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Sample records for capture therapy evaluated

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy: Brain Tumor Treatment Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, M.L.; Dorn, R.V. III; Gavin, P.R.; Spickard, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a focused, multidisciplined program to evaluate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of brain tumors. The program, centered at the DOE/endash/Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), will develop the analytical, diagnostic and treatment tools, and the database required for BNCT technical assessment. The integrated technology will be evaluated in a spontaneously-occurring canine brain-tumor model. Successful animal studies are expected to lead to human clinical trials within four to five years. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  3. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  5. In vivo evaluation of neutron capture therapy effectivity using calcium phosphate-based nanoparticles as Gd-DTPA delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Mi, Peng; Yanagie, Hironobu; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Masashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Cabral, Horacio; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ono, Koji; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    A more immediate impact for therapeutic approaches of current clinical research efforts is of major interest, which might be obtained by developing a noninvasive radiation dose-escalation strategy, and neutron capture therapy represents one such novel approach. Furthermore, some recent researches on neutron capture therapy have focused on using gadolinium as an alternative or complementary for currently used boron, taking into account several advantages that gadolinium offers. Therefore, in this study, we carried out feasibility evaluation for both single and multiple injections of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent incorporated in calcium phosphate nanoparticles as neutron capture therapy agent. In vivo evaluation was performed on colon carcinoma Col-26 tumor-bearing mice irradiated at nuclear reactor facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute with average neutron fluence of 1.8 × 10(12) n/cm(2). Antitumor effectivity was evaluated based on tumor growth suppression assessed until 27 days after neutron irradiation, followed by histopathological analysis on tumor slice. The experimental results showed that the tumor growth of irradiated mice injected beforehand with Gd-DTPA-incorporating calcium phosphate-based nanoparticles was suppressed up to four times higher compared to the non-treated group, supported by the results of histopathological analysis. The results of antitumor effectivity observed on tumor-bearing mice after neutron irradiation indicated possible effectivity of gadolinium-based neutron capture therapy treatment.

  6. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boronated polyglycerol dendrimers as potential agent for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gerald S.; Camillo, Maria A.P.; Higa, Olga Z.; Pugliesi, Reynaldo; Fermamdes, Edson G.R.; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) generation 5 was used to obtain a boronated macromolecule for boron neutron capture therapy. The PGLD dendrimer was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth processes denominated divergent synthesis. The PGLD dendritic structure was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques. The synthesized dendrimer presented low dispersion in molecular weights (M w /M n = 1.05) and a degree of branching of 0.82, which characterize the polymer dendritic structure. Quantitative neutron capture radiography was used to investigate the boron-10 enrichment of the polyglycerol dendrimer. The in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells of 10 B-PGLD dendrimer indicate lower cytotoxicity, suggesting that the macromolecule is a biocompatible material. (author)

  8. Evaluation of moderator assemblies for use in an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollard, J.E.; Blue, T.E.; Gupta, N.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The neutron fields produced by several moderator assemblies were evaluated using both in-phantom and in-air neutron field assessment parameters. The parameters were used to determine the best moderator assembly, from among those evaluated, for use in the accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy. For a 10-mA proton beam current and the specified treatment parameters, a moderator assembly consisting of a BeO moderator and a Li 2 CO 3 reflector was found to be the best moderator assembly whether the comparison was based on in-phantom or in-air neutron field assessment parameters. However, the parameters were discordant regarding the moderator thickness. The in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters predict 20 cm of BeO as the best moderator thickness, whereas the in-air neutron field assessment parameters predict 25 cm of BeO as the best moderator thickness

  9. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  12. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  13. Evaluation of carboranylporphyrins as boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shinji; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Wu, Gong; Binns, Peter J.; Riley, Kent J.; Ongayi, Owendi; Gottumukkala, Vijay; Vicente, Graca H.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to determine the biodistribution of three carboranyl-porphyrins, designated H 2 DCP, H 2 TCP and H 2 TBP following intracerebral (i.c.) administration by means of convection enhanced delivery (CED) to F98 glioma bearing rats. Tumor boron concentrations immediately after CED were 36 and 88 μg/g for H 2 DCP and H 2 TCP, respectively, and were 103 and 62 μg/g for H 2 TCP and H 2 TBP, respectively, 24h after termination of CED. The corresponding normal brain concentrations were 5.2, 3.3 and 0.8 μg/g, and blood and liver concentrations all were 2 TCP and H 2 TBP as boron delivery agents in F98 glioma bearing rats. BNCT was carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITRR) 24 h after CED of 200 μl of either 0.5 mg of H 2 TCP or H 2 TBP. Untreated control rats all died within 29 days after tumor implantation and had a mean survival time (MST) of 23±3 days and irradiated controls had a MST of 27±3 days. Animals that received H 2 TCP by CED, followed by BNCT, had a MST of 35±4 days and animals received H 2 TBP had a MST of 44±10 days. Further studies were carried out using H 2 TBP at a dose of 0.2 mg administered by a Harvard pump, either alone or in combination with i.v. BPA, and the corresponding MSTs were 34±3 d and 43±9 d, respectively. Histopathologic examination of the brains of animals that died revealed large numbers of porphyrin laden macrophages and extracellular accumulations of free porphyrin indicating that tumor cell uptake was suboptimal. Further studies are planned to synthesize and evaluate new compounds that will have enhanced cellular uptake and efficacy as boron delivery agents for NCT. (author)

  14. Towards boron neutron capture therapy: the formulation and preliminary in vitro evaluation of liposomal vehicles for the therapeutic delivery of the dequalinium salt of bis-nido-carborane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Dimitrios; Rova, Aikaterini; Smith, James R; Barbu, Eugen; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Tsibouklis, John; Fatouros, Dimitrios G

    2013-11-15

    Liposomes of phosphatidylcholine or of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine that incorporate bis-nido-carborane dequalinium salt are stable in physiologically relevant media and have in vitro toxicity profiles that appear to be compatible with potential therapeutic applications. These features render the structures suitable candidate boron-delivery vehicles for evaluation in the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since the discovery of the neutron. This paper briefly summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds with evident tumor specificity and extended biological half-lives. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT using band-pass filtered beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Preclinical studies on gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy is based on radiations (photons and electrons) produced in the tumor by a nuclear reaction between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons. Studies with Chinese hamster cells have shown that the radiation effect resulting from gadolinium neutron capture reactions is mostly of low LET and that released electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. Biological dosimetry revealed that the dose does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, leading to a conclusion that there is a range of gadolinium concentrations most efficient for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The in vivo studies with transplantable tumors in mice and rabbits have revealed that close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation and that gadolinium delivery selective to tumors is crucial. The results show that the potential of gadolinium neutron capture therapy as a therapeutic modality appears very promising. (author)

  17. Approach to magnetic neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Podoynitsyn, Sergey N.; Filippov, Victor I.; Komissarova, Lubov Kh.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The method of magnetic neutron capture therapy can be described as a combination of two methods: magnetic localization of drugs using magnetically targeted carriers and neutron capture therapy itself. Methods and Materials: In this work, we produced and tested two types of particles for such therapy. Composite ultradispersed ferro-carbon (Fe-C) and iron-boron (Fe-B) particles were formed from vapors of respective materials. Results: Two-component ultradispersed particles, containing Fe and C, were tested as magnetic adsorbent of L-boronophenylalanine and borax and were shown that borax sorption could be effective for creation of high concentration of boron atoms in the area of tumor. Kinetics of boron release into the physiologic solution demonstrate that ultradispersed Fe-B (10%) could be applied for an effective magnetic neutron capture therapy. Conclusion: Both types of the particles have high magnetization and magnetic homogeneity, allow to form stable magnetic suspensions, and have low toxicity

  18. Towards gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalpers, L.; Kuipers, S.; Vroegindeweij, C.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Slotman, B.

    2000-01-01

    As glioblastoma multiforme has macroscopic areas with poor vascularisation, and thereby poor uptake of an NCT-agent, the long-range γ-rays from GdNCT might enhance dose deposition compared to BNCT and to conformal photon therapy. Multicellular spheroids from a human glioblastoma cell line (Gli-6) were irradiated with conventional X-rays, with neutrons only (from the NRG Argonaut Reactor, LFR), and with neutrons (from the LFR) + 157 Gd-DTPA (240 ppm 157 Gd). Preliminary results demonstrate that after neutron irradiation in the presence of 157 Gd, the spheroids showed growth arrest. By 3D treatment planning calculations on MRI's from patients with brain tumours, dose volume histograms (DVH) for GdNCT were compared to DVH for conventional conformal radiotherapy. The calculations indicate that GdNCT on patients with large, deep-seated tumours yields better tumour/brain dose distribution than conformal radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Chemical processes in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Research into the radiation chemical effects of neutron capture therapy are described. In the use of neutron capture therapy for the treatment of brain tumours, compounds containing an activatable nuclide are selectively concentrated within tumour tissue and irradiated with neutrons. Target compounds for use in therapy must accumulate selectively in high concentrations in the tumour and must be non toxic to the patient. The most suitable of these are the boron hydrides. Radiation dosages, resulting from neutron capture in normal tissue constituents are tabulated. As part of the program to study the radiation-induced chemical processes undergone by boron target compounds, the radiolytic degredation of boron hydride and phenyl boric acid system was investigated. No direct dependence between the yield of the transient radiolytic species and the concentration of the B-compound was observed. (author)

  20. Gadolinium atom on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Takagaki, M.; Miyatake, S.; Kikuchi, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes our measurements of gadolinium concentrations in several brain tumors obtained from fresh surgical specimens, as compared with corresponding concentrations in the blood. Moreover we tried to find out if the gadolinium concentration is high enough to use this compound in the treatment of brain tumors by neutron capture therapy. (J.P.N.)

  1. First evaluation of the biologic effectiveness factors of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a human colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martín; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ((10)BPA) and for 2,4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ((10)BOPP). Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ((60)Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy (±10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10(9) n/cm(2) sec). The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 ± 2.2 and 2.0 ± 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 ± 3.7 and 3.5 ± 1.3. BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma

  2. In vivo evaluation of the 3-carboranyl thymidine analogue (3-CTA), N5-2OH, for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Wu, Gong; Byun, Youngjoo; Tjarks, Werner; Eriksson, Staffan; Binns, Peter J.; Riley, Kent J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a 3 CTA, designated N5-2OH, as a boron delivery agent for NCT. Target validation was established using the thymidine kinase 1 (+) wild type L929 cell line and its TK1(-) counterpart, which were implanted subcutaneously into NIH nu/nu mice. 10 B-enriched N5-2OH, solubilized in DMSO (50μg 10 B in 15μl), was administered by 2 intratumoral (i.t.) injections at 2 h intervals. Two hours later the animals were irradiated at the MITR-II Research Reactor, following which tumor volumes were determined over a period of 30 days. Mice bearing TK1(+) wild type tumors, which had received N5-2OH, had a 15 fold inhibition in tumor growth compared to TK1(-) controls (247 versus 3,603 mm 3 ). Based on these data, biodistribution and therapy studies were initiated in F98 glioma bearing rats. Animals received 500μg of N5-2OH, administered intracerebrally (i.c.) by convection enhanced delivery (CED) using ALZET pumps (8μl/h for 24 h). The tumor boron concentration was 17.3μg/g compared to undetectable amounts in normal brain and blood. BNCT was carried out 14 d following i.c. implantation of 10 3 F98 glioma cells and 24 h following CED of N5-2OH (500μg/200μl). The mean survival time (MST) of these animals was 38 d compared to 31 d and 25 d, respectively, for irradiated and untreated controls. Studies are planned to optimize the delivery and formulation of N5-2OH and additional therapy studies will be carried out using N5-2OH in combination with BPA and BSH. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration

  4. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration.

  5. Neutron capture therapy. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, Wolfgang A.G.; Moss, Raymond; Wittig, Andrea; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    State of the art report on neutron capture therapy. Summarizes the progress made in recent decades. Multidisciplinary approach. Written by the most experienced specialists Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is based on the ability of the non-radioactive isotope boron-10 to capture thermal neutrons with very high probability and immediately to release heavy particles with a path length of one cell diameter. This in principle allows for tumor cell-selective high-LET particle radiotherapy. NCT is exciting scientifically but challenging clinically, and a key factor in success is close collaboration among very different disciplines. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the progress made in NCT in recent years. Individual sections cover all important aspects, including neutron sources, boron chemistry, drugs for NCT, dosimetry, and radiation biology. The use of NCT in a variety of malignancies and also some non-malignant diseases is extensively discussed. NCT is clearly shown to be a promising modality at the threshold of wider clinical application. All of the chapters are written by experienced specialists in language that will be readily understood by all participating disciplines.

  6. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT.

  7. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  8. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.

    2000-01-01

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  9. Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Miola, U.J.; Ettinger, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recent development of various borated compounds and the utilization of one of these (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) to treat brain tumors in clinical studies in Japan has renewed interest in neutron capture therapy. In these procedures thermal neutrons interact with 10 B in boron containing cells through the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction producing charged particles with a maximum range of approx. 10μm in tissue. Borated analogs of chlorpromazine, porphyrin, thiouracil and deoxyuridine promise improved tumor uptake and blood clearance. The therapy beam from the Medical Research Reactor in Brookhaven contains neutrons from a modified and filtered fission spectrum and dosimetric consequences of the use of the above mentioned compounds in conjunction with thermal and epithermal fluxes are discussed in the paper. One of the important problems of radiation dosimetry in capture therapy is determination of the flux profile and, hence, the dose profile in the brain. This has been achieved by constructing a brain phantom made of TE plastic. The lyoluminescence technique provides a convenient way of monitoring the neutron flux distributions; the detectors for this purpose utilize 6 Li and 10 B compounds. Such compounds have been synthesized specially for the purpose of dosimetry of thermal and epithermal beams. In addition, standard lyoluminescent phosphors, like glutamine, could be used to determine the collisional component of the dose as well as the contribution of the 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction. Measurements of thermal flux were compared with calculations and with measurements done with activation foils

  10. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  11. Development Research of new boron-compounds for boron neutron capture therapy. Biological activity evaluation of amino group in p-boronophenylalanine and p-boronophenylalaninol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumanisi, A.; Uehara, K.; Takikawa, S.; Kirihata, M.; Takagaki, M.; Ono, K.; Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used as a leading compound for development and research of some of new boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Para-boronophenylalaninol (BPA-ol) is designed molecularly by converting carboxyl group of the BPA to hydroxyl group. The BPA-ol gets a good result in biological test in-vitro and in-vivo. N-methyl-BPA and N-methyl-BPA-ol are synthesized for biological activity evaluation of amino group in the BPA. Two pathways for methylation of amino group in the BPA are investigated. These synthesized compounds of N-methyl-BPA, N-methyl-BPA-ol, and the BPA-ol are tested by colony formation method using gliosarcoma C6 cultured cells of rats. Absorbed doses (thermal neutron fluences) corresponding to the 10% surviving fraction are 1.69 x 10 13 for N-methyl-BPA, 1.13 x 10 13 for N-methyl-BPA-ol, and 6.87 x 10 12 for BPA-ol, respectively. Toxicity of N-methyl-BPA or N-Methyl-BPA-ol to the cultured cells is below that of the BPA. The toxicity of N-methyl-BPA-ol, particularly, is less than 1/100 of that of the BPA. (M. Suetake)

  12. Boron thermal/epithermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of various particle beams for radiotherapy represents an attempt to improve dose distribution, and to provide high LET radiations which are less sensitive to ambient physical and radiobiological factors such as oxygen tension, cell cycle, and dose rate. In general, a compromise is necessary as effective RBE is reduced in order to spread the dose distribution over the anticipated tumor volume. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, and then activating these atoms subsequently via an external radiation beam has mator advantages; problems associated with high uptake of these isotopes in competing cell pools are obviated, and the general tumor volume can be included in the treatment field of the activating beam. As long as the normal tissues supporting tumor show a low uptake of the isotope to be activated, and as long as the range of the reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to tumor, with a consequent high therapeutic ratio. Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) is generally carried out by activating boron-10 with low energy neutrons. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the 10 B(n, α) 7 Li reaction is approx. 10μ, or one cell diameter, a situation that is optimal for cell killing. Significant advantages may be gained by using the NCT procedure in conjunction with improved tissue penetration provided with epithermal or filtered beams, and new compounds showing physiological binding to tumor

  13. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted

  14. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  15. Dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.M.S.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Blue, T.E.; Wambersie, A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some aspects of the many considerations that need to go into a dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for brain tumors; and to describe some methods to incorporate knowledge from animal studies and other experiments into the process of dose prescription. Previously, an algorithm to estimate the normal tissue tolerance to mixed high and low linear energy transfer radiations in BNCT was proposed. The authors have developed mathematical formulations and computational methods to represent this algorithm. Generalized models to fit the central axis dose rate components for an epithermal neutron field were also developed. These formulations and beam fitting models were programmed into spreadsheets to simulate two treatment techniques which are expected to be used in BNCT: a two-field bilateral scheme and a single-field treatment scheme. Parameters in these spreadsheets can be varied to represent the fractionation scheme used, the 10 B microdistribution in normal tissue, and the ratio of 10 B in tumor to normal tissue. Most of these factors have to be determined for a given neutron field and 10 B compound combination from large animal studies. The spreadsheets have been programmed to integrate all of the treatment-related information and calculate the location along the central axis where the normal tissue tolerance is exceeded first. This information is then used to compute the maximum treatment time allowable and the maximum tumor dose that may be delivered for a given BNCT treatment. The effect of different treatment variables on the treatment time and tumor dose has been shown to be very significant. It has also been shown that the location of D max shifts significantly, depending on some of the treatment variables-mainly the fractionation scheme used. These results further emphasize the fact that dose prescription in BNCT is very complicated and nonintuitive. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author addresses the question of single session versus protracted therapy in the application of boron neutron therapy to tumors. As background he discusses the reasoning behind the current use of fractionated therapy with conventional low-LET radiations and difference which may obtain for neutron therapy. Several aspects of dose rates and dose levels are then addressed

  17. Dose modification factors in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.J. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Menai (Australia))

    1993-01-01

    The effective treatment depth and therapeutic ratio in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depend on a number of macroscopic dose factors such as boron concentrations in the tumor, normal tissue and blood. However, the role of various microscopic dose modification factors can be of critical importance in the evaluation of normal tissue tolerance levels. An understanding of these factors is valuable in designing BNCT experiments and the selection of appropriate boron compounds. These factors are defined in this paper and applied to the case of brain tumors with particular attention to capillary endothelial cells and oligodendrocytes. (orig.).

