficient shielding to enable access and use of the facility without affecting other experiments or normal operation of the multipurpose research reactor at MIT. Medical expertise and a large population in the greater Boston area are situated conveniently close to the university, which operates the research reactor 24 h a day for approximately 300 days per year. The operational characteristics of the facility closely match those established for conventional radiotherapy, which together with a near optimum beam performance ensure that the FCB is capable of determining whether the radiobiological promise of NCT can be realized in routine practice.

  2. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  3. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia, A; Baccaro, S; Cemmi, A; Colli, V; Gambarini, G; Rosi, G; Scolari, L

    2004-01-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF2:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH3CH(NH2)COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT.

  4. Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Sidorov, A.; Maslennikova, A.; Volovecky, A.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O.

    2014-12-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D-D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm2 is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·1010 cm-2/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy outcomes for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Kato, Ituro; Aihara, Teruhito; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Niimi, Miyuki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Haginomori, Shin-ichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively review outcomes of applying boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers. Patients who were treated with BNCT for either local recurrent or newly diagnosed unresectable head or neck cancers between December 2001 and September 2007 were included. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from hospital records. Either a combination of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine (BPA) or BPA alone were used as boron compounds. In all the treatment cases, the dose constraint was set to deliver a dose <10–12 Gy-eq to the skin or oral mucosa. There was a patient cohort of 62, with a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 0.7–40.8). A total of 87 BNCT procedures were performed. The overall response rate was 58% within 6 months after BNCT. The median survival time was 10.1 months from the time of BNCT. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 43.1% and 24.2%, respectively. The major acute Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were hyperamylasemia (38.6%), fatigue (6.5%), mucositis/stomatitis (9.7%) and pain (9.7%), all of which were manageable. Three patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced carotid artery hemorrhage, two of whom had coexistent infection of the carotid artery. This study confirmed the feasibility of our dose-estimation method and that controlled trials are warranted. PMID:23955053

  6. Dosimetric effects of beam size and collimation of epithermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Harling, O K

    1993-08-01

    A series of studies of "ideal" beams has been carried out using Monte Carlo simulation with the goal of providing guidance for the design of epithermal beams for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). An "ideal" beam is defined as a monoenergetic, photon-free source of neutrons with user-specified size, shape and angular dependence of neutron current. The dosimetric behavior of monoenergetic neutron beams in an elliptical phantom composed of brain-equivalent material has been assessed as a function of beam diameter and neutron emission angle (beam angle), and the results are reported here. The simulation study indicates that substantial differences exist in the dosimetric behavior of small and large neutron beams (with respect to the phantom) as a function of the extent of beam collimation. With a small beam, dose uniformity increases as the beam becomes more isotropic (less collimated); the opposite is seen with large beams. The penetration of thermal neutrons is enhanced as the neutron emission angle is increased with a small beam; again the opposite trend is seen with large beams. When beam size is small, the dose delivered per neutron is very dependent on the extent of beam collimation; this does not appear to be the case with a larger beam. These trends in dose behavior are presented graphically and discussed in terms of their effect on several figures of merit, the advantage depth, the advantage ratio, and the advantage depth-dose rate. Tables giving quick summaries of these results are provided.

  7. Progress towards boron neutron capture therapy at the High Flux Reactor Petten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R L

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 the first positive steps were taken to proceed with the design and construction of a neutron capture therapy facility on the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. The immediate aim is to realise within a short time (summer 1989), an epithermal neutron beam for radiobiological and filter optimisation studies on one of the 10 small aperture horizontal beam tubes. The following summer, a much larger neutron beam, i.e., in cross section and neutron fluence rate, will be constructed on one of the two large beam tubes that replaced the old thermal column in 1984. This latter beam tube faces one whole side of the reactor vessel, extending from a 50 x 40 cm input aperture to a 35 x 35 cm exit hole. The radiotherapeutic facility will be housed here, with the intention to start clinical trials at the beginning of 1991. This paper describes the present status of the project and includes: a general description of the pertinent characteristics with respect to NCT of the HFR; results of the recently completed preliminary neutron metrology and computer modeling at the input end of the candidate beam tube; the structure and planning of the proposed Work Programme; and the respective direct and indirect participation and collaboration with the Netherlands Cancer Institute and the European Collaboration Group on BNCT.

  8. Designing accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, D L; Donahue, R J; Ludewigt, B A; Vujic, J

    1998-09-01

    The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been investigated as an accelerator-driven neutron source for proton energies between 2.1 and 2.6 MeV. Epithermal neutron beams shaped by three moderator materials, Al/AlF3, 7LiF, and D2O, have been analyzed and their usefulness for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments evaluated. Radiation transport through the moderator assembly has been simulated with the Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Fluence and dose distributions in a head phantom were calculated using BNCT treatment planning software. Depth-dose distributions and treatment times were studied as a function of proton beam energy and moderator thickness. It was found that an accelerator-based neutron source with Al/AlF3 or 7LiF as moderator material can produce depth-dose distributions superior to those calculated for a previously published neutron beam design for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, achieving up to approximately 50% higher doses near the midline of the brain. For a single beam treatment, a proton beam current of 20 mA, and a 7LiF moderator, the treatment time was estimated to be about 40 min. The tumor dose deposited at a depth of 8 cm was calculated to be about 21 Gy-Eq.

  9. Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga.vadim@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Maslennikova, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, 10/1 Minina Sq., 603005 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volovecky, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-21

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D–D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm{sup 2} is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA–BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) ? neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA–BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks posttreatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA–BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mgfell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA–BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA–BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA– BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  11. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  12. Design and Simulation of Photoneutron Source by MCNPX Monte Carlo Code for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Zolfaghari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electron linear accelerator (LINAC can be used for neutron production in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT is an external radiotherapeutic method for the treatment of some cancers. In this study, Varian 2300 C/D LINAC was simulated as an electron accelerator-based photoneutron source to provide a suitable neutron flux for BNCT. Materials and Methods Photoneutron sources were simulated, using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In this study, a 20 MeV LINAC was utilized for electron-photon reactions. After the evaluation of cross-sections and threshold energies, lead (Pb, uranium (U and beryllium deuteride (BeD2were selected as photoneutron sources. Results According to the simulation results, optimized photoneutron sources with a compact volume and photoneutron yields of 107, 108 and 109 (n.cm-2.s-1 were obtained for Pb, U and BeD2 composites. Also, photoneutrons increased by using enriched U (10-60% as an electron accelerator-based photoneutron source. Conclusion Optimized photoneutron sources were obtained with compact sizes of 107, 108 and 109 (n.cm-2.s-1, respectively. These fluxs can be applied for BNCT by decelerating fast neutrons and using a suitable beam-shaping assembly, surrounding electron-photon and photoneutron sources.

  13. Investigation of Isfahan miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR for boron neutron capture therapy by MCNP simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important neutron sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is a nuclear reactor. It needs a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The optimum conditions of the neutron spectra for BNCT are provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. In this paper, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR as a neutron source for BNCT was investigated. For this purpose, we designed a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA for the reactor and the neutron transport from the core of the reactor to the output windows of BSA was simulated by MCNPX code. To optimize the BSA performance, two sets of parameters should be evaluated, in-air and in-phantom parameters. For evaluating in-phantom parameters, a Snyder head phantom was used and biological dose rate and dose-depth curve were calculated in brain normal and tumor tissues. Our calculations showed that the neutron flux of the MNSR reactor can be used for BNCT, and the designed BSA in optimum conditions had a good therapeutic characteristic for BNCT.

  14. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pazirandeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b, the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage from recoil proton associated with fast neutrons however poses some constraints on maximum neutron energy that can be used in the treatment. For this reason neutrons in the epithermal energy range of 10eV-10keV are generally to be the most appropriate. The simulation carried out by Monte Carlo methods using MCBNCT and MCNP4C codes along with the cross section library in 290 groups extracted from ENDF/B6 main library. The optimal neutron energy for deep seated tumors depends on the size and depth of tumor. Our estimated optimized energy for the tumor of 5cm wide and 1-2cm thick stands at 5cm depth is in the range of 3-5keV

  15. Inborn errors in metabolism and 4-boronophenylalanine-fructose-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Juha; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Lapatto, Risto; Kallio, Merja

    2003-11-01

    Infusions of boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), at doses up to 900 mg/kg of BPA and 860 mg/kg of fructose, have been used to deliver boron to cancer tissue for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), phenylalanine accumulates, which is harmful in the long run. PKU has been an exclusion criterion for BPA-F-mediated BNCT. Fructose is harmful to individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) in amounts currently used in BNCT. The harmful effects are mediated through induction of hypoglycemia and acidosis, which may lead to irreversible organ damage or even death. Consequently, HFI should be added as an exclusion criterion for BNCT if fructose-containing solutions are used in boron carriers. Non-HFI subjects may also develop symptoms, such as gastrointestinal pain, if the fructose infusion rate is high. We therefore recommend monitoring of glucose levels and correcting possible hypoglycemia promptly. Except for some populations with extremely low PKU prevalence, HFI and PKU prevalences are similar, approximately 1 or 2 per 20,000.

  16. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  17. Dynamic infrared imaging for biological and medical applications in Boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; González, Sara J.; Dagrosa, Alejandra; Schwint, Amanda E.; Carpano, Marina; Trivillin, Verónica A.; Boggio, Esteban F.; Bertotti, José; Marín, Julio; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Albero, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality, currently focused on the treatment of cancer, which involves a tumor selective 10B compound and a specially tuned neutron beam to produce a lethal nuclear reaction. BNCT kills target cells with microscopic selectivity while sparing normal tissues from potentially lethal doses of radiation. In the context of the Argentine clinical and research BNCT projects at the National Atomic Energy Commission and in a strong collaboration with INVAP SE, we successfully implemented Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) in the clinical setting for the observation of cutaneous melanoma patients and included DIRI as a non invasive methodology in several research protocols involving small animals. We were able to characterize melanoma lesions in terms of temperature and temperature rate-of-recovery after applying a mild cold thermal stress, distinguishing melanoma from other skin pigmented lesions. We observed a spatial and temporal correlation between skin acute reactions after irradiation, the temperature pattern and the dose distribution. We studied temperature distribution as a function of tumor growth in mouse xenografts, observing a significant correlation between tumor temperature and drug uptake; we investigated temperature evolution in the limbs of Wistar rats for a protocol of induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA), DIRI being especially sensitive to RA induction even before the development of clinical signs and studied surface characteristics of tumors, precancerous and normal tissues in a model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch.

  18. Effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujita, Yusei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, Akira [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohmae, Masatoshi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Izimisano Municipal Hospital, Rinku General Hospital, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Environment and Life Science, Osaka prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan); CEO of Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sakrai, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Sumi, Tetsuro; Iwai, Soichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ono, Koji [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) to avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We have treated with BNCT 42 times for 26 patients (19 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results of (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 12 cases, PR: 10 cases, PD: 3 cases NE (not evaluated): 1 case. Response rate was 85%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-72 months (mean: 13.6 months). Six-year survival rate was 24% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) Adverse-events were transient mucositis and alopecia in most of the cases; three osteomyelitis and one brain necrosis were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM.

  19. Epithermal neutron formation for boron neutron capture therapy by adiabatic resonance crossing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, A.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.; Sadeghi, M.

    2014-05-01

    Low-energy protons from the cyclotron in the range of 15-30 MeV and low current have been simulated on beryllium (Be) target with a lead moderator around the target. This research was accomplished to design an epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using the moderated neutron on the average produced from 9Be target via (p, xn) reaction in Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) concept. Generation of neutron to proton ratio, energy distribution, flux and dose components in head phantom have been simulated by MCNP5 code. The reflector and collimator were designed in prevention and collimation of derivation neutrons from proton bombarding. The scalp-skull-brain phantom consisting of bone and brain equivalent material has been simulated in order to evaluate the dosimetric effect on the brain. Results of this analysis demonstrated while the proton energy decreased, the dose factor altered according to filters thickness. The maximum epithermal flux revealed using fluental, Fe and bismuth (Bi) filters with thicknesses of 9.4, 3 and 2 cm, respectively and also the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 103.85. The potential of the ARC method to replace or complement the current reactor-based supply sources of BNCT purposes.

  20. Nanostructured Boron Nitride With High Water Dispersibility For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Baban; Vij, Ankush; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Meena, Ramovatar; Singh, Ajay; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-10-01

    Highly water dispersible boron based compounds are innovative and advanced materials which can be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for cancer treatment (BNCT). Present study deals with the synthesis of highly water dispersible nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN). Unique and relatively low temperature synthesis route is the soul of present study. The morphological examinations (Scanning/transmission electron microscopy) of synthesized nanostructures showed that they are in transient phase from two dimensional hexagonal sheets to nanotubes. It is also supported by dual energy band gap of these materials calculated from UV- visible spectrum of the material. The theoretically calculated band gap also supports the same (calculated by virtual nano lab Software). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the synthesized material has deformed structure which is further supported by Raman spectroscopy. The structural aspect of high water disperse ability of BN is also studied. The ultra-high disperse ability which is a result of structural deformation make these nanostructures very useful in BNCT. Cytotoxicity studies on various cell lines (Hela(cervical cancer), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)) show that the synthesized nanostructures can be used for BNCT.

  1. Basic and clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Tadao; Matsumura, Akira; Nakai, Kei; Nakagawa, Kunio; Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Shibata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Rat malignant cells (9L glioma cell) were exposed to neutron radiation after culturing with boron compounds; BSH and STA-BX909, and cell growing ability after the exposure was determined by colony forming assay. The effects of in vivo radiation were examined by measuring neutron flux levels in rat brain and skin aiming to use neutron radiation in clinical study. STA-BX909 was found to show a dose-dependent cell toxicity, which was higher than that of BSH. The radiation induced G2/M block in 9L-glioma cells and their cell cycles recovered thereafter in low-dose radiated cells, but high-dose radiated cells became aneuploidy. Furthermore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was applied in two patients, 41-year old woman with glioma grade 3 recurred and 45-year old man with glioblastoma multiforme. The former died from systemic deterioration due to ileus, but BNCT was made only one time although conventional radiotherapy is carried out for a relatively long period. Therefore, BNCT was thought to be beneficial from an aspect of `quality of life` and the effects to repress a recurrence of cancer also seemed larger than the conventional one. (M.N.)

  2. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae, E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jo Hong, Key [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sil Lee, Keum [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  3. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  4. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1994. April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Shinohara, Nobuo; Takeuchi, Suehiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1995-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. Summary reports of 47 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author).

  5. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  6. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1995. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi; Maekawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI Tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996. Summary reports of 59 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  7. JAERI tandem annual report 1999. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 49 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  8. JAERI tandem and V.D.G. annual report 1998. April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 38 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities and contained. (author)

  9. JAERI tandem and V.D.G. annual report 1997. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Takemori, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Akira [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 40 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  10. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1996. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi; Maekawa, Hiroshi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaf accelerator from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 48 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  11. JAERI tandem annual report 2001. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sataka, Masao; Iwamoto, Akira (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 48 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  12. JAERI TANDEM annual report 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sataka, Masao; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (eds.)

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 46 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: an emerging therapeutic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Goodman, J H; Gahbauer, R A; Gupta, N; Blue, T E; Yang, W; Tjarks, W

    1999-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) lithium-7 reaction. There is a growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with high-grade gliomas and possibly metastatic brain tumors. The present review covers the biological and radiobiological considerations on which BNCT is based, boron-containing low- and high-molecular weight delivery agents, neutron sources, clinical studies, and future areas of research. Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine, and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These are discussed, as is optimization of their delivery. Nuclear reactors currently are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission reaction within the core produces a mixture of lower energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high-energy neutrons, and gamma-rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams now are being used in the United States and Europe because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Currently, there are clinical trials in progress in the United States, Europe, and Japan using a combination of debulking surgery and then BNCT to treat patients with glioblastomas. The American and European studies are Phase I trials using boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate, respectively

  14. Biodistribution of sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Nievas, Susana; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of ¹⁰B carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We previously proved the therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by the boron compounds boronophenylalanine and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Based on the clinical relevance of the boron carrier sodium borocaptate (BSH) and the knowledge that the most effective way to optimize BNCT is to improve tumor boron targeting, the specific aim of this study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and evaluate the feasibility of BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3. The general aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology and optimize BNCT for head and neck cancer. Sodium borocaptate (50 mg ¹⁰B/kg) was administered to tumor-bearing hamsters. Groups of 3-5 animals were killed humanely at nine time-points, 3-12 h post-administration. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous pouch tissue, normal pouch tissue and other clinically relevant normal tissues were processed for boron measurement by optic emission spectroscopy. Tumor boron concentration peaked to therapeutically useful boron concentration values of 24-35 ppm. The boron concentration ratio tumor/normal pouch tissue ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Pharmacokinetic curves showed that the optimum interval between BSH administration and neutron irradiation was 7-11 h. It is concluded that BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3 would be feasible.

  15. Feasibility study on epithermal neutron field for cyclotron-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Aoki, Takao; Nakamura, Takashi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Baba, Mamoru; Yokobori, Hitoshi; Tahara, Yoshihisa

    2003-08-01

    To realize the accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center of Tohoku University, the feasibility of a cyclotron-based BNCT was evaluated. This study focuses on optimizing the epithermal neutron field with an energy spectrum and intensity suitable for BNCT for various combinations of neutron-producing reactions and moderator materials. Neutrons emitted at 90 degrees from a thick (stopping-length) Ta target, bombarded by 50 MeV protons of 300 microA beam current, were selected as a neutron source, based on the measurement of angular distributions and neutron energy spectra. As assembly composed of iron, AlF3/Al/6LiF, and lead was chosen as moderators, based on the simulation trials using the MCNPX code. The depth dose distributions in a cylindrical phantom, calculated with the MCNPX code, showed that, within 1 h of therapeutic time, the best moderator assembly, which is 30-cm-thick iron, 39-cm-thick AlF3/Al/6LiF, and 1-cm-thick lead, provides an epithermal neutron flux of 0.7 x 10(9) [n cm(-2) s(-1)]. This results in a tumor dose of 20.9 Gy-eq at a depth of 8 cm in the phantom, which is 6.4 Gy-eq higher than that of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor at the equivalent condition of maximum normal tissue tolerance. The beam power of the cyclotron is 15 kW, which is much lower than other accelerator-based BNCT proposals.

  16. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, J C; Zhou, X L; Shefer, R E; Klinkowstein, R E

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in the production of epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has promoted an investigation into the feasibility of generating such neutrons with a high current proton accelerator. Energetic protons (2.5 MeV) on a 7Li target produce a spectrum of neutrons with maximum energy of roughly 800 keV. A number of combinations of D2O moderator, lead reflector, 6Li thermal neutron filtration, and D2O/6Li shielding will result in a useful epithermal flux of 1.6 x 10(8) n/s at the patient position. The neutron beam is capable of delivering 3000 RBE-cGy to a tumor at a depth of 7.5 cm in a total treatment time of 60-93 min (depending on RBE values used and based on a 24-cm diameter x 19-cm length D2O moderator). Treatment of deeper tumors with therapeutic advantage would also be possible. Maximum advantage depths (RBE weighted) of 8.2-9.2 (again depending on RBE values and precise moderator configuration) are obtained in a right-circular cylindrical phantom composed of brain-equivalent material with an advantage ratio of 4.7-6.3. A tandem cascade accelerator (TCA), designed and constructed at Science Research Laboratory (SRL) in Somerville MA, can provide the required proton beam parameters for BNCT of deep-seated tumors. An optimized configuration of materials required to shift the accelerator neutron spectrum down to therapeutically useful energies has been designed using Monte Carlo simulation in the Whitaker College Biomedical Imaging and Computation Laboratory at MIT. Actual construction of the moderator/reflector assembly is currently underway.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): implications of neutron beam and boron compound characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, F J; Nigg, D W; Capala, J; Watkins, P R; Vroegindeweij, C; Auterinen, I; Seppälä, T; Bleuel, D

    1999-07-01

    The potential efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant glioma is a significant function of epithermal-neutron beam biophysical characteristics as well as boron compound biodistribution characteristics. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to evaluate the relative significance of these factors on theoretical tumor control using a standard model. The existing, well-characterized epithermal-neutron sources at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), and the Finnish Research Reactor (FiR-1) were compared. Results for a realistic accelerator design by the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) are also compared. Also the characteristics of the compound p-Boronophenylaline Fructose (BPA-F) and a hypothetical next-generation compound were used in a comparison of the BMRR and a hypothetical improved reactor. All components of dose induced by an external epithermal-neutron beam fall off quite rapidly with depth in tissue. Delivery of dose to greater depths is limited by the healthy-tissue tolerance and a reduction in the hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose allow for longer irradiation and greater dose at a depth. Dose at depth can also be increased with a beam that has higher neutron energy (without too high a recoil dose) and a more forward peaked angular distribution. Of the existing facilities, the FiR-1 beam has the better quality (lower hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose) and a penetrating neutron spectrum and was found to deliver a higher value of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) than other existing beams at shallow depth. The greater forwardness and penetration of the HFR the FiR-1 at greater depths. The hypothetical reactor and accelerator beams outperform at both shallow and greater depths. In all cases, the hypothetical compound provides a significant improvement in efficacy but it is shown that the full benefit of improved compound is not realized until the neutron beam is fully

  18. Thick beryllium target as an epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Moore, B R

    1994-10-01

    Accelerator-based intense epithermal neutron sources for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) have been considered as an alternative to nuclear reactors. Lithium (Li) has generally received the widest attention for this application, since the threshold energy is low and neutron yield is high. Because of the poor thermal and chemical properties of Li and the need for heat removal in the target, the design of Li targets has been quite difficult. Beryllium (Be) has been thought of as an alternative target because of its good thermal and chemical properties and reasonable neutron yield. However, in order to have a neutron yield comparable to that of a thick Li target bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons, the proton energy required for a thick Be target must be approaching 4 MeV. Consequently, the neutrons emitted are more energetic. In addition, a significant amount of high-energy gamma rays, which is undesirable, will occur when Be is bombarded with low-energy protons. Regardless of the more energetic neutrons and additional gamma rays, in this paper it is shown that it is possible to develop a high-quality and high-intensity epithermal neutron beam based on a thick Be target for NCT treatment. For a fixed proton current, the optimal Be-target-based beam (with 4-MeV protons) can produce a neutron beam, with both quality and intensity slightly better than those produced by the optimal Li-target-based beam (with 2.5-MeV protons). The single-session NCT treatment time for the optimal Be-target-based beam is estimated to be 88 min for a proton current of 50 mA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. First application of dynamic infrared imaging in boron neutron capture therapy for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Cruz, G. A.; Gonzalez, S. J.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J. [Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) as a functional, noninvasive technique for evaluating the skin acute toxicity and tumor control within the framework of the Argentine boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) program for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Methods: Two patients enrolled in the Argentine phase I/II BNCT clinical trial for cutaneous malignant melanoma were studied with DIRI. An uncooled infrared camera, providing a video output signal, was employed to register the temperature evolution of the normal skin and tumor regions in patients subjected to a mild local cooling (cold stimulus). In order to study the spatial correlation between dose and acute skin reactions, three-dimensional representations of the superficial dose delivered to skin were constructed and cameralike projections of the dose distribution were coregistered with visible and infrared images. Results: The main erythematous reaction was observed clinically between the second and fifth week post-BNCT. Concurrently, with its clinical onset, a reactive increase above the basal skin temperature was observed with DIRI in the third week post-BNCT within regions that received therapeutic doses. Melanoma nodules appeared as highly localized hyperthermic regions. 2 min after stimulus, these regions reached a temperature plateau and increased in size. Temperature differences with respect to normal skin up to 10 deg. C were observed in the larger nodules. Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that DIRI, enhanced by the application of cold stimuli, may provide useful functional information associated with the metabolism and vasculature of tumors and inflammatory processes related to radiation-induced changes in the skin as well. These capabilities are aimed at complementing the clinical observations and standard imaging techniques, such as CT and Doppler ultrasound.

  20. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  1. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  2. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to {gamma}-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup -2}/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  3. PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemby Yulio Vallenry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5. MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (Фepi > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (Ḋf/Фepi 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu Фepi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, Ḋf/Фepi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, Ḋγ/Фepi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, Фth/Фepi = 1,51 dan J/Фepi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA. Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator   One of the cancer therapy methods is

  4. Early clinical experience utilizing scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector in clinical boron neutron capture therapy: its issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Itsuro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kumada, Hiroaki; Shrestha, Shubhechha J.; ONO, KOJI

    2016-01-01

    Background Real-time measurement of thermal neutrons in the tumor region is essential for proper evaluation of the absorbed dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment. The gold wire activation method has been routinely used to measure the neutron flux distribution in BNCT irradiation, but a real-time measurement using gold wire is not possible. To overcome this issue, the scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector has been developed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate...

  5. Measurement of in-phantom neutron flux and gamma dose in Tehran research reactor boron neutron capture therapy beam line

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Bavarnegin; Alireza Sadremomtaz; Hossein Khalafi; Yaser Kasesaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Determination of in-phantom quality factors of Tehran research reactor (TRR) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beam. Materials and Methods: The doses from thermal neutron reactions with 14N and 10B are calculated by kinetic energy released per unit mass approach, after measuring thermal neutron flux using neutron activation technique. Gamma dose is measured using TLD-700 dosimeter. Results: Different dose components have been measured in a head phantom which has been designed an...

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n) reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    OpenAIRE

    Bassem Elshahat; Akhtar Naqvi; Nabil Maalej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n) reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensio...

  7. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron; Espectro de neutrones para terapia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with {sup 10}B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the {sup 10}B and produce a nucleus of {sup 7}Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  8. Gantry orientation effect on the neutron and capture gamma ray dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasi Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of gantry orientation on the photoneutron and capture gamma dose calculations for maze entrance door was evaluated. A typical radiation therapy room made of ordinary concrete was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Gantry rotation was simulated at eight different angles around the isocenter. Both neutron and capture gamma dose vary considerably with gantry angle. The ratios of the maximum to the minimum values for neutron and capture gamma dose equivalents were 1.9 and 1.4, respectively. On the other hand, comparison of the Monte Carlo calculated mean value over all orientations with Monte Carlo calculated neutron and gamma dose showed that the Wu-McGinley method differed by 5% and 2%, respectively. However, for more conservative shielding calculations, factors of 1.6 and 1.3 should be applied to the calculated neutron and capture gamma doses at downward irradiation. Finally, it can be concluded that the gantry angle influences neutron and capture gamma dose at the maze entrance door and it should be taken into account in shielding considerations.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: past history, current status, and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Brugger, R M

    1996-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. High-grade astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, and metastatic brain tumors constitute a major group of neoplasms for which there is no effective treatment. There is growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with primary, and possibly metastatic brain tumors. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must reach and be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B(n, alpha)7 Li reaction. Two major questions will be addressed in this review. First, how can a large number of 10B atoms be delivered selectively to cancer cells? Second, how can a high fluence of neutrons be delivered to the tumor? Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA), and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These will be discussed, and potential problems associated with their use as boron delivery agents will be considered. Nuclear reactors, currently, are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission process within the core produces a mixture of lower-energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high (> 10,000 eV) energy neutrons, and gamma rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams should be more useful because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Beam sources and characteristics will be discussed in the context of current and future BNCT trials. Finally, the past and present

  10. Monte Carlo based treatment planning systems for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Petten, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievaart, V. A.; Daquino, G. G.; Moss, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiotherapy for the treatment of tumour lesions. Since the cancer cells in the treatment volume are targeted with 10B, a higher dose is given to these cancer cells due to the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction, in comparison with the surrounding healthy cells. In Petten (The Netherlands), at the High Flux Reactor, a specially tailored neutron beam has been designed and installed. Over 30 patients have been treated with BNCT in 2 clinical protocols: a phase I study for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a phase II study on the treatment of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, activities concerning the extra-corporal treatment of metastasis in the liver (from colorectal cancer) are in progress. The irradiation beam at the HFR contains both neutrons and gammas that, together with the complex geometries of both patient and beam set-up, demands for very detailed treatment planning calculations. A well designed Treatment Planning System (TPS) should obey the following general scheme: (1) a pre-processing phase (CT and/or MRI scans to create the geometric solid model, cross-section files for neutrons and/or gammas); (2) calculations (3D radiation transport, estimation of neutron and gamma fluences, macroscopic and microscopic dose); (3) post-processing phase (displaying of the results, iso-doses and -fluences). Treatment planning in BNCT is performed making use of Monte Carlo codes incorporated in a framework, which includes also the pre- and post-processing phases. In particular, the glioblastoma multiforme protocol used BNCT_rtpe, while the melanoma metastases protocol uses NCTPlan. In addition, an ad hoc Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based treatment planning system (BDTPS) has been implemented in order to integrate the real macroscopic boron distribution obtained from PET scanning. BDTPS is patented and uses MCNP as the calculation engine. The precision obtained by the Monte Carlo based TPSs exploited at Petten

  11. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  13. Reference dosimetry calculations for neutron capture therapy with comparison of analytical and voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorley, J T; Kiger, W S; Zamenhof, R G

    2002-02-01

    As clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) are initiated in the U.S. and other countries, new treatment planning codes are being developed to calculate detailed dose distributions in patient-specific models. The thorough evaluation and comparison of treatment planning codes is a critical step toward the eventual standardization of dosimetry, which, in turn, is an essential element for the rational comparison of clinical results from different institutions. In this paper we report development of a reference suite of computational test problems for NCT dosimetry and discuss common issues encountered in these calculations to facilitate quantitative evaluations and comparisons of NCT treatment planning codes. Specifically, detailed depth-kerma rate curves were calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4B for four different representations of the modified Snyder head phantom, an analytic, multishell, ellipsoidal model, and voxel representations of this model with cubic voxel sizes of 16, 8, and 4 mm. Monoenergetic and monodirectional beams of 0.0253 eV, 1, 2, 10, 100, and 1000 keV neutrons, and 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 MeV photons were individually simulated to calculate kerma rates to a statistical uncertainty of neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to epithermal beams currently used or proposed for NCT clinical trials, was computed for all models. The thermal neutron, fast neutron, and photon kerma rates calculated with the 4 and 8 mm voxel models were within 2% and 4%, respectively, of those calculated for the analytical model. The 16 mm voxel model produced unacceptably large discrepancies for all dose components. The effects from different kerma data sets and tissue compositions were evaluated. Updating the kerma data from ICRU 46 to ICRU 63 data produced less than 2% difference in kerma rate profiles. The depth-dose profile data, Monte Carlo code input, kerma factors, and model construction files are available

  14. Determination and production of an optimal neutron energy spectrum for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, Darren Leo

    An accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility employing an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been proposed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this dissertation, the properties of an ideal neutron beam for delivering a maximized dose to a glioblastoma multiforme tumor in a reasonable time while minimizing the dose to healthy tissue is examined. A variety of materials, beam shaping assemblies, and neutron sources were considered to deliver a neutron spectrum as close to the calculated idealized spectrum as possible. Several optimization studies were performed to determine the best proton energy and moderator material to maximize the efficacy of an accelerator-based BNCT facility utilizing the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutron source. A new, faster method of performing such an optimization was developed, known as the "Ubertally" method, in which data from a single Monte Carlo simulation is reweighted to produce results for any neutron spatial, energy and angular source distribution. Results were confirmed experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88″ cyclotron. Thermal fluxes in this experiment were found to be approximately 30% lower than expected, but the depth-dose profile was confirmed to within 8% maximum deviation. A final beam shaping assembly is then recommended. Utilizing a material known as Fluental as a moderating material, deep-seated tumor doses 50% higher than that delivered by clinical trials at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are predicted. The final recommended design should contain a 37 cm thickness of Fluental(TM) moderator, a 1--2 cm gamma shield, an Al2O3 reflector, a V-shaped aluminum-backed or copper-backed source with heavy water cooling, and a 13 cm lithiated polyethylene delimiter. This design would be operated at 2.4 MeV proton energy at 20 mA to conduct treatments in less than an hour and a half. However, this design may be easily altered

  15. The JAERI and Universities joint project research reports on the 4th joint research project between JAERI and Universities on backend chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    In the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities on Backend Chemistry, the 4th-term researches of it were performed on sixteen themes from April of 1999 to March of 2001 under the four categories, i.e. Nuclear-chemistry and physical-chemistry properties of actinides', 'Solid state chemistry and nuclear fuel engineering of actinides', 'Solution chemistry and technologies for separation and analysis of actinides' and Treatment of radioactive waste and environmental chemistry'. The present report compiled the papers contributed to the Joint Research Project. (author)

  16. JAERI 200 kV Electron Gun with an NEA-GaAs Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Nishitani, Tomohiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; John Minehara, Eisuke; Nagai, Ryoji; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Sawamura, Masaru; Yamauchi, T

    2004-01-01

    The GaAs photocathode with negative electron affinity surface (NEA-GaAs) has been expected to be low emittance (<0.5 πmm・mrad) electron beam source. In order to generate low emittance electron beam required from ERL-FEL, we have started the developmental program of a 200keV electron gun with the NEA-GaAs photocathode for the first time in JAERI. An NEA surface has the problem that lifetime is limited by gun vacuum condition and by ion back bombardment between anode- and cathode-electrode. In order to long an NEA surface lifetime, the JAERI 200keV electron gun system consists of a 200kV DC-gun chamber on extreme high vacuum condition and an NEA activation chamber with load-lock system.

  17. JAERI superconducting RF linac-based free-electron laser-facility

    CERN Document Server

    Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Kikuzawa, N; Sugimoto, M; Hajima, R; Shizuma, T; Yamauchi, T; Nishimori, N

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the JAERI superconducting RF linac based FEL has been successfully lased to produce 0.36 kW of FEL light using a 100 kW electron beam in quasi-continuous wave operation. A 1 kW class laser is our present program goal, and will be achieved by improving the optical out coupling in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. Our next 5-year program goal is to produce a 100 kW-class FEL laser and multi-MW class electron beam in average, quasi-continuous wave operation. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high-power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility.

  18. HRB-22 capsule irradiation test for HTGR fuel. JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Kazuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kousaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    As a JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel, JAERI fuel compacts were irradiated in the HRB-22 irradiation capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Postirradiation examinations also were performed at ORNL. This report describes 1) the preirradiation characterization of the irradiation samples of annular-shaped fuel compacts containing the Triso-coated fuel particles, 2) the irradiation conditions and fission gas releases during the irradiation to measure the performance of the coated particle fuel, 3) the postirradiation examinations of the disassembled capsule involving visual inspection, metrology, ceramography and gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples, and 4) the accident condition tests on the irradiated fuels at 1600 to 1800degC to obtain information about fuel performance and fission product release behavior under accident conditions. (author)

  19. JAERI TIARA annual report 1994. V.4. April 1994 - March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Seguchi, Tadao; Nashiyama, Isamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [eds.] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. Summary reports of 86 papers and briaf descriptions on status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author).

  20. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-02-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL).

  1. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  2. 50 GeV proton synchrotron for JAERI/KEK Joint project

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a design of a 50 GeV proton synchrotron for a JAERI-KEK Joint (JKJ) project which has been proposed by High Energy Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The site of the proposed accelerators is JAERI Tokai site. The JKJ project includes particle physics, nuclear physics, material science, life science and nuclear technology, using a new proton accelerator complex. The high beam power allows the production of a variety of intense secondary beams. The accelerator complex consists of the linac, 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron. The 3 GeV synchrotron is a rapid cycling synchrotron with the repetition rate of 25 Hz and provides a 1 MW beam for the spallation neutron source and muon facility. At the 50 GeV synchrotron, nuclear and particle physics experiments using anti- protons, kaons, hyperons and primary proton beam are planned. The long-baseline neutrino oscillation from JKJ to Super Kamiokande is also planned. The 50 GeV synchrotron will pr...

  3. Transport calculation of thermal and cold neutrons using NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takada, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system to the neutronics design study in the neutron science research project of JAERI, transport calculations of thermal and cold neutrons are performed with the code system on a spallation neutron source composed of light water cooled tantalum target with a moderator and a reflector system. The following neutronic characteristics are studied in the calculation : the variation of the intensity of neutrons emitted from a light water moderator or a liquid hydrogen with/without the B{sub 4}C decoupler, which are installed to produce sharp pulse, and that dependent on the position of external source neutrons in the tantalum target. The calculated neutron energy spectra are reproduced well by the semi-empirical formula with the parameter values reliable in physical meanings. It is found to be necessary to employ proper importance sampling technique in the statistics. It is confirmed from this work that the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system is applicable to the neutronics design study of spallation neutron sources proposed for the neutron science research project. (author)

  4. A coupled deterministic/stochastic method for computing neutron capture therapy dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Thomas Richard

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is an experimental method of treating brain tumors and other cancers by: (1) injecting or infusing the patient with a tumor-seeking, neutron target-labeled drug; and (2) irradiating the patient in an intense epithermal neutron fluence. The nuclear reaction between the neutrons and the target nuclei (e.g. sp{10}B(n,alpha)sp7Lirbrack releases energy in the form of high-LET (i.e. energy deposited within the range of a cell diameter) reaction particles which selectively kill the tumor cell. The efficacy of NCT is partly dependent on the delivery of maximum thermal neutron fluence to the tumor and the minimization of radiation dose to healthy tissue. Since the filtered neutron source (e.g. research reactor) usually provides a broad energy spectrum of highly-penetrating neutron and gamma-photon radiation, detailed transport calculations are necessary in order to plan treatments that use optimal treatment facility configurations and patient positioning. Current computational methods for NCT use either discrete ordinates calculation or, more often, Monte Carlo simulation to predict neutron fluences in the vicinity of the tumor. These methods do not, however, accurately calculate the transport of radiation throughout the entire facility or the deposition of dose in all the various parts of the body due to shortcomings of using either method alone. A computational method, specifically designed for NCT problems, has been adapted from the MASH methodology and couples a forward discrete ordinates (Ssb{n}) calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo run to predict the dose at any point within the patient. The transport from the source through the filter/collimator is performed with a forward DORT run, and this is then coupled to adjoint MORSE results at a selected coupling parallelepiped which surrounds human phantom. Another routine was written to allow the user to generate the MORSE models at various angles and positions within the treatment room. The

  5. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  6. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  7. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  9. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  10. Biodistribution of Amine-Amide Chlorin e6 Derivative Conjugate with a Boron Nanoparticle for Boron Neutron-Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    А.B. Volovetsky; N.Y. Shilyagina; V.V. Dudenkova; S.О. Pasynkova; М.А. Grin; А.F. Mironov; А.V. Feofanov; I.V. Balalaeva; А.V. Maslennikova

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the biodistribution of amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide as a potential boron transporter for the tasks of boron neutron-capture therapy. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on Balb/c mice with induced murine colon carcinoma CT-26. Amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide was administered intravenously, the dose being 5 and 10 mg/kg body mass. The sampling for m...

  11. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new boron-containing chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    New boron-containing chlorin derivatives 9 and 13 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized from photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (2) and L-4-boronophenylalanine-related compounds. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 9 and 13 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 13 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 9, and compound 13 showed rapid clearance from normal tissues within 24h after injection. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 13 was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 3h after injection of 13. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 13. These results suggested that 13 might be a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer.

  13. The radiobiological principles of boron neutron capture therapy: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J.W., E-mail: john.hopewell@gtc.ox.ac.uk [Green Templeton College and Particle Therapy Cancer Research Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, G.M. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schwint, A. [Department of Radiobiology, Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Coderre, J.A. [Ora Inc, 300 Brickstone Square, Andover, MA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The radiobiology of the dose components in a BNCT exposure is examined. The effect of exposure time in determining the biological effectiveness of {gamma}-rays, due to the repair of sublethal damage, has been largely overlooked in the application of BNCT. Recoil protons from fast neutrons vary in their relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as a function of energy and tissue endpoint. Thus the energy spectrum of a beam will influence the RBE of this dose component. Protons from the neutron capture reaction in nitrogen have not been studied but in practice protons from nitrogen capture have been combined with the recoil proton contribution into a total proton dose. The relative biological effectiveness of the products of the neutron capture reaction in boron is derived from two factors, the RBE of the short range particles and the bio-distribution of boron, referred to collectively as the compound biological effectiveness factor. Caution is needed in the application of these factors for different normal tissues and tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiobiological properties of different dose components in BNCT are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of {gamma}-ray dose depends strongly on exposure time due to sublethal damage repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of fast neutron dose depends on neutron energy spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-ray and fast neutron characteristics vary between beams and thus weighting factors will differ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weighing factors for boron dose depend on the carrier, the tissue and its mode of administration.

  14. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  15. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile.

  16. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. MAGIC polymer gel for dosimetric verification in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Heikkinen, Sami; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Seppälä, Tiina; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli

    2007-04-30

    Radiation sensitive polymer gels are among the most promising three-dimensional dose verification tools developed to date. Polymer gel dosimeter known by the acronym MAGIC has been tested for evaluation of its use in boron neutron capture (BNCT) dosimetry. We irradiated a large (diameter 10 cm, length 20 cm) cylindrical gel phantom in the epithermal neutron beam of the Finnish BNCT facility at the FiR 1 nuclear reactor. Neutron irradiation was simulated with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP. Gel samples from the same production batch were also irradiated with 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator to compare dose response in the two different types of beams. Irradiated gel phantoms were imaged using MRI to determine their relaxation rate R2 maps. The measured and normalized dose distribution in the epithermal neutron beam was compared to the dose distribution calculated by computer simulation. The results support the feasibility MAGIC gel in BNCT dosimetry.

  18. Commissioning of photocathode RF gun based microtron at JAERI-Kansai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, M.; Kotaki, H.; Kondo, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-07-01

    We started to construct a high quality electron beam injector that consists of a photocathode rf gun and a racetrack microtron last summer. This injector will be used the second generation laser wakefield acceleration experiment at JAERI-Kansai. Beam commissioning of the system is started from this March and we succeeded in generating a 150 MeV electron single bunch with a charge of 91 pC at 10 Hz. Overview of the system and the present status of beam commissioning are described. (author)

  19. Design of energy-recovery transport for the JAERI FEL driven by a superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Nagai, R; Kikuzawa, N; Nishimori, N; Shizuma, T; Minehara, E J; Vinokurov, N A

    2000-01-01

    A high-average power free-electron laser driven by a superconducting linac has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and stable laser output over 0.1 kW in infrared region is now available. For further increasing of FEL output power, installing energy-recovery transport has been planned. The lattice design for the energy-recovery transport is discussed in the present paper. It is found that a recirculation transport, which fulfills the requirements for energy acceptance and isochronicity, can be realized by adding another triple-bend arc to the existing beam line.