  18. Advances in neutron capture therapy 2006. Proceedings of 12th international congress on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Tooru; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Twelfth International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy (ICNCT-12) is being held from October 9th to 13th, 2006 at the Kagawa International Congress Hall in Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan. The main theme of the congress is From the past to the Future'. Five symposiums were organized to accommodate all the contributions from the international scientific committees of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT), and two symposiums were added to balance the number of fields of specialties. The seven symposiums for ICNCT-12 are as follows: 1) Clinical Results of BNCT for Brain Tumors, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Treatment Planning system, 4) Drug Delivery System, 5) Biomedical and General Matters, 6) BNCT Systems using Accelerators, 7) New Applications and Protocols for BNCT. There are a total of 195 presentations in this congress: 3 special lectures, 34 symposium presentations, 10 presentations in two special sessions from the recipients of the Ralph G. Fairchild Award, 70 presentations in the oral parallel sessions and 78 presentations in the poster sessions. A compilation of 169 papers are published in this proceedings. The 165 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [ 10 B]. Cytotoxic 7 Li nuclei and α-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 microm, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm 10 B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry

  20. Evaluation of hypoxia-specific cytotoxic bioreductive agent-sodium borocaptate-10B conjugates as 10B-carriers in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Gotoh, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 5 new 10 B-compounds (TX-2091, TX-2095, TX-2097, TX-2100, and TX-2110) as 10 B-carriers in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). They were conjugates that had been synthesized from a hypoxia-specific cytotoxic bioreductive agent, quinoxaline oxide TX-402, and a clinically used 10 B-carrier, sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH). The 5 new compounds were hybrid compounds that have both a hypoxic cytotoxin unit and a thermal neutron-sensitizing unit, BSH. These new compounds and BSH were administered intraperitoneally to SCC VII tumor-bearing mice. Then, the 10 B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Subsequently, SCC VII tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells in the tumors, then treated with TX-2100, which was chosen based on the results of the above-mentioned biodistribution analyses, or BSH in the same manner as in the biodistribution studies. Right after irradiation, during which intratumor 10 B concentrations were kept at levels similar to each other, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling [=quiescent (Q) cells] was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, the MN frequency in the total (P+Q) tumor cell population was determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Clonogenic cell survival was also determined in mice given no BrdU. 10 B biodistribution analyses in tumors, brain, skin, muscles, blood, and liver indicated that TX-2100 has the most favorable characteristics for concentrating a sufficient amount of 10 B in tumors and maintaining a high enough 10 B concentration during irradiation. In addition, TX-2100 had a significantly stronger radio-sensitizing effect with

  1. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomura, T.; Furutani, H.; Osawa, M.; Ono, K.; Fukuda, K.

    2000-01-01

    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  2. In vitro radiobiological evaluation of selective killing effects of 10B1-paraboronophenylalanine.HCl in the thermal neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Hayashibe, K.; Hatta, S.; Tsuji, M.; Mishima, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K.

    1985-01-01

    In order to clarify the specific affinity of 10 B 1 -p-boronophenylalanine.HCl ( 10 B 1 -BPA) to melanoma cells, the killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment on both cultured melanotic and amelanotic melanoma cells were compared with those on non-melanoma cells, such as Alexander cells, HeLa cells and normal human fibroblasts. Cells in the plateau phase cultured in the usual medium for 4-7 days were incubated with the medium containing 50 μg/ml 10 B 1 -BPA for 20 hours until 2 hours before thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation, the number of colonies consisting of more than 50 cells was counted to obtain the dose-survival curves. The melanotic cells pre-incubated with 10 B 1 -BPA had more enhanced killing sensitivity to thermal neutron irradiation than amelanotic melanoma cells pre-incubated similarly with 10 B 1 -BPA. 10 B 1 -BPA pre-incubation had no enhanced killing effects on Alexander cells, but had slightly enhanced killing effects on HeLa cells. These results indicate that 10 B 1 -BPA could be incorporated by a specific uptake mechanism of melanoma cells and accumulated within melanotic melanoma cells and that 10 B 1 -BPA at present could be the best chemical for the thermal neutron capture therapy of human malignant melanoma. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Proton linacs for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1993-08-01

    Recent advances in the ability to deliver boron-containing drugs to brain tumors have generated interest in ∼4 MeV linacs as sources of epithermal neutrons for radiation therapy. In addition, fast neutron therapy facilities have been studying methods to moderate their beams to take advantage of the high cross section for epithermal neutrons on boron-10. This paper describes the technical issues involved in each approach and presents the motivation for undertaking such studies using the Fermilab linac. the problems which must be solved before therapy can begin are outlined. Status of preparatory work and results of preliminary measurements are presented

  4. Slow neutron capture therapy for malignant glioma (boron or lithium neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    In recurrent glioblastoma, the mean survival period is approx. 6 months by the routine methods of treatment, but is extended more than 3-fold by neutron capture therapy. This method and a routine method with 60 Co or an accelerator were used for comparison in the clinical treatment of 26 patients with supratentorial malignant glioma. There were no significant differences as for prognostic factors of the group treated by this method and those of the control group; No. of cases 14 and 12, the mean age 46 and 53.5 yr, and the stage (TNM) 3.14 and 2.83, respectively. As of the end of Feb. 1980, this method showed a lifeprolonging effect 3 times that of the control, the mean survival period being 67 weeks for this method and 21 for the control. Although 100% improvement was observed in about one half of the cases by this method, the control group showed improvement of only 80% at maximum. It is also possible to treat any deep portion of the brain with thermal neutrons. As a Boron compound, mercaptoundecahydrododecarborate with a low toxicity has been put into practical use for brain tumors, and as Li, the use of 6 LiCl for lung cancer is under examination. (Chiba, N.)

  5. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part I: boron neutron capture therapy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, C N; Wangerin, K; Ghandourah, E; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for neutron capture therapy related modeling. A boron neutron capture therapy model was analyzed comparing COG calculational results to results from the widely used MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code. The approach for computing neutron fluence rate and each dose component relevant in boron neutron capture therapy is described, and calculated values are shown in detail. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions are qualified and quantified. The differences are generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied for BNCT research related problems.

  6. General considerations for neutron capture therapy at a reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to neutron beam intensity and quality, there are also a number of other significant criteria related to a nuclear reactor that contribute to a successful neutron capture therapy (NCT) facility. These criteria are classified into four main categories: Nuclear design factors, facility management and operations factors, facility resources, and non-technical factors. Important factors to consider are given for each of these categories. In addition to an adequate neutron beam intensity and quality, key requirements for a successful neutron capture therapy facility include necessary finances to construct or convert a facility for NCT, a capable medical staff to perform the NCT, and the administrative support for the facility. The absence of any one of these four factors seriously jeopardizes the overall probability of success of the facility. Thus nuclear reactor facility management considering becoming involved in neutron capture therapy, should it be proven clinically successful, should take all these factors into consideration. (author)

  7. Neutron capture therapy with thermal neutrons at IRT MIFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, K.N.; Portnov, A.A.; Savkin, V.A.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.; Shejno, I.N.; Vajnson, A.A.; Kozlovskaya, N.G.; Meshcherikova, V.V.; Mitin, V.N.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Combined preclinical investigations into neutron capture therapy are conducted. Malignant melanoma was adopted as the line of investigation; boron-containing and gadolinium-containing preparations were used during the neutron capture therapy working off. Preparations produce secondary varying radiations when used in tumor. Dogs with spontaneous melanoma were used for the experiments. Procedures for the irradiation of dogs by neutron beam as the stage before use for the treatment of oncology patients were finished off; efficiency of neutron beam influence on normal tissues during the irradiation of dogs with melanoma (and without it) in antitumor and side effect sense was estimated [ru

  8. Role of gel dosimeters in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalili, Assef

    2015-01-01

    Gel dosimeters have acquired a unique status in radiotherapy, especially with the advent of the new techniques in which there is a need for three-dimensional dose measurement with high spatial resolution. One of the techniques in which the use of gel dosimeters has drawn the attention of the researchers is the boron neutron capture therapy. Exploring the history of gel dosimeters, this paper sets out to study their role in the boron neutron capture therapy dosimetric process. - Highlights: • Gel dosimeters have been investigated. • Conventional dosimetric proses of BNCT has been investigated. • Role of gel dosimeters in BNCT has been investigated

  9. Neutron therapy coupling brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Iara Ferreira.

    1994-12-01

    In the present dissertation, neutron radiation techniques applied into organs of the human body are investigated as oncologic radiation therapy. The proposal treatment consists on connecting two distinct techniques: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and irradiation by discrete sources of neutrons, through the brachytherapy conception. Biological and radio-dosimetrical aspects of the two techniques are considered. Nuclear aspects are discussed, presenting the nuclear reactions occurred in tumoral region, and describing the forms of evaluating the dose curves. Methods for estimating radiation transmission are reviewed through the solution of the neutron transport equation, Monte Carlo methodology, and simplified analytical calculation based on diffusion equation and numerical integration. The last is computational developed and presented as a quickly way to neutron transport evaluation in homogeneous medium. The computational evaluation of the doses for distinct hypothetical situations is presented, applying the coupled techniques BNTC and brachytherapy as an possible oncologic treatment. (author). 78 refs., 61 figs., 21 tabs

  10. Clinical results of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of BSH-based intra-operative BNCT (IO-BNCT) and BSH and BPA-based non-operative BNCT (NO-BNCT). We have treated 23 glioblastoma patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy since 1998. The median survival time (MST) of BNCT was 19.5 months, and 2-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 26.1%, 17.4% and 5.8%, respectively. This clinical result of BNCT in patients with GBM is superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment. - Highlights: ► In this study, we evaluate the clinical outcome of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. ► We have treated 23 glioblastoma (GBM) patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy. ► Clinical results of BNCT in patients with GBM are superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment.

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Itsuro; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    To avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions, it is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM). Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. So far for 4 years and 3 months, we have treated with 37 times of BNCT for 21 patients (14 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results are (1) 10 B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratio (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 6cases, PR: 11cases, PD: 3cases NE (not evaluated): 1case. Response rate was 81%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-51 months (mean: 9.8 months). 4-year survival rate was 39% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) A few adverse-effects such as transient mucositis, alopecia were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM. (author)

  12. Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimov, R.; Bayanov, B.; Belchenko, Yu.; Belov, V.; Davydenko, V.; Donin, A.; Dranichnikov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kandaurov, I; Kraynov, G.; Krivenko, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Kursanov, N.; Savkin, V.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Taskaev, S.; Tiunov, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk) and the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk) have proposed an accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture and fast neutron therapy for hospital. Innovative approach is based upon vacuum insulation tandem accelerator (VITA) and near threshold 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be neutron generation. Pilot accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. In the present report, the pilot facility design is presented and discussed. Design features of facility components are discussed. Results of experiments and simulations are presented. Complete experimental tests are planned by the end of the year 2005

  13. Medical and biological requirements for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahbauer, R.; Goodman, J.H.; Kanellitsas, C.; Clendenon, N.; Blue, J.

    1986-01-01

    In conventional radiation therapy, tumor doses applied to most solid tumors are limited by the tolerance of normal tissues. The promise of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy lies in its potential to deposit high doses of radiation very specifically to tumor tissue. Theoretically ratios of tumor to normal tissue doses can be achieved significantly higher than conventional radiotherapeutic techniques would allow. Effective dose distributions obtainable are a complex function of the neutron beam characteristics and the macro and micro distributions of boron in tumor and normal tissues. Effective RBE doses are calculated in tumors and normal tissue for thermal, epithermal and 2 keV neutrons

  14. Clinical considerations for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoc-Jones, H.; Wazer, D.E.; Zamenhof, R.G.; Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The radiotherapeutic management of primary brain tumors and metastatic melanoma in brain has had disappointing clinical results for many years. Although neutron capture therapy was tried in the US in the 1950s and 1960s, the results were not as hoped. However, with the newly developed capability to measure boron concentrations in blood and tissue both quickly and accurately, and with the advent of epithermal neutron beams obviating the need for scalp and skull reflection, it should not be possible to mount such a clinical trial of NCT again and avoid serious complications. As a prerequisite, it will be important to demonstrate the differential uptake of boron compound in brain tumor as compared with normal brain and its blood supply. If this can be done, then a trial of boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumors should be feasible. Because boronated phenylalanine has been demonstrated to be preferentially taken up by melanoma cells through the biosynthetic pathway for melanin, there is special interest in a trial of boron neutron capture therapy for metastatic melanoma in brain. Again, the use of an epithermal beam would make this a practical possibility. However, because any epithermal (or thermal) beam must contain a certain contaminating level of gamma rays, and because even a pure neutron beam cases gamma rays to be generated when it interacts with tissue, they think that it is essential to deliver treatments with an epithermal beam for boron neutron capture therapy in fractions in order to minimize the late-effects of low-LET gamma rays in the normal tissue

  15. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  16. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G.; Baltazar R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with 10 B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the 10 B and produce a nucleus of 7 Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10 9 n/cm 2 -sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  17. MCNP speed advances for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorley, J.T.; McKinney, G.; Adams, K.; Estes, G.

    1998-04-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatment planning process of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center-M.I.T team relies on MCNP to determine dose rates in the subject's head for various beam orientations. In this time consuming computational process, four or five potential beams are investigated. Of these, one or two final beams are selected and thoroughly evaluated. Recent advances greatly decreased the time needed to do these MCNP calculations. Two modifications to the new MCNP4B source code, lattice tally and tracking enhancements, reduced the wall-clock run times of a typical one million source neutrons run to one hour twenty five minutes on a 200 MHz Pentium Pro computer running Linux and using the GNU FORTRAN compiler. Previously these jobs used a special version of MCNP4AB created by Everett Redmond, which completed in two hours two minutes. In addition to this 30% speedup, the MCNP4B version was adapted for use with Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) on personal computers running the Linux operating system. MCNP, using PVM, can be run on multiple computers simultaneously, offering a factor of speedup roughly the same as the number of computers used. With two 200 MHz Pentium Pro machines, the run time was reduced to forty five minutes, a 1.9 factor of improvement over the single Linux computer. While the time of a single run was greatly reduced, the advantages associated with PVM derive from using computational power not already used. Four possible beams, currently requiring four separate runs, could be run faster when each is individually run on a single machine under Windows NT, rather than using Linux and PVM to run one after another with each multiprocessed across four computers. It would be advantageous, however, to use PVM to distribute the final two beam orientations over four computers

  18. Are gadolinium contrast agents suitable for gadolinium neutron capture therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Rajesh, Deepika; Casalbore, Patrizia; Daniels, Matthew J; Erhardt, Robert J; Frazer, Bradley H; Wiese, Lisa M; Richter, Katherine L; Sonderegger, Brandon R; Gilbert, Benjamin; Schaub, Sebastien; Cannara, Rachel J; Crawford, John F; Gilles, Mary K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Fowler, John F; Larocca, Luigi M; Howard, Steven P; Mercanti, Delio; Mehta, Minesh P; Pallini, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is a potential treatment for malignant tumors based on two steps: (1) injection of a tumor-specific (157)Gd compound; (2) tumor irradiation with thermal neutrons. The GdNC reaction can induce cell death provided that Gd is proximate to DNA. Here, we studied the nuclear uptake of Gd by glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells after treatment with two Gd compounds commonly used for magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate their potential as GdNCT agents. Using synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy, we analyzed the Gd distribution at the subcellular level in: (1) human cultured GBM cells exposed to Gd-DTPA or Gd-DOTA for 0-72 hours; (2) intracerebrally implanted C6 glioma tumors in rats injected with one or two doses of Gd-DOTA, and (3) tumor samples from GBM patients injected with Gd-DTPA. In cell cultures, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA were found in 84% and 56% of the cell nuclei, respectively. In rat tumors, Gd penetrated the nuclei of 47% and 85% of the tumor cells, after single and double injection of Gd-DOTA, respectively. In contrast, in human GBM tumors 6.1% of the cell nuclei contained Gd-DTPA. Efficacy of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA as GdNCT agents is predicted to be low, due to the insufficient number of tumor cell nuclei incorporating Gd. Although multiple administration schedules in vivo might induce Gd penetration into more tumor cell nuclei, a search for new Gd compounds with higher nuclear affinity is warranted before planning GdNCT in animal models or clinical trials.

  19. Neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma: dosimetry and microdosimetry approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignol, J.P.; Methlin, G.; Abbe, J.C.; Lefebvre, O.; Sahel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) aims at destroying cancerous cells with the α and 7 Li particles produced by the neutron capture reaction on 10 B. This note reports on the study of the boron distribution in tissues on an animal model (nude mice) xenografted with a human ocular melanoma after an i.p.injection of 2g/kg of 10 B-BPA and in cells cultured in the presence of 530 μmol/l of 10 B-BPA. A concentration of 64 ppm of 10 B in the active part of the tumour with a ratio of concentrations versus the skin of 3.7 are observed. Investigations on cells reveal the presence of boron in the cytoplasm. The biological, dosimetric and microdosimetric consequences of these findings are discussed. (authors). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Commissioning of accelerator based boron neutron capture therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.; Wakita, A.; Okamoto, H.; Igaki, H.; Itami, J.; Ito, M.; Abe, Y.; Imahori, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment method using a nuclear reaction of 10 B(n, α) 7 Li. BNCT can be deposited the energy to a tumor since the 10 B which has a higher cross-section to a neutron is high is concentrated on the tumor. It is different from conventional radiation therapies that BNCT expects higher treatment effect to radiation resistant tumors since the generated alpha and lithium particles have higher radiological biological effectiveness. In general, BNCT has been performed in research nuclear reactor. Thus, BNCT is not widely applied in a clinical use. According to recent development of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy system, the system has an adequate flux of neutrons. Therefore, National Cancer Canter Hospital, Tokyo, Japan is planning to install accelerator based BNCT system. Protons with 2.5 MeV are irradiated to a lithium target system to generate neutrons. As a result, thermal load of the target is 50 kW since current of the protons is 20.0 mA. Additionally, when the accelerator-based BNCT system is installed in a hospital, the facility size is disadvantage in term of neutron measurements. Therefore, the commissioning of the BNCT system is being performed carefully. In this article, we report about the commissioning. (author)

  1. Novel amino-carboxy-dihydroboranes for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmel, T.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis discusses the following topics: I. Synthesis of boron compounds for the neutron capture therapy which are to meet the following requirements: 1. Low toxicity; 2. High boron content; 3. High enrichment and long retention time in the neoplastic tissue and simultaneous low concentration in blood and normal tissue; 4. Independent cytostatic effects; 5. Functional groups which allow a connection with polymers. II. Presentation of compounds with increased 10 B content. III. Examination of the distribution of boric substances in living organisms by means of a quantitative analysis of the boron content. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Experience of boron neutron capture therapy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Four research reactors are currently licensed for medical application in Japan. As of July 1995, approximately 210 clinical irradiations using these research reactors have been done for brain and skin tumors as shown. The number of chief medical doctors certified by the Government is eleven so far. Among them, eight doctors have already treated tumor patients using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR, 5MW). Recently in USA clinical trials have been restarted using epithermal neutrons at MIT and BNL. In this paper, the experience of clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) which have been performed in Japan, mainly physics studies, are reviewed, and current studies are also introduced