  20. Improved performance of the JAERI injection and free electron laser system

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimori, N; Hajima, R; Shizuma, T; Sawamura, M; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J

    2000-01-01

    Several modifications have been made for the JAERI Free Electron Laser (FEL) system in order to extract greater average lasing power. The electron gun was improved to produce an electron beam with 1 ns pulse width, 600 mA peak current, amplitude fluctuation less than 1% and timing jitter less than 0.1 ns. In addition, the 180 deg. bending arc was modified to match the beam envelope inside the undulator. After these modifications, we obtained an FEL power of 180 W in macro-pulse average at wavelength of 23 mu m.

  1. Status of DOE/JAERI collaborative program phase II and phase III capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.P.; Lenox, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ioka, I.; Wakai, E.

    1997-04-01

    Significant progress has been made during the last year in the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the specimens from nine DOE ORNL/JAERI collaborative capsules and in the design and fabrication of four additional capsules. JP21, JP22, CTR-62, and CTR-63 were disassembled, JP20 tensile specimens were tested, and a variety of specimens from the RB-60J-1, 330J-1, and 400J-1 capsules were tested. Fabrication of RB-11J and 12J was completed and progress made in the matrix finalization and design of RB-10J and JP25.

  2. Data collection of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment conducted at FNS/JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Konno, Chikara; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Fusion neutronics benchmark experimental data have been continued at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility in JAERI. This report compiles unpublished results of the in-situ measurement experiments conducted by the end of 1996. Experimental data of neutron spectra in entire energy range, dosimetry reaction rates, gamma-ray spectrum and gamma-ray heating rates are acquired for five materials of beryllium, vanadium, iron, copper and tungsten. These experimental data along with data previously reported are effective for validating cross section data stored in evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL. (author)

  3. Computational characterization and experimental validation of the thermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, J. D. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211-3400 (United States); Nigg, D. W. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hawthorne, M. F. [University of Missouri, International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, 1514 Research Park Dr., Columbia, MO 65211-3450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline constructed for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. Validation protocols based on neutron activation spectrometry measurements and rigorous least-square adjustment techniques show that the beam produces a neutron spectrum that has the anticipated level of thermal neutron flux and a somewhat higher than expected, but radio-biologically insignificant, epithermal neutron flux component. (authors)

  4. Optimization of the Epithermal Neutron Beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Rorer, David C.; Reciniello, Richard N.; Holden, Norman E.

    2003-06-01

    Clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumor had been carried out for half a decade, using an epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a higher intensity, more forward-directed neutron beam with less contamination from gamma rays, fast and thermal neutrons are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  5. Optimization of the epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Reciniello, Richard N; Holden, Norman E

    2004-05-01

    The use of epithermal neutron beam in clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumors had been carried out for half a decade at the Brookhaven's Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new BNCT protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a highly intensified and focused neutron beam with less gamma and neutron contamination in tissues are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Neutron-photon coupled Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux, current, heating, and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  6. Self-shielding effects in neutron spectra measurements for neutron capture therapy by means of activation foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Józefowicz, Krystyna; Pytel, Beatrycze; Koziel, Alina

    2004-01-01

    The design and optimisation of a neutron beam for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is accompanied by the neutron spectra measurements at the target position. The method of activation detectors was applied for the neutron spectra measurements. Epithermal neutron energy region imposes the resonance structure of activation cross sections resulting in strong self-shielding effects. The neutron self-shielding correction factor was calculated using a simple analytical model of a single absorption event. Such a procedure has been applied to individual cross sections from pointwise ENDF/B-VI library and new corrected activation cross sections were introduced to a spectra unfolding algorithm. The method has been verified experimentally both for isotropic and for parallel neutron beams. Two sets of diluted and non-diluted activation foils covered with cadmium were irradiated in the neutron field. The comparison of activation rates of diluted and non-diluted foils has demonstrated the correctness of the applied self-shielding model.

  7. Investigation of Dose Distribution in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy using N-Isopropylacrylamide Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bavarnegin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gel dosimeters have unique advantages in comparison with other dosimeters. Until now, these gels have been used in different radiotherapy techniques as a reliable dosimetric tool. Because dose distribution measurement is an important factor for appropriate treatment planning in different radiotherapy techniques, in this study, we evaluated the ability of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM polymer gel to record the dose distribution resulting from the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT. In this regard, a head phantom containing NIPAM gel was irradiated using the Tehran Research Reactor BNCT beam line, and then by a magnetic resonance scanner. Eventually, the R2 maps were obtained in different slices of the phantom by analyzing T2-weighted images. The results show that NIPAM gel has a suitable potential for recording three-dimensional dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field dosimetry.

  8. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles. The first step toward T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Björkdahl, O; Sørensen, P G; Hansen, T; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

  9. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, A., E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carpano, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Perona, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, L. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Nievas, S. [Department of Chemistry, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Cabrini, R. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina); Juvenal, G. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av General Paz 1499, San Martin (1560) (Argentina)] [National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Department of Biochemistry, UBA School of Medicine (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with {sup 131}I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  10. Promising cancer treatment modality: the University of California Davis/McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center neutron capture therapy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autry-Conwell, Susan A.; Boggan, James E.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Hou, Yongjin; Vincente, Maria-Graca; Liu, Hungyuan; Richards, Wade J.

    2000-12-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising new binary therapeutic modality for the treatment of localized tumors. It is accomplished by injection and localization within the tumor of a neutron capture agent (NCA) that alone, is non- toxic. Whenthe tumor is then exposed to neutrons, a relatively non-toxic form of radiation, crytotoxic products are produced that directly or indirectly cause tumor cell death, and yet preserves normal surrounding tissue not contain the NCA. The UC Davis NCT program is currently working to develop and test new compounds or NCA in vitro and in vivo. Many groups worldwide are also working to develop the next generation NCA, but less than five facilities internationally are currently capable to treating clinical brain tumor patients by NCT and only two US facilities, MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition to compound development, the UC Davis NCT program is preparing the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's 2 megawatt TRIGA reactor for NCT clinical trials which would make it the only such facility on the West Coast.

  11. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian

    2006-12-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle.

  12. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  13. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  14. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  15. From radiation-induced chromosome damage to cell death: modelling basic mechanisms and applications to boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Altieri, S

    2011-02-01

    Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed to interpret radiation-induced cell killing; after briefly discussing some of these models, in this paper, a mechanistic approach based on an experimentally observed link between chromosome aberrations and cell death was presented. More specifically, a model and a Monte Carlo code originally developed for chromosome aberrations were extended to simulate radiation-induced cell death applying an experimentally observed one-to-one relationship between the average number of 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and deletions) per cell and -ln S, S being the fraction of surviving cells. Although such observation was related to X rays, in the present work, the approach was also applied to protons and alpha particles. A good agreement between simulation outcomes and literature data provided a model validation for different radiation types. The same approach was then successfully applied to simulate the survival of cells enriched with boron and irradiated with thermal neutrons at the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia, to mimic a typical treatment for boron neutron capture therapy.

  16. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakeine, G.J. [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com; Di Salvo, M. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Marchetti, A. [Scientific Research Office, Fondazione San Matteo University Policlinic, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy at the Institute of Medical Radiobiology (IMR) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentini, M.; Arkuszewski, J.; Crawford, John F.; Larsson, B.; Stepanek, Jiri; Teichmann, Sarah; Weinreich, R.

    1997-02-01

    Although all of the over 200 patients treated with NCT have been irradiated by reactor-produced neutrons, in the present climate of public opinion one cannot expect the routine use of nuclear reactors in hospitals or clinics to be tolerated. While there are several other methods of producing neutrons in the necessary quantities, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is very well placed to develop techniques base don spallation, in which a beam of protons hits a production target of some convenient material such as tungsten. Because spallation produces neutrons of very similar energies to reactors, the problem of moderating them to keV energies is rather similar. However, there is an additional component of high-energy neutrons, whose intensity depends on the energy of the initial beam, which has to be taken into account in any practical design. Simulations using the well-known codes LAHET, MCNP and GEANT show that a 100 (mu) A beam of 72 MeV protons, well within the capabilities of PSI, could produce enough keV neutrons for therapy.

  18. Relative biological effectiveness and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin for a potential combination of neutron capture therapy and fast-neutron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito; Nishimura, Ryohei; Sasaki, Nobuo; Saito, Isao; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the potential efficacy of fission neutrons from a fast-neutron reactor for the treatment of radioresistant tumors, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin were determined. The forelimbs of 34 healthy mongrel dogs received a single dose of fission neutrons (5.6, 6.8, 8.2, 9.6 or 11 Gy) or 137Cs gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gy). Based on observations of radiodermatitis for each radiation, the single-fraction RBE of fission neutrons in the sixth month was calculated as approximately 3. The tolerance doses of fission neutrons and gamma rays, defined as the highest doses giving no moist desquamation on the irradiated skin in the recovery phase, were estimated as 7.6 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The tolerance dose of 7.6 Gy of fission neutrons included 5.0 Gy of fast neutrons possessing high anti-tumor effects and 1.4 x 10(12) n/cm2 of thermal neutrons, which could be applicable to neutron capture therapy (NCT). The combination of fast-neutron therapy and NCT using a fast-neutron reactor might be useful for the treatment of radioresistant tumors.

  19. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.;

    2006-01-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  20. Application of adjoint Monte Carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R.L.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Van der Hagen, T.H.; Van Dam, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the adjoint transport theory in order to optimize Monte Carlo based radiotherapy treatment planning. The technique is applied to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy where most often mixed beams of neutrons and gammas are involved. In normal forward Monte Carlo simu

  1. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  2. Optimization of the geometry and composition of a neutron system for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Gheisari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of the treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT, an optimized neutron system was proposed. This study (simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry and composition of neutron system and increase the epithermal neutron flux for the treatment of deep tumors is performed. Materials and Methods: A neutron system for BNCT was proposed. The system included 252Cf neutron source, neutron moderator/reflector arrangement, filter and concrete. To capture fast neutrons, different neutron filters Fe, Pb, Ni and PbF2 with various thicknesses were simulated and studied. Li (with 1 mm thick was used for filtering of thermal neutrons. Bi with thickness of 1 cm was used to minimize the intensity of gamma rays. Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX 2.4.0 was used for design of the neutron system and calculation of the neutron components at the output port of the system. Results: For different thicknesses of the filters, the fast neutron flux, the epithermal and thermal flux were calculated at the output port of the system. The spatial distribution of the fast neutron flux, the epithermal flux and gamma flux in human head phantom with the presence of 40 ppm of 10B were obtained. The present calculations showed that Pb filter (about 1 cm at the output port is suitable for fast neutron capture. The thickness of Li filter was determined due to its high absorption cross-section in thermal region. Bi was used as a gamma filter by the reason of it is good for shielding gamma rays, while having high transmission epithermal neutrons. Conclusion: The epithermal neutron flux has enhanced about 38 percent at the output port of the present system, compared with recent system proposed by Ghassoun et al. At 2 cm depth inside the head phantom, the neutron flux reaches a maximum value about . At this depth, the ratio of the thermal neutron flux to the epithermal flux is about three times, that suggests such a neutron system to treat tumors in the

  3. Monte Carlo methods of neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S D; Choi, J R; Zamenhof, R G; Yanch, J C; Harling, O K

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods of coupled neutron/photon transport are being used in the design of filtered beams for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). This method of beam analysis provides segregation of each individual dose component, and thereby facilitates beam optimization. The Monte Carlo method is discussed in some detail in relation to NCT epithermal beam design. Ideal neutron beams (i.e., plane-wave monoenergetic neutron beams with no primary gamma-ray contamination) have been modeled both for comparison and to establish target conditions for a practical NCT epithermal beam design. Detailed models of the 5 MWt Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) together with a polyethylene head phantom have been used to characterize approximately 100 beam filter and moderator configurations. Using the Monte Carlo methodology of beam design and benchmarking/calibrating our computations with measurements, has resulted in an epithermal beam design which is useful for therapy of deep-seated brain tumors. This beam is predicted to be capable of delivering a dose of 2000 RBE-cGy (cJ/kg) to a therapeutic advantage depth of 5.7 cm in polyethylene assuming 30 micrograms/g 10B in tumor with a ten-to-one tumor-to-blood ratio, and a beam diameter of 18.4 cm. The advantage ratio (AR) is predicted to be 2.2 with a total irradiation time of approximately 80 minutes. Further optimization work on the MITR-II epithermal beams is expected to improve the available beams.

  4. Designing an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy for a DIDO type reactor using MCNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D.; Constantine, G.; Weaver, D. R.; Beynon, T. D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to design an epithermal neutron beam for a DIDO type reactor for use in boron neutron capture therapy, a form of cancer treatment. It involved extensive use of MCNP, a Monte Carlo computer code. Initially, calculations were made with MCNP to simulate earlier experiments with an epithermal beam on the DIDO reactor. This comparison made it possible both to validate the Monte Carlo modelling of the reactor and to gain an insight into the important features of the simulation. Following this, MCNP was used to design a filtered epithermal neutron beam facility for DIDO's largest beam tube, a 13.7 cm radius horizontal tube which extends radially away from the core. First a selection was made of the optimum filter components for the beam. Then the research concentrated on combining these filter elements to construct a practical epithermal beam design. The results suggest that the optimum method of generating the epithermal neutron source is to employ a filter combination consisting principally of liquid argon with the addition of cadmium, aluminium, titanium and possibly tin. The calculations also show that the resultant neutron beam would have a flux greater than 1.0 × 10 9 n cm -2 s -1 and have sufficiently low fast-neutron and gamma-ray contamination.

  5. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of `hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of carboranylmethylbenzo[b]acridones as novel agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A Filipa F; Seixas, Raquel S G R; Silva, Artur M S; Coimbra, Joana; Fernandes, Ana C; Santos, Joana P; Matos, António; Rino, José; Santos, Isabel; Marques, Fernanda

    2014-07-28

    Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of benzo[b]acridin-12(7H)-ones bearing carboranyl moieties and test their biological effectiveness as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents in cancer treatment. The cellular uptake of these novel compounds into the U87 human glioblastoma cells was evaluated by boron analysis (ICP-MS) and by fluorescence imaging (confocal microscopy). The compounds enter the U87 cells exhibiting a similar profile, i.e., preferential accumulation in the cytoskeleton and membranes and a low cytotoxic activity (IC50 values higher than 200 μM). The cytotoxic activity and cellular morphological alterations after neutron irradiation in the Portuguese Research Reactor (6.6 × 10(7) neutrons cm(-2) s(-1), 1 MW) were evaluated by the MTT assay and by electron microscopy (TEM). Post-neutron irradiation revealed that BNCT has a higher cytotoxic effect on the cells. Accumulation of membranous whorls in the cytoplasm of cells treated with one of the compounds correlates well with the cytotoxic effect induced by radiation. Results provide a strong rationale for considering one of these compounds as a lead candidate for a new generation of BNCT agents.

  7. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Kumada, H.; Shibata, Y.; Nose, T.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours.

  8. Spectrum evaluation at the filter-modified neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy in Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2004-10-01

    The Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR-HWNIF) was updated in March 1996, mainly to improve the facility for neutron capture therapy (NCT). In this facility, neutron beams with various energy spectra, from almost pure thermal to epithermal, are available. The evaluation of the neutron energy spectra by multi-activation-foil method was performed as a series of the facility characterization. The spectra at the normal irradiation position were evaluated for the combinations of heavy-water thickness of the spectrum shifter and the open-close condition of the cadmium and boral filters. The initial spectra were made mainly using a two-dimensional transport code, and the final spectra were obtained using an adjusting code. For the verification of the evaluated spectra, simulation calculations using a phantom were performed on the assumption of NCT-clinical-irradiation conditions. It resulted that the calculated data for the depth neutron-flux distributions were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Elshahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensions of the moderator and the reflector were optimized through optimization of epithermal / fast neutron intensity ratio as a function of geometric parameters of the setup. Results: The results of our calculation showed the capability of our setup to treat the tumor within 4 cm of the head surface. The calculated peak therapeutic ratio for the setup was found to be 2.15. Conclusion: With further improvement in the polyethylene moderator design and brain phantom irradiation arrangement, the setup capabilities can be improved to reach further deep-seated tumor.

  10. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  11. Development of the 50-Mev DTL for the Jaeri/Kek Joint Project

    CERN Document Server

    Naito, F; Kubota, C; Kato, T; Saitô, Y; Takasaki, E; Yamazaki, Y; Kobayashi, S; Sekikawa, K; Shibusawa, M; Kabeya, Zenzaburo; Tajiri, K; Kawasumi, T

    2000-01-01

    An Alvaretz-type DTL, to accelerate the H- ion beam from 3 to 50 MeV, is being constructed as the injector for the JAERI/KEK Joint Project. The following components of the DTL have been developed: (1) a cylindrical tank, made by copper electroforming; (2) rf contactors; (3) a pulse-excited quadrupole magnet with a hollow coil made by copper electroforming; (4) a switching-regulator-type pulsed-power supply for the quadrupole magnet. High-power tests of the components have been conducted using a short-model tank. Moreover a breakdown experiment of the copper electrodes has been carried out in order to study the properties of several kinds of copper materials.

  12. The development of an ECR charge breeder for KEK-JAERI joint RNB project

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, S C; Tojyo, E; Kawakami, H; Ishiyama, H; Miyatake, H; Enomoto, K; Watanabe, Y; Katayama, I; Nomura, T; Matsuda, M; Osa, A; Ichikawa, S

    2003-01-01

    For the construction of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder (CB) at KEK-JAERI radioactive nuclear beam facility, we have made a pilot charge breeding system consisting of two compact-sized ECR ion sources. In order to find the necessary conditions for an ECRCB with high efficiency, the charge breeding efficiency for Ar ions in nitrogen plasma has been measured and compared with the results from the simulation of the trajectories of the ions in the plasma. By explicitly taking into account the cumulative small angle scattering of charged ions as well as the confinement magnetic field of the pilot CB, the simulation predicts the stopping efficiency. This is defined as a probability that the injected ions are still within the plasma volume when their initial directional motions have become randomized. Incorporating the ionization efficiency for the ions, the overall breeding efficiency has been estimated. Finally, the characteristics of the ECRCB recently installed for tests at KEK is described.

  13. Search for unknown isotopes using the TIARA-ISOL and the JAERI-ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Masato [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 127}Pr and {sup 125}Pr, and the new neutron-rich isotopes {sup 166}Tb, {sup 165}Gd and {sup 161}Sm were identified using the TIARA-ISOL with {sup 36}Ar + {sup 92,94}Mo reactions, and the gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL with a proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U, respectively. The element-selective oxidation technique was used to reduce large contamination from isobars and molecular ions with production cross sections about one or two orders of magnitude as large as those of the new isotopes. The good signal-to-noise ratios achieved in the present measurements were essential to observe and identify weak X/{gamma} rays from the new isotopes. (author)

  14. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  15. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, the United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized

  16. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  17. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  18. Preclinical studies of neutron capture therapy effectiveness in the treatment of malignant tumours, at the nuclear reactor hvr-sm InP as of RUz Preclinical studies of neutron capture therapy effectiveness in the treatment of malignant tumours, at the nuclear reactor hvr-sm InP as of RUz

    OpenAIRE

    KHODJAEVA NAZIMA KHAYRULLAEVNA; NAVRUZOV SARIMBEK NAVRUZOVICH; KAHHOROV JAMAL NEMATOVICH; KULABDULLAEV GAYRAT ASATOVICH; КIM ANDREY ALEKSEEVICH

    2016-01-01

    Developed for treatment of radio resistant malignant tumors the Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is based on the nuclear capture and reactions that occur when 155Gd and 157Gd, which are non-radioactive constituents of natural elemental gadolinium, are irradiated by thermal neutrons with low energy, In this article, results of scientific researches on development GdNCT in Uzbekistan are presented. The beam of epithermal neutrons with characteristics satisfying the all requirements of...