  3. Ultrastructural changes in tumor cells following boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkla, D.H.; Brown, J.K.; Meriaty, H.; Allen, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study the authors reported on morphological changes in two human melanoma cell lines treated with 10 B-phenylalanine(BPA) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT). The present study describes morphological changes in melanoma and glioma cell lines treated with boron-tetraphenyl porphyrin(BTPP) and BNCT. Porphyrin compounds are selectively taken up by tumor cells and have been used clinically in phototherapy treatment of cancer patients. Boronated porphyrins show good potential as therapeutic agents in BNCT treatment of human cancer patients

  4. Recombination methods for boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Tulik, P.; Zielczynski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The radiation effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are associated with four-dose-compartment radiation field - boron dose (from 10 B(n,α) 7 Li) reaction), proton dose from 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction, neutron dose (mainly fast and epithermal neutrons) and gamma-ray dose (external and from capture reaction 1 H(n,γ) 2 D). Because of this the relation between the absorbed dose and the biological effects is very complex and all the above mentioned absorbed dose components should be determined. From this point of view, the recombination chambers can be very useful instruments for characterization of the BNCT beams. They can be used for determination of gamma and high-LET dose components for the characterization of radiation quality of mixed radiation fields by recombination microdosimetric method (RMM). In present work, a graphite high-pressure recombination chamber filled with nitrogen, 10 BF 3 and tissue equivalent gas was used for studies on application of RMM for BNCT dosimetry. The use of these gases or their mixtures opens a possibility to design a recombination chamber for determination of the dose fractions due to gamma radiation, fast neutrons, neutron capture on nitrogen and high LET particles from (n, 10 B) reaction in simulated tissue with different content of 10 B. (author)

  5. Neutron capture therapy beams at the MIT Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.R.; Clement, S.D.; Harling, O.K.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Several neutron beams that could be used for neutron capture therapy at MITR-II are dosimetrically characterized and their suitability for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and other types of tumors are described. The types of neutron beams studied are: (1) those filtered by various thicknesses of cadmium, D2O, 6Li, and bismuth; and (2) epithermal beams achieved by filtration with aluminum, sulfur, cadmium, 6Li, and bismuth. Measured dose vs. depth data are presented in polyethylene phantom with references to what can be expected in brain. The results indicate that both types of neutron beams are useful for neutron capture therapy. The first type of neutron beams have good therapeutic advantage depths (approximately 5 cm) and excellent in-phantom ratios of therapeutic dose to background dose. Such beams would be useful for treating tumors located at relatively shallow depths in the brain. On the other hand, the second type of neutron beams have superior therapeutic advantage depths (greater than 6 cm) and good in-phantom therapeutic advantage ratios. Such beams, when used along with bilateral irradiation schemes, would be able to treat tumors at any depth in the brain. Numerical examples of what could be achieved with these beams, using RBEs, fractionated-dose delivery, unilateral, and bilateral irradiation are presented in the paper. Finally, additional plans for further neutron beam development at MITR-II are discussed

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, B.S.; Larsson, B.; Roberto, A. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that some thioamides, e.g., thiouracil, are incorporated as false precursors into melanin during its synthesis. If boronated analogs of the thioamides share this property, the melanin of melanotic melanomas offers a possibility for specific tumoural uptake and retention of boron as a basis for neutron capture therapy. We report on the synthesis of boronated 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (B-TZT), boronated 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil (B-CTU), and boronated 5-diethylaminomethyl-2-thiouracil (B-DEAMTU) and the localization of these substances in melanotic melanomas transplanted to mice. The distribution in the mice was studied by boron neutron capture radiography. B-TZT and B-CTU showed the highest tumour:normal tissue concentration ratios, with tumour:liver ratios of about 4 and tumour:muscle ratios of about 14; B-DEAMTU showed corresponding ratios of 1.4 and 5, respectively. The absolute concentration of boron in the tumours, however, was more than three times higher in the mice injected with B-TZT, compared with B-CTU. The results suggest that B-TZT may be the most promising compound of the three tested with regard to possible therapy of melanotic melanomas.

  7. Evaluation of radioactivity in the bodies of mice induced by neutron exposure from an epi-thermal neutron source of an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAMURA, Satoshi; IMAMICHI, Shoji; MASUMOTO, Kazuyoshi; ITO, Masashi; WAKITA, Akihisa; OKAMOTO, Hiroyuki; NISHIOKA, Shie; IIJIMA, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Kazuma; ABE, Yoshihisa; IGAKI, Hiroshi; KURITA, Kazuyoshi; NISHIO, Teiji; MASUTANI, Mitsuko; ITAMI, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the residual radioactivity in mice induced by neutron irradiation with an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) system using a solid Li target. The radionuclides and their activities were evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HP-Ge) detector. The saturated radioactivity of the irradiated mouse was estimated to assess the radiation protection needs for using the accelerator-based BNCT system. 24Na, 38Cl, 80mBr, 82Br, 56Mn, and 42K were identified, and their saturated radioactivities were (1.4 ± 0.1) × 102, (2.2 ± 0.1) × 101, (3.4 ± 0.4) × 102, 2.8 ± 0.1, 8.0 ± 0.1, and (3.8 ± 0.1) × 101 Bq/g/mA, respectively. The 24Na activation rate at a given neutron fluence was found to be consistent with the value reported from nuclear-reactor-based BNCT experiments. The induced activity of each nuclide can be estimated by entering the saturated activity of each nuclide, sample mass, irradiation time, and proton current into the derived activation equation in our accelerator-based BNCT system. PMID:29225308

  8. Universal algorithm for diagnosis of biventricular capture in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Marek; Kukla, Piotr; Fijorek, Kamil; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-08-01

    An accurate and universal method for diagnosis of biventricular (BiV) capture using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) would be useful for assessment of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients. Our objective was to develop and validate such an ECG method for BiV capture diagnosis that would be independent of pacing lead positions-a major confounder that significantly influences the morphologies of paced QRS complexes. On the basis of an evaluation of 789 ECGs of 443 patients with heart failure and various right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) lead positions, the following algorithm was constructed and validated. BiV capture was diagnosed if the QRS in lead I was predominantly negative and either V1 QRS was predominantly positive or V6 QRS was of negative onset and predominantly negative (step 1), or if QRS complex duration was capture. The algorithm showed good accuracy (93%), sensitivity (97%), and specificity (90%) for detection of loss of LV capture. The performance of the algorithm did not differ among apical, midseptal, and outflow tract RV lead positions and various LV lead positions. LV capture leaves diagnostic hallmarks in the fused BiV QRS related to different vectors of depolarization and more rapid depolarization of the ventricles. An accurate two-step ECG algorithm for BiV capture diagnosis was developed and validated. This algorithm is universally applicable to all CRT patients, regardless of the positions of the pacing leads. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Swedish facility for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K.; Capala, J. [Studsvik Medical AB (Sweden); Kierkegaard, J.; Haakansson, R. [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Gudowska, I. [Karolinska Institute (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    A BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility has been constructed at the R2-0 reactor at Studsvik, Sweden. R2-0 is a 1 MW, open core, pool reactor. The reactor core is suspended on a movable tower and can be positioned anywhere in the pool. The BNCT facility includes two adjacent, parallel filter/moderator configurations and the reactor core is positioned in front of any of them as appropriate. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range and with an extended collimator for convenient patient positioning. The other beam has been designed for radiobiological research and is equipped with a heavy water moderator and a large irradiation cavity with a uniform field of thermal neutrons. (author)

  10. Boron compounds in neutron capture therapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouf, O.; Gregor, V.

    1986-01-01

    In the selective incorporation of a sufficient amount of a compound containing boron isotope 10 B in the tumor tissue for neutron capture therapy, high efficiency is achieved in tumor destruction while sparing the surrounding tissues. In the treatment of brain tumors, 4-carboxy phenylboric acid and the disodium salt of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate were successfully tested. The use of the compounds minimizes radiation damage to the blood stream of the brain. In case of melanomas the L-DOPA-borate complex, boronophenylalanine and chlorpromazine preparations containing 10 B are used. In the treatment of cancer of the reproductive organs, boron derivatives of estradiol and testosterone have been proven. The immunobiological procedure, i.e., the use of antibodies with bound boron compounds, is being intensively studied. (M.D.)

  11. Physical engineering and medical physics on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The contents of physical engineering and medical physics that support boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be roughly classified to the four items, (1) neutron irradiation system, (2) development and improvement of dose assessment techniques, (3) development and improvement of dose planning system, and (4) quality assurance and quality control. This paper introduces the BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, with a focus on the basic physics of BNCT, thermal neutron irradiation and epithermal neutron irradiation, heavy water neutron irradiation facilities of KUR, and medical irradiation system of KUR. It also introduces the world's first BNCT clinical cyclotron irradiation system (C-BENS) of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, BNCT dose assessment techniques, dose planning system, and quality assurance and quality control. (A.O.)

  12. Development of inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Maruo, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    To lead proper irradiation condition effectively, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing an inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy (NCT-IPS) based on the JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for BNCT. The leading methodology of an optimum condition in the NCT-IPS has been applied spatial channel theory with adjoint flux solution of Botzman transport. By analyzing the results obtained from the adjoint flux calculations according to the theory, optimum incident point of the beam against the patient can be found, and neutron spectrum of the beam which can generate ideal distribution of neutron flux around tumor region can be determined. The conceptual design of the NCT-IPS was investigated, and prototype of NCT-IPS with JCDS is being developed. (author)

  13. The Swedish facility for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoeld, K.; Capala, J.; Kierkegaard, J.; Haakansson, R.; Gudowska, I.

    2000-01-01

    A BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility has been constructed at the R2-0 reactor at Studsvik, Sweden. R2-0 is a 1 MW, open core, pool reactor. The reactor core is suspended on a movable tower and can be positioned anywhere in the pool. The BNCT facility includes two adjacent, parallel filter/moderator configurations and the reactor core is positioned in front of any of them as appropriate. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range and with an extended collimator for convenient patient positioning. The other beam has been designed for radiobiological research and is equipped with a heavy water moderator and a large irradiation cavity with a uniform field of thermal neutrons. (author)

  14. New compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT) and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Clearly the most effective tumor therapy would be obtained by the selective targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. Although many biomolecules are known to be taken up in tumors, the targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumors is limited by the fact that other essential cell pools compete with equal or even greater effectiveness. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, with activation by means of an external radiation beam, is advantageous for two reasons: (1) it obviates problems associated with high uptake of isotopes in normal tissues, as these cell pools can be excluded from the radiation field, and (2) the general tumor area can be included in the activating beam field; thus, the possibility exists that all microscopic tumor extensions can be irradiated. As long as range of reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to the tumor, with a resultant high therapeutic ratio. This method can be accomplished with either photon activation therapy (PAT) or Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), the latter will be emphasized here. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction is approx. 10 μm, or one cell diameter; hence this reaction is optimal for cell killing. A number of biomolecules have been investigated as possible vehicles for transport of boron to tumors, including phenothiazines, thiouracils, porphyrins, nucleosides, and amino acids. Biodistributions of these compounds show selective concentration in tumor adequate for therapy. The biological halflives are in the order of days, allowing the possibility of fractionated or protracted irradiations. The radiobiological and physical implication of these parameters on NCT are discussed. The possibility of using an approximately-monoenergetic, scandium-filtered beam of about 2 keV, to reduce the dose from background radiations by about 85%, is also discussed

  15. Research on neutron capture therapy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Research on neutron capture therapy in the USSR began in 1964. Towards 1975 prime knowledge in physics, pharmacology and radiobiology had been accumulated. It was realized that inherent to NCT is a variety of modalities as to the type and location of the tumor, the energy and source of neutrons, the nature and transportation of the nuclide-carrying agent (NCA), etc. Thus, it became likely that some modalities would turn out to be clinically feasible. At the end of the 70s, studies of boron derivatives began at the All-Union Oncological Research Center, Moscow. These studies were stimulated by the clinical trials in Japan. Still, neutron capturing nuclides (NCN) other than 10 b are regarded as promising. Research was aimed at clinical trials that could ensure sufficient safety, convenience and conclusiveness. Hence, new requirements emerged, such as the pre-clinical modeling of NCT in big animals and the monitoring of tumor response to each fraction of NCT. Usual requirements are also to be met, that is: tailoring neutron beams with an adequate intensity and energy, choosing NCNs and finding suitable NCAs, physical and radiobiological planning including adoption of tentative RBEs and time-fractionation regimen, selecting tumors as candidates for NCT, and developing techniques for monitoring NCNs in vivo

  16. Physico-technical progress in neutron-capture therapy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Furubayashi, Toru; Aoki, Kazuhiko

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes mainly development studies on the determination method of in vivo 10 B for the purpose of employment for neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma and other tumors. To darify the efficacy of the neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to determine 10 B concentration in the diseased part. This study aimed at in vivo 10 B concention determination in living sample to the level of ppm order with 10 % of analytical error within 1 hour, and these determination conditions were satified by prompt γ-ray (478 keV) determination of 10 B (n, αγ) 7 Li reaction. This method required no sample pretreatment. Further, data normalization by γ-ray of H(n, γ)D reaction permitted no disturbance by sample shape or size. Lower limit of detection of the proposed method was estimated in terms of measuring time and statistical error by the equations of 10 B concentration and error analysis derived by the authors. As for the effect of prompt γ-rays of 23 Na(n, γ) 24 Na and 6 Li(n, γ) 7 Li reactions, it was clarified that the former showed no disturbance but some correction was necessary in case of less than 0.1 g of smaple size owing to the latter reaction. In vivo sample determination showed the proposed method was practical. In this paper some results of phantom experiment for in vivo non-destructive 10 B measurement and related simulation calculation, and examination of effect of (γ, n) reaction in heavy water of biomedical irradiation equipment on radiation quality were also described. (Takagi, S.)

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of methods for capturing meetings

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Mark John; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo; McMahon, Chris A.; Johansson, Anders; Gonzalez-Franco, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of commonly used methods to capture synchronous meetings for information and knowledge retrieval. Four methods of capture are evaluated in the form of a case study whereby a technical design meeting was captured by; (i) transcription; (ii) diagrammatic argumentation; (iii) meeting minutes; and (iv) video. The paper describes an experiment where participants undertook an information retrieval task and provided feedback on the methods. ...

  18. Computational Dosimetry and Treatment Planning Considerations for Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David Waler

    2003-01-01

    Specialized treatment planning software systems are generally required for neutron capture therapy (NCT) research and clinical applications. The standard simplifying approximations that work well for treatment planning computations in the case of many other modalities are usually not appropriate for application to neutron transport. One generally must obtain an explicit three-dimensional numerical solution of the governing transport equation, with energy-dependent neutron scattering completely taken into account. Treatment planning systems that have been successfully introduced for NCT applications over the past 15 years rely on the Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method for the necessary computations, primarily because of the geometric complexity of human anatomy. However, historically, there has also been interest in the application of deterministic methods, and there have been some practical developments in this area. Most recently, interest has turned toward the creation of treatment planning software that is not limited to any specific therapy modality, with NCT as only one of several applications. A key issue with NCT treatment planning has to do with boron quantification, and whether improved information concerning the spatial biodistribution of boron can be effectively used to improve the treatment planning process. Validation and benchmarking of computations for NCT are also of current developmental interest. Various institutions have their own procedures, but standard validation models are not yet in wide use

  19. Tumor therapy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs

  20. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  1. Boron containing compounds and their preparation and use in neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabel, D.

    1992-09-01

    The present invention pertains to boron containing thiouracil derivatives, their method of preparations, and their use in the therapy of malignant melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy. No Drawings

  2. Thiourea derivatives, methods of their preparation and their use in neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabel, D.

    1991-06-04

    The present invention pertains to boron containing thiouracil derivatives, their method of preparations, and their use in the therapy of malignant melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy. No Drawings

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy in cancer: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Juvenal, Guilermo J. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Div. of Nuclear Biochemistry; University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). School of Medicine. Dept. of Human Biochemistry

    2007-07-15

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron non-radioactive compounds by a tumor, and the subsequent irradiation of the area with an appropriate neutron beam. {sup 10}B is then activated to {sup 11}B, which will immediately decay releasing alpha particles and {sup 7}Li, of high linear energy transfer (LET) and limited reach. Clinical trials are being performed in patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanoma. We have explored its possible application to UTC. Our results demonstrated that a cell line of human UTC has a selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) both in vitro and after transplantation to nude mice. Treatment of mice by BNCT led to a complete control of growth and cure of 100% of the animals. Moreover dogs with spontaneous UTC also have a selective uptake of BPA. At the present we are studying the biodistribution of BPA in patients with UTC before its application in humans. (author)

  4. Hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1994-01-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum of a Maxwell distribution higher than the room temperature of 300 K, has been studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in a living body for a deep-seated tumor in neutron capture therapy (NCT). Simulation calculations using MCNP-V3 were carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of the hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field. From the results of simulation calculations, the following were confirmed: (i) The irradiation field of the hyper-thermal neutrons is feasible by using some scattering materials with high temperature, such as Be, BeO, C, SiC and ZrH 1.7 . Especially, ZrH 1.7 is thought to be the best material because of good characteristics of up-scattering for thermal neutrons. (ii) The ZrH 1.7 of 1200 K yields the hyper-thermal neutrons of a Maxwell-like distribution at about 2000 K and the treatable depth is about 1.5 cm larger comparing with the irradiation of the thermal neutrons of 300 K. (iii) The contamination by the secondary gamma-rays from the scattering materials can be sufficiently eliminated to the tolerance level for NCT through the bismuth layer, without the larger change of the energy spectrum of hyper-thermal neutrons. ((orig.))