  19. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the TRIGA Mark II of Pavia, Italy - The BNCT of the diffuse tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Gadan, M.A. [University of Pavia (Italy); INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, of Pavia (Italy)

    2008-10-29

    The selectivity based on the B distribution rather than on the irradiation field makes Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) a valid option for the treatment of the disseminated tumours. As the range of the high LET particles is shorter than a cell diameter, the normal cells around the tumour are not damaged by the reactions occurring in the tumoral cells. PAVIA 2001: first treatment of multiple hepatic metastases from colon ca by BNCT and auto-transplantation technique: TAOrMINA project. The liver was extracted after BPA infusion, irradiated in the Thermal Column of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II reactor, and re-implanted in the patient. Two patients were treated, demonstrating the feasibility of the therapy and the efficacy in destroying the tumoral nodules sparing the healthy tissues. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research are presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,{alpha}) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. The dose distribution in the thorax are simulated using MCNP and the anthropomorphic model ADAM. To have a good thermal flux distribution inside the lung epithermal neutrons must be used, which thermalize crossing the first tissue layers. Thermal neutrons do not penetrate and the obtained uniformity is poor. In the future, the construction of a PGNAA facility using a horizontal channel of the TRIGA Mark II is planned. With this method the B concentration can be measured also in liquid samples (blood, urine) and

  20. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of spontaneous nasal planum squamous cell carcinoma in felines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, María A; Itoiz, Maria E; Nigg, David W; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was successfully applied to treat experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa, with no damage to normal tissue. It was also shown that treating spontaneous nasal planum SCC in terminal feline patients with low dose BNCT is safe and feasible. In an extension of this work, the present study aimed at evaluation of the response of tumor and dose-limiting normal tissues to potentially therapeutic BNCT doses. Biodistribution studies with (10)B-boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in (10)B) as a (10)B carrier were performed on three felines that showed advanced nasal planum SCC without any standard therapeutic option. Following the biodistribution studies, BNCT mediated by (10)BPA was done using the thermalized epithermal neutron beam at the RA-6 Nuclear Reactor. Follow-up included clinical evaluation, assessment of macroscopic tumor and normal tissue response and biopsies for histopathological analysis. The treated animals did not show any apparent radiation-induced toxicity. All three animals exhibited partial tumor control and an improvement in clinical condition. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was associated with a high (10)B content of the tumor and a small tumor size. BNCT is therefore believed to be potentially effective in the treatment of spontaneous SCC. However, improvement in targeting (10)B into all tumor cells and delivering a sufficient dose at a greater depth are still required for the treatment of deep-seated, large tumors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of the dual mode cellular (e.g. BPA-BNCT) and vascular (e.g. GB-10-BNCT) targeting protocol in a preclinical scenario, employing combinations of (10)B compounds with different properties and complementary uptake mechanisms.

  2. Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.; Kashino, G.; Liu, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.

    2009-06-01

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), 275 clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been performed as of March 2006, and the effectiveness of BNCT has been revealed. In order to further develop BNCT, it is desirable to supply accelerator-based epithermal-neutron sources that can be installed near the hospital. We proposed the method of filtering and moderating fast neutrons, which are emitted from the reaction between a beryllium target and 30-MeV protons accelerated by a cyclotron accelerator, using an optimum moderator system composed of iron, lead, aluminum and calcium fluoride. At present, an epithermal-neutron source is under construction from June 2008. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator, beam transport system, neutron-yielding target, filter, moderator and irradiation bed. In this article, an overview of this system and the properties of the treatment neutron beam optimized by the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code are presented. The distribution of biological effect weighted dose in a head phantom compared with that of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is shown. It is confirmed that for the accelerator, the biological effect weighted dose for a deeply situated tumor in the phantom is 18% larger than that for KUR, when the limit dose of the normal brain is 10 Gy-eq. The therapeutic time of the cyclotron-based neutron sources are nearly one-quarter of that of KUR. The cyclotron-based epithermal-neutron source is a promising alternative to reactor-based neutron sources for treatments by BNCT.

  3. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo or mutant-type (SAS/mp53 p53 was examined. Methods Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. Results When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. Conclusion These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners.

  4. NOTE: Computational study of the required dimensions for standard sized phantoms in boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunoro, H.; Auterinen, I.; Kosunen, A.; Kotiluoto, P.; Seppälä, T.; Savolainen, S.

    2003-11-01

    The minimum size of a water phantom used for calibration of an epithermal neutron beam of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at the VTT FiR 1 research reactor is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The criteria for the size of the phantom were established relative to the neutron and photon radiation fields present at the thermal neutron fluence maximum in the central beam axis (considered as the reference point). At the reference point, for the most commonly used beam aperture size at FiR 1 (14 cm diameter), less than 1% disturbance of the neutron and gamma radiation fields in a phantom were achieved with a minimum a 30 cm × 30 cm cross section of the phantom. For the largest 20 cm diameter beam aperture size, a minimum 40 cm × 40 cm cross-section of the phantom and depth of 20 cm was required to achieve undisturbed radiation field. This size can be considered as the minimum requirement for a reference phantom for dosimetry at FiR 1. The secondary objective was to determine the phantom dimensions for full characterization of the FiR 1 beam in a rectangular water phantom. In the water scanning phantom, isodoses down to the 5% level are measured for the verifications of the beam model in the dosimetric and treatment planning calculations. The dose distribution results without effects caused by the limited phantom size were achieved for the maximum aperture diameter (20 cm) with a 56 cm × 56 cm × 28 cm rectangular phantom. A similar approach to study the required minimum dimensions of the reference and water scanning phantoms can be used for epithermal neutron beams at the other BNCT facilities.

  5. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  6. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB(0,+) became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20-25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB(0,+), respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB(0,+), as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose.

  7. Midazolam as an adjunctive therapy for capture myopathy in Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) with prognostic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Janelle M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Battley, Phil F.

    2011-01-01

    Capture myopathy is a complication of capture and handling in many species of birds and mammals. Muscular necrosis leads to ataxia, paralysis, and pain, whereas metabolic disturbances can result in death. We conducted an opportunistic clinical trial on Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) th

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme using p-boronophenylalanine and epithermal neutrons: trial design and early clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, J A; Elowitz, E H; Chadha, M; Bergland, R; Capala, J; Joel, D D; Liu, H B; Slatkin, D N; Chanana, A D

    1997-05-01

    A Phase I/II clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme is underway using the amino acid analog p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and the epithermal neutron beam at the Brook-haven Medical Research Reactor. Biodistribution studies were carried out in 18 patients at the time of craniotomy using an i.v. infusion of BPA, solubilized as a fructose complex (BPA-F). There were no toxic effects related to the BPA-F administration at doses of 130, 170, 210, or 250 mg BPA/kg body weight. The tumor/ blood, brain/blood and scalp/blood boron concentration ratios were approximately 3.5:1, 1:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Ten patients have received BNCT following 2-hr infusions of 250 mg BPA/kg body weight. The average boron concentration in the blood during the irradiation was 13.0 +/- 1.5 micrograms 10B/g. The prescribed maximum dose to normal brain (1 cm3 volume) was 10.5 photon-equivalent Gy (Gy-Eq). Estimated maximum and minimum doses (mean +/- sd, n = 10) to the tumor volume were 52.6 +/- 4.9 Gy-Eq (range: 64.4-47.6) and 25.2 +/- 4.2 Gy-Eq (range: 32.3-20.0), respectively). The estimated minimum dose to the target volume (tumor +2 cm margin) was 12.3 +/- 2.7 Gy-Eq (range: 16.2-7.8). There were no adverse effects on normal brain. The scalp showed mild erythema, followed by epilation in the 8 cm diameter field. Four patients developed recurrent tumor, apparently in the lower dose (deeper) regions of the target volume, at post-BNCT intervals of 7,5,3.5 and 3 months, respectively. The remaining patients have had less than 4 months of post-BNCT follow-up. BNCT, at this starting dose level, appears safe. Plans are underway to begin the dose escalation phase of this protocol.

  9. Radiation injury of boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageji, T. E-mail: kageji@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Nagahiro, S.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Toi, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiation injury in acute or delayed stage after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma. Eighteen patients with malignant glioma underwent mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beam and sodium borocaptate between 1998 and 2004. The radiation dose (i.e. physical dose of boron n-alpha reaction) in the protocol used between 1998 and 2000 (Protocol A, n=8) prescribed a maximum tumor volume dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a new dose-escalated protocol was introduced (Protocol B, n=4); it prescribes a minimum tumor volume dose of 18 Gy or, alternatively, a minimum target volume dose of 15 Gy. Since 2002, the radiation dose was reduced to 80-90% dose of Protocol B because of acute radiation injury. A new Protocol was applied to 6 glioblastoma patients (Protocol C, n=6). The average values of the maximum vascular dose of brain surface in Protocol A, B and C were 11.4{+-}4.2 Gy, 15.7{+-}1.2 and 13.9{+-}3.6 Gy, respectively. Acute radiation injury such as a generalized convulsion within 1 week after BNCT was recognized in three patients of Protocol B. Delayed radiation injury such as a neurological deterioration appeared 3-6 months after BNCT, and it was recognized in 1 patient in Protocol A, 5 patients in Protocol B. According to acute radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 15.8{+-}1.3 Gy in positive and was 12.6{+-}4.3 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. According to the delayed radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 13.8{+-}3.8 Gy in positive and was 13.6{+-}4.9 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. The dose escalation is limited because most patients in Protocol B suffered from acute radiation injury. We conclude that the maximum vascular dose does not exceed over 12 Gy to avoid the delayed radiation injury, especially, it should be limited under 10 Gy in the case that tumor

  10. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  11. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  12. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  13. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  14. Optimum design and criticality safety of a beam-shaping assembly with an accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier for boron neutron capture therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, F

    2015-12-01

    The beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapies with a compact accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier was designed so that an epithermal neutron flux of 1.9×10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) at the treatment position was generated by 5 MeV protons in a beam current of 2 mA. Changes in the atomic density of (135)Xe in the nuclear fuel due to the operation of the beam-shaping assembly were estimated. The criticality safety of the beam-shaping assembly in terms of Xe poisoning is discussed.

  15. A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Fauziah; Andang Widiharto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2015-01-01

    Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each ...

  16. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Sørensen, P G; Björkdahl, O; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-03-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and chemical assays and reveal profound changes in surface chemistry and structural characteristics. In vitro thermal neutron irradiation of B16 melanoma cells incubated with sub-100 nm nanoparticles (381.5 microg/g (10)B) induces complete cell death. The nanoparticles alone induce no toxicity.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  19. A concept of JAERI passive safety light water reactor system (JPSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, Y.; Araya, F.; Iwamura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor system concept, JPSR, which was developed for reducing manpower in operation and maintenance and influence of human errors on reactor safety. In the concept the system was extremely simplified. The inherent matching nature of core generation and heat removal rate within a small volume change of the primary coolant is introduced by eliminating chemical shim and adopting in-vessel control rod drive mechanism units, a low power density core and once-through steam generators. In order to simplify the system, a large pressurizer, canned pumps, passive engineered-safety-features-system (residual heat removal system and coolant injection system) are adopted and the total system can be significantly simplified. The residual heat removal system is completely passively actuated in non-LOCAs and is also used for depressurization of the primary coolant system to actuate accumulators in small break LOCAs and reactor shutdown cooling system in normal operation. All of systems for nuclear steam supply system are built in the containment except for the air coolers as a the final heat sink of the passive residual heat removal system. Accordingly the reliability of the safety system and the normal operation system is improved, since most of residual heat removal system is always working and a heat sink for normal operation system is {open_quotes}safety class{close_quotes}. In the passive coolant injection system, depressurization of the primary cooling system by residual heat removal system initiates injection from accumulators designed for the MS-600 in medium pressure and initiates injection from the gravity driven coolant injection pool at low pressure. Analysis with RETRAN-02/MOD3 code demonstrated the capability of passive load-following, self-power-controllability, cooling and depressurization.

  20. Experimental test plan: USDOE/JAERI collaborative program for the coated particle fuel performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fukuda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the coated-particle fuel performance test agreed to under Annex 2 of the arrangement between the US Department of Energy and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on cooperation in research and development regarding high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The test will evaluate the behavior of reference fuel compacts containing coated-particle fuels fabricated according to the specifications for the US Modular HTGR and the Japanese High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) concepts. Two experimental capsules, HRB-21 and HRB-22, are being tested. Capsule HRB-21 contains only US reference fuel, and HRB-22 contains only JAERI reference fuel. Both capsules will be irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Capsule HRB-21 will be operated at a mean volumetric fuel temperature of 975{degrees}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) and a fast fluence of {le}4.5 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. Capsule HRB-22 will be operated at a mean centerline fuel temperature of 1250 to 1300{degrees}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 5.5% FIMA and a fast fluence of 1.7 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. Performance of the fuels during irradiation will be closely monitored using on-line fission gas surveillance. Following irradiation, both capsules will undergo detailed examinations and core heatup simulation testing. Results from in-reactor monitoring and postirradiation testing will be analyzed to comparatively assess US and Japanese coated-particle fuel performance. 3 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors. Technical progress report No. 1, May 1, 1990--January 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.

    1990-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy offers the potentiality for treating brain tumors currently resistant to treatment. The success of this form of therapy is directly dependent upon the delivery of sufficient numbers of thermal-neutrons to tumor cells which possess high concentrations of B-10. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methodology to synthesize boron-containing compounds with the potential for becoming incorporated into rapidly-dividing malignant brain tumor cells and excluded from normal components of the brain and surrounding tissues, to develope biological methods for assessing the potential of the compound by use of cell culture or intratumoral injection, to develop analytical methodology for measuring boron in cells and tissue using direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) and alpha track autoradiography, to develop biochemical and HPLC procedures for evaluating compound uptake and tissue half-life, and to develop procedures required to assess both in vitro and vivo efficacy of BNCT with selected compounds.

  2. Characterisation of neutron and gamma-ray emission from thick target Be(p,n) reaction for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzek, J.; Mateva, T.; Tapper, U.A.S. [De Beers Diamond Res. Lab., Southdale (South Africa); McMurray, W.R. [National Accelerator Centre, Van de Graaff Group, P.O. Box 72, Faure 7131 (South Africa); Franklyn, C.B. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1998-04-01

    Low energy accelerator-based neutron sources have promising potential for use in a clinical treatment of cancer with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS). Such sources often utilise a thick target Be(p,n) reaction using incident proton energies from several hundred keV to 1-2 MeV above the reaction threshold of 2.06 MeV. The resulting neutron and gamma-ray beams require considerable moderation and filtration in order to obtain thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes for therapy. The detailed knowledge of neutron and gamma-ray spectra, yield and angular distribution are necessary in order to design effective moderators and filters to be used for the treatment. Thick and thin beryllium target neutron and gamma spectra have been investigated in detail using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique, for incident proton energies from above threshold to 4 MeV. The results show characteristics of neutron and gamma-ray production of importance for the application of this neutron source for BNCT and BNCS. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Microanalysis system of ppm-order 10B concentrations in tissue for neutron capture therapy by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    For neutron capture therapy, a new technique for measuring 10B concentrations of ppm order in tissue has been developed by using 10B(n, α) 7Li ∗ prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. The measuring system consists of a Ge(Li) detector and a 6LiF tile neutron shield attached to the neutron guide tube of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) with very low background gamma-rays. The 10B concentrations of unknown samples were determined in comparison with gamma-ray data obtained from known samples. The detection limit of the system is 0.1-0.5 ppm 10B concentration. In the practical use of the system for neutron capture therapy, 10B concentrations of 10 ppm, which is ordinarily pre-injected into the tumor, can be measured in less than 30 s with 10% accuracy by using 1 g samples. Moreover, the system has the advantage that pre-treatment of the sample is not required. As a neutron monitor in a homogeneous sample, gamma-rays emitted from H(n, γ)D reactions are used. Therefore, neutron irradiation conditions of this system, i.e. fluence rate, energy spectrum, and distribution in the sample do not affect the analyzing results, and the quantity and dimensions of the sample are also not restricted.

  4. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  5. Development of an optical fiber type detector using a Eu:LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator for neutron monitoring in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi, E-mail: k-watanabe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Kawabata, Yuya; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro [Tokuyama Corp., 1-1 Mikage-cho, Shunan-shi, Yamaguchi, 745-8648 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0192 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a small neutron detector probe as a thermal neutron flux monitor for boron neutron capture therapy. The detector consists of an optical fiber and a small Eu:LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator. In order to improve neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability, we use the small-size scintillator, whose size is controlled to be smaller than fast electron range produced by gamma-rays and larger than the range of charged particles induced by {sup 6}Li(n,t) reactions. We confirmed the improved neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability by comparing the detector responses between a small-size scintillator and a slab one. We also evaluated the neutron sensitivity of the fabricated optical fiber type neutron detector to be 2×10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}.

  6. Monitoring the distribution of prompt gamma rays in boron neutron capture therapy using a multiple-scattering Compton camera: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Hyounggun; Lee, Wonho, E-mail: wonhol@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-21

    This study evaluated the use of Compton imaging technology to monitor prompt gamma rays emitted by {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applied to a computerized human phantom. The Monte Carlo method, including particle-tracking techniques, was used for simulation. The distribution of prompt gamma rays emitted by the phantom during irradiation with neutron beams is closely associated with the distribution of the boron in the phantom. Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was applied to the information obtained from the detected prompt gamma rays to reconstruct the distribution of the tumor including the boron uptake regions (BURs). The reconstructed Compton images of the prompt gamma rays were combined with the cross-sectional images of the human phantom. Quantitative analysis of the intensity curves showed that all combined images matched the predetermined conditions of the simulation. The tumors including the BURs were distinguishable if they were more than 2 cm apart.

  7. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  8. Improved methods for the generation of 24.5 keV neutron beams with possible application to boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G.; Baker, L. J.; Taylor, N. P.

    1986-09-01

    The production of epithermal neutron beams, filtered to provide a spectrum in which a small energy range predominates, is of importance for radiobiological research and in the development and calibration of instruments for monitoring intermediate energy neutrons. The penetration characteristics of intermediate energy neutrons in tissue lead to the possibility of application in the field of neutron capture therapy if beams of sufficient intensity and adequate spectral properties can be generated. In this paper methods of utilising the 24.5 keV antiresonance in the iron neutron cross section are described, and the DENIS (depth enhanced neutron intense source) principle by which beam intensities may be optimised is explained. Calculations and experimental measurements in an in-core facility in the DIDO reactor at Harwell have indicated that a DENIS scatterer can achieve a 6-fold improvement in 24.5 keV beam intensity compared with a conventional titanium disc scatterer.

  9. A conceptual design of a beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapy based on deuterium-tritium neutron generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Guido; Abrahantes, Arian

    2004-05-01

    A conceptual design of a beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapy using deuterium-tritium accelerator based neutrons source is developed. Calculations based on a simple geometry model for the radiation transport are initially performed to estimate the assembly materials and their linear dimensions. Afterward, the assembly geometry is produced, optimized and verified. In order to perform these calculations the general-purpose MCNP code is used. Irradiation time and therapeutic gain are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation. In the present beam-shaping assembly proposal, the therapeutic gain is improved by 23% and the accelerator current required for a fixed irradiation period is reduced by six times compared to previous proposals based on the same D-T reaction.

  10. Quantitative bioimaging of p-boronophenylalanine in thin liver tissue sections as a tool for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifschneider, Olga; Schütz, Christian L; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hampel, Gabriele; Ross, Tobias; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed and applied to assess enrichment of 10B-containing p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) and its pharmacokinetic distribution in human tissues after application for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). High spatial resolution (50 μm) and limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range were achieved using a Nd:YAG laser of 213 nm wavelength. External calibration by means of 10B-enriched standards based on whole blood proved to yield precise quantification results. Using this calibration method, quantification of 10B in cancerous and healthy tissue was carried out. Additionally, the distribution of 11B was investigated, providing 10B enrichment in the investigated tissues. Quantitative imaging of 10B by means of LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated as a new option to characterise the efficacy of boron compounds for BNCT.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanostructured materials with potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging, neutron-capture therapy and targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F., E-mail: ghanotakis@chemistry.uoc.g [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Two Gadolinium nanostructured materials, Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} nanoparticles and Gd(OH){sub 3} nanorods, were synthesized and extensively characterized by various techniques. In addition to the potential use of Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) application, it could also be used in targeted drug delivery. An antibiotic (nalidixic acid), two amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid), a fatty acid and a surfactant (SDS) were intercalated in the nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic acid in order to be capable of targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing sites, such as tumor human cells.

  12. Folate receptor-mediated boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for boron neutron capture therapy of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Congxin; Cai, Feng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Zhou, Yongmao; Zhang, Zizhu; Liu, Xiaohai; Ma, Sihai; Yang, Yakun; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Bao, Xinjie; Li, Guilin; Wei, Junji; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2013-02-01

    Invasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are difficult to completely resect and often develop tumor recurrence after initial surgery. Currently, no medications are clinically effective in the control of NFPA. Although radiation therapy and radiosurgery are useful to prevent tumor regrowth, they are frequently withheld because of severe complications. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy that selectively and maximally damages tumor cells without harming the surrounding normal tissue. Folate receptor (FR)-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles is a novel boron delivery agent that can be selectively taken up by FR-expressing cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. In this study, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles were selectively taken up by NFPAs cells expressing FR but not other types of non-FR expressing pituitary adenomas. After incubation with boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles and following irradiation with thermal neutrons, the cell viability of NFPAs was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were simultaneously increased. However, cells administered the same dose of FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles without neutron irradiation or received the same neutron irradiation alone did not show significant decrease in cell viability or increase in apoptotic cells. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated and the expression of Bax was up-regulated in NFPAs after treatment with FR-mediated BNCT. In conclusion, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles may be an ideal delivery system of boron to NFPAs cells for BNCT. Furthermore, our study also provides a novel insight into therapeutic strategies for invasive NFPA refractory to conventional therapy, while exploring these new applications of BNCT for tumors, especially benign tumors.