  5. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  6. Development of lithium target for accelerator based neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, Sergey; Bayanov, Boris; Belov, Victor; Zhoorov, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Pilot innovative accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy of cancer is now of the threshold of its operation at the BINP, Russia. One of the main elements of the facility is lithium target producing neutrons via threshold 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies 1.915 MeV or 2.5 MeV. The main problems of lithium target were determined to be: 7 Be radioactive isotope activation keeping lithium layer solid, presence of photons due to proton inelastic scattering on lithium nuclei, and radiation blistering. The results of thermal test of target prototype were presented as previous NCT Congress. It becomes clear that water is preferable for cooling the target, and that lithium target 10 cm in diameter is able to run before melting. In the present report, the conception of optimal target is proposed: thin metal disk 10 cm in diameter easy for detaching, with evaporated thin layer of pure lithium from the side of proton beam exposure, its back being intensively cooled with turbulent water flow to maintain lithium layer solid. Design of the target for the neutron source constructed at BINP is shown. The results of investigation of radiation blistering and lithium layer are presented. Target unit of facility is under construction now, and obtaining neutrons is expected in nearest future. (author)

  7. Boron-containing thioureas for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketz, H.

    1993-01-01

    Melanin is produced in large amounts in malignant melanotic melanomas. Because thiourea compounds are covalently incorporated into melanin during its biosynthesis, the preparation of boronated thiourea-derivatives is of particular interest for the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). Accumulation of boron in tumors by means of boronated thiourea-derivatives may therefore provide levels of 10 B which are useful for BNCT. In BNCT the tumor containing the boron compound is irradiated with epithermal neutrons to generate He- and Li-nuclei from the 10 B which can then destroy the tumor cells. Because of the short ranges of these particles (approximately one cell diameter) the damage will be almost exclusively confined to the tumor leaving normal tissue unharmed. High accumulation of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole) in melanotic melanomas has been described in the literature. Boronated derivatives of methimazole were therefore synthesized. Boron was in the form of a boronic acid, a nido-carbonate and a mercaptoundeca hydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH). The synthesis of the boron cluster derivatives of methimazole (nido-carborate- and BSH-derivatives) with 9 resp. 12 boron atoms in the molecule were expected to achieve higher concentrations of boron in the tumor than in the case of the boronic acid compound with its single boron atom. (orig.) [de

  8. Possible application of boron neutron capture therapy to canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akira

    1985-01-01

    Possibility for successful treatment of canine osteosarcoma by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was demonstrated based upon an uptake study of the boron compound and an experimental treatment by BNCT. In the up take study following intravenous administration of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, satisfactorily higher boron concentration with some variation between tumors is likely to be obtained 12 hours after the administration, together with significantly lower boron levels in blood and bone. Based upon these results, osteosarcoma of a mongrel dog was successfully treated by BNCT. The tumor received approximately 3800 rads with single neutron irradiation (approximately 1.4 x 10 13 n./cm 2 ) about 12 hours after intravenous infusion of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH of 96 % enriched 10 B in the ratio of 50 mg 10 B/kg. Clinical and radiographical improvements were remarkable and no neoplastic cell was found in any part of the original neoplastic lesion and its surrounding tissue at the time of autopsy after 30 days. (author)

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy for children with malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Komatsu, Hisao; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Tsuji, Fumio; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kitamura, Katsuji; Hatanaka, Hiroshi; Minobe, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    Among the 131 cases with brain tumors treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT), seventeen were children. Eight supratentorial tumors included five astrocytomas(grade 2-4), two primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Seven pontine tumors included one astrocytoma, one PNET and 5 unverified gliomas. Two cerebellar tumors (PNET and astrocytoma) were also treated. All pontine tumors showed remarkable decrease in size after BNCT. However, most of them showed regrowth of the tumors because the neutrons were insufficient due to the depth. Four cases with cerebral tumor died of remote cell dissemination, although they all responded to BNCT. One of them survived 7 years after repeated BNCTs. An 11 years old girl with a large astrocytoma in the right frontal lobe has lived more than 11 years and is now a draftswoman at a civil engineering company after graduating from a technical college. An 8 years old girl with an astrocytoma in the left occipital lobe has no recurrence of the tumor for 2 years and attends on elementary school without mental and physical problems. Two children (one year old girl and four years old boy) with cerebellar tumors have shown showed an excellent growth after BNCT and had no neurological deficits. Mental and physical development in patients treated by BNCT is usually better than that in patients treated by conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy for brain tumors. Biological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Masao; Oda, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Masato; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji; Ujeno, Yowri.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the tumoricidal effect of gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) in in vitro and in vivo systems using Gd-DTPA. In in vitro study, a certain amount of Gd-DTPA, yielding 5000 ppm Gd-n, was added to human glioma cells, T98G, upon which thermal neutrons were exposed. After irradiation, the cells were incubated and the colonies were counted 10 days later. In in vivo study, Fisher-344 rats with experimentally induced gliosarcoma cells (9L) were exposed to thermal neutrons at a fluence rate of 3E+9/s for 1 h immediately after iv injection of Gd-DTPA. Two weeks after irradiation, brain samples were histologically examined. Tumor clearance of Gd-DTPA was also determined. In vitro analysis showed that a 1% survival level was obtained at 3.75E+12 (n/cm 2 ) for the Gd (+) medium and 2.50E+13 (n/cm 2 ) for the Gd (-) medium. In in vivo analysis, the concentration of Gd in 9L-rat brain tumor after iv injection of 0.2 mg/kg Gd-DTPA was found to be less than 100 ppm, but Gd-NCT on 9L-rat brain tumor administered with a ten-fold dose showed a substantial killing effect on tumor without serious injury to the normal brain structure. The killing effect of Gd-NCT was confirmed in in vitro and in vivo systems. (N.K.)

  11. Irradiation system for neutron capture therapy using the small accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is to kill tumor cells that previously incorporated the stable isotope which generates heavy charged particles with a short range and a high linear energy transfer (LET) on neutron irradiation. Boron-10 is ordinarily used as such an isotope. The tumor tissue is neutron-irradiated at craniotomy after preceding craniotomy for tumor extraction: therefore two surgeries are required for the present NCT in Japan. The reactions 10 B(n, αγ) 7 Li and 7 Li (p, n) 7 Be are thought preferential for patients and doctors if a convenient small accelerator, not the reactor used at present, is available in the hospital because only one craniotomy is sufficient. Authors' examinations of the system for NCT using the small accelerator involve irradiation conditions, desirable energy spectrum of neutron, characterization of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, social, practical and technical comparison of the reactor and accelerator, and usefulness of the reaction 7 Li (p, n) 7 Be. The system devoted to the NCT is awaited in future. (K.H.)

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Kagawa Children`s Hospital, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Since 1968, we have treated 149 patients and performed boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on 164 occasions using 5 reactors in Japan. There were 64 patients with glioblastoma, 39 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and 17 patients with low grade astrocytoma (grade 1 or 2). There were 30 patients with other types of tumor. The overall response rate in the glioma patients was 64%. Seven patients (12%) of glioblastoma, 22 patients (56%) of anaplastic astrocytoma and 8 patients (62%) of low grade astrocytoma lived more than 2 years Median survival time of glioblastoma was 640 days. Median survival times of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma was 1811 days, and 1669 days in low grade astrocytoma. Six patients (5 glioblastoma and one anaplastic astrocytoma) died within 90 days after BNCT. Six patients lived more than 10 years. Histological grading, age of the patients, neutron fluence at the target point and target depth or size of the tumor were proved to be important factors. BNCT is an effective treatment for malignant brain tumors. We are now became able to radiate the tumor more correctly with a high enough dose of neutron beam even if we use thermal neutron beam. (author)

  13. A large animal model for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.E.; Moore, M.P.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    An epithermal neutron beam is needed to treat relatively deep seated tumors. The scattering characteristics of neutrons in this energy range dictate that in vivo experiments be conducted in a large animal to prevent unacceptable total body irradiation. The canine species has proven an excellent model to evaluate the various problems of boron neutron capture utilizing an epithermal neutron beam. This paper discusses three major components of the authors study: (1) the pharmacokinetics of borocaptate sodium (NA 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) in dogs with spontaneously occurring brain tumors, (2) the radiation tolerance of normal tissues in the dog using an epithermal beam alone and in combination with borocaptate sodium, and (3) initial treatment of dogs with spontaneously occurring brain tumors utilizing borocaptate sodium and an epithermal neutron beam

  14. The radiation biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) produces a complex mixture of high and low-LET radiations in tissue. Using data on the biological effectiveness of these various dose components, derived primarily in small animals irradiated with thermal neutrons, it has been possible to express clinical BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units. The accuracy of these calculated doses in normal tissue and tumor will be reviewed. Clinical trials are underway at a number of centers. There are differences in the neutron beams at these centers, and differences in the details of the clinical protocols. Ideally, data from all centers using similar boron compounds and treatment protocols should be compared and combined, if appropriate, in a multi-institutional study in order to strengthen statistical analysis. An international dosimetry exchange is underway that will allow the physical doses from the various treatment centers to be quantitatively compared. As a first step towards the comparison of the clinical data, the normal brain tolerance data from the patients treated in the initial Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Harvard/MIT BNCT clinical trials have been compared. The data provide a good estimate of the normal brain tolerance for a somnolence syndrome endpoint, and provide guidance for setting normal brain tolerance limits in ongoing and future clinical trials. Escalation of the dose in BNCT can be accomplished by increasing the amount of the boron compound administered, increasing the duration of the neutron exposure, or both. The dose escalations that have been carried out to date at the various treatment centers will be compared and contrasted. Possible future clinical trials using BNCT in combination with other modalities will be discussed

  15. Radiation Transport Simulation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, M.; Blaickner, M. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Molecular Medicine, Muthgasse 11, 1190 Wien (Austria); Ziegner, M.; Khan, R.; Boeck, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Schmitz, T.; Hampel, G. [Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz Strassmann Weg 2, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This work is part of a larger project initiated by the University of Mainz and aiming to use the university's TRIGA reactor to develop a treatment for liver metastases based on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Diffuse distribution of cancerous cells within the organ makes complete resection difficult and the vicinity to radiosensitive organs impedes external irradiation. Therefore the method of 'autotransplantation', first established at the University of Pavia, is used. The liver is taken out of the body, irradiated in the thermal column of the reactor, therewith purged of metastases and then reimplanted. A highly precise dosimetry system is to be developed by means of measurements at the University of Mainz and computational calculations at the AIT. The stochastic MCNP-5 Monte Carlo-Code, developed by Los Alamos Laboratories, is applied. To verify the calculations of the flux and the absorbed dose in matter a number of measurements are performed irradiating different phantoms and liver sections in a 20cm x 20cm beam tube, which was created by removing graphite blocks from the thermal column of the reactor. The detector material consists of L- {alpha} -alanine pellets which are thought to be the most suitable because of their good tissue equivalence, small size and their wide response range. Another experiment focuses on the determination of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE-factor) of the neutron and photon dose for liver cells. Therefore cell culture plates with the cell medium enriched with {sup 157}Gd and {sup 10}B at different concentrations are irradiated. With regard to the alanine pellets MCNP-5 calculations give stable results. Nevertheless the absorbed dose is underestimated compared to the measurements, a phenomenon already observed in previous works. The cell culture calculations showed the enormous impact of the added isotopes with high thermal neutron cross sections, especially {sup 157}Gd, on the absorbed dose

  16. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  17. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part II: gadolinium neutron capture therapy models and therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangerin, K; Culbertson, C N; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) related modeling. The validity of COG NCT model has been established for this model, and here the calculation was extended to analyze the effect of various gadolinium concentrations on dose distribution and cell-kill effect of the GdNCT modality and to determine the optimum therapeutic conditions for treating brain cancers. The computational results were compared with the widely used MCNP code. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions were generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied to similar research problems in NCT. Results for this study also showed that a concentration of 100 ppm gadolinium in the tumor was most beneficial when using an epithermal neutron beam.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy of intracerebral rat gliosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Fairchild, R.G.; Laissue, J.A.; Saraf, S.K.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of intracerebrally implanted rat gliosarcomas was tested. Preferential accumulation of 10B in tumors was achieved by continuous infusion of the sulfhydryl borane dimer, Na4(10)B24H22S2, at a rate of 45-50 micrograms of 10B per g of body weight per day from day 11 to day 14 after tumor initiation (day 0). This infusion schedule resulted in average blood 10B concentrations of 35 micrograms/ml in a group of 12 gliosarcoma-bearing rats and 45 micrograms/ml in a group of 10 similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated by BNCT. Estimated tumor 10B levels in these two groups were 26 and 34 micrograms/g, respectively. On day 14, boron-treated and non-boron-treated rats were exposed to 5.0 or 7.5 MW.min of radiation from the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor that yielded thermal neutron fluences of approximately 2.0 x 10(12) or approximately 3.0 x 10(12) n/cm2, respectively, in the tumors. Untreated rats had a median postinitiation survival time of 21 days. Reactor radiation alone increased median postinitiation survival time to 26 (5.0 MW.min) or 28 (7.5 MW.min) days. The 12 rats that received 5 MW.min of BNCT had a median postinitiation survival time of 60 days. Two of these animals survived greater than 15 months. In the 7.5 MW.min group, the median survival time is not calculable since 6 of the 10 animals remain alive greater than 10 months after BNCT. The estimated radiation doses to tumors in the two BNCT groups were 14.2 and 25.6 Gy equivalents, respectively. Similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated with 15.0 or 22.5 Gy of 250-kilovolt peak x-rays had median survival times of only 26 or 31 days, respectively, after tumor initiation

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced and/or recurrent cancers in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Nagata, Kenji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    This preliminary study of 5 patients with advanced and/or recurrent cancer in the oral cavity was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The patients received therapy with the 10 B-carrier p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with or without borocaptate sodium (BSH) and irradiation thereafter with epithermal neutrons. All underwent 18 F-BPA PET studies before receiving BNCT to determine the accumulation ratios of BPA in tumor and normal tissues. The tumor mass was decreased in size and at minimum a transient partial response was achieved in all cases, though rapid tumor re-growth was observed in 2. Although tentative clinical responses and improvements in quality of life were recognized, obliteration of the tumor was not obtained in any of the cases. Additional studies are required to determine the utility and indication of BNCT for oral cancer. (author)

  20. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lavazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means

  1. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, Aaro, E-mail: aaro.haapaniemi@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saat, Riste [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a larynx-preserving treatment option for patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Six patients with locally recurrent squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 3 patients with persistent laryngeal cancer after prior treatment were treated with BNCT at the FiR1 facility (Espoo, Finland) in 2006 to 2012. The patients had received prior radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy to a cumulative median dose of 66 Gy. The median tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range, 1.4-10.9 cm) before BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy was offered on a compassionate basis to patients who either refused laryngectomy (n=7) or had an inoperable tumor (n=2). Boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier and was infused over 2 hours intravenously before neutron irradiation. Results: Six patients received BNCT once and 3 twice. The estimated average gross tumor volume dose ranged from 22 to 38 Gy (W) (mean; 29 Gy [W]). Six of the 8 evaluable patients responded to BNCT; 2 achieved complete and 4 partial response. One patient died early and was not evaluable for response. Most common side effects were stomatitis, fatigue, and oral pain. No life-threatening or grade 4 toxicity was observed. The median time to progression within the target volume was 6.6 months, and the median overall survival time 13.3 months after BNCT. One patient with complete response is alive and disease-free with a functioning larynx 60 months after BNCT. Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy given after prior external beam radiation therapy is well tolerated. Most patients responded to BNCT, but long-term survival with larynx preservation was infrequent owing to cancer progression. Selected patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer may benefit from BNCT.

  2. Response of the oral mucosa to porphyrin mediated boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies are now in progress to develop boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) modalities for the treatment of head and neck carcinomas. BNCT is a bimodal therapy which involves the administration of a boron-10 enriched compound, that accumulates preferentially in tumours, prior to irradiation with low energy neutrons. These neutrons are captured by boron-10 atoms to produce a highly localised radiation exposure. More recently, it has been demonstrated that various boronated porphyrins can target a variety of tumours. Of the porphyrins evaluated to date, copper tetracarboranylphenyl porphyrin (CuTCPH) is a strong candidate for potential clinical evaluation. It has extremely high specificity for a variety of tumour models. Therapeutic efficacy of CuTCPH mediated BNCT has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies using the murine EMT-6 carcinoma model. In the present investigation the response of the oral mucosa to CuTCPH mediated boron neutron capture (BNC) irradiation was assessed using a standard rat model (ventral tongue). Single exposure irradiation was carried out on the thermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, at 3 days after the final injection of the boronated porphyrin. The impact of CuTCPH mediated BNC irradiation on oral mucosa at therapeutically effective exposure times, assessed using the ventral tongue model, was minimal. This was primarily due to the fact that blood boron levels (from CuTCPH) were very low at the time of irradiation. Analysis of the dose-effect data for CuTCPH gave a compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor of 2.5. It can be concluded that, although, the CBE factor (calculated using blood boron concentrations) was relatively high, CuTCPH mediated BNC irradiation should not cause significant damage at clinically relevant radiation doses. This is because blood boron levels would be very low at the time of irradiation

  3. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made

  4. Clinical treatment planning for subjects undergoing boron neutron capture therapy at Harvard-MIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Palmer, M.R.; Buse, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment planning is a crucial component of the Harvard-MIT boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials. Treatment planning can be divided into five stages: (1) pre-planning, based on CT and MRI scans obtained when the subject arrives at the hospital and on assumed boron-10 distribution parameters; (2) subject set-up, or simulation, in the MITR-II medical therapy room to determine the boundary conditions for possible set-up configurations; (3) re-planning, following the subject simulation; (4) final localization of the subject in the medical therapy room for BNCT; and (5) final post facto recalculation of the doses delivered based on firm knowledge of the blood boron-10 concentration profiles and the neutron flux histories from precise online monitoring. The computer-assisted treatment planning is done using a specially written BNCT treatment planning code called MacNCTPLAN. The code uses the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo n-particle radiation transport code MCNPv.4b as the dose calculation engine and advanced anatomical model simulation based on an automatic evaluation of CT scan data. Results are displayed as isodose contours and dose-volume histograms, the latter correlated precisely with corresponding anatomical CT or MRI image planes. Examples of typical treatment planning scenarios will be presented. (author)

  5. The Idaho Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III; Griebenow, M.L.; Ackermann, A.L.; Miller, L.G.; Miller, D.L.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bradshaw, K.M.; Wessol, D.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Nigg, D.W.; Randolph, P.D.; Bauer, W.F.; Gavin, P.R.; Richards, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program has been funded since 1988 to evaluate brain tumor treatment using Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (borocaptate sodium or BSH) and epithermal neutrons. The PBF/BNCT Program pursues this goal as a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, multiorganizational endeavor applying modern program management techniques. The initial focus was to: (1) establish a representative large animal model and (2) develop the generic analytical and measurement capabilities require to control treatment repeatability and determine critical treatment parameters independent of tumor type and body location. This paper will identify the PBF/BNCT Program elements and summarize the status of some of the developed capabilities

  6. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  7. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Atula, Timo; Collan, Juhani; Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Maekitie, Antti; Seppaenen, Marko; Minn, Heikki; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli; Kouri, Mauri; Joensuu, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Head and neck carcinomas that recur locally after conventional irradiation pose a difficult therapeutic problem. We evaluated safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such cancers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with inoperable, recurred, locally advanced (rT3, rT4, or rN2) head and neck cancer were treated with BNCT in a prospective, single-center Phase I-II study. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 56-74 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed using the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria and adverse effects using the National Cancer Institute common toxicity grading v3.0. Intravenously administered boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F, 400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Ten patients received BNCT twice; 2 were treated once. Ten (83%) patients responded to BNCT, and 2 (17%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.5 and 7.6 months. The median duration of response was 12.1 months; six responses were ongoing at the time of analysis or death (range, 4.9-19.2 months). Four (33%) patients were alive without recurrence with a median follow-up of 14.0 months (range, 12.8-19.2 months). The most common acute adverse effects were mucositis, fatigue, and local pain; 2 patients had a severe (Grade 3) late adverse effect (xerostomia, 1; dysphagia, 1). Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy is effective and safe in the treatment of inoperable, locally advanced head and neck carcinomas that recur at previously irradiated sites

  8. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of (10)B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared (10)BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), (10)BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. The (10)B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that (10)B entrapped WOW emulsion could be applied to novel intra-arterial boron delivery carrier

  9. Medical aspects of boron-slow neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier radiations of patients with cerebral tumors disclosed the need: (1) to find a carrier of the boron compound which would leave the blood and concentrate in the tumor, (2) to use a more penetrating neutron beam, and (3) to develop a much faster method for assaying boron in blood and tissue. To some extent number1 has been accomplished in the form of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, number2 has yet to be achieved, and number3 has been solved by the measurement of the 478-keV gamma ray when the 10 B atom disintegrates following its capture of a slow neutron. The hitherto unreported data in this paper describe through the courtesy of Professor Hiroshi Hatanaka his studies on the pharmacokinetics and quality control of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH based on 96 boron infusions in 86 patients. Simultaneous blood and tumor data are plotted here for 30 patients with glioblastomas (Grade III-IV gliomas), illustrating remarkable variability. Detailed autopsy findings on 18 patients with BNCT showed radiation injury in only 1. Clinical results in 12 of the most favorably situated glioblastomas reveal that 5 are still alive with a 5-year survival rate of 58% and the excellent Karnofsky performance rating of 87%. For the first time evidence is presented that slow-growing astrocytomas may benefit from BNCT. 10 references, 8 figures, 5 tables

  10. Characteristics of neutron irradiation facility and dose estimation method for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University research reactor institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kanda, K.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron irradiation characteristics of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KIJRRI) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), is described. The present method of dose measurement and its evaluation at the KURRI, is explained. Especially, the special feature and noticeable matters were expounded for the BNCT with craniotomy, which has been applied at present only in Japan. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo calculations of lung dose in ORNL phantom for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, D.; Markovic, V.M.; Jovanovic, Z.; Milenkovic, B.; Nikezic, D.; Atanackovic, J.