  13. Sensitivity studies of beam directionality, beam size, and neutron spectrum for a fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Kiger, W S; Harling, O K

    1999-09-01

    Sensitivity studies of epithermal neutron beam performance in boron neutron capture therapy are presented for realistic neutron beams with varying filter/moderator and collimator/delimiter designs to examine the relative importance of neutron beam spectrum, directionality, and size. Figures of merit for in-air and in-phantom beam performance are calculated via the Monte Carlo technique for different well-optimized designs of a fission converter-based epithermal neutron beam with head phantoms as the irradiation target. It is shown that increasing J/phi, a measure of beam directionality, does not always lead to corresponding monotonic improvements in beam performance. Due to the relatively low significance, for most configurations, of its effect on in-phantom performance and the large intensity losses required to produce beams with very high J/phi, beam directionality should not be considered an important figure of merit in epithermal neutron beam design except in terms of its consequences on patient positioning and collateral dose. Hardening the epithermal beam spectrum, while maintaining the specific fast neutron dose well below the inherent hydrogen capture dose, improves beam penetration and advantage depth and, as a desirable by-product, significantly increases beam intensity. Beam figures of merit are shown to be strongly dependent on beam size relative to target size. Beam designs with J/phi approximately 0.65-0.7, specific fast neutron doses of 2-2.6x10(-13) Gy cm2/n and beam sizes equal to or larger than the size of the head target produced the deepest useful penetration, highest therapeutic ratios, and highest intensities.

  14. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  15. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  16. Design of a rotating facility for extracorporal treatment of an explanted liver with disseminated metastases by boron neutron capture therapy with an epithermal neutron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L; Kloosterman, J L; van der Hagen, T H J J; van Dam, H; Wittig, A; Malago, M; Sauerwein, W

    2006-07-01

    In 2001, at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia (Italy), a patient suffering from diffuse liver metastases from an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid was successfully treated by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedure involved boron infusion prior to hepatectomy, irradiation of the explanted liver at the thermal column of the reactor, and subsequent reimplantation. A complete response was observed. This encouraging outcome stimulated the Essen/Petten BNCT group to investigate whether such an extracorporal irradiation could be performed at the BNCT irradiation facility at the HFR Petten (The Netherlands), which has very different irradiation characteristics than the Pavia facility. A computational study has been carried out. A rotating PMMA container with a liver, surrounded by PMMA and graphite, is simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Due to the rotation and neutron moderation of the PMMA container, the initial epithermal neutron beam provides a nearly homogeneous thermal neutron field in the liver. The main conditions for treatment as reported from the Pavia experiment, i.e. a thermal neutron fluence of 4 x 10(12) +/- 20% cm(-2), can be closely met at the HFR in an acceptable time, which, depending on the defined conditions, is between 140 and 180 min.

  17. The medical-irradiation characteristics for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    At the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, the mix irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, and the solo irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons are available additionally to the thermal neutron irradiation, and then the neutron capture therapy (NCT) at this facility became more flexible, after the update in 1996. The estimation of the depth dose distributions in NCT clinical irradiation, were performed for the standard irradiation modes of thermal, mixed and epi-thermal neutrons, from the both sides of experiment and calculation. On the assumption that the 10B concentration in tumor part was 40 ppm and the ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 3.5, the advantage depth were estimated to 5.4, 6.0, and 8.0, for the respective standard irradiation modes. It was confirmed that the various irradiation conditions can be selected according to the target-volume conditions, such as size, depth, etc. Besides, in the viewpoint of the radiation shielding for patient, it was confirmed that the whole-body exposure is effectively reduced by the new clinical collimators, compared with the old one.

  18. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  19. Design calculations of an epithermal neutron beam and development of a treatment planning system for the renovation of thor for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y-W H.; Teng, Y.H.; Liao, M.Z. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Department of Engineering and System Science, Taiwan (China)

    2000-10-01

    Tsing Hua University was recently granted by National Science Council a five-year project to renovate its Open-Pool reactor (THOR) for boron neutron capture therapy. With this support, the whole graphite blocks in the original thermal column region can be removed for redesigning and constructing a better epithermal neutron beam. THOR is a 1 MW research reactor. The cross section area of the core facing the thermal column is 60 cm x 50 cm. By using 60 cm FLUENTAL plus 10 cm Pb, with cross section area of 70 cm x 60 cm and surrounded by 6 cm thick PbF{sub 2} reflector, the epithermal neutron flux at the filter/moderator exit can reach {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}/s. When the collimator is added, the epithermal neutron beam intensity at the beam exit is reduced to 3 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}/sec, but is still six times higher than the previous beam. Facing the clinical trials scheduled 3 and half years from now, a preliminary version of treatment planning system is developed. It includes a pre-processor to read CT scan and post-processors to display dose distributions. (author)

  20. Monte-Carlo simulation of primary stochastic effects induced at the cellular level in boron neutron capture therapy; Simulation Monte-Carlo des effets stochastiques primaires induits au niveau cellulaire lors de la therapie par capture de neutrons sur le {sup 10}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P.; Nepveu, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1998-04-01

    A Monte Carlo code is developed to study the action of particles in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Our aim is to calculate the probability of dissipating a lethal dose in cell nuclei. Cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes are considered as non-concentric ellipsoids. All geometrical parameters may be adjusted to fit actual configurations. The reactions {sup 10}B(n,{gamma} {alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 14}N(n,p) {sup 14}C create heavy ions which slow clown losing their energy. Their trajectories can be simulated taking into account path length straggling. The contribution of each reaction to the deposited dose in different cellular compartments can be studied and analysed for any distribution of {sup 10}B. (authors)

  1. A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fauziah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni as collimator wall, 60 cm thick of Al as moderator, 15 cm thick of 60Ni as filter, 2 cm thick of Bi as γ-ray shielding, 3 cm thick of 6Li2CO3-polyethylene as beam delimiter, with 1 to 5 cm varied aperture size, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 7.65 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 1.76 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1 and 1.32 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.008, and maximum directionality of 0.73. It did not fully pass the IAEA’s criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. When it was assumed that the graphite inside the thermal column was not discharged but only the part which was going to be replaced by the collimator, the performance of the collimator became better within the positive effect from the surrounding graphite that the beam resulted passed all criteria with epithermal neutron flux up to 1.68 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Keywords: design, collimator, epithermal neutron beam, BNCT, MCNP, criteria   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang desain kolimator yang menghasilkan radiasi netron epitermal untuk uji in vitro dan in vivo pada Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT di Reaktor Riset Kartini dengan menggunakan program Monte

  2. Current status of the production and research of radioisotopes in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hidetake [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Status of the radioisotope production and application in Japan is described, emphasizing that of reactor-produced radioisotopes for medicine. Some new application of reactor-produced radioisotopes to therapy are discussed together with those of positron emitters for medicine and plant physiology. (author)

  3. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 2000 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories, i.e., Radiation Risk analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement, in Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose equivalent and radioactive concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. 10th International Conference of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was held in May in 2000, and lots of cooperative activities for supporting the conference, such as presentations, attending the organizing or executive committees, etc. were made. Cooperative works concerning measurement of radiation dose and air concentration of large amount of monazite found in Saitama and Nagano prefectures were carried out and also for advice for the measures. The data such as radioactive air concentration or shielding factors obtained by the research and development for internal dosimetry and external dosimetry was adopted in the prescriptions of the regulations concerning prevention from radiation hazard in Japan. (author)

  4. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 1999. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 1999 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories for Radiation Risk Analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement which were authorized in Department of Health Physics in Tokai Establishment in April 1999. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose equivalent and radioactive concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. In September 30 in 1999, the JCO criticality accident occurred in Tokai village and the Department of Health Physics of Tokai Establishment, Radiation Protection Division of Oarai Establishment and Safety Division of Naka Establishment took cooperative activities for surveying the level of radiation and radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection in terminating the criticality, sending specialists for the consultant of radiation protection to local government and others, surveying the radioactive contamination of the evacuated public, play ground of schools and others. The estimations of dose for the public and total fissions from the measurement of neutron activated samples collected near JCO were carried out at External Dosimetry Laboratory and Calibration Standards and Measurement Division respectively in Department of Health Physics of Tokai Establishment. (author)

  5. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 2001. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 2001 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories, i.e., Radiation Risk Analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement, in the Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose and radioactivity concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. As for the R and D activities at the Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment, studies were conducted focusing mainly on the themes concerning elucidation of low-dose radiation effect and radiation risk assessment, dose estimations and radiation protection on external and internal exposures for high-energy accelerator utilization, and establishment of neutron calibration fields using an accelerator and the measurement techniques related to their traceability. (author)

  6. Irradiation facility for boron neutron capture therapy application based on a rf-driven D-T neutron source and a new beam shaping assembly (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Leung, K. N.

    2002-02-01

    Selecting the best neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires optimizing neutron beam parameters. This involves solving many complex problems. Safety issues related to the use of nuclear reactor in hospital environments, as well as lower costs have led to interest in the development of accelerator-driven neutron sources. The BNCT research programs at the Nuclear Departments of Pisa and Genova Universities (DIMNP and DITEC) focus on studies of new concepts for accelerator-based DT neutron sources. Simple and compact accelerator designs using relatively low deuteron beam energy, ˜100 keV, have been developed which, in turn, can generate high neutron yields. New studies have been started for optimization of moderator materials for the 14.1 MeV DT neutrons. Our aim is to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for therapeutic application at the exit end, with minimal beam intensity losses, the specific goal is to achieve an epithermal neutron flux of at least of 1×109 n/cm2 s at the beam port, with low gamma and fast neutron dose contamination. According to the most recent neutron BNCT beam parameters some moderating and spectrum shifter materials and geometrical configurations have thus far been tested, and neutron and gamma beam data at beam port have been computed. A possible beam shaping assembly model has been designed. This research demonstrates that a DT neutron source could be successfully implemented for BNCT application, with performance surpassing the minimum requirements stated above, using DT neutron sources with yields in the range 1013-1014 n/s. The latest Monte Carlo simulation results of an accelerator based facility which relies on a rf-driven DT fusion neutron generator will be presented.

  7. Improvement of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by the previous administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, M; Rodríguez, C; Carpano, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Kahl, S; Pisarev, M; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa, A

    2013-08-01

    We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) like sodium butyrate (NaB) cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and show capacity to increase the gamma irradiation effect. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the use of the NaB as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT for PDTC. Follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO) and rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were incubated with 1 mM NaB and then treated with boronophenylalanine ¹⁰BPA (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with 2, 4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ¹⁰BOPP (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with a neutron beam alone. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10¹⁰ n cm⁻² s⁻¹). Cell survival decreased as a function of the physical absorbed dose in both cell lines. Moreover, the addition of NaB decreased cell survival (p < 0.05) in WRO cells incubated with both boron compounds. NaB increased the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic cells in both BNCT groups (p < 0.05). An accumulation of cells in G2/M phase at 24 h was observed for all the irradiated groups and the addition of NaB increased this percentage. Biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) 24 h after NaB injection were performed. The in vivo studies showed that NaB treatment increases the amount of boron in the tumor at 2-h post-BPA injection (p < 0.01). We conclude that NaB could be used as a radiosensitizer for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma by BNCT.

  8. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  9. Effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Liu, Y; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Kinashi, Y; Ono, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by measuring the response of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours received reactor thermal neutron beam irradiation following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)] in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results BPA-BNCT increased the sensitivity of the total tumour cell population more than BSH-BNCT. However, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. With or without a 10B–carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Without irradiation, nicotinamide treatment decreased the number of lung metastases. With irradiation, BPA-BNCT, especially in combination with nicotinamide treatment, showed the potential to reduce the number of metastases more than BSH-BNCT. Conclusion BSH-BNCT in combination with MTH improves local tumour control, while BPA-BNCT in combination with nicotinamide may reduce the number of lung metastases. PMID:22391496

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-11

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  11. Phase II clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray radiotherapy/temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme-Study design and current status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shinji, E-mail: neu046@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Hirota, Yuki; Miyata, Shiro; Takekita, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8931 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, we reported our clinical experiences of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The major differences of our protocol from the other past studies were simultaneous use of both sodium borocapate and boronophenylalanine, and combination with fractionated X-ray irradiation. These results showed the efficacy of combination therapy with external beam X-ray irradiation and BNCT. For our future study, we planned the multi-centric phase II clinical study for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients in Japan (OSAKA-TRIBRAIN0902, NCT00974987).

  12. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  13. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  14. Proceeding of the workshop on the results of the cooperative research between JAERI and CHESCIR concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Saito, Kimiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This workshop was organized and sponsored by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR). JAERI and CHESCIR have conducted 8 years research cooperation from 1992 to 1999 concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system, focusing on the Chernobyl contaminated area. It contained 3 research subjects. Subject-1 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after nuclear accident. Subject-2 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on the validation of assessment models in an environmental consequence assessment methodology for nuclear accidents. Subject-3 initiated at 1995 and focused on the study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accidents. This workshop was held to summarize the research cooperation between JAERI and CHESCIR, and to discuss future research needs in this field. (author)

  15. Environmental monitoring data around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant used in the cooperative research project between JAERI and CHESCIR (Ukraine). Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Takashi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tkachenko, Yuri; Kovalyov, Alexandr; Sukhoruchkin, Andrei; Derevets, Varely [The State Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control (Ukraine)

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the shared data derived from the environmental monitoring by RADEK (The state Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control of Ukraine) and the record of environmental characteristics derived from field observations during a research project (1992-1999) between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CHESCIR (Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research). The compiled data in this report are especially related to one particular research subject (Subject-3) of the project on the migration of radionuclides released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments after a nuclear accident. The present report shows the basis of published works concerning Subject-3. (author)

  16. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  17. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  18. Proceedings of the seminar on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. 'Actinide researches for 21st century - fusion between chemistry and engineering'. August 20-21, 1999, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The Seminar on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities was held in Tokai, August 20-21, 1999, to discuss future perspectives of the actinide researches for the nuclear fuel cycle. The papers related to the Joint Research Project on the Backend Chemistry were presented and discussed. The present report complies the papers contributed to the Seminar. (author)

  19. JAERI's contribution to the IAEA coordinated research programme on assuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels' (CRP-IV). Final report (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizawa, Kunio; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-05-01

    According to the Research Agreement No. 9736 between the IAEA and the JAERI, we commenced the test program for the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Assuring Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels' at JAERI in September 1997. For the program, we received one block of the IAEA reference material JRQ from the IAEA CRP coordinator in June 1997. The test program has been conducted using the JRQ block and additional materials (Steels A and B) from our own program having a similar object with the CRP. The CRP consists of two parts; a mandatory part and an optional part. For the mandatory part of the JAERI program, instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests using precracked Charpy-v (PCCv) specimens were performed. As the optional part, neutron irradiation to specimens of JRQ was conducted at JMTR by using two capsules. In this report, the results of the mandatory part and irradiated Charpy and PCCv specimens of JRQ from capsule No.1 as well as those of Steel A and Steel B were described. The following conclusions were drawn; (1) the data form Charpy impact and fracture toughness tests of JRQ agreed well with the data in the CRP-3, (2) the scatter of fracture toughness of JRQ is relatively large, i. e., the Weibull slope 'b' is less than 3, (3) the reference temperature T{sub 0} from PCCv is in good agreement with T{sub 0} from 1T-Compact Tension (CT) when the tests are performed at the recommended temperature or the data has no invalid data, (4) the reference temperature T{sub 0} after neutron irradiation can be determined with six to eight specimens at the recommended temperature and (5) the shift of the reference temperature T{sub 0} is almost equivalent to the shift of Charpy transition temperature, but affected by the treatment of the highest data and testing temperature. Further studies on the fracture toughness evaluation are necessary concerning the treatment of outlier, temperature dependence after

  20. Field test of nuclide migration in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. Cooperative research program on field migration test between CIRP and JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhiwen; Cui Anxi; Gu Cunli [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    A field test was jointly conducted by China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to explore moisture movement with Br{sup -} and migration of radioactive tracer {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 90}Sr in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. The test ran under two rainfall conditions, the artificial rainfall with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d and 5 mm/hr, and the natural rainfall. Tracing test of Br{sup -} implies that there does have water going through the bentonite specimen. However, the curves are very complex and further work need be conducted to quantify this movement. {sup 238}Pu has no observable movement during the test period under either rainfall conditions, and {sup 237}Np has very short movement dominated by diffusion. Bentonite-based materials are effective to retard nuclide migration. (author)

  1. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours.

  2. The use of central laboratories and remote electronic data capture to risk-adjust therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Devidas, Meenakshi; London, Wendy B.; Anderson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is a National Cancer Institute sponsored cooperative clinical trials group with the primary mission of conducting pediatric cancer clinical trials. COG has complex risk classification systems that are used to deliver risk-stratified therapy for many pediatric cances, including clinical trials for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and Neuroblastoma (NB). Classification of patients is based on biological, clinical, and genomic data obtained at initial diagno...

  3. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  4. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: boron biodistribution study in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Abramson, David B; Bumaguin, Gaston E; Bruno, Leandro J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Feldman, Sara; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is explored for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in female New Zealand rabbits, with the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) to assess the potential feasibility of BNCS for RA. Rabbits in chronic phase of AIA were used for biodistribution studies employing the following protocols: intra-articular (ia) (a) BPA-f 0.14 M (0.7 mg (10)B), (b) GB-10 (5 mg (10)B), (c) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B) and intravenous (iv), (d) BPA-f 0.14 M (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), (e) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg), and (f) BPA-f (15.5 mg (10)B/kg) + GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg). At different post-administration times (13-85 min for ia and 3 h for iv), samples of blood, pathological synovium (target tissue), cartilage, tendon, muscle, and skin were taken for boron measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intra-articular administration protocols at boron concentrations (>20 ppm) in the pathological synovium. Dosimetric estimations suggest that BNCS would be able to achieve a therapeutically useful dose in pathological synovium without exceeding the radiotolerance of normal tissues in the treatment volume, employing boron carriers approved for use in humans. Radiobiological in vivo studies will be necessary to determine the actual therapeutic efficacy of BNCS to treat RA in an experimental model.

  5. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science

    1997-02-01

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in {sup 10}B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of {sup 10}B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin ({sup 10}B-PEG-BSA). {sup 10}B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 10{sup 5} /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 {+-} 1.74 ppm. The number of {sup 10}B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 10{sup 11} at 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of {sup 10}B atoms (more than 10{sup 9} atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  6. Modeling of fuel performance and fission product release behavior during HTTR normal operation. A comparative study of the FZJ and JAERI modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Research Center Juelich (FZJ) (Germany); Sumita, Junya; Ueta, Shohei; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    For the prediction of fuel performance and fission product release behavior in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI), during its normal operation, calculation tools were applied as have been used at the Research Center Juelich (FZJ) in safety analyses for pebble-bed HTGR designs. Calculations were made assuming the HTTR operation with a nominal operation time of 660 efpd including a 110 efpd period with elevated fuel temperatures. Fuel performance calculations by the PANAMA code with given fuel temperature distribution in the core have shown that the additional failure level of about 5x10{sup -6} is expected which is about twice as much as the as-fabricated through-coatings failure level. Under the extreme safety design conditions, the predicted particle failure fraction in the core increases to about 1x10{sup -3} in maximum. The diffusive release of metallic fission products from the fuel primarily occurs in the core layer with the maximum fuel temperature (layer 3) whereas there is hardly any contribution from layer 1 except for the recoil fraction. Silver most easily escapes the fuel; the predicted release fractions from the fuel compacts are 10% (expected) and 50% (safety design). The figures for strontium (expected: 1.5x10{sup -3}, safety design: 3.1x10{sup -2}) and cesium (5.6x10{sup -4}, 2.9x10{sup -2}) reveal as well a significant fraction to originate already from intact particles. Comparison with the calculation based on JAERI's diffusion model for cesium shows a good agreement for the release behavior from the particles. The differences in the results can be explained mainly by the different diffusion coefficients applied. The release into the coolant can not modelled because of the influence of the gap between compact and graphite sleeve lowering the release by a factor of 3 to 10. For the prediction of performance and fission product release behavior of advanced ZrC TRISO particles

  7. Analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET imaging data captured before and after Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors in the athymic nude rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Spring-Robinson, Chandra; Sharma, Rahul; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, D.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Several workers have proposed the use of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging for the outcome assessment of photodynamic therapy (PDT), especially for deep-seated tumors. We report on our study of 18Ffluorodeoxy- glucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging following brain tumor Pc4-PDT. Our working hypothesis was that the tumor's metabolic activity would decline dramatically following Pc 4-PDT owing to tumor necrosis. Methods: Seven days after intraparenchymal implantation of U87 cells, the brains of 12 athymic nude rats were imaged by micro-CT and/or micro-MR. These animals were also 18F-FDG micro-PET (μPET) scanned before and after Pc 4-PDT. 18F-FDG was used to trace metabolic activity that was monitored via μPET. Occurrence of PDT was confirmed on histology. The analysis of 18F-FDG dose and animal weight normalized μPET activity was studied over the 90 minute µPET scan. Results: Currently, μPET data have been studied for: (1) three of the animals that did not indicate tumor necrosis on histology and were assigned to a "Non-PDT" group, and (2) six animals that exhibited tumor necrosis on histology and were assigned to a "PDT" group. The μPET-detected 18F-FDG uptake activity in the tumor region before and after photoirradiation increased in the Non-PDT group an average of 2.28 times, and in the PDT group it increased an average of 1.15 times. Discussion: We are investigating the cause of the increase in 18F-FDG μPET activity that we observed in the PDT group. The methodology used in this study should be useful in determining whether this or other PET, SPECT, or MR functional imaging protocols will detect both the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor necrosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  8. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  9. Design of a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper for the JAERI/KEK project

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Sheng; Kato, T

    2002-01-01

    The medium-energy beam-transport line (MEBT) plays an important role in reducing beam loss in the JAERI/KEK project. A MEBT was designed two years ago, with good beam matching and lower beam loss. To further reduce beam loss during the transient time of the chopper to meet the new requirement from the DTL, a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper has been designed. The 3.5 m long transport line consists of nine quadrupole magnets, three bunchers and four chopper/anti-chopper cavities. It accomplishes two tasks: matching the beam from the RFQ to the acceptance of the DTL and chopping the beam to produce gaps for injection into the rapid-cycling ring, which follows the linac. A RF Chopper and an anti-chopper have been adopted in the lattice, resulting in a clean chopping effect and no beam losses during the transient time. Details of the beam dynamics analysis are given

  10. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  11. Dose distributions in a human head phantom for neutron capture therapy using moderated neutrons from the 2.5 MeV proton-7Li reaction or from fission of 235U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2001-10-01

    The feasibility of neutron capture therapy (NCT) using an accelerator-based neutron source of the 7Li(p,n) reaction produced by 2.5 MeV protons was investigated by comparing the neutron beam tailored by both the Hiroshima University radiological research accelerator (HIRRAC) and the heavy water neutron irradiation facility in the Kyoto University reactor (KUR-HWNIF) from the viewpoint of the contamination dose ratios of the fast neutrons and the gamma rays. These contamination ratios to the boron dose were estimated in a water phantom of 20 cm diameter and 20 cm length to simulate a human head, with experiments by the same techniques for NCT in KUR-HWNIF and/or the simulation calculations by the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code system version 4B (MCNP-4B). It was found that the 7Li(p,n) neutrons produced by 2.5 MeV protons combined with 20, 25 or 30 cm thick D2O moderators of 20 cm diameter could make irradiation fields for NCT with depth-dose characteristics similar to those from the epithermal neutron beam at the KUR-HWNIF.