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate dose for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of male Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom was used to simulate tumours in the lung. Calculations have been performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. In this simulation, two opposite neutron beams were considered, in order to obtain uniform neutron flux distribution inside the lung. The obtained results indicate that the lung cancer could be treated by BNCT under the assumptions of calculations. The difference in evaluated dose in cancer and normal lung tissue suggests that BNCT could be applied for the treatment of cancers. The difference in exposure of cancer and healthy tissue can be observed, so the healthy tissue can be spared from damage. An absorbed dose ratio of metastatic tissue-to-the healthy tissue was ∼5. Absorbed dose to all other organs was low when compared with the lung dose. Absorbed dose depth distribution shows that BNC therapy can be very useful in the treatments for tumour. The ratio of the tumour absorbed dose and irradiated healthy tissue absorbed dose was also ∼5. It was seen that an elliptical neutron field was better irradiation choice. (authors)

  12. Multi-Family Pediatric Pain Group Therapy: Capturing Acceptance and Cultivating Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Huestis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health interventions for pediatric chronic pain include cognitive-behavioral (CBT, acceptance and commitment (ACT, and family-based therapies, though literature regarding multi-family therapy (MFT is sparse. This investigation examined the utility and outcomes of the Courage to Act with Pain: Teens Identifying Values, Acceptance, and Treatment Effects (CAPTIVATE program, which included all three modalities (CBT, ACT, MFT for youth with chronic pain and their parents. Program utility, engagement, and satisfaction were evaluated via quantitative and qualitative feedback. Pain-specific psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal processes were examined along with outcomes related to disability, quality of life, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Participants indicated that CAPTIVATE was constructive, engaging, and helpful for social and family systems. Clinical and statistical improvements with large effect sizes were captured for pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and protective parenting but not family functioning. Similar effects were found for functional disability, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Given the importance of targeting multiple systems in the management of pediatric chronic pain, preliminary findings suggest a potential new group-based treatment option for youth and families. Next steps involve evaluating the differential effect of the program over treatment as usual, as well as specific CBT, ACT, and MFT components and processes that may affect outcomes.

  13. Accelerator conceptual design and needs of nuclear data for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki; Yokobori, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    An optimization study has been made on an accelerator-based facility for the boron neutron capture therapy. The energy of the incident proton and the arrangement of the moderator assemblies are optimized. The beam current and the accelerating voltage are determined so that the accelerator power becomes minimum. The proposed facility is equipped with a 2.5 MeV proton accelerator of 10-25 mA, a lithium target, and a heavy water moderator contained in an aluminum tank. Each of these equipment is feasible, if proper R and D works have been done. Our new design requires the beam power of less than a hundred kW for the accelerator, although that of our previous design was 1 MW. The reduction of the beam power makes the cooling system for the target much simpler. The essential issues for realization of this concept are long-life lithium targets under high heat flux and high current proton accelerators with average currents of more than 10 mA. It is necessary for the reasonable design of a small-sized and low cost facility to get good accuracy nuclear reaction data. Especially, the latest Li/Be(p, n) neutron yield data in a range of threshold energy - few MeV are required for exact evaluation of neutron energy spectrum used therapy. And damage data by low energy proton beam are also important to evaluate integrity of target material. (author)

  14. New approaches to novel boronated porphyrins for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of boon compounds in the treatment of human cancer is based on the unique ability of nonradioactive 10 B nuclei to absorb thermal neutrons. The prompt nuclear reactions, which occur in neutron absorption, deliver a dose of nearly 2.8 MeV only in the vicinity of boron-containing cells, since the nuclear garments produced (alpha particles and recoil lithium atoms) travel only 10 to 15 μm. The practical, clinical use of this technique to date has been limited by the authors inability to target boron-containing compounds specifically to tumor cells in amounts sufficient for therapy and in a chemical form that has an acceptable level of toxicity. Porphyrins are one important and large class of compounds that are known to accumulate in practically all tumor systems yet examined. Such site-specific accumulation is not known to be based on any currently identifiable selective transport mechanism and yet is observed for both natural and synthetic porphyrins. Tetraphenylporphine sulfonate (TPPS) has been shown by Fairchild et al. to be an ideal model compound for assessing porphyrin uptake, and suitably boronated tetraphenyl porphine might be expected to behave similarly. This report describes the synthesis, properties, and preliminary biodistribution of such compounds

  15. Commercial Clinical Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    CRADA No. 95-CR-09 among the LITCO--now Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; a private company, Neutron Therapies Limited Liability Company, NTL formerly Ionix Corporation; and Washington State University was established in 1996 to further the development of BNCT. NTL has established a laboratory for the synthesis, under US FDA approved current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines, of key boron intermediates and final boron agents for BNCT. The company has focused initially on the development of the compound GB-10 (Na 2 B 10 H 10 ) as the first boron agent of interest. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GB-10 has been filed and approved by the FDA for a Phase I human biodistribution trial in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme at UW under the direction of Professor Keith Stelzer, Principal Investigator (PI). These trials are funded by NTL under a contract with the UW, Department of Radiation Oncology, and the initial phases are nearing completion. Initial results show that boron-10 concentrations on the order of 100 micrograms per gram (100 ppm) can be achieved and maintained in blood with no indication of toxicity

  16. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Tsurubuchi, Takao; Zaboronok, Alexander; Matsumura, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of malignant spinal cord tumors is currently ineffective. The characteristics of the spine are its seriality, small volume, and vulnerability: severe QOL impairment can be brought about by small neuronal damage. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of BNCT as a tumor-selective charged particle therapy for spinal cord tumors from the viewpoint of protecting the normal spine. A previous report suggested the tolerance dose of the spinal cord was 13.8 Gy-Eq for radiation myelopathy; a dose as high as 11 Gy-Eq demonstrated no spinal cord damage in an experimental animal model. We calculated the tumor dose and the normal spinal cord dose on a virtual model of a spinal cord tumor patient with a JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) treatment planning system. The present study made use of boronophenylalanine (BPA). In these calculations, conditions were set as follows: tumor/normal (T/N) ratio of 3.5, blood boron concentration of 12 ppm, tumor boron concentration of 42 ppm, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for tumor and normal spinal cord of 3.8 and 1.35, respectively. We examined how to optimize neutron irradiation by changing the beam direction and number. In our theoretical example, simple opposed two-field irradiation achieved 28.0 Gy-Eq as a minimum tumor dose and 7.3 Gy-Eq as a maximum normal spinal dose. The BNCT for the spinal cord tumor was therefore feasible when a sufficient T/N ratio could be achieved. The use of F-BPA PET imaging for spinal tumor patients is supported by this study.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M.

    1997-01-01

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  19. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of 10 B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), 10 BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion could be

  20. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  1. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  2. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1989-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of gliomas and glioblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment of levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 S H must be known in several compartments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumin was established. This method is simples, reproducible and has adequate sensitivity for this control. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-01-01

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  4. Monte Carlo based dosimetry and treatment planning for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Brenner, J.F.; Wazer, D.E.; Madoc-Jones, H.; Clement, S.D.; Harling, O.K.; Yanch, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo based dosimetry and computer-aided treatment planning for neutron capture therapy have been developed to provide the necessary link between physical dosimetric measurements performed on the MITR-II epithermal-neutron beams and the need of the radiation oncologist to synthesize large amounts of dosimetric data into a clinically meaningful treatment plan for each individual patient. Monte Carlo simulation has been employed to characterize the spatial dose distributions within a skull/brain model irradiated by an epithermal-neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy applications. The geometry and elemental composition employed for the mathematical skull/brain model and the neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion formalism are presented. A treatment planning program, NCTPLAN, developed specifically for neutron capture therapy, is described. Examples are presented illustrating both one and two-dimensional dose distributions obtainable within the brain with an experimental epithermal-neutron beam, together with beam quality and treatment plan efficacy criteria which have been formulated for neutron capture therapy. The incorporation of three-dimensional computed tomographic image data into the treatment planning procedure is illustrated

  5. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1995-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  6. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few ...

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using fast neutrons: Effects in two human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Ziegler, W.; Szypniewski, H.; Streffer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The results demonstrate that the effect of fast neutrons on cell survival in cell culture can be enhanced by boron neutron capture reaction. Even with lower enhancement ratios, the concept of NCT assisted fast neutron therapy may successfully be applied for tumor treatment with the Essen cyclotron. (orig.)

  9. Phantom experiment of depth-dose distributions for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kato, K.; Sakuma, Y.; Tsuruno, A.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Depth-dose distributions in a tumor simulated phantom were measured for thermal neutron flux, capture gamma-ray and internal conversion electron dose rates for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The results show that (i) a significant dose enhancement can be achieved in the tumor by capture gamma-rays and internal conversion electrons but the dose is mainly due to capture gamma-rays from the Gd(n, γ) reactions, therefore, is not selective at the cellular level, (ii) the dose distribution was a function of strongly interrelated parameters such as gadolinium concentrations, tumor site and neutron beam size (collimator aperture size), and (iii) the Gd-NCT by thermal neutrons appears to be a potential for treatment of superficial tumor. (author)

  10. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    performance based on self-report and observation, respectively, and to examine the relationship between measures of self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance. Methods: The quality of ADL task performance among 20 adults with depression was evaluated using the ADL Interview (ADL......-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Results and conclusions: Results indicated that participants both reported and demonstrated increased effort and/or fatigue, increased use of time, need for assistance, and safety problems. However, little relationship was found between measures of self......-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance, supporting the use of both self-report and observation as part of the evaluation phase outlined in the OTIPM. Key words: activities of daily living, depression, assessment, interview, OTIPM, ADL-I, AMPS...

  11. Antitumor potential induction and free radicals production in melanoma cells by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, F. [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, 455 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, P.R.P.; Muniz, R.O.R.; Souza, G.S. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research, 2242 Lineu Prestes Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda-Neto, J. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 187 Matao Street, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [FESP, Sao Paulo Engineering School, 5520 Nove de Julho Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Maria, Durvanei A., E-mail: durvaneiaugusto@yahoo.com.br [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Antiproliferative and oxidative damage effects occurring in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in normal fibroblasts and melanoma cell lines were analyzed. Melanoma cells and normal fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations of Boronophenylalanine and irradiated with thermal neutron flux. The cellular viability and the oxidative stress were determined. BNCT induced free radicals production and proliferative potential inhibition in melanoma cells. Therefore, this therapeutic technique could be considered efficient to inhibit growth of melanoma with minimal effects on normal tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) induces melanoma cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT stimulates free radicals production and proliferative inhibition in melanoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It produces tumor membrane degeneration and destruction with apoptotic bodies formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This therapy damages tumor cells selectively, with minimum effects on normal adjacent tissue.

  12. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key; Sil Lee, Keum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations

  13. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • PIGE was evaluated for measuring blood boron concentration during clinical BNCT. • PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in culture medium. • All measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. • Two hours of f-BPA exposure is required to create boron distribution image by PIGE. • Boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from boron in the cytoplasm.

  14. Evaluation of Mars CO2 Capture and Gas Separation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    Recent national policy statements have established that the ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to ,enable such missions and it is appropriate to review progress in this area and continue to advance the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. The Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as well. To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (C02-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3)/carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include' freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents

  15. Selective uptake of p-boronophenylalanine by osteosarcoma cells for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, C. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ferraric@unipv.it; Zonta, C.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M.; Gaspari, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of University, Via Bassi, 6, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most common non-hematologic primary cancer type that develops in bone. Current osteosarcoma treatments combine multiagent chemotherapy with extensive surgical resection, which in some cases makes necessary the amputation of the entire limb. Nevertheless its infiltrative growth leads to a high incidence of local and distant recurrences that reduce the percentage of cured patients to less than 60%. These poor data required to set up a new therapeutic approach aimed to restrict the surgical removal meanwhile performing a radical treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a particular radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions by atoms of {sup 10}B, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, could be a valid alternative or integrative option in case of osteosarcoma management, thanks to its peculiarity in selectively destroying neoplastic cells without damaging normal tissues. Aim of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of employing BNCT to treat the limb osteosarcoma. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used to carry {sup 10}B inside the neoplastic cells. As a first step the endocellular BPA uptake is tested in vitro on the UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell line. The results show an adequate accumulation capability. For the in vivo experiments, an animal tumor model is developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by means of an intrafemoral injection of UMR-106 cells at the condyle site. The absolute amounts of boron loading and the tumor to normal tissue {sup 10}B ratio are evaluated 2 h after the i.v. administration of BPA. The boron uptake by the neoplastic tissue is almost twice the normal one. However, higher values of boron concentration in tumor are requested before upholding BNCT as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  16. Comparison of doses delivered in clinical trials of neutron capture therapy in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Binns, P.J.; Riley, K.J.; Coderre, J.A.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    A combined 81 brain tumor patients have been treated in dose escalation trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) at Harvard-MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Pooling the clinical outcomes from these trials will permit evaluation with more statistical rigor. However, differences in physical and computational dosimetry between the institutions make direct comparison of the clinical dosimetry difficult. This paper describes work performed to normalize the BNL clinical dosimetry to that of Harvard-MIT for combined dose response analysis. This normalization involved analysis of MIT measurements and calculations using the BNL treatment planning system (TPS), BNCT - Rtpe, for two different phantoms. The BNL TPS was calibrated to dose measurements made by MIT at the BMRR in the BNL calibration phantom, a Lucite cube, and then validated by MIT dose measurements at the BMMR in an ellipsoidal water phantom. Treatment plans for all BNL patients were recomputed using the newly determined TPS calibration, yielding reductions in reported mean brain doses of 19% on average in the initial 15 patients and 31% in the latter 38 patients. These reductions in reported doses have clinically significant implications for those relying on reported BNL doses as a basis for initial dose selection in clinical studies. (author)

  17. Boron microquantification in oral mucosa and skin following administration of a neutron capture therapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, S.W. III; Micca, P.L.; Morris, G.M.; Coderre, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for intracranial tumours using boronphenylalanine-fructose undertaken at Harvard-MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory have observed acute normal tissue reactions in the skin and oral mucosa. Because the range of the 10 B(n,a) 7 Li reaction products is very short, 10-14 μm combined, knowledge of the 10B microdistribution in tissue is critical for understanding the microdosimetry and radiobiology of BNCT. This paper reports measurements of the microdistribution of 10 B in an animal model, rat skin and tongue, using high resolution quantitative autoradiography (HRQAR), a neutron-induced track etch autoradiographic technique. The steep spatial gradient and high absolute value relative to blood of the 10 B concentration observed in some strata of the rat tongue epithelium and skin are important for properly evaluating the radiobiology and the biological effectiveness factors for normal tissue reactions such as oral mucositis, which are generally assessed using the blood boron concentration rather than the tissue boron concentration. (author)

  18. Development of reference problems for neutron capture therapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 5 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) are or have been used in clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT): MacNCTPlan, NCTPlan, BNCT Rtpe, SERA, and JCDS. This paper describes work performed to comprehensively test and compare 4 of these NCT treatment planning systems in order to facilitate the pooling of patient data from the different clinical sites for analysis of the clinical results as well as to provide an important quality assurance tool for existing and future TPSs. Two different phantoms were used to evaluate the planning systems: the modified Snyder head phantom and a large water-filled box, similar to that used in the International Dosimetry Exchange for NCT. The comparison of the resulting dose profile, isodose contours, and dose volume histograms to reference calculations performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5 yielded many interesting differences. Each of the planning systems deviated from the reference calculations, with the newer systems (i.e., SERA and NCTPlan) most often yielding better agreement than their predecessors (i.e., BNCT Rtpe and MacNCTPlan). The combination of simple phantoms and sources with more complicated and realistic planning conditions has produced a well-rounded and useful suite of test problems for NCT treatment planning system analysis. (author)

  19. Verification of the computational dosimetry system in JAERI (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, H; Yamamoto, K; Matsumura, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakagawa, Y; Nakai, K; Kageji, T

    2004-01-01

    Clinical trials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by using the medical irradiation facility installed in Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have been performed since 1999. To carry out the BNCT procedure based on proper treatment planning and its precise implementation, the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) which is applicable to dose planning has been developed in JAERI. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of JCDS. The experimental data with a cylindrical water phantom were compared with the calculation results using JCDS. Data of measurements obtained from IOBNCT cases at JRR-4 were also compared with retrospective evaluation data with JCDS. In comparison with phantom experiments, the calculations and the measurements for thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose were in a good agreement, except at the surface of the phantom. Against the measurements of clinical cases, the discrepancy of JCDS's calculations was approximately 10%. These basic and clinical verifications demonstrated that JCDS has enough performance for the BNCT dosimetry. Further investigations are recommended for precise dose distribution and faster calculation environment

  20. Effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujita, Yusei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, Akira [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohmae, Masatoshi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Izimisano Municipal Hospital, Rinku General Hospital, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Environment and Life Science, Osaka prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan); CEO of Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sakrai, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Sumi, Tetsuro; Iwai, Soichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ono, Koji [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) to avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We have treated with BNCT 42 times for 26 patients (19 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results of (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 12 cases, PR: 10 cases, PD: 3 cases NE (not evaluated): 1 case. Response rate was 85%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-72 months (mean: 13.6 months). Six-year survival rate was 24% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) Adverse-events were transient mucositis and alopecia in most of the cases; three osteomyelitis and one brain necrosis were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM.