  12. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  13. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  14. Neutron capture therapy beam design at Harwell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G

    1990-01-01

    At Harwell, we have progressed from designing, building, and using small-diameter beams of epithermal neutrons for radiobiology studies to designing a radiotherapy facility for the 25-MW research reactor DIDO. The program is well into the survey phase, where the main emphasis is on tailoring the neutron spectrum. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium in an aluminium spectrum shaper in the D2O reflector has been shown to yield a significant reduction in the mean energy of neutrons incident on the patient by suppression of streaming through the cross-section window in aluminium at 25 keV.

  15. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  16. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular-scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Ahmad, T; Barth, R F; Kabalka, G W

    2014-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 ((10)B) atoms to individual tumour cells. Cell killing results from the (10)B (n, α)(7) Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of (10)B atoms are localized in the tumour cells. Intranuclear (10)B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of (10)B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumour cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular-scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high-grade gliomas, recurrent tumours of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumour cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This

  17. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  18. A Report of the Joint Development of a Prototype Communications Link to Share Nuclear Accident Dispersion and Dose Assessment Modeling Products Between JAERI/WSPEEDI and LLNL/NARAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T J; Belles, R D; Ellis, J S; Chino, M; Nagai, H

    2001-05-01

    In June of 1997, under an umbrella Memorandum of Understanding between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US/DOE) concerning matters of nuclear research and development, a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) entitled ''A Collaborative Programme of Development of a Prototype Communication Link to Share Atmospheric Dispersion and Dose Assessment Modelling Products'' was signed. This SMA formalized an informal collaborative exchange between the DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) center and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Worldwide System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (WSPEEDI). The intended objective of this agreement was to explore various modes of information exchange, beyond facsimile transmission, which could provide for the quick exchange of information between two major nuclear emergency dose assessment and prediction national centers to provide consistency checks and data exchange before public release of their calculations. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer preview prior to public release. Other intended objectives of this work are the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to other countries having no prediction capabilities and utilization of the link for collaboration studies. To fulfill the objectives of this project JAERI and LLNL scientists determined to assess the evolving Internet and rapidly emerging communications application software. Our timing was a little early in 1997-1998 but nonetheless a few candidate software packages were found, evaluated and a selection was made for initial test and evaluation. Subsequently several new candidate software packages have arrived, albeit with limitations. This report outlines the ARAC and

  19. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

  20. Computational assessment of deep-seated tumor treatment capability of the 9Be(d,n)10B reaction for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoulat, M E; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-03-01

    The 9Be(d,n)10B reaction was studied as an epithermal neutron source for brain tumor treatment through Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In BNCT, neutrons are classified according to their energies as thermal (epithermal (from 0.5 eV to 10 keV) or fast (>10 keV). For deep-seated tumors epithermal neutrons are needed. Since a fraction of the neutrons produced by this reaction are quite fast (up to 5-6 MeV, even for low-bombarding energies), an efficient beam shaping design is required. This task was carried out (1) by selecting the combinations of bombarding energy and target thickness that minimize the highest-energy neutron production; and (2) by the appropriate choice of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) geometry, for each of the combinations found in (1). The BSA geometry was determined as the configuration that maximized the dose deliverable to the tumor in a 1 h treatment, within the constraints imposed by the healthy tissue dose adopted tolerance. Doses were calculated through the MCNP code. The highest dose deliverable to the tumor was found for an 8 μm target and a deuteron beam of 1.45 MeV. Tumor weighted doses ≥40 Gy can be delivered up to about 5 cm in depth, with a maximum value of 51 Gy at a depth of about 2 cm. This dose performance can be improved by relaxing the treatment time constraint and splitting the treatment into two 1-h sessions. These good treatment capabilities strengthen the prospects for a potential use of this reaction in BNCT.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  2. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) toxicity and permeability assessment after L-(4-¹⁰Boronophenyl)alanine, a conventional B-containing drug for boron neutron capture therapy, using an in vitro BBB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E; Nion, S; Bernocchi, G; Coccini, T

    2014-10-01

    Since brain tumours are the primary candidates for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, one major challenge in the selective drug delivery to CNS is the crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present pilot study investigated (i) the transport of a conventional B-containing product (i.e., L-(4-(10)Boronophenyl)alanine, L-(10)BPA), already used in medicine but still not fully characterized regarding its CNS interactions, as well as (ii) the effects of the L-(10)BPA on the BBB integrity using an in vitro model, consisting of brain capillary endothelial cells co-cultured with glial cells, closely mimicking the in vivo conditions. The multi-step experimental strategy (i.e. Integrity test, Filter study, Transport assay) checked L-(10)BPA toxicity at 80 µg Boron equivalent/ml, and its ability to cross the BBB, additionally by characterizing the cytoskeletal and TJ's proteins by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. In conclusion, a lack of toxic effects of L-(10)BPA was demonstrated, nevertheless accompanied by cellular stress phenomena (e.g. vimentin expression modification), paralleled by a low permeability coefficient (0.39 ± 0.01 × 10(-3)cm min(-1)), corroborating the scarce probability that L-(10)BPA would reach therapeutically effective cerebral concentration. These findings emphasized the need for novel strategies aimed at optimizing boron delivery to brain tumours, trying to ameliorate the compound uptake or developing new targeted products suitable to safely and effectively treat head cancer. Thus, the use of in vitro BBB model for screening studies may provide a useful early safety assessment for new effective compounds.

  3. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  4. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  6. 用于硼中子俘获治疗的超热中子束理论设计%Theoretical design of an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏; 潘洁; 宁静; 谢向东; 杨国山

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design a scheme of epithermal neutron beam used for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).Methods Based on Tsinghua University experimental reactor and its No.1 passage,five schemes comprised of moderate materials,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials were designed according to different locations of materials placed in No.1 passage.To select a proper scheme from five schemes,the neutron fluence rate,the neutron dose rate and γ dose rate at exit of beam in each scheme were calculated with Monte Carlo simulating methods and then contrasted with BNCT technique criterion.Results The scheme of epithermal neutron beam meeting technical requirements of BNCT was obtained,in which the thickness of moderate material,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials are 53.5 cm,2 mm and 9 cm,respectively.Conclusions The theoretical scheme could provide some reference to realize BNCT on reactor.%目的 设计用于硼中子俘获治疗(BNCT)的超热中子束理论方案.方法 基于清华大学试验核反应堆,以其1号孔道为材料布放孔道,设计了由慢化材料、热中子吸收材料、γ屏蔽材料组成,但材料布放位置具有差异的5种理论方案;利用蒙特卡罗(MC)模拟方法,分别计算5种方案束出口处的中子注量率、剂量率及γ剂量率值,通过与BNCT技术指标对比,从5种方案中选择一种合适的方案.结果 得到了一个符合BNCT各项技术指标的超热中子束理论方案,其慢化材料厚度为53.5 cm、热中子吸收材料厚度为2 mm、γ屏蔽材料厚度为9 cm.结论 本研究给出的超热中子束理论方案为基于反应堆实现BNCT提供一定的理论参考.

  7. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  8. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  9. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  10. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  11. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  12. 硼中子俘获疗法诱导U87胶质瘤细胞凋亡%Boron neutron capture therapy inducing apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 章翔; 江新标; 程光; 赵英; 曹锐峰; 刘红; 王剑博

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)对人脑胶质瘤细胞株U87的增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的作用及可能机制.方法 实验分为未照射组(0 Gy)、γ射线对照组(4、8 Gy)、反应堆组(3.5 Gy)、BNCT组(4、8 Gy).采用形态观察、流式细胞仪Annexin V/PI荧光染色、四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法等方法观察BNCT对U87细胞的增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的作用,以免疫组织化学技术检测P53蛋白的表达,应用western blot检测BCL-2、BAX蛋白表达的变化.结果 硼中子照射后细胞出现典型的凋亡形态改变.BNCT 4、8 Gy组处理后48 h细胞的凋亡率分别为65.1%、85.9%.BNCT 4、8 Gy组细胞生长抑制作用显著高于同等剂量的γ射线照射组(P<0.01).未照射的U87细胞P53蛋白表达阴性,BNCT4、8 Gy照射后P53蛋白表达阳性.BNCT4、8 Gy照射后BCL-2蛋白表达下降,BAX蛋白上升.结论 BNCT对U87细胞具有显著的增殖抑制作用,并有剂量、时间依赖性特点.%Objective To explore the effect of boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT)on human brain glioma U87 cell line and its mechanisms.Method U87 cells in exponential phase were divided into 6 groups:untreated control,60Co γ 4 Gy,60Co γ 8 Gy,nuclear reactor exposure without boronophenylalanine (BPA)3.5 Gy,BNCT 4 Gy and BNCT 8 Gy.The anti-tumor effects were analyzed through cell morphology,the Annexin V/PI assay by flow cytometer(FCM),and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay.The expression of P53 protein was studied by immunocytochemistry and the expression of BCL-2 protein and BAX protein were measured by western blot.Results Typical morphological changes were observed after BNCT irradiation.The apoptotic rates were observed 48 h after irradiation with 65.1%and 85.9%for BNCT 4 Gy and 8 Gy.BNCT showed higher apoptotic rates than those of γ-ray control irradiation (P<0.01).The expression level of P53 protein was negative in U87,while positive expression of P53 protein was observed in BNCT 4 Gy and 8 Gy groups

  13. Tratamiento del cáncer por captura neutrónica de boro: Su aplicación al carcinoma indiferenciado de tiroides Boron neutron capture therapy applied to undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Pisarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides es un tumor muy agresivo, de muy mal pronóstico y sin tratamiento efectivo. La terapia por captura neutrónica de boro (BNCT podría ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Se basa en la captación selectiva de boro por el tumor y su activación por un haz de neutrones. El boro activado libera un núcleo de litio-7 y una partícula alfa, las cuales tienen una alta transmisión linear de energía (linear energy transfer, LET y un alcance de 5-9 µm, destruyendo el tumor. En estudios previos hemos mostrado que la línea celular humana de cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides (ARO tiene una captación selectiva de borofenilalanina (10BPA tanto in vitro como después de ser implantada en ratones NIH nude. También demostramos en estos animales inyectados con BPA e irradiados con un haz de neutrones térmicos, un 100% de control sobre el crecimiento tumoral y un 50% de cura histológica. En trabajos posteriores mostramos que la porfirina 10BOPP tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester de 2,4-bis-(a,b-dihydroxyethyl-deutero-porphyrin IX cuando es inyectada 5-7 días antes que el BPA se obtiene una concentración tumoral de boro de aproximadamente el doble que el BPA solo (45-38 ppm vs. 20 ppm. La posterior irradiación con neutrones mostró un 100% de remisión completa en animales con tumores cuyo volumen pre-tratamiento era de 50 mm³ o menor. Los perros padecen CIT espontáneo, con un comportamiento biológico similar al humano, y una captación selectiva de BPA, abriendo la posibilidad de su tratamiento por BNCT.Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to the lack of an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET. In previous

  14. Studies on preparation of folate-targeted boron liposomes as potential delivery agents for neutron capture therapy%叶酸靶向含硼脂质体的制备及其包封率的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志会; 钱林学; 刘冬

    2012-01-01

    To prepare folate-targeted liposomes with high encapsulation efficiency is an effective targeted drug delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The double emulsion method is used to prepare liposomes. The combination of thin film hydration and ultrasonic dispersion method is used to prepare liposomes loaded with HBA,TBA or BBA. The content and the encapsulation efficiency of HBA,TBA or BBA liposomes are evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). As the basis of the encapsulation efficiency, the optimal conditions for preparing liposomes were explored by the single factor method. The optimal chromatographic conditions of the three drugs were filtered out. They had a good linear relation in a range of 1 ~ 100 μg/mL. The encapsulation efficiency of HBA, TBA and BBA liposomes were 25. 7 % , 38. 9 % and 94. 8 % at the optimal preparation and condition. The optimal conditions for preparing BBA liposomes are as follows; the mass ratio of cholesterol and phospholipid is 1: 1, the ratio of drug and lipid is 1: 50 and the optimal pH value is 7. 4. The entrapment efficiency for BBA liposomes in the optimal groups reached 94. 8 % . The technique of preparing folate-tar-geted liposomes is feasible and the method of quality control is simple and high accuracy. The liposomes appeare to be round, and well separated with high entrapment efficiency.%制备具有良好靶向性及包封率高的硼脂质体,为硼中子俘获治疗方法的研究与应用建立了一个有效的靶向给药途径.采用复乳法及薄膜—超声分散法制备叶酸靶向硼脂质体,利用高效液相色谱法检测4—羟基苯硼酸4—Hydroxyphenylboronicacid (HBA)脂质体、2—噻吩硼酸2—thiophenylboric acid(TBA)脂质体、4—叔丁基苯硼酸4—tert-Butylphenylboronic Acid(BBA)脂质体的含量及包封率,以包封率为评价指标,采用单因素法优化脂质体的制备处方和工艺条件.筛选出HBA、TBA、BBA最优的色谱条件,分

  15. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  16. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  17. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    changing the affinity ligand, we can use capture matrices to detect other chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, nerve and blister agents, pesticides...require significant chemical additives and complex equipment, generate a large secondary waste stream, and are difficult to automate. Magnetically...secondary wastes . 2 Other advantages are a large active surface area for a given mass of particles; the ability to process a solution that

  18. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  19. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  20. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  1. Particle capture into the lung made simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Talita Felipe; Sapoval, Bernard; Andrade, José S; Grotberg, James B; Hu, Yingying; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the impact distribution of particles entering the human respiratory system is of primary importance as it concerns not only atmospheric pollutants or dusts of various kinds but also the efficiency of aerosol therapy and drug delivery. To model this process, current approaches consist of increasingly complex computations of the aerodynamics and particle capture phenomena, performed in geometries trying to mimic lungs in a more and more realistic manner for as many airway generations as possible. Their capture results from the complex interplay between the details of the aerodynamic streamlines and the particle drag mechanics in the resulting flow. In contrast, the present work proposes a major simplification valid for most airway generations at quiet breathing. Within this context, focusing on particle escape rather than capture reveals a simpler structure in the entire process. When gravity can be neglected, we show by computing the escape rates in various model geometries that, although still complicated, the escape process can be depicted as a multiplicative escape cascade in which each elementary step is associated with a single bifurcation. As a net result, understanding of the particle capture may not require computing particle deposition in the entire lung structure but can be abbreviated in some regions using our simpler approach of successive computations in single realistic bifurcations. Introducing gravity back into our model, we show that this multiplicative model can still be successfully applied on up to nine generations, depending on particle type and breathing conditions.

  2. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  3. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  4. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  5. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  6. Trojan capture by terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigate the capture of asteroids by Venus, Earth and Mars into the 1:1 mean motion resonance especially into Trojan orbits. Current theoretical studies predict that Trojan asteroids are a frequent by-product of the planet formation. This is not only the case for the outer giant planets, but also for the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System. By using numerical integrations, we investigated the capture efficiency and the stability of the captured objects. We found out that the capture efficiency is larger for the planets in the inner Solar System compared to the outer ones, but most of the captured Trojan asteroids are not long term stable. This temporary captures caused by chaotic behaviour of the objects were investigated without any dissipative forces. They show an interesting dynamical behaviour of mixing like jumping from one Lagrange point to the other one.

  7. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  8. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  9. Capture-recapture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  10. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  11. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Analysis of system thermal hydraulic responses for passive safety injection experiment at ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility. Using JAERI modified version of RELAP5/MOD2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaka, Hideaki; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1994-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the ROSA-IV/Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) on the performance of a gravity-driven emergency core coolant (ECC) injection system attached to a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Such a gravity-driven injection system, though not used in the current-generation PWRs, is proposed for future reactor designs. The experiment was performed to identify key phenomena peculiar to the operation of a gravity injection system and to provide data base for code assessment against such phenomena. The simulated injection system consisted of a tank which was initially filled with cold water of the same pressure as the primary system. The tank was connected at its top and bottom, respectively, to the cold leg and the vessel downcomer. The injection into the downcomer was driven primarily by the static head difference between the cold water in the tank and the hot water in the pressure balance line (PBL) connecting the cold leg to the tank top. The injection flow was oscillatory after the flow through the PBL became two-phase flow. The experiment was post-test analyzed using a JAERI modified version of the RELAP5/MOD2 code. The code calculation simulated reasonably well the system responses observed in the experiment, and suggested that the oscillations in the injection flow was caused by oscillatory liquid holdup in the PBL connecting the cold leg to tank top. (author).

  13. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia ; pre- combustion capture (also via chemical solvents) from the synthesis gas produced in an integrated coal gasification...71 D. Heaven et al., “ Synthesis Gas Purification in Gasification to Ammonia /Urea Plants,” Gasification Technologies...32 Ammonia -Based Capture Processes

  14. Muon capture on Chlorine-35

    CERN Document Server

    Arole, S; Gorringe, T P; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Kuzmin, V; Moftah, B A; Sedlar, R; Stocki, T J; Tetereva, T

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of $\\gamma$--ray spectra from muon capture on $^{35}$Cl. For the allowed Gamow--Teller transitions to the $^{35}$S$(2939, 3/2^+)$ state and the $^{35}$S$(3421, 5/2^+)$ state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences and $\\gamma$--$\

  15. On neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, E G

    2016-01-01

    We found the probability for the neutrinoless double electron capture in the case of $KK$ capture. We clarified the mechanism of the energy transfer from the nucleus to the bound electrons. This enabled us to obtain the equations for the probability of the $2EC0\

  16. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  17. Laser Produced Ions as an Injection Beam for Cancer Therapy Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, A; Iwashita, Y; Nakamura, S; Sakabe, S; Shimizu, S; Shirai, T; Tongu, H

    2004-01-01

    Ion production from a solid target by a high-power short pulse laser has been investigated to replace the injector linac of the synchrotron dedicated for cancer therapy. As the high power laser, the laser with the peak power of 100 TW and minimum pulse duration of 20 fs which has been developed at JAERI Kansai Research Establishment, is assumed. Laser produced ions with 100% energy spread is energy selected within ±5% and then phase rotated with use of the RF electric field synchronized to the pulse laser, which further reduces the energy spread to ±1%. The scheme of the phase rotation is presented together with the experimental results of laser production from the thin foil target.

  18. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Web pages of the universities and institutes.1 Notes are made and links pasted in a variety of formats. Files are saved on a shared drive. When...institutions/ 3. Capture Methods There are several capture methods that are available for use [4]: • Manual capture. • Scraping of logs or...the high-level user desktop. Save links App: Word, SharePoint User: Alice Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Notes.txt Create

  19. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim......The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  20. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  1. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  2. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Gorringe, T.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Henderson, R. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility); McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.D. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.).

  3. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  4. The Capture of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The origin of Jupiter Trojans remained mysterious for decades. Particularly, it was difficult to explain the excitation of the inclinations of the Trojan population [1]. In 2005, Morbidelli et al. [2] proposed a scenario of capture from the trans-Neptunian disk, in the framework of the so-called "Nice model" [3,4]. This scenario explained in a natural way the observed orbital distribution of Trojans. The Nice model, however, evolved in the years, in order to satisfy an increasingly large number of constraints. It now appears that the dynamical evolution of the giant planets was different from that envisioned in [2]. Here, we assess again the process of capture of Trojans within this new evolution. We show that (6-8)×10 - 7 of the original trans-Neptunian planetesimals are captured in the Trojan region, with an orbital distribution consistent with the one observed. Relative to [2], the new capture mechanism has the potential of explaining the asymmetry between the L4 and L5 populations. Moreover, the resulting population of Trojans is consistent with that of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter, which are captured in the same process; a few bodies from the main asteroid belt could also be captured in the Trojan cloud.

  5. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  6. Research in boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, E.; Shortkroff, S.; Jones, A.; Viveiros, C.; Ly, A.; Sledge, C. B.; Davison, A.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1997-02-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS) is a novel application of the 10B(n, (alpha) )7Li reaction for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. This potential treatment modality is in its developmental stages; in this paper results of research in two aspects of BNCS are presented. First, quantification of 10B-uptake in samples of human arthritic tissue by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis is presented. 10B concentrations from 1625 to 2726 ppm are readily achieved. Second, ideal neutron beam studies have been undertaken and indicate that neutrons from thermal energies to 1 keV are useful for BNCS. This information is of use in designing practical therapy beams should this treatment modality be realized.

  7. Review of Narrative Therapy: Research and Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchison, Mary; Kleist, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Narrative therapy has captured the attention of many in the family counseling field. Despite the apparent appeal of narrative therapy as a therapeutic modality, research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. This article will review current research on narrative therapy and discuss why a broader research base has yet to be developed. Suggestions…

  8. Optic capture pars plana lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joo Eun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South KoreaObjective: To describe an optic capture pars plana lensectomy technique.Methods: After core vitrectomy, pars plana lensectomy is performed with preservation of the anterior capsule. Capsulorhexis is performed on the preserved anterior capsule through a 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. An intraocular lens (IOL is placed in the ciliary sulcus, and then the optic of the IOL is pushed back to the vitreous cavity so that the optic is captured by the surrounding capsulorhexis margin.Results: The captured IOL-capsule diaphragm remained stable during air–fluid exchange and prevented air prolapse to the anterior chamber. IOL stability and a clear visual axis were preserved during the follow-up period.Conclusion: With this modified pars plana lensectomy technique, stable IOL position and clear visual axis can be maintained when a pars plana approach is needed during combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery.Keywords: lensectomy, optic capture, pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy

  9. 49 CFR 563.9 - Data capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... frontal or side air bag deployment crash, capture and record the current deployment data, up to two events... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data capture. 563.9 Section 563.9 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.9 Data capture. The EDR must capture and record...

  10. Nuclear Physics meets Medicine and Biology: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    F. Ballarini, F; S. Bortolussi, S; P. Bruschi, P; A.M. Clerici, A M; A. De Bari, A; P. Dionigi, P; C. Ferrari, C; M.A. Gadan, M A; N. Protti, N; S. Stella, S; C. Zonta, C; A. Zonta, A; S. Altieri, S

    2010-01-01

    BNCT is a tumour treatment based on thermal-neutron irradiation of tissues enriched with 10B, which according to the 10B(n, )7Li reaction produces particles with high Linear Energy Transfer and short range. Since this treatment can deliver a therapeutic tumour dose sparing normal tissues, BNCT represents an alternative for diffuse tumours and metastases, which show poor response to surgery and photontherapy. In 2001 and 2003, in Pavia BNCT was applied to an isolated liver, which was infused with boron, explanted, irradiated and re-implanted. A new project was then initiated for lung tumours, developing a protocol for Boron concentration measurements and performing organ-dose Monte Carlo calculations; in parallel, radiobiology studies are ongoing to characterize the BNCT effects down to cellular level. After a brief introduction, herein we will present the main activities ongoing in Pavia including the radiobiological ones, which are under investigation not only experimentally but also theoretically, basing on...

  11. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and compared the RBE characteristics of the MIT Reactor M67 clinical beam, The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor clinical beam (both of which were used in Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT) and the MIT LABA BNCS beam. Additional research initiated under this program involved an investigation of the potential of BNCT for the prevention of restenosis and the development of accelerator-based fast neutron brachytherapy. A total of 10 student research theses (2 Undergraduate, 4 Masters, and 4 Doctoral) were completed as part of this research program.

  12. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  13. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    for the pre-combustion capture of CO2 is the use of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle ( IGCC ) technology to generate electricity.14 There are...currently four commercial IGCC plants worldwide (two in the United States) each with a capacity of about 250 MW. The technology has yet to make a major... IGCC is an electric generating technology in which pulverized coal is not burned directly but mixed with oxygen and water in a high-pressure gasifier

  14. Solid state microdosimetry in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, A B; Bradley, P D; Cornelius, I; Allen, B J; Zaider, M; Maughan, R L; Yanch, J C; Coderre, J; Flanz, J B; Kobayashi, T

    2002-01-01

    A report of recent developments in silicon microdosimetry is presented. SOI based microdosemeters have shown promise as a viable alternative to traditional tissue-equivalent proportional counters. The application of these silicon microdosemeters to such radiation therapy modalities as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), proton therapy (PT), and fast neutron therapy (FNT) has been performed. Several shortcomings of the current silicon microdosemeter were identified and will be taken into account in the design of a second-generation device.

  15. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  16. Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

  17. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  18. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  19. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  20. Halo Effect on Direct Neutron Capture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 周宏余

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ) 11 Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11 Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray,respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

  1. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  2. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  3. Muon capture by silicon 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bauer, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Evans, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gorringe, T.P. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Johnson, B.L. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kalvoda, S. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Porter, R. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Siebels, B. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gete, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Measday, D.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Moftah, B.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Stanislaus, S. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the angular correlation of the neutrino with the 1229 keV {gamma}-ray from the de-excitation of the 2201 keV 1{sup +} level in aluminum-28, following muon capture in silicon-28. To suppress the neutron-induced background in the HPGe detector, a coincidence in a NaI array is required with the 942 keV {gamma}-ray in the de-excitation cascade. The lifetime of the 2201 keV level is found to be 61{+-}4{+-}9 fs. The correlation coefficient {alpha} is found to be 0.36{+-}0.06 implying g{sub P}/g{sub A}=0{sup +3.5}{sub -3}. (orig.).

  4. Immobilized surfactant-nanotube complexes support selectin-mediated capture of viable circulating tumor cells in the absence of capture antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael J; Castellanos, Carlos A; King, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The metastatic spread of tumor cells from the primary site to anatomically distant organs leads to a poor patient prognosis. Increasing evidence has linked adhesive interactions between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and endothelial cells to metastatic dissemination. Microscale biomimetic flow devices hold promise as a diagnostic tool to isolate CTCs and develop metastatic therapies, utilizing E-selectin (ES) to trigger the initial rolling adhesion of tumor cells under flow. To trigger firm adhesion and capture under flow, such devices also typically require antibodies against biomarkers thought to be expressed on CTCs. This approach is challenged by the fact that CTCs are now known to exhibit heterogeneous expression of conventional biomarkers. Here, we describe surfactant-nanotube complexes to enhance ES-mediated capture and isolation of tumor cells without the use of capture antibodies. While the majority of tumor cells exhibited weaker rolling adhesion on halloysite nanotubes (HNT) coated with ES, HNT functionalization with the sodium dodecanoate (NaL) surfactant induced a switch to firm cellular adhesion under flow. Conversely, surfactant-nanotube complexes significantly reduced the number of primary human leukocytes captured via ES-mediated adhesion under flow. The switch in tumor cell adhesion was exploited to capture and isolate tumor cells in the absence of EpCAM antibodies, commonly utilized as the gold standard for CTC isolation. Additionally, HNT-NaL complexes were shown to capture tumor cells with low to negligible EpCAM expression, that are not efficiently captured using conventional approaches.

  5. Design of multidirectional neutron beams for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierga, D.P.; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shefer, R.E. [Newton Scientific, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is a potential application of the {sup 10}B(n, a) {sup 7}Li reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The target of therapy is the synovial membrane. Rheumatoid synovium is greatly inflamed and is the source of the discomfort and disability associated with the disease. The BNCS proposes to destroy the synovium by first injecting a boron-labeled compound into the joint space and then irradiating the joint with a neutron beam. This study discusses the design of a multidirectional neutron beam for BNCS.

  6. PGNAA of human arthritic synovium for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binello, E.; Yanch, J.C. [Massashucetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shortkroff, S. [Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), is a proposed new therapy modality for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease afflicting the joints. The synovium, which is the membrane lining the joint, becomes inflamed and represents the target tissue for therapy. When a joint is unresponsive to drug treatment, physical removal of the synovium, termed synovectomy, becomes necessary. Existing options include surgery and radiation synovectomy. BNCS has advantages over these options in that it is noninvasive and does not require the administration of radioactive substances. Previous studies have shown that the uptake of {sup 10}B by human arthritic synovium ex vivo is high, ranging from 194 to 545 ppm with an unenriched boron compound. While tissue samples remain viable up to 1 week, ex vivo conditions do not accurately reflect those in vivo. This paper presents results from experiments assessing the washout of boron from the tissue and examines the implications for in vivo studies.

  7. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  8. Radioactive proton capture on {sup 6}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvan, E.; Marques, F.M. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysich Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) at 40 MeV. Capture into {sup 7}Li is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded that may be described by quasi-free capture on halo neutron, the {alpha} core and {sup 5}He. The possibility of describing such events by capture into the continuum of {sup 7}Li is also discussed. (authors)

  9. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  10. Experience machines : Capturing and retrieving personal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental to human existence is the ability to capture, memorise and retrieve personal experiences and to share them with others. Can systems help us to capture and retrieve experiences? After motors have supplemented our muscles and sensors have supplemented our senses, emerging computer systems

  11. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  12. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E; Marques, FM; Wilschut, HW; Orr, NA; Angelique, JC; Borcea, C; Catford, WN; Clarke, NM; Descouvemont, P; Diaz, J; Grevy, S; Kugler, A; Kravchuk, [No Value; Labiche, M; Le Brun, C; Lienard, E; Lohner, H; Mittig, W; Ostendorf, RW; Pietri, S; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Saint Laurent, MG; Savajols, H; Wagner, [No Value; Yahlali, N

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  13. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  14. Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, David M.; Cooper, Matthew; Denoue, Laurent; Adcock, John; Billsus, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.

  15. Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the ...

  16. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  17. Design of low-energy neutron beams for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Binello, E.

    1997-02-01

    A novel application of the 10B(n, (alpha) )7Li nuclear reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is under development. this application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), is briefly described here and the differences between BNCS and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are discussed in detail. These differences lead to substantially altered demands on neutron beam design for each therapy application. In this paper the considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are discussed, and comparisons with the design requirements for BNCT are made. This is followed by a description of potential moderator/reflector assemblies that are calculated to produce intense, high- quality neutron beams based on the 7Li(p,n) accelerator- based reactions. Total therapy time and therapeutic ratios are given as a function of both moderator length and boron concentration. Finally, a means of carrying out multi- directional irradiations of arthritic joints is proposed.

  18. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  19. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-20

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed.

  20. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  1. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  2. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  3. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  5. Capture effeciency of a vegetative environmental buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  6. 硼中子俘获疗法对胶质瘤干细胞增殖和细胞周期的影响%Effect of boron neutron capture therapy on cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in glioma stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷; 钱兴龙; 李炎炎; 张紫竹; 李斌; 陈桂林; 韦永新; 谢学顺; 周幽心

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on cell cycle procession in human glioma stem cells (GSCs) in vitro,and to analyze the difference of sensitivity for BNCT on GSCs and glioma cells.Methods Firstly,uptake of boronophenylalarine (BPA) on human GSCs SU2 and glioma cells SHG-44 was detected.Then the cells enriched boron-10 (10B) were irradiated by In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI-1).The radiation sensitivity was measured using clonogenic survival assay.The proliferation was examined by MTT assay.The cell cycle procession was determined using flow cytometry.The protein expression of cyclin B1,CDK1 and P21[WAF1] were detected by Western blot.Results 10B concentration of SU2 and SHG-44 cells arrived at (1.76 ±0.28) and (2.50 ±0.12) μg/107cells at 24 h in 5 mMBPA.After radiation by IHNI-1,the survival fraction and viability of cells enriched 10B were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 orP < 0.01),compared with those of 10B-free.The BNCT sensitivity of SU2 cells was lower than that of SHG-44 cells (P < 0.05).The proportion of G2/M phase of SU2 and SHG-44 cells was increased after BNCT compared with that of 10B-free(P < 0.05).The protein levels of cyclin B1 and CDK1 were decreased(P < 0.01),and that of P21[WAF1] was increased(P < 0.01).Conclusions The BNCT sensitivity of GSCs was lower than that of glioma cells.BNCT could inhibite cell regeneration and proliferation and make G2/M to be blocked by inhibition of cell cycle protein formation.%目的 研究硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)对体外培养人胶质瘤干细胞(GSCs)周期进程的影响及机制,比较GSCs和胶质瘤细胞株SHG-44对BNCT敏感性的差异.方法 首先检测人GSCsSU2和人胶质瘤细胞株SHG-44吸收含硼化合物二羟基苯丙氨酸硼(BPA)的情况,然后采用医院中子照射器(IHNI-1)对含硼(10B)细胞进行照射,克隆存活实验检测细胞的放射敏感性,MTT法检测细胞增殖率,流式细胞

  7. Data capture and processing. [for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John; Smith, Gene; Carper, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A systems concept developed in response to the specific requirements imposed by the Space Station and affiliated instrumentation is described. Particular attention is given to those subsystems associated with initial data capture, handling, routing, and distribution control for return link data via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The conceived approach, designated the Customer Data and Operations System, includes a data interface facility and a data handling center whose functions are data capture, demultiplexing and routing, early preprocessing, and ancillary data handling.

  8. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  9. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Images related to Proton Therapy Videos related to Proton Therapy Sponsored by Please ...

  10. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  11. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be credentialed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Family therapy is often short term. ... challenging situations in a more effective way. References Marriage and family therapists: The friendly mental health professionals. American Association ...

  12. Gate manipulation of DNA capture into nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2011-10-25

    Understanding biophysics governing DNA capture into a nanopore and establishing a manipulation system for the capture process are essential for nanopore-based genome sequencing. In this work, the functionality of extended electric field and electroosmotic flow (EOF) during the capture stage and their dependence on gate voltage, U(G), are investigated. We demonstrate that while both the electric field and EOF within a cis chamber make long-distance contributions to DNA capture around the pore mouth, the former effect is always capturing, while the latter causes trapping or blocking of the molecule depending on the magnitude of the gate voltage, U(G): an anionic EOF induced by high U(G) is capable of doubling the DNA trapping speed and thus the absorption radius in the cis chamber, whereas a cationic EOF by low U(G) would substantially offset the trapping effort by the electric field and even totally block DNA entrance into the pore. Based on the analysis, a gate regulation is proposed with the objective of achieving a high DNA capture rate while maintaining a low error rate.

  13. Telescoping Sample Canister Capture Mechanism (TSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Gorevan, Stephen; Mukherjee, Suparna; Wilson, Jack

    2003-11-01

    Sample return from solar system bodies including planets, moons, comets and asteroids is of high importance within the space science community. A returned sample will allow much more elaborate and detailed analysis not feasible through remote robotic analysis. For this reason, Honeybee Robotics has developed a low-cost reusable, automated on-orbit sample canister capture mechanism. The purpose of the mechanism is to capture a full sample canister and transfer it to a storage cache, sample return spacecraft, or on-orbit laboratory for further scientific study. The current design allows for reliable misalignment-compensated capture for various sample container geometries in any initial orientation. After capture, the sample canister is aligned and presented for transfer. Honeybee has demonstrated the concept through tests of two- and three-dimensional telescopic capture mechanism breadboards. The telescopic capture mechanism design is scalable, minimizes volume and can be made of lightweight material to minmize mass, all of which are critical aspects of spacecraft design.

  14. Neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectra of 89Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katabuchi Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron capture cross section of 89Y was measured by the time-of-flight method in an energy range from 15 to 100 keV. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive the capture yield. The absolute cross section was determined based on the standard reaciotn 197 Au(n, γ198 Au reaction. The neutron capture γ-ray spectrum was derived by unfolding the pulse-height spectrum with detector response functions.

  15. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications.

  16. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (Pcrocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  17. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  18. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  19. Active suppression after involuntary capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.

  20. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  1. Electron capture from coherent elliptic Rydberg states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.C.; DePaola, B.D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Hansen, S.B.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Leontiev, Y.; Mogensen, K.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    Experimental relative cross sections for electron capture by singly charged ions (Na{sup +}) from coherent elliptic states of principal quantum number n=25 are presented. An interval of reduced impact velocities from about 1{endash}2 is covered. Absolute reaction cross sections could not be determined precisely, but the eccentricity of the coherent elliptic states and their orientation relative to the ion-impact velocity were varied to expose the dependence of the electron-capture process on the initial motion of the electron. The dependencies on eccentricity and orientation are generally strong and they vary sharply with impact velocity. Qualitatively, the observations agree fairly well with classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations, as expected for the large quantum numbers involved, but significant deviations of a systematic nature do remain, showing that some aspects of the capture reactions studied are described poorly by classical physics as represented by the CTMC model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Muon capture rates within the projected QRPA

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Danilo Sande; Krmpotić, Francisco; Dimarco, Alejandro J

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of the number of particles within the QRPA plays an important role in the evaluation muon capture rates in all light nuclei with A \\precsim 30 . The violation of the CVC by the Coulomb field in this mass region is of minor importance, but this effect could be quite relevant for medium and heavy nuclei studied previously. The extreme sensitivity of the muon capture rates on the 'pp' coupling strength in nuclei with large neutron excess when described within the QRPA is pointed out. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are much more robust for such a purpose.

  3. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  4. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  5. Selective gas capture via kinetic trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Joyjit; Prendergast, David; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Conventional approaches to the capture of CO_2 by metal-organic frameworks focus on equilibrium conditions, and frameworks that contain little CO_2 in equilibrium are often rejected as carbon-capture materials. Here we use a statistical mechanical model, parameterized by quantum mechanical data, to suggest that metal-organic frameworks can be used to separate CO_2 from a typical flue gas mixture when used under {\\em nonequilibrium} conditions. The origin of this selectivity is an emergent gas-separation mechanism that results from the acquisition by different gas types of different mobilities within a crowded framework. The resulting distribution of gas types within the framework is in general spatially and dynamically heterogeneous. Our results suggest that relaxing the requirement of equilibrium can substantially increase the parameter space of conditions and materials for which selective gas capture can be effected.

  6. Inertial capture in flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Araújo, A. D.; Vasconcelos, T. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate through numerical calculation of non-Brownian particles transported by a fluid in a porous medium, the influence of geometry and inertial effects on the capture efficiency of the solid matrix. In the case of a periodic array of cylinders and under the action of gravity, our results reveal that δ ˜ St, where δ is the particle capture efficiency, and St is the Stokes number. In the absence of gravity, we observe a typical second order transition between non-trapping and trapping of particles that can be expressed as δ ˜ ( St - St c ) α , with an exponent α ≈ 0.5, where St c is the critical Stokes number. We also perform simulations for flow through a random porous structure and confirm that its capture behavior is consistent with the simple periodic model.

  7. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  8. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... processes of the solitary individual. A new framework for studying and capturing creativity, which goes beyond individual cognitive processes by examining the applied creative process of individuals in context, is proposed. We apply a context sensitive framework that embraces the creative collaborative...... process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  9. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  10. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  11. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: Opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Van der Ham, L.; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  12. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  13. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samana, A. R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, UESC-Br (Brazil); Sande, D. [Instituto de Geociências, UFBA-Br (Brazil); Krmpotić, F. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET-Ar and Fac. de Cs. Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP-Ar (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  14. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  15. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  16. Boron neutron capture irradiation: setting up a clinical programme in Nice; Irradiation par capture de neutrons: mise en place d`un programme clinique a Nice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Frenay, M.; Herault, J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Milano, G.; Demard, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Antoine Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Paquis, P.; Lonjon, M.; Lebrun-Frenay, C.; Grellier, P.; Chatel, M. [Hopital Pasteur, 06 - Nice (France); Nepveu, F.; Patau, J.P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Breteau, N. [Hopital de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron capture irradiation aims to selectively destroy tumor tumor cell using {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reactions produced within themselves. Following the capture reaction, an {alpha} particle and a, {sup 7}Li ion are emitted. Carrying an energy of 2.79 MeV, they destroy all molecular structures along their path close to 10 {mu}m. These captures, used exclusively with a `slow` neutron irradiation, provide a neutron capture therapy (BNCT). If they are used in addition to a fast neutron beam irradiation, they provide a neutron capture potentiation (NCP). The Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice is actively involved in the European Demonstration project for BNCT of grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) after surgical excision and BSH administration. Taking into account the preliminary results obtained in Japan, work on an `epithermal` neutron target compatible with various cyclotron beams is in progress to facilitate further developments of this technique. For NCP, thermalized neutron yield has been measured in phantoms irradiated in the fast neutron beam of the biomedical cyclotron in Nice. A thermal peak appears after 5 cm depth in the tissues, delayed after the fast neutron peak at 1.8 cm depth. Thus, a physical overdosage of 10 % may be obtained if 100 ppm of {sup 10}B are assumed in the tissues. Our results using CAL 58 GBM cell line demonstrate a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.19 when 100 ppm of boric acid are added to the growth medium. Thus for the particles, issued from neutron capture, a biological efficiency at least twice that of fast neutrons can be derived. These results, compared with historical data on fast neutron irradiation of glioblastoma, suggest that a therapeutic window may be obtained for GBM. (author). 26 refs.