  1. A critical assessment of boron target compounds for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M Frederick; Lee, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has undergone dramatic developments since its inception by Locher in 1936 and the development of nuclear energy during World War II. The ensuing Cold War spawned the entirely new field of polyhedral borane chemistry, rapid advances in nuclear reactor technology and a corresponding increase in the number to reactors potentially available for BNCT. This effort has been largely oriented toward the eradication of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and melanoma with reduced interest in other types of malignancies. The design and synthesis of boron-10 target compounds needed for BNCT was not channeled to those types of compounds specifically required for GBM or melanoma. Consequently, a number of potentially useful boron agents are known which have not been biologically evaluated beyond a cursory examination and only three boron-10 enriched target species are approved for human use following their Investigational New Drug classification by the US Food and Drug Administration; BSH, BPA and GB-10. All ongoing clinical trials with GBM and melanoma are necessarily conducted with one of these three species and most often with BPA. The further development of BNCT is presently stalled by the absence of strong support for advanced compound evaluation and compound discovery driven by recent advances in biology and chemistry. A rigorous demonstration of BNCT efficacy surpassing that of currently available protocols has yet to be achieved. This article discusses the past history of compound development, contemporary problems such as compound classification and those problems which impede future advances. The latter include means for biological evaluation of new (and existing) boron target candidates at all stages of their development and the large-scale synthesis of boron target species for clinical trials and beyond. The future of BNCT is bright if latitude is given to the choice of clinical disease to be treated and if a recognized study

  2. Initiation of a phase-I trial of neutron capture therapy at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.; Yam, Chun-Shan

    1995-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the New England Medical Center (NEMC), and Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) initiated a phase-1 trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on September 6, 1994, at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT research reactor (MITR). A novel form of experimental cancer therapy, BNCT is being developed for certain types of highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and melanoma. The results of the phase-1 trials on patients with tumors in the legs or feet are described

  3. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  4. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharmacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCT agents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron

  5. In-phantom dosimetry using the 13C(d,n)14N reaction for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro; Kreiner, Andres J.; White, S.; Blackburn, B.; Gierga, David; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the 13 C(d,n) 14 N reaction at E d =1.5 MeV for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy is investigated. The 13 C(d,n) 14 N reaction presents the advantages of carbon as a target material and its large cross section. The deuteron beam was produced by a tandem accelerator at MIT's Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications. The resulting neutron spectra were evaluated in terms of RBE-dose rates at different depths inside a water-filled brain phantom using a heavy water moderator and lead reflector assembly. All results were simulated using the code MCNP. (author)

  6. Monte Carlo based dosimetry and treatment planning for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Clement, S.D.; Harling, O.K.; Brenner, J.F.; Wazer, D.E.; Madoc-Jones, H.; Yanch, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo based dosimetry and computer-aided treatment planning for neutron capture therapy have been developed to provide the necessary link between physical dosimetric measurements performed on the MITR-II epithermal-neutron beams and the need of the radiation oncologist to synthesize large amounts of dosimetric data into a clinically meaningful treatment plan for each individual patient. Monte Carlo simulation has been employed to characterize the spatial dose distributions within a skull/brain model irradiated by an epithermal-neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy applications. The geometry and elemental composition employed for the mathematical skull/brain model and the neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion formalism are presented. A treatment planning program, NCTPLAN, developed specifically for neutron capture therapy, is described. Examples are presented illustrating both one and two-dimensional dose distributions obtainable within the brain with an experimental epithermal-neutron beam, together with beam quality and treatment plan efficacy criteria which have been formulated for neutron capture therapy. The incorporation of three-dimensional computed tomographic image data into the treatment planning procedure is illustrated. The experimental epithermal-neutron beam has a maximum usable circular diameter of 20 cm, and with 30 ppm of B-10 in tumor and 3 ppm of B-10 in blood, it produces a beam-axis advantage depth of 7.4 cm, a beam-axis advantage ratio of 1.83, a global advantage ratio of 1.70, and an advantage depth RBE-dose rate to tumor of 20.6 RBE-cGy/min (cJ/kg-min). These characteristics make this beam well suited for clinical applications, enabling an RBE-dose of 2,000 RBE-cGy/min (cJ/kg-min) to be delivered to tumor at brain midline in six fractions with a treatment time of approximately 16 minutes per fraction

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  8. Physics of epi-thermal boron neutron capture therapy (epi-thermal BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Wakisaka, Yushi; Morimoto, Nami; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Toki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    The physics of epi-thermal neutrons in the human body is discussed in the effort to clarify the nature of the unique radiologic properties of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This discussion leads to the computational method of Monte Carlo simulation in BNCT. The method is discussed through two examples based on model phantoms. The physics is kept at an introductory level in the discussion in this tutorial review.

  9. Long-survivors of glioblatoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose between long-survivors and non-long-survivors in patients with glioblatoma (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Among 23 GBM patients treated with BNCT, there were five patients who survived more than three years after diagnosis. The physical and weighted dose of the minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) of long-survivors was much higher than that of non-long survivors with significant statistical differences.

  10. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinstein, L.E.; Ramsay, E.B.; Gajewski, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Meek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  11. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A Sam; Suchowerska, Natalka; Law, Susan H

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  12. A novel approach to the microdosimetry of neutron capture therapy. Part I. High-resolution quantitative autoradiography applied to microdosimetry in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, G.R.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A novel approach to the microdosimetry of neutron capture therapy has been developed using high-resolution quantitative autoradiography (HRQAR) and two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation. This approach has been applied using actual cell morophology (nuclear and cytoplasmic cell structures) and the measured microdistribution of boron-10 in a transplanted murine brain tumor (GL261) containing p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron compound. The 2D Monte Carlo transport code for the α and 7 Li charged particles from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reactions has been developed as a surrogate to a full 3D approach to calculate a variety of different microdosimetric parameters. The HRQAR method and the surrogate 2D Monte Carlo approach are described in detail and examples of their use are presented. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  13. The 3D tomographic image reconstruction software for prompt-gamma measurement of the boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Boris; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2006-01-01

    A tomographic imaging system based on the spatial distribution measurement of the neutron capture reaction during Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) would be very useful for clinical purpose. Using gamma-detectors in a 2D-panel, boron neutron capture and hydrogen neutron capture gamma-rays emitted by the neutron irradiated region can be detected, and an image of the neutron capture events can be reconstructed. A 3D reconstruction software package has been written to support the development of a 3D prompt-gamma tomographic system. The package consists of three independent modules: phantom generation, reconstruction and evaluation modules. The reconstruction modules are based on algebraic approach of the iterative reconstruction algorithm (ART), and on the maximum likelihood estimation method (ML-EM). In addition to that, two subsets of the ART, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the component averaging algorithms (CAV) have been included to the package employing parallel codes for multiprocessor architecture. All implemented algorithms use two different field functions for the reconstruction of the region. One is traditional voxel function, another is, so called, blob function, smooth spherically symmetric generalized Kaiser-Bessel function. The generation module provides the phantom and projections with background by tracing the prompt gamma-rays for a given scanner geometry. The evaluation module makes statistical comparisons between the generated and reconstructed images, and provides figure-of-merit (FOM) values for the applied reconstruction algorithms. The package has been written in C language and tested under Linux and Windows platforms. The simple graphical user interface (GUI) is used for command execution and visualization purposed. (author)

  14. Distribution of exogenous porphyrins in vivo; implications for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Gabel, D.; Hillman, M.; Watts, K.

    1982-01-01

    Endogenous porphyrins (HpD) are already in clinical use for phototherapy, in which red light is used to stimulate a cytotoxic response in tumors. The evident success, at least with superficial cancers, gives biological evidence of selective concentrations of porphyrins in tumors adequate for therapy. The authors have investigated, in addition, the biodistribution of a synthetic porphyrin (tetraphenylporphinesulfonate, or TPPS) in seven different animal tumor models. Their data, as well as those of others, indicate abundant accumulations of TPPS in tumor. If boronated analogs behave in the same way, boron concentrations would be up to 10 times that needed for therapy. Utilization of such porphyrin analogs in the neutron capture therapy (NCT) procedure is similar in concept to phototherapy currently being used clinically, with the distinct advantage of deeper tissue penetration produced by the activating neutrons

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy. Synthesis of boronated amines- and DNA intercalating agents for potential use in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaneolhosseini, H.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary cancer treatment modality, involving the delivery of a suitable boron compound to tumour cells followed by irradiation of the tumour by thermal neutrons. Boronated agents can selectively be delivered to tumour cells either directly with tumour-specific boron compounds, or by use of targeting strategies. However, the efficacy of this method would increase if the boron agents are localised in the cell nucleus rather than in the cell cytoplasm when neutron irradiation takes place. With these considerations in mind, some boronated DNA intercalating/interacting agents such as phenanthridine- acridine- spermidine- and naphthalimide derivatives were synthesised. Aminoalkyl-o-carboranes were synthesised in order to be used both for coupling to macromolecules and also for halogenation of their corresponding nido-derivatives. The amino groups were introduced using the Gabriel reagent N, N-dibenzyl iminodicarboxylate to provide 1-(aminomethyl)- and 1-(2-aminoethyl)-o-carboranes. The first attempt to achieve the possibility to accumulate a higher concentration of boron atoms in the cell nucleus was to synthesize carboranyl phenanthridinium analogues by reacting a p- or o-carboranyl moiety with phenanthridine, a chromophore with a planar aromatic ring system as DNA intercalator. Boronated acridine-spermidine, boronated diacridine, and boronated dispermidine were obtained in order to increase water solubility to avoid the interaction of these agents with non-DNA sides of the cell, especially membranes; and to enhance the feasibility of a higher DNA-binding constant and also decrease the DNA-drug dissociation rate. Finally, the synthesis of a boronated naphthalimide derivative was carried out by nucleophilic reaction of a primary aminoalkyl-p-carborane with naphthalic anhydride. Biological evaluations on DNA-binding, toxicity, and cellular binding with carboranyl phenanthridinium analogues, boronated acridine- and spermidine are described

  16. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  17. Nominal effective radiation doses delivered during clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary system that, in theory, should selectively deliver lethal, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to tumor cells dispersed within normal tissues. It is based on the nuclear reaction 10-B(n, α)7-Li, which occurs when the stable nucleus of boron-10 captures a thermal neutron. Due to the relatively high cross-section of the 10-B nucleus for thermal neutron capture and short ranges of the products of this reaction, tumor cells in the volume exposed to thermal neutrons and containing sufficiently high concentration of 10-B would receive a much higher radiation dose than the normal cells contained within the exposed volume. Nevertheless, radiation dose deposited in normal tissue by gamma and fast neutron contamination of the neutron beam, as well as neutron capture in nitrogen, 14-N(n,p)14-C, hydrogen, 1-H(n,γ)2-H, and in boron present in blood and normal cells, limits the dose that can be delivered to tumor cells. It is, therefore, imperative for the success of the BNCT the dosed delivered to normal tissues be accurately determined in order to optimize the irradiation geometry and to limit the volume of normal tissue exposed to thermal neutrons. These are the major objectives of BNCT treatment planning

  18. Dynamic infrared imaging for cancer: research and development in the Argentine Boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the Argentine Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project for treating metastatic cutaneous melanoma, we have initiated a research and development program aimed at obtaining a noninvasive methodology for following-up the treated patients. The technique is called Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) and comprises the acquisition of infrared images as a function of time of the anatomical part under study, when the region is subjected to a mild cold stress. Vascular, metabolic and regulating differences between normal and tumor tissues appear as differences in the pattern of temperature evolution, which can be correlated with the anatomical and functional aspects of both. Two patients enrolled in the BNCT protocol were studied with DIRI. A good spatial correlation between dose, temperature recovery velocity and skin reaction distributions was observed at the time of maximum expression of the erythematous reaction. Melanoma nodules appear as highly localized hyperthermic regions, surrounded and interconnected by elevated temperature areas. Their temperature recovery velocity after the thermal cold stress was substantially faster than that of normal skin with an appreciably large temperature difference (6 degreesC to 10 degreesC). These tissue differences can be related with the thermal conductivity and metabolic rate as explained by a simple one-directional heat transport model. Compared with other imaging modalities (CT and Doppler ultrasound) DIRI has had a similar ability for confirming the already diagnosed nodules. Together with the clinical observation, DIRI provides a potentially useful amount of information, at a competitive cost-benefit relationship suitable for performing a non-invasive functional assessment of this kind of cutaneous lesions and the evaluation of the acute skin reaction following irradiation. (author)

  19. Effect of bevacizumab combined with boron neutron capture therapy on local tumor response and lung metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASUNAGA, SHIN-ICHIRO; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; TANO, KEIZO; TANAKA, HIROKI; SUZUKI, MINORU; KONDO, NATSUKO; NARABAYASHI, MASARU; WATANABE, TSUBASA; NAKAGAWA, YOSUKE; MARUHASHI, AKIRA; ONO, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bevacizumab on local tumor response and lung metastatic potential during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and in particular, the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) tumor cells. The tumors were irradiated with thermal neutron beams following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)], with or without the administration of bevacizumab. This was further combined with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH, 40°C for 60 min). Immediately following the irradiation, cells from certain tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q cells and the total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days following irradiation, lung metastases were enumerated. Three days following bevacizumab administration, the sensitivity of the total tumor cell population following BPA-BNCT had increased more than that following BSH-BNCT. The combination with MTH, but not with nicotinamide, further enhanced total tumor cell population sensitivity. Regardless of the presence of a 10B-carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Regardless of irradiation, the administration of bevacizumab, as well as nicotinamide treatment, demonstrated certain potential in reducing the number of lung metastases especially in BPA-BNCT compared with BSH-BNCT. Thus, the current study revealed that BNCT combined with bevacizumab has the potential to sensitize total tumor cells and cause a reduction in the number of lung metastases to a similar level as nicotinamide. PMID:24944637

  20. Possible alternation of the blood-brain barrier by boron-neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, H.; Moritani, M.; Camillo, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the course of re-assessment of boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors, fractionation of neutron irradiation has been proposed. The authors have used BNCT with a single fraction technique during the past 21 years and now decided to study some effects of fractionation. Twenty-two healthy mouse brains were irradiated with thermal neutrons after boron-10 injection (mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate). A second dose of boron-10 was administered and its uptake in the boron-neutron-capture-irradiated brains was determined. A tendency towards increased boron uptake in the moderately BNCT-treated brains was noticed, which may result in increased brain damage if fractionated neutron irradiation is used. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of MCNP simulated gamma spectra of CdTe detectors for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Koivunoro, Hanna; Savolainen, Sauli

    2017-06-01

    The next step in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the real time imaging of the boron concentration in healthy and tumor tissue. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to predict the detector response required to realize single-photon emission computed tomography in BNCT, but have failed to correctly resemble measured data for cadmium telluride detectors. In this study we have tested the gamma production cross-section data tables of commonly used libraries in the Monte Carlo code MCNP in comparison to measurements. The cross section data table TENDL-2008-ACE is reproducing measured data best, whilst the commonly used ENDL92 and other studied libraries do not include correct tables for the gamma production from the cadmium neutron capture reaction that is occurring inside the detector. Furthermore, we have discussed the size of the annihilation peaks of spectra obtained by cadmium telluride and germanium detectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Yong, Liu; Kashino, Genro; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction ( 10 B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT

  3. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  4. Monte Carlo calculations on efficiency of boron neutron capture therapy for brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, Galaleldin Mohamed Suliman

    2015-11-01

    The search for ways to treat cancer has led to many different treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Among these treatments, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown promising results. BNCT is a radiotherapy treatment modality that has been proposed to treat brain cancer. In this technique, cancerous cells are being injected with 1 0B and irradiated by thermal neutrons to increase the probability of 1 0B (n, a)7 L i reaction to occur. This reaction can potentially deliver a high radiation dose sufficient to kill cancer cells by concentrating boron in them. The short rang of 1 0B (n, a) 7 L i reaction limits the damage to only cancerous cells without affecting healthy tissues. The effectiveness and safety of radiotherapy are dependent on the radiation dose delivered to the tumor and healthy tissues. In this thesis, after reviewing the basics and working principles of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model a thermal neutron source suitable for BNCT and to examine the performance of proposed model when used to irradiate a sample of boron containing both 1 0B and 1 1B isotopes. MCNP5 code was used to examine the modeled neutron source through different shielding materials. The results were presented, analyzed and discussed at the end of the work. (author)

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope 10 B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/ 10 B reactions ( 10 B(n,α) 7 Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and 7 Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams

  7. Evaluation of XHVRB for Capturing Explosive Shock Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Leah; Schmitt, Robert; Kittell, Dave; Harstad, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Explosive shock desensitization phenomena have been recognized for some time. It has been demonstrated that pressure-based reactive flow models do not adequately capture the basic nature of the explosive behavior. Historically, replacing the local pressure with a shock captured pressure has dramatically improved the numerical modeling approaches. Models based upon shock pressure or functions of entropy have recently been developed. A pseudo-entropy based formulation using the History Variable Reactive Burn model, as proposed by Starkenberg, was implemented into the Eulerian shock physics code CTH. Improvements in the shock capturing algorithm were made. The model is demonstrated to reproduce single shock behavior consistent with published pop plot data. It is also demonstrated to capture a desensitization effect based on available literature data, and to qualitatively capture dead zones from desensitization in 2D corner turning experiments. This models shows promise for use in modeling and simulation problems that are relevant to the desensitization phenomena. Issues are identified with the current implementation and future work is proposed for improving and expanding model capabilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Prompt γ-ray data evaluation of thermal-neutron capture for A = 1-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei

    1999-01-01

    The method of prompt γ-ray data evaluation for thermal-neutron capture has been briefly presented. The prompt capture γ-ray data of stable nuclei for A = 1 - 25 are evaluated. The evaluated data have been changed into the ENSDF format and the checks of physics and format have been made

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, V.A.; Garabalino, M.A.; Colombo, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb

  10. A shielding design for an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, A.E.; Blue, T.E. E-mail: blue.1@osu.edu; Woollard, J.E

    2004-11-01

    Research in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at The Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering Department has been primarily focused on delivering a high quality neutron field for use in BNCT using an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS). An ABNS for BNCT is composed of a proton accelerator, a high-energy beam transport system, a {sup 7}Li target, a target heat removal system (HRS), a moderator assembly, and a treatment room. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of a shielded moderator assembly design, in terms of material requirements necessary to adequately protect radiation personnel located outside a treatment room for BNCT, over an unshielded moderator assembly design.

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Zhen, Haining; Jiang, Xinbiao; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xin; Guo, Geng; Mao, Xinggang; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical Un...

  12. A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its ∼MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets

  13. Biological Tests for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the TRIGA Mark II Reactor in Pavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protti, N.; Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S.; De Bari, A.; Stella, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Nuclear Physics National Institute (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J.G.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M. [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University is used as an irradiation facility to perform biological tests and irradiations of living systems for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research. The suitability of the facility has been ensured by studying the neutron flux and the photon background in the irradiation chamber inside the thermal column. This characterization has been realized both by flux and dose measurements as well as by Monte Carlo simulations. The routine irradiations concern in vitro cells cultures and different tumor animal models to test the efficacy of the BNCT treatment. Some results about these experiments will be described. (author)

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation in murine melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, F. [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, 455 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, P.R.P. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research, 2242 Lineu Prestes Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda-Neto, J. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 187 Matao Street, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [FESP, Sao Paulo Engineering School, 5520 Nove de Julho Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Maria, Durvanei A., E-mail: durvaneiaugusto@yahoo.br [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    The melanoma is a highly lethal skin tumor, with a high incidence. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy which combines Boron with thermal neutrons, constituting a binary system. B16F10 melanoma and L929 fibroblasts were treated with Boronophenylalanine and irradiated with thermal neutron flux. The electric potential of mitochondrial membrane, cyclin D1 and caspase-3 markers were analyzed. BNCT induced a cell death increase and cyclin D1 amount decreased only in B16F10 melanoma. Besides, there was not caspase-3 phosphorylation.

  15. Analytical dosimetry for spontaneous tumor dogs receiving boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Atkinson, C.A.; Gavin, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dog irradiation project of the Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program is administered by Washington State University (WSU) with analytical and physical dosimetry provided by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). One subtask of this project includes BNCT safety studies for dogs with spontaneously-occurring brain tumors. The boron compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) was administered and single irradiations performed using the epithermal-neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). The main goal of the study was not to provide therapy, but to determine tumorcidal effect while administering a subtolerance dose to healthy tissue. Irradiation times were based on delivery of 19 Gy peak physical dose to the blood

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L.; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  17. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro A.; Girola, Santiago; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andres J.

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  18. CAPTURED : evaluación Bolivia : Bolivia Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana Halkyer, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente informe contiene los resultados de la Evaluación en Bolivia y se produce como parte de la evaluación final del proyecto CAPTURED. El equipo AGRUCO logro formular una Programa de Formación Continua intercultural descolonizador, que va desde el técnico operativo, medio y superior,

  19. Some thoughts on tolerance, dose, and fractionation in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahbauer, R.; Goodman, J.; Blue, T.

    1988-01-01

    Unique to boron neutron capture therapy, the tolerance very strongly depends on the boron concentration in normal brain, skin and blood. If one first considers the ideal situation of a 2 KeV beam and a compound clearing from normal tissues and blood, the tolerance dose to epithermal beams relates to the maximum tolerated capture gamma dose and capture high LET dose, H (n,gamma)D and N(n,p) 14 C. The authors can relate this gamma and high LET dose to known clinical experience. Assuming gamma and high LET dose ratios as given by Fairchild and Bond, one may first choose a clearly safe high LET whole brain dose and calculate the unavoidably resulting gamma dose. To a first approximation 500 cGy of high LET dose results in 3,000 cGy gamma dose. One can speculate that this approximates the tolerance of whole brain to the 2 KeV beam with no contributing boron dose if the radiation is fractionated. It would clearly be beyond tolerance in a single fraction where most therapists would be uncomfortable to deliver even one third of the above doses

  20. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  1. Monte Carlo assessment of boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundy Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer every year the avail able treatment options are effective, though physically and mentally taxing. This work is a starting point of a study of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy as an alternative treatment for HER-2+ breast tumors. Using HER-2-specific monoclonal anti bodies coupled with a boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diester, it may be possible to deliver sufficient amounts of 10B to a tumor of the breast to al low for selective cell destruction via irradiation by thermal neutrons. A comprehensive computational model (MCNP for thermal neutron irradiation of the breast is described, as well as the results of calculations made using this model, in order to determine the optimum boron concentration within the tumor for an effective boron neutron capture therapy treatment, as compared with traditional X-ray radiotherapy. The results indicate that a boron concentration of 50-60 mg per gram of tumor tissue is optimal when considering treatment times, dose distributions and skin sparing. How ever these results are based upon best-guess assumptions that must be experimentally verified.

  2. Local control of murine melanoma xenografts in nude mice by neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Corderoy-Buck, S.; Moore, D.E.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development and implementation of neutron capture therapy (NCT) for the treatment of cancer. In particular, the boron analogue of the melanin precursor phenylalanine, i.e., DL-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used to demonstrate the regression and cure of Harding-Passey (HP) melanoma in syngeneic mice. However, 18 to 25% cures were obtained for neutron irradiations without boron, suggesting that the neutron dose alone plays an important role. Neutron capture therapy of B-16 melanoma xenografts in nude mice showed substantial tumor regression over 35 days, but the survival rate of NCT treated mice after 7 weeks was only 40-60%. In this paper the authors demonstrate the equivalence of the nude mouse model with a syngeneic model, using the same Harding-Passey murine melanoma line, and delineate the conditions required for maximum differential response between neutron irradiation with and without BPA administration, with complete local control as the end point

  3. Use of the Power Burst Facility for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.; Griebenow, M.L.; Leatham, J.

    1990-01-01

    A program is under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that involves using the Power Burst Facility (PBF) for research into boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT utilizes the ionizing energy from boron-neutron capture to stop reproduction of or destroy cells in cancerous tissue in a two-step process. The first step is to selectively concentrate a boron isotope within the tumor cell, that when activated by neutron capture emits highly ionizing, short range particles. The second step involves activation of the isotope only in the vicinity of the tumor with a narrow neutron beam. The ( 10 B[n, 4 He] 7 Li) reaction with thermal neutrons produces fission products with track lengths approximately equal to a cell diameter. The INEL program includes the modification of the PBF by the addition of a filter and treatment area. The filter will down-scatter high energy neutrons into the epithermal range and remove thermal neutrons and excessively damaging gamma components. The intense source of epithermal neutrons from PBF is considered necessary to achieve optimum therapy for deep-seated tumors with minimum damage to surface tissue. THe neutron filter conceptualized for PBF utilizes aluminum and heavy water to down-scatter neutrons into the proper energy range. Bismuth will be used for gamma shielding and cadmium will remove the thermal neutron contaminant from the beam. The INEL program leads to human clinical trials at PBF which are intended to prove that brain tumors can be successfully treated through noninvasive techniques. Further research into BNCT at PBF for other cancer types is also anticipated

  4. Dose Determination using alanine detectors in a Mixed Neutron and Gamma Field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Liver Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for liver malignancies is being investigated at the University of Mainz. One important aim is the set-up of a reliable dosimetry system. Alanine dosimeters have previously been applied for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields in antiproton therapy, and ma...

  5. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10 B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4 He and 7 Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 10 9 n/cm 2 sec) or with 60 Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10 BPA or 10 BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  6. ESR-dosimetry in thermal and epithermal neutron fields for application in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Tobias

    2016-01-22

    Dosimetry is essential for every form of radiotherapy. In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mixed neutron and gamma fields have to be considered. Dose is deposited in different neutron interactions with elements in the penetrated tissue and by gamma particles, which are always part of a neutron field. The therapeutic dose in BNCT is deposited by densely ionising particles, originating from the fragmentation of the isotope boron-10 after capture of a thermal neutron. Despite being investigated for decades, dosimetry in neutron beams or fields for BNCT remains complex, due to the variety in type and energy of the secondary particles. Today usually ionisation chambers combined with metal foils are used. The applied techniques require extensive effort and are time consuming, while the resulting uncertainties remain high. Consequently, the investigation of more effective techniques or alternative dosimeters is an important field of research. In this work the possibilities of ESR-dosimeters in those fields have been investigated. Certain materials, such as alanine, generate stable radicals upon irradiation. Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry the amount of radicals, which is proportional to absorbed dose, can be quantified. Different ESR detector materials have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany, with five setups, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been conducted in two epithermal neutron beams. The detector response, however, strongly depends on the dose depositing particle type and energy. It is hence necessary to accompany measurements by computational modelling and simulation. In this work the Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to calculate absorbed doses and dose components. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using amorphous track models. For the simulation, detailed models of

  7. Slow-neutron capture therapy for malignant tumours: its history and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, H.

    1975-01-01

    Slow-neutron capture therapy was first suggested in 1936. The early clinical trials were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactors. In the last series of treatments in 1960 and 1961, none of the 17 glioblastoma patients lived longer than a year and the clinical trial was discontinued, particularly because the was pathological evidence that normal tissue had been seriously damaged. Hatanaka, who worked first with Sweet between 1964 and 1967, continued intensive basic research and organized a collaborating team of chemists, physicists and physicians in Japan where he resumed treatment of brain tumour patients in 1968. The rationale of the revised therapy included: (1) use of promising compounds such as mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate, which has a high tumour binding property, (2) use of adrenocorticoid to minimize vascular damage, (3) intra-arterial infusion of boron to obtain a higher concentration in the tumour, (4) restriction of excessive neutron intensity, (5) and some technical improvements. New research techniques were also introduced, such as alpha autoradiography, electron microscopy, and immunotherapy. With the mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate compound an absolute concentration of 30 μg per gram of tumour is easily attainable, while the blood level of the isotope can be lowered to at least half of the tumour concentration. Normal dog brains were able to tolerate this therapy. Among the 15 patients so far treated, 13 were treated at the Hitachi Training Reactor. Patients, who had undergone repeated surgery as well as excessive irradiation before they came for the therapy, could not recover their full activities, but proved they could enjoy a significant prolongation of their lives. The only two fresh cases of glioblastoma responded so well to the therapy that one has been working as an engineer and the other as a farmer for 3 years without neurological deficits. Recent progress and future potentials of the

  8. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  9. Evaluating automatic attentional capture by self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Brenda; Kahan, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Our everyday decisions and memories are inadvertently influenced by self-relevant information. For example, we are faster and more accurate at making perceptual judgments about stimuli associated with ourselves, such as our own face or name, as compared with familiar non-self-relevant stimuli. Humphreys and Sui propose a "self-attention network" to account for these effects, wherein self-relevant stimuli automatically capture our attention and subsequently enhance the perceptual processing of self-relevant information. We propose that the masked priming paradigm and continuous flash suppression represent two ways to experimentally examine these controversial claims.

  10. Single photon image from PET with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jooyoung; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Key Jo

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiation therapy technique for treating deep-seated brain tumors by irradiation with a thermal neutron in which boron-labelled low molecular weight compounds. Once completed, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is conducted to investigate for the region of therapy using an isotope exclusive to SPECT. In the case of an existing PET/SPECT combination system, at least two types of isotopes should be used for each scan with their purposes. Recently, researchers examined the effects of PET/SPECT dual modality on animal imaging systems. They reported that the PET/SPECT combination system was effective for simultaneous achievement of a single event and coincidence. The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one PET module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector

  11. Improvement of JCDS, a computational dosimetry system in JAEA for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi

    2006-01-01

    JCDS, a computational dosimetry system for neutron capture therapy, was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The system has been sophisticated to facilitate dose planning so far. In dosimetry with JCDS for BNCT clinical trials at JRR-4, several absorbed doses and the dose distributions are determined by a voxel model consisted of 2x2x2mm 3 voxel cells. By using the detailed voxel model, accuracy of the dosimetry can be improved. Clinical trials for melanoma and head-and-neck cancer as well as brain tumor were started using hot version of JCDS in 2005. JCDS is also being of improved so as to enable a JCDS application to dosimetry by PHITS as well as dosimetry by MCNP. By using PHITS, total doses of a patient by a combined modality therapy, for example a combination of BNCT and proton therapy, can be estimated consistently. Moreover, PET images can be adopted in combination with CT and MRI images as a farsighted approach. JCDS became able to identify target regions by using the PET values. (author)

  12. Investigation of dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy using N isopropylacrylamide gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarmegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser [Dept. of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeali, Azim [Medical Education Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Gel dosimeters have unique advantages in comparison with other dosimeters. Until now, these gels have been used in different radiotherapy techniques as a reliable dosimetric tool. Because dose distribution measurement is an important factor for appropriate treatment planning in different radiotherapy techniques, in this study, we evaluated the ability of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose distribution resulting from the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this regard, a head phantom containing NIPAM gel was irradiated using the Tehran Research Reactor BNCT beam line, and then by a magnetic resonance scanner. Eventually, the R2 maps were obtained in different slices of the phantom by analyzing T2-weighted images. The results show that NIPAM gel has a suitable potential for recording three-dimensional dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field dosimetry.

  13. IMPROVED COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart R. Slattery; David W. Nigg; John D. Brockman; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2010-05-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. This is essential for detailed dosimetric studies required for the anticipated research program.

  14. Optimal timing of neutron irradiation for boron neutron capture therapy after intravenous infusion of sodium borocaptate in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Kitamura, Katsushi; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Hatanaka, Hiroshi; Haritz, Dietrich; Grochulla, Frank; Haselsberger, Klaus; Gabel, Detlef

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: A cooperative study in Europe and Japan was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and boron uptake of sodium borocaptate (BSH: Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH), which has been introduced clinically as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: Data from 56 patients with glioblastoma who received BSH intravenous infusion were retrospectively reviewed. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 50 patients, and boron uptake was investigated in 47 patients. Patients received BSH doses between 12 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation, the infused boron dose was scaled linearly to 100 mg/kg BSH. Results: In BSH pharmacokinetics, the average value for total body clearance, distribution volume of steady state, and mean residence time was 3.6±1.5 L/h, 223.3±160.7 L, and 68.0±52.5 h, respectively. The average values of the boron concentration in tumor adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, the boron concentration in blood adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, and the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 37.1±35.8 ppm, 35.2±41.8 ppm, and 1.53±1.43, respectively. A good correlation was found between the logarithmic value of T adj and the interval from BSH infusion to tumor tissue sampling. About 12-19 h after infusion, the actual values for T adj and tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 46.2±36.0 ppm and 1.70±1.06, respectively. The dose ratio between tumor and healthy tissue peaked in the same interval. Conclusion: For boron neutron capture therapy using BSH administered by intravenous infusion, this work confirms that neutron irradiation is optimal around 12-19 h after the infusion is started

  15. POD evaluation for joint angles from inertial and optical motion capturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kai; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that advances in preventive maintenance can improve the sustainment of systems, facilities, and infrastructure. Robot technologies have also received attention for maintenance applications. In order to operate delicate tasks, multi-fingered robot hands have been proposed in cases where human capability is deficient. This paper deals with motion capturing systems for controlling the hand/arm robot remotely. Several types of motion capturing systems have been developed so far. However, it is difficult for individual motion capturing systems to measure precise joint angles of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we integrate the inertial motion capturing system with the optical motion capturing system to capture a human arm posture. By evaluating the reliability of each motion capturing system, the integration is carried out. The probability of detection (POD) is applied to evaluate and compare the reliability of datasets measured by each motion capturing system. POD is one of the widely used statistical techniques to determine reliability. We apply the â analysis to determine the POD(a) function from the data set. Based on the POD evaluation, two motion capturing systems are integrated. (author)

  16. Biological models in vivo for boron neutronic capture studies as tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Farias, Silvia S.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of experimental models for Boron Neutronic Capture studies as Tumors Therapy have as two main objectives: 1) To contribute to the basic knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved to increase the method therapeutical advantage, and 2) To explore the possible application of this therapeutic method to other pathologies. In this frame it was studied the carcinogenesis model of hamster cheek pouch, a type of human buccal cancer. Biodistribution studies of boron compound were performed in tumor, blood and in different precancerous and normal tissues as well as BNCT studies. Results validated this method for BNCT studies and show the capacity of the oral mucosa tumors of selectively concentrate the boron compound, showing a deleterious clear effect on the tumor after 24 hours with BNCT treatment. (author)

  17. In vitro and in vivo studies in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research project in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma is under consideration by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This paper reviews the biochemistry of melanoma and the properties of some melanoma-affined radiopharmaceuticals and their boron analogues. Human cell lines are being used for in vitro tests of uptake and incorporation of some of these compounds, and selected lines will then be implanted in nude mice for in vivo distribution studies. The fidelity of human melanoma xenografts in nude mice has been well studied, and results are reviewed in this paper. Boron concentration will be measured directly by plasma arc emission spectroscopy or liquid scintillation counting with 14 C-labelled boron analogues. Track-etch techniques will be used for the microscopic determination of boron in tumor sections. Neutron irradiation and radiobiology experiments are outlined

  18. Design study of a medical reactor for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Hirota, J.; Tamao, S.; Kanda, K.; Mishima, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new design study of a medical reactor for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been carried out. The reactor is to be used exclusively for the treatment of malignant melanoma and other cancers as well as for the further biomedical research. Main specifications of the reactor are as follows; thermal power of 2 MW, water cooling by natural convection, semitight core of triangular lattice, UO 2 fuel rod of 9.5 mm diameter and no refueling in the reactor-life. Three horizontal and one vertical neutron beam hole are to be provided to deliver thermal and epithermal neutrons. N-γ coupling Sn transport calculations indicate that the patient treatment period will be about 30 minutes with minimal fast neutron and gamma contaminants. (author)

  19. Progress in study of a medical reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Hirota, Jitsuya; Tamao, Shigeo; Kanda, Keiji; Mishima, Yutaka.

    1993-01-01

    A design study of a medical reactor for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy has made progress. Main specifications of the reactor are as follows; thermal power of 2 MW, water cooling by natural convection, semitight core of hexagonal lattice, UO 2 fuel rod of 9.5 mm diameter and no refueling in the reactor-life. Three horizontal and one vertical neutron beam holes are to be provided for simultaneous treatments by thermal and epithermal neutrons and for further biomedical research. The design objectives for the beam holes are to deliver the therapeutic doses in a modest time (30 to 60 min) with minimal fast neutron and gamma contaminants. The n-γ coupling Sn transport calculations have been carried out using n-21 and γ-9 group cross sections on 2-dim. practical models. The calculated results indicate that the design objectives will be achievable even if the thermal power of the reactor is reduced to 1 MW. (author)

  20. Monte Carlo treatment planning and high-resolution alpha-track autoradiography for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Lin, K.; Ziegelmiller, D.; Clement, S.; Lui, C.; Harling, O.K.