  17. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  18. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  19. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  20. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  1. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  2. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.

  3. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  4. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S; Armstrong, D.S.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Burnham, R.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Depommier, P.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Larabee, A.J.; Macdonald, J.A.; Mes, H.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Robertson, B.C.; Serna-Angel, A.; Summhammer, J.; Taylor, G.N.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Zhang, N.S.; MacDonald, S.C. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver,

    1989-06-01

    Radiative muon capture rates have been measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g{sub p} when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurement on hydrogen is also given. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The radiative muon capture program at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, T. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); RMC Collaboration

    1998-11-01

    We describe recent measurements of radiative muon capture on hydrogen, [sup 3]He and [sup 58,60,62]Ni using the RMC pair spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron laboratory. Our determinations of the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon's weak current are discussed. (author) 5 refs, 1 fig

  6. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  7. Capture technologies: Improvements and promising developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomen, E.; Hendriks, C.; Neele, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this status report we want to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status and promising technologies of CO2 capture by means of a literature review, in-house knowledge and interviews. We describe the technology, bottlenecks towards implementation and potential use. The results will be

  8. Nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Bahk, S. Y.; Chung, S. H.; Funahashi, H.; Hahn, C. H.; Hanabata, M.; Hara, T.; Hirata, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieiri, M.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Jin-ya, T.; Kazuno, M.; Kim, C. O.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kodama, K.; Kuze, T.; Maeda, Y.; Masaike, A.; Masuoka, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsui, A.; Nagase, Y.; Nagoshi, C.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Nakano, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Niwa, K.; Oda, H.; Okabe, H.; Ono, S.; Ozaki, R.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, Y.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H. M.; Song, J. S.; Sugimoto, M.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, K. H.; Teranaka, M.; Tezuka, I.; Togawa, H.; Tsunemi, T.; Ukai, M.; Ushida, N.; Watanabe, T.; Yasuda, N.; Yokota, J.; Yoon, C. S.; KEK E176 Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    An emulsion-counter hybrid experiment (KEK E176) was carried out to search for double strangeness systems such as double- Λ hypernuclei and H-dibaryons. More than 10% of Ξ hyperons produced in the (K -, K +) reaction were brought to rest in the nuclear emulsion. We have obtained 98 candidate events of nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons which are described in this report. Among those, four events were identified as sequential weak decay of double- Λ hypernuclei. The binding energies of Ξ-( 12C, 14N and 16O) states have been estimated for two events which emit twin single- Λ hypernuclei back to back from the capture point. The Σp decay vertex of an H-dibaryon was searched for near the capture point and no evidence was observed. Upper limits for the branching ratio of H emission are 5-10% for a lifetime less than 0.1 ns at the 90% confidence level. The trapping probabilities of single and double strangeness to a nuclear fragment following Ξ capture at rest have been studied.

  9. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  10. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, P.J.P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or chromo

  11. Capture-Gated Fast Neutron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, H. P.; Abdurashitov, J. N.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Gavrin, V. N.; Heimbach, C. R.; Langford, T. J.; Mendenhall, M.; Nico, J. S.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    We present recent developments in fast neutron detection using segmented spectrometers based on the principle of capture-gating. Our approach employs an organic scintillator to detect fast neutrons through their recoil interaction with protons in the scintillator. The neutrons that thermalize and are captured produce a signal indicating that the event was due to a neutron recoil and that the full energy of the neutron was deposited. The delayed neutron capture also serves to discriminate against uncorrelated background events. The segmentation permits reconstruction of the initial neutron energy despite the nonlinear response of the scintillator. We have constructed spectrometers using both He-3 proportional counters and Li-6 doping as capture agents in plastic and liquid organic scintillators. We discuss the operation of the spectrometers for the measurement of low levels of fast neutrons for several applications, including the detection of very low-activity neutron sources and the characterization of the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons at the Earth's surface and in the underground environment.

  12. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  13. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  14. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  15. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  16. Statistical inference for capture-recapture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kenneth H.; Nichols, James D.; Brownie, Cavell; Hines, James E.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph presents a detailed, practical exposition on the design, analysis, and interpretation of capture-recapture studies. The Lincoln-Petersen model (Chapter 2) and the closed population models (Chapter 3) are presented only briefly because these models have been covered in detail elsewhere. The Jolly- Seber open population model, which is central to the monograph, is covered in detail in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5 we consider the "enumeration" or "calendar of captures" approach, which is widely used by mammalogists and other vertebrate ecologists. We strongly recommend that it be abandoned in favor of analyses based on the Jolly-Seber model. We consider 2 restricted versions of the Jolly-Seber model. We believe the first of these, which allows losses (mortality or emigration) but not additions (births or immigration), is likely to be useful in practice. Another series of restrictive models requires the assumptions of a constant survival rate or a constant survival rate and a constant capture rate for the duration of the study. Detailed examples are given that illustrate the usefulness of these restrictions. There often can be a substantial gain in precision over Jolly-Seber estimates. In Chapter 5 we also consider 2 generalizations of the Jolly-Seber model. The temporary trap response model allows newly marked animals to have different survival and capture rates for 1 period. The other generalization is the cohort Jolly-Seber model. Ideally all animals would be marked as young, and age effects considered by using the Jolly-Seber model on each cohort separately. In Chapter 6 we present a detailed description of an age-dependent Jolly-Seber model, which can be used when 2 or more identifiable age classes are marked. In Chapter 7 we present a detailed description of the "robust" design. Under this design each primary period contains several secondary sampling periods. We propose an estimation procedure based on closed and open population models that allows for

  17. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experimen...

  18. Book review: Spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals use space is a vital aspect of conservation planning and wildlife management. Technological developments (e.g., increased computer power and desktop geographic information system [GIS] applications) are bringing the ability to analyze spatial data sets to the individual biologist. Therefore, it is not surprising that methodologies have been developed to incorporate space into capture-recapture models, which are some of the most fundamental models in the field of wildlife ecology. Spatial Capture-Recapture (hereafter SCR) is a timely and informative contribution that summarizes the history and motivation behind SCR models, in addition to providing details of the methodological framework that allows the reader to develop and customize SCR models to address their own ecological questions.

  19. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  20. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance.

  1. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...... the carbonate looping process to the cement industry. In order to study the application of thecarbonate looping process to cement industry, the project work is divided into three scales: 1) atparticle scale (TGA), 2) at reactor scale (Fluid-bed) and 3) at process scale (process modeling Pro/II).The results from...

  2. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  3. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  4. Muon Capture on the Proton and Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    By measuring the lifetime of the negative muon in pure protium (hydrogen-1), the MuCap experiment determines the rate of muon capture on the proton, from which the proton's pseudoscalar coupling g_p may be inferred. A precision of 15% for g_p has been published; this is a step along the way to a goal of 7%. This coupling can be calculated precisely from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and therefore permits a test of QCD's chiral symmetry. Meanwhile, the MuSun experiment is in its final design stage; it will measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron using a similar technique. This process can be related through pionless effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory to other two-nucleon reactions of astrophysical interest, including proton-proton fusion and deuteron breakup.

  5. Head-Up Displays and Attention Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Risser, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The primary role of head-up displays (HUDs) is to provide primary flight, navigation, and guidance information to the pilot in a forward field-of-view on a head-up transparent screen. Therefore, this theoretically allows for optimal control of an aircraft through the simultaneous scanning of both instrument data and the out-the-window scene. However, despite significant aviation safety benefits afforded by HUDs, a number of accidents have shown that their use does not come without costs. The human factors community has identified significant issues related to the pilot distribution of near and far domain attentional resources because of the compellingness of symbology elements on the HUD; a concern termed, attention or cognitive capture. The paper describes the phenomena of attention capture and presents a selected survey of the literature on the etiology and potential prescriptions.

  6. Cutting the cost of carbon capture: a case for carbon capture and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Lennart; Huck, Johanna M; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Smit, Berend

    2016-10-20

    A significant part of the cost for carbon capture and storage (CCS) is related to the compression of captured CO2 to its supercritical state, at 150 bar and typically 99% purity. These stringent conditions may however not always be necessary for specific cases of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). In this manuscript, we investigate how much the parasitic energy of an adsorbent-based carbon capture process may be lowered by utilizing CO2 at 1 bar and adapting the final purity requirement for CO2 from 99% to 70% or 50%. We compare different CO2 sources: the flue gases of coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plants and ambient air. We evaluate the carbon capture performance of over 60 nanoporous materials and determine the influence of the initial and final CO2 purity on the parasitic energy of the carbon capture process. Moreover, we demonstrate the underlying principles of the parasitic energy minimization in more detail using the commercially available NaX zeolite. Finally, the calculated utilization cost of CO2 is compared with the reported prices for CO2 and published costs for CCS.

  7. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  8. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  9. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  10. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter G.; Borovicha, Jiri; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbeny, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ~5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km/s. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back-integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92 - 98% probability of TCO behaviour, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 having an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km/s. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  11. Double electron capture searches in $^{74}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Lehnert, B; Degering, D; Sommer, D; Wagner, L; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    A search for various double electron capture modes of $^{74}$Se has been performed using an ultralow background Ge-detector in the Felsenkeller laboratory, Germany. Especially for the potentially resonant transition into the 1204.2 keV excited state of $^{74}$Ge a lower half-life limit of $0.70\\cdot 10^{19}$ yr (90% credibility) has been obtained. Serious concerns are raised about the validity of obtained $^{74}$Se limits in some recent publications.

  12. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    At the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi, April 2011 (CEM 2), the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers on concrete, near-term actions to accelerate global carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment. Twelve CCUS AG governments agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third Clean Energy Ministerial (London, 25-26 April 2012) (CEM 3). Following CEM 2, the CCUS AG requested the IEA and the Global CCS Institute to report on progress made against the 2011 recommendations at CEM 3. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial responds to that request. The report considers a number of key questions. Taken as a whole, what advancements have committed CCUS AG governments made against the 2011 recommendations since CEM 2? How can Energy Ministers continue to drive progress to enable CCS to fully contribute to climate change mitigation? While urgent further action is required in all areas, are there particular areas that are currently receiving less policy attention than others, where efforts could be redoubled? The report concludes that, despite developments in some areas, significant further work is required. CCS financing and industrial applications continue to represent a particularly serious challenge.

  13. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David L; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an...

  14. Developing shock-capturing difference methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Guo-hua; YUAN Xiang-jiang; LU Li-peng

    2007-01-01

    A new shock-capturing method is proposed which is based on upwind schemes and flux-vector splittings. Firstly, original upwind schemes are projected along characteristic directions. Secondly, the amplitudes of the characteristic decompositions are carefully controlled by limiters to prevent non-physical oscillations. Lastly, the schemes are converted into conservative forms, and the oscillation-free shock-capturing schemes are acquired. Two explicit upwind schemes (2nd-order and 3rd-order) and three compact upwind schemes (3rd-order, 5th-order and 7th-order) are modified by the method for hyperbolic systems and the modified schemes are checked on several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test cases. Some numerical solutions of the schemes are compared with those of a WENO scheme and a MP scheme as well as a compact-WENO scheme. The results show that the method with high order accuracy and high resolutions can capture shock waves smoothly.

  15. Longitudinal RF capture simulation and BPM signal estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Chen, Yu-Cong; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Ruan, Shuang; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Kang, Xin-Cai; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Li, Peng; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical aspects behind longitudinal RF capture are reviewed and the capture process is simulated via a program based on this theory. Four kinds of cases with different initial distribution and capture curve are considered, i.e. uniform distribution with adiabatic capture, uniform distribution with non-adiabatic capture, Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture and Gaussian distribution with non-adiabatic capture. The simulation results are compared each other and discussed, and Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture is demonstrated having a higher capture efficiency and leading to a shorter bunch length. In addition, the BPM induced signal is simulated with high input impendence, i.e. $1M\\Omega$, and low input impendence, i.e. $50\\Omega$, respectively. Finally, the BPM signal of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) is estimated and compared with measured one, and a good agreement is achieved.

  16. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  17. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  18. Evaluation of a Gait Assessment Module Using 3D Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda J.; Belli, Patricia; Kelleher, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Gait analysis is the study of human locomotion. In massage therapy, this observation is part of an assessment process that informs treatment planning. Massage therapy students must apply the theory of gait assessment to simulated patients. At Humber College, the gait assessment module traditionally consists of a textbook reading and a three-hour, in-class session in which students perform gait assessment on each other. In 2015, Humber College acquired a three-dimensional motion capture system. Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the use of 3D motion capture in a gait assessment module compared to the traditional gait assessment module. Participants Semester 2 massage therapy students who were enrolled in Massage Theory 2 (n = 38). Research Design Quasi-experimental, wait-list comparison study. Intervention The intervention group participated in an in-class session with a Qualisys motion capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) The outcomes included knowledge and application of gait assessment theory as measured by quizzes, and students’ satisfaction as measured through a questionnaire. Results There were no statistically significant differences in baseline and post-module knowledge between both groups (pre-module: p = .46; post-module: p = .63). There was also no difference between groups on the final application question (p = .13). The intervention group enjoyed the in-class session because they could visualize the content, whereas the comparison group enjoyed the interactivity of the session. The intervention group recommended adding the assessment of gait on their classmates to their experience. Both groups noted more time was needed for the gait assessment module. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the gait assessment module combine both the traditional in-class session and the 3D motion capture system. PMID:28293329

  19. Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium for cancer therapy. Production of {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, synthesis of labeled compounds and their biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Production of the radioactive rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of their labeled compounds have been studied together with the biodistributions of the compounds. This work was carried out by the Working Group on Radioactive Rhenium, consisting of researchers of JAERI and some universities, in the Subcommittee for Production and Radiolabeling under the Consultative Committee of Research on Radioisotopes. For {sup 186}Re, production methods by the {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}){sup 186}Re reaction in a reactor and by the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction with an accelerator, which can produce nocarrier-added {sup 186}Re, have been established. For {sup 188}Re, a production method by the double neutron capture reaction of {sup 186}W, which produces a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator, has been established. For labeling of bisphosphonate, DMSA, DTPA, DADS, aminomethylenephosphonate and some monoclonal antibodies with the radioactive rhenium isotopes, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of reagents and so on, have been determined for each compound. The biodistributions of each of the labeled compounds in mice have been also obtained. (author)

  20. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before your first hyperbaric oxygen therapy session. During hyperbaric oxygen therapy Hyperbaric oxygen therapy typically is performed ... and the therapy unit throughout your treatment. After hyperbaric oxygen therapy You may feel somewhat tired or ...

  2. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  3. Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, & H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  5. Animation control of surface motion capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Margara; Casas, Dan; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Surface motion capture (SurfCap) of actor performance from multiple view video provides reconstruction of the natural nonrigid deformation of skin and clothing. This paper introduces techniques for interactive animation control of SurfCap sequences which allow the flexibility in editing and interactive manipulation associated with existing tools for animation from skeletal motion capture (MoCap). Laplacian mesh editing is extended using a basis model learned from SurfCap sequences to constrain the surface shape to reproduce natural deformation. Three novel approaches for animation control of SurfCap sequences, which exploit the constrained Laplacian mesh editing, are introduced: 1) space–time editing for interactive sequence manipulation; 2) skeleton-driven animation to achieve natural nonrigid surface deformation; and 3) hybrid combination of skeletal MoCap driven and SurfCap sequence to extend the range of movement. These approaches are combined with high-level parametric control of SurfCap sequences in a hybrid surface and skeleton-driven animation control framework to achieve natural surface deformation with an extended range of movement by exploiting existing MoCap archives. Evaluation of each approach and the integrated animation framework are presented on real SurfCap sequences for actors performing multiple motions with a variety of clothing styles. Results demonstrate that these techniques enable flexible control for interactive animation with the natural nonrigid surface dynamics of the captured performance and provide a powerful tool to extend current SurfCap databases by incorporating new motions from MoCap sequences.

  6. Fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani Lake Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIRULWAN UMAR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentani lake is known as lake in Papua where biodiversity of fish is high and captured fisheries activities is dominantly found. The aim of this research was to know the fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani lake. This research was done in 2005 by using stratified sampling method which covered 7 (seven research stations. Data of fishes’ composition and captured yield were obtain from fishers’ captured and from experimental captured. The captured fish and relative abundance are 16 species. Captured yield in period of Mei – December 2005 was fluctuative (130.860 – 182.144 kg. The average was 151.960 kg. Total production a year was around 1.823, 52 ton/year in which fishers’ captured yield was around 4.2 – 5.6 kg/day with the average 4.7 kg/day.

  7. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  8. Neutron capture measurements on {sup 171}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, R. E-mail: www.reifarth@lanl.gov; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Fowler, M.M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Miller, G.G.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ullmann, J.L.; Wilhelmy, J.B

    2003-05-05

    A first proof of principal experiment of measuring neutron capture cross sections of radioactive isotopes was performed on {sup 171}Tm which has a half life of 1.92 years. This isotope was chosen for its ease of production and its radiation properties. The experiment was done at an 8 meter irradiation station at LANSCE using the pulse height weighting technique. A complemental activation measurement at FZK as well as a theoretical estimation indicated a significant background component above 1 keV neutron energy during the experiment at LANSCE.

  9. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  10. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  11. Testing Lorentz invariance in orbital electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    Searches for Lorentz violation were recently extended to the weak sector, in particular neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay [1]. From experiments on forbidden $\\beta$-decay transitions strong limits in the range of $10^{-6}$-$10^{-8}$ were obtained on Lorentz-violating components of the $W$-boson propagator [2]. In order to improve on these limits strong sources have to be considered. In this Brief Report we study isotopes that undergo orbital electron capture and allow experiments at high decay rates and low dose. We derive the expressions for the Lorentz-violating differential decay rate and discuss the options for competitive experiments and their required precision.

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage in the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication assesses the policy questions as highlighted in the relevant COP/MOP 2 decision, particularly leaks (or seepage) and permanence for geological storage, project boundaries and liability issues, and leakage, as well as a few others raised by some Parties. Since any emissions or leaks during the separation, capture and transport phases would occur during the crediting period of the project (and would therefore be accounted for as project emissions), the paper focuses its analyses for leaks and liability on storage, as it is in this part of the CCS process that long-term leaks could occur.

  13. Hyperspectral photometric stereo for a single capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Keisuke; Sato, Imari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    We present a single-capture photometric stereo method using a hyperspectral camera. A spectrally and spatially designed illumination enables a point-wise estimation of reflectance spectra and surface normals from a single hyperspectral image. The illumination works as a reflectance probe in wide spectral regions where reflectance spectra are measured, and the full spectra are estimated by interpolation. It also works as the resource for shadings in other spectral regions. The accuracy of estimation is evaluated in a simulation. Also, we prepare an experimental setup and demonstrate a surface reconstruction against a real scene.

  14. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  15. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  16. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  17. Diffusive capture processes for information search

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S; Kim, Y; Lee, Sungmin; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2007-01-01

    We show how effectively the diffusive capture processes (DCP) on complex networks can be applied to information search in the networks. Numerical simulations show that our method generates only 2% of traffic compared with the most popular flooding-based query-packet-forwarding (FB) algorithm. We find that the average searching time, $$, of the our model is more scalable than another well known $n$-random walker model and comparable to the FB algorithm both on real Gnutella network and scale-free networks with $\\gamma =2.4$. We also discuss the possible relationship between $$ and $$, the second moment of the degree distribution of the networks.

  18. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  19. Simteche Hydrate CO2 Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2006-09-30

    As a result of an August 4, 2005 project review meeting held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to assess the project's technical progress, Nexant/Simteche/LANL project team was asked to meet four targets related to the existing project efforts. The four targets were to be accomplished by the September 30, 2006. These four targets were: (1) The CO{sub 2} hydrate process needs to show, through engineering and sensitivity analysis, that it can achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture from the treated syngas stream, operating at 1000 psia. The cost should indicate the potential of achieving the Sequestration Program's cost target of less than 10% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of the non-CO{sub 2} removal IGCC plant or demonstrate a significant cost reduction from the Selexol process cost developed in the Phase II engineering analysis. (2) The ability to meet the 20% cost share requirement for research level efforts. (3) LANL identifies through equilibrium and bench scale testing a once-through 90% CO{sub 2} capture promoter that supports the potential to achieve the Sequestration Program's cost target. Nexant is to perform an engineering analysis case to verify any economic benefits, as needed; no ETM validation is required, however, for this promoter for FY06. (4) The CO{sub 2} hydrate once-through process is to be validated at 1000 psia with the ETM at a CO{sub 2} capture rate of 60% without H{sub 2}S. The performance of 68% rate of capture is based on a batch, equilibrium data with H{sub 2}S. Validation of the test results is required through multiple runs and engineering calculations. Operational issues will be solved that will specifically effect the validation of the technology. Nexant was given the primary responsibility for Target No.1, while Simteche was mainly responsible for Target No.2; with LANL having the responsibility of Targets No.3 and No.4.

  20. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Steven Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.