    Monte Carlo simulations of thermal neutron flux distributions in a mathematical head model have been compared to experimental measurements in a corresponding anthropomorphic gelatin-based head phantom irradiated by a thermal neutron beam as presently available at the MITR-II Research Reactor. Excellent agreement between Monte Carlo and experimental measurements has encouraged us to employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to approach treatment planning problems in neutron capture therapy. We have also implemented a high-resolution alpha-track autoradiography technique originally developed in our laboratory at MIT. Initial autoradiograms produced by this technique meet our expectations in terms of the high resolution available and the ability to etch tracks without concommitant destruction of stained tissue. Our preliminary results with computer-aided track distribution analysis indicate that this approach is very promising in being able to quantify boron distributions in tissue at the subcellular level with a minimum amount of operator effort necessary.

  1. Study on high speed lithium jet for neutron source of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mak, Michael; Stefanica, Jiri; Dostal, Vaclav; Zhao Wei

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively. (author)

  2. Primary study for boron neutron capture therapy uses the RSG-GAS beam tube facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suroso

    2000-01-01

    The minimum epithermal neutron flux as one of the prerequisite of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is 1.0 x 10 9 n/(cm 2 s) RSG-GAS have 6 beam tube facilities for neutron source, which is one of the beam tube S-2 has a possibility to utilization for BNCT facility. The totally flux neutron measurement in the front of S-2 beam tube is 1.8 x 10 7 n/(cm 2 s). The neutron flux measurement was less than for BNCT minimum prerequisite. Concerning to the flux neutron production in the reactor, which is reach to 2.5 x 10 14 n/(cm 2 s), there for the S-2 beam tube could be used beside collimator modification

  3. Research related to boron neutron capture therapy at The Ohio State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, R.F.; Soloway, A.H.; Alam, F.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at The Ohio State University is a highly multidisciplinary effort involving approximately twenty investigators in nine different departments. Major areas of interest include: (1) Boronation of monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens for the delivery of 10 B; (2) Synthesis of 10 B-containing derivatives of promazines and porphyrins that possess tumor-localizing properties; (3) Development of a rat model for the treatment of glioblastoma by BNCT; (4) Quantitation and microdistribution of 10 B in tissues by means of a solid state nuclear track detector. The ultimate goal of this research is to carry out the extensive preclinical studies that are required to bring BNCT to the point of a clinical trial. 13 references

  4. Cell cycle dependence of boron uptake in various boron compounds used for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, F.; Matsumura, A.; Shibata, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Nose, T.; Okumura, M.

    2000-01-01

    In neutron capture therapy, it is important that the tumor take boron in selectively. Furthermore, it is ideal when the uptake is equal in each tumor cell. Some indirect proof of differences in boron uptake among neoplastic cell cycles has been documented. However, no investigation has yet measured boron uptake directly. Using flow cytometry, in the present study cells were sorted by G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase, and the boron concentration of each fraction was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results were that BSH (sodiumborocaptate) and BPA (p-boronophenylalanine) had higher rates of boron uptake in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. However, in BPA the difference was more prominent, which revealed a 2.2-3.3 times higher uptake of boron in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. (author)

  5. Investigation of boron conjugated thiouracil derivates for neutron capture therapy of melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corderoy-Buck, S.; Allen, B.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Tjarks, W.; Gabel, D.; Barkla, D.; Patwardhan, A.; Chandler, A.; Moore, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Boron conjugated thiouracil derivatives were investigated as possible agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of melanoma. Nude mice bearing human or murine melanoma xenografts were used for biodistribution studies following i.p. or i.t. (intratumoural) injection of these drugs. Boron content was analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Wide variation between tumour lines was observed with respect to accumulation of these drugs, but they appear to offer potential as melanoma affined boron carriers if solubility problems are overcome by liposome entrapment. Pre-treatment to stimulate melanogenesis may also prove a useful adjunct in achieving the therapeutic concentrations of boron necessary for successful BNCT. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Biodistribution, toxicity and efficacy of a boronated porphyrin for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.; Slatkin, D.; Gabel, D.

    1992-01-01

    Boron-containing porphyrins may be useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of brain tumors. Porphyrins have been shown to accumulate in tumor tissue and to be essentially excluded from normal brain. However, problems of toxicity may prevent some boron-containing porphyrins from being considered for BNCT. The authors have synthesized the boronated porphyrin 2,4-bis-vinyl-o-nidocarboranyl-deuteroporphyrin IX (VCDP). Preliminary studies in tumor-bearing mice showed considerable uptake of boron at a total dose of 150 μg/gbw with low mortality. They now report that a total dose to mice of ∼ 275 μg VCDP/gbw administered in multiple intraperitoneal (ip) injections can provide 40-50μg B per gram of tumor with acceptable toxicity. Toxicity experiments and a preliminary trial of BNCT in mice given such doses are also reported

  7. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schutz, C.; Schmitz, T.; Kratz, J.V. [Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bortulussi, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Kudejova, P. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Appelman, K.; Moss, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bassler, N. [University of Aarhus, Norde Ringade, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M. [Molecular Medicine, Health and Environment Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (Austria); Sharpe, P.; Palmans, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Otto, G. [Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed in Pavia (Italy) a few years ago, where patients with liver metastases were treated by combining BNCT with auto-transplantation of the organ. Here, in Mainz, a preclinical trial has been started on patients suffering from liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro experiments and the first animal tests have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and the treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appears to be an appropriate dosimetry technique. (author)

  8. Establishment of optimal thermal neutron capture therapy for 5 types of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1993-03-01

    A series of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies has already germinated in 1972, with a view to establishing the BNCT particularly suited for the treatment of various types of malignant melanoma, and has been succeeded by research teams comprised of multi-disciplinary members. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women, aged from 50 to 85 years) with malignant melanoma have been treated with BNCT; among them, six patients were completely cured, four had extremely reduced tumors, and two were still in the clinical process. The present Progress Report is a compilation of 39 research presentations for the recent two years. In this report, three patients are described. Of these, one patient had deep-seated lesions in right and left lymph nodes. These lesions were cured by the use of D 2 O that allowed neutron beams to reach them. Application of positron emission tomography to the diagnosis of melanoma is a highlight in this Report. (N.K.)

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents therapeutic experience with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. Nine patients who survived for 10 years or more as of 1986 are given in a table. A review of the 9 patients concluded that physical dose of 15 Gy is required. In addition, the following factors are defined to be the most important: (1) to determine tumor size and depth as accurately as possible, (2) to measure neutron doses in the deepest site of the tumor during irradiation, (3) to measure the content of boron within the tumor, and to deliver neutron beams as deeply as possible. Finally, the importance of knowing RBE of alpha particles for tumor cells of the human brain is emphasized. (N.K.)

  10. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Kastenber, W.E.; Karni, Y.; Regev, D.; Verbeke, J.M.; Leung, K.N.; Chivers, D.; Guess, S.; Kim, L.; Waldron, W.; Zhu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma and intracranial glioma using p-boronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Greenberg, D.; Micca, P.L.; Joel, D.D.; Saraf, S.; Packer, S.

    1990-01-01

    During conventional radiotherapy, the dose that can be delivered to the tumor is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) represents a promising modality for selective tumor irradiation. The key to effective BNCT is selective localization of 10 B in the tumor. We have shown that the synthetic amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) will selectively deliver boron to melanomas and other tumors such as gliosarcomas and mammary carcinomas. Systemically delivered BPA may have general utility as a boron delivery agent for BNCT. In this paper, BNCT with BPA is used in treatment of experimentally induced gliosarcoma in rats and nonpigmented melanoma in rabbits. The tissue distribution of boron is described, as is response to the BNCT. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Multiplexed evaluation of capture agent binding kinetics using arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Ji-Yeon; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-09-07

    High affinity capture agents recognizing biomolecular targets are essential in the performance of many proteomic detection methods. Herein, we report the application of a label-free silicon photonic biomolecular analysis platform for simultaneously determining kinetic association and dissociation constants for two representative protein capture agents: a thrombin-binding DNA aptamer and an anti-thrombin monoclonal antibody. The scalability and inherent multiplexing capability of the technology make it an attractive platform for simultaneously evaluating the binding characteristics of multiple capture agents recognizing the same target antigen, and thus a tool complementary to emerging high-throughput capture agent generation strategies.

  14. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are amphiphilic

  15. Perspectives of boron-neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanygin, V. V.; Kichigin, A. I.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is characterized by a selective effect directly on the cells of malignant tumors. The carried out research showed the perspective of the given kind of therapy concerning malignant tumors of the brain. However, the introduction of BNCT into clinical practice is hampered by the lack of a single protocol for the treatment of patients and the difficulty in using nuclear reactors to produce a neutron beam. This problem can be solved by using a compact accelerator as a source of neutrons, with the possibility of installation in a medical institution. Such a neutron accelerator for BNCT was developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. A neutron beam was obtained on this accelerator, which fully complies with the requirements of BNCT, as confirmed by studies on cell cultures and experiments with laboratory animals. The conducted experiments showed the relative safety of the method with the absence of negative effects on cell cultures and living organisms, and also confirmed the effectiveness of BNCT for malignant brain tumors.

  16. Final Report: 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) for Cancer, May 15, 1998 - May 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    The 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer (8th ISNCTC) was held in La Jolla, CA on Sept. 13-18, 1998. This biennial meeting of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT) was hosted by Society President M.F. Hawthorne (UCLA Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry). The Symposium brought together scientists (300 registrants from 21 countries) from diverse fields to report the latest developments in NCT. Topics of the 275 papers presented (30 plenary lectures, 81 oral presentations, and 164 posters) included the physics of neutron sources, chemistry of tumor-targeting agents, dosimetry, radiobiological studies, and clinical applications

  17. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  18. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vanessa S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Alvarez, Gustavo B.

    2011-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the 10 B (n, α) 7 Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, α particle and the 7 Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the 10 B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  19. Measurement of proton capture reactions in the hot cycles: an evaluation of experimental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leleux, P [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-06-01

    In the hot cycles, most of the proton capture reactions involve radioactive nuclei in the entrance and exit channels. This paper evaluates the specific methods that were designed to measure such reactions. (orig.)

  20. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakeine, G.J. [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com; Di Salvo, M. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Marchetti, A. [Scientific Research Office, Fondazione San Matteo University Policlinic, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Zizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Guilin; Xie, Xueshun; Wei, Yongxin; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Youxin; Du, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma

  2. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeine, G.J.; Di Salvo, M.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C.; Marchetti, A.; Altieri, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  3. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, A.; Carpano, M.; Perona, M.; Thomasz, L.; Nievas, S.; Cabrini, R.; Juvenal, G.; Pisarev, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with 131 I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  4. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  5. Basic and clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Tadao; Matsumura, Akira; Nakai, Kei; Nakagawa, Kunio; Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Shibata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Rat malignant cells (9L glioma cell) were exposed to neutron radiation after culturing with boron compounds; BSH and STA-BX909, and cell growing ability after the exposure was determined by colony forming assay. The effects of in vivo radiation were examined by measuring neutron flux levels in rat brain and skin aiming to use neutron radiation in clinical study. STA-BX909 was found to show a dose-dependent cell toxicity, which was higher than that of BSH. The radiation induced G2/M block in 9L-glioma cells and their cell cycles recovered thereafter in low-dose radiated cells, but high-dose radiated cells became aneuploidy. Furthermore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was applied in two patients, 41-year old woman with glioma grade 3 recurred and 45-year old man with glioblastoma multiforme. The former died from systemic deterioration due to ileus, but BNCT was made only one time although conventional radiotherapy is carried out for a relatively long period. Therefore, BNCT was thought to be beneficial from an aspect of `quality of life` and the effects to repress a recurrence of cancer also seemed larger than the conventional one. (M.N.)

  6. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazirandeh, A.; Shekarian, E.

    2006-01-01

    In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b), the treatment of deep seated tumors such as glioblastoma multiform requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalized in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage from recoil proton associated with fast neutrons however poses some constraints on maximum neutron energy that can be used in the treatment. For this reason neutrons in the epithermal energy range of 10eV-10keV are generally to be the most appropriate. The simulation carried out by Monte Carlo methods using MCBNCT and MCNP4C codes along with the cross section library in 290 groups extracted from ENDF/B6 main library. The ptimal neutron energy for deep seated tumors depends on the sue and depth of tumor. Our estimated optimized energy for the tumor of 5cm wide and 1-2cm thick stands at 5cm depth is in the range of 3-5keV

  7. A study on the utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru; Kanda, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum of a Maxwellian distribution of a higher temperature than the room temperature of 300 K, was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at the deeper part in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using MCNP-V3 in order to confirm the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e., (1) depth dependence of neutron energy spectrum, and (2) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper and wider area in a living body compared with the thermal neutron irradiation. Practically, by the incidence of the hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution, the thermal neutron flux at 5 cm depth can be given about four times larger than by the incidence of the thermal neutrons of 300 K. (author)

  8. Basic study for development of new tumor specific agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Akira; Nakagawa, Kunio; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Nose, Tadao

    1994-01-01

    New tissue specific agents for neutron capture therapy was studied. Monoclonal labeled gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-MoAb) and porphyrin (ATN-10)-Gd-DTPA (Gd-ATN10) were studied as possible agents by using 9-L experimental brain tumor model. The tissue concentration were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. Gd-MoAb showed persistent retention in the tumor on MRI, but tissue gadolinium concentration was not detectable in the tumor by ICP analyzer, while there was high accumulation of Gd-MoAb in the liver. Gd-ATN10 showed prolonged and high accumulation in the tumor up to 48 hours on MRI. Gadolinium concentration reached up to 9 ppm in the tumor by 0.02 mmol/kg administration, but it disappeared within 6 hours after administration. This dissociation between MRI and ICP analysis was due to separation of ATN-10 and Gd-DTPA. As conclusions, the porphyrin compounds are potential agents for delivering gadolinium or boron specific to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrinfic to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrin and Gd-DTPA is needed. (author)

  9. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A technique to prepare boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranadive, G.N.; Rosenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    B72.3 monoclonal antibody has been successfully boronated using mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (boron cage compound). The reagent was incorporated by first reacting the lysine residues of the antibody with m-maleimidobenzoyl succinimide ester (MBS), followed by Michael addition to the maleimido group by the mercapto boron cage compound to form a physiologically stable thioether linkage. Boron content of the antibody was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. For biodistribution studies, boronated antibody was radioiodinated with iodogen. 125 I-labeled and boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody demonstrated clear tumor localization when administered via tail vein injections to athymic nude mice bearing LS174-T tumor xenografts. Boronated antibody was calculated to deliver 10 6 boron atoms per tumor cell. Although this falls short of the specific boron content originally proposed as necessary for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), recent calculations suggest that far fewer atoms of 10 B per tumor cell would be necessary to effect successful BNCT when the boron is targeted to the tumor cell membrane. (author)

  11. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at European research reactors - Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade. there has been a significant revival in the development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as a treatment modality for curing cancerous tumours, especially glioblastoma multiforme and subcutaneous malignant melanoma. In 1987 a European Collaboration on BNCT was formed, with the prime task to identify suitable research reactors in Europe where BNCT could be applied. Due to reasons discussed in this paper, the HFR Petten was chosen as the test-bed for demonstrating BNCT. Currently, the European Collaboration is approaching the start of clinical trials, using epithermal neutrons and borocaptate sodium (BSH) as the 10 B delivery agent. The treatment is planned to start in the first half of 1996. The paper here presents an overview on the principle of BNCT, the requirements imposed on a research reactor in order to be considered for BNCT, and the perspectives for other European materials testing reactors. A brief summary on the current status of the work at Petten is given, including: the design, construction and characterisation of the epithermal neutron beam: performance and results of the healthy tissue tolerance study; the development of a treatment planning programme based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP; the design of an irradiation room; and on the clinical trials themselves. (author)

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy outcomes for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Kato, Ituro; Aihara, Teruhito

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively review outcomes of applying boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers. Patients who were treated with BNCT for either local recurrent or newly diagnosed unresectable head or neck cancers between December 2001 and September 2007 were included. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from hospital records. Either a combination of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine (BPA) or BPA alone were used as boron compounds. In all the treatment cases, the dose constraint was set to deliver a dose <10–12 Gy-eq to the skin or oral mucosa. There was a patient cohort of 62, with a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 0.7–40.8). A total of 87 BNCT procedures were performed. The overall response rate was 58% within 6 months after BNCT. The median survival time was 10.1 months from the time of BNCT. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 43.1% and 24.2%, respectively. The major acute Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were hyperamylasemia (38.6%), fatigue (6.5%), mucositis/stomatitis (9.7%) and pain (9.7%), all of which were manageable. Three patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced carotid artery hemorrhage, two of whom had coexistent infection of the carotid artery. This study confirmed the feasibility of our dose-estimation method and that controlled trials are warranted. (author)

  14. Basic and clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Tadao; Matsumura, Akira; Nakai, Kei; Nakagawa, Kunio; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Rat malignant cells (9L glioma cell) were exposed to neutron radiation after culturing with boron compounds; BSH and STA-BX909, and cell growing ability after the exposure was determined by colony forming assay. The effects of in vivo radiation were examined by measuring neutron flux levels in rat brain and skin aiming to use neutron radiation in clinical study. STA-BX909 was found to show a dose-dependent cell toxicity, which was higher than that of BSH. The radiation induced G2/M block in 9L-glioma cells and their cell cycles recovered thereafter in low-dose radiated cells, but high-dose radiated cells became aneuploidy. Furthermore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was applied in two patients, 41-year old woman with glioma grade 3 recurred and 45-year old man with glioblastoma multiforme. The former died from systemic deterioration due to ileus, but BNCT was made only one time although conventional radiotherapy is carried out for a relatively long period. Therefore, BNCT was thought to be beneficial from an aspect of 'quality of life' and the effects to repress a recurrence of cancer also seemed larger than the conventional one. (M.N.)

  15. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy activity of diffused tumors at TRIGA Mark II in Pavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; De Bari, A.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)]|[National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P.; Bakeine, J.G. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-10-29

    The Boron neutron Capture Therapy research in Pavia has a long tradition: it begun more than 20 years ago at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University. A technique for the treatment of the hepatic metastases was developed, consisting in explanting the liver treated with {sup 10}B, irradiating it in the thermal column of the reactor, and re-implanting the organ in the patient. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research will be presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,{alpha}) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. (authors)

  16. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy activity of diffused tumors at TRIGA Mark II in Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; De Bari, A.; Altieri, S.; Bruschi, P.; Bakeine, J.G.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C.; Zonta, A.; Nano, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Boron neutron Capture Therapy research in Pavia has a long tradition: it begun more than 20 years ago at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University. A technique for the treatment of the hepatic metastases was developed, consisting in explanting the liver treated with 10 B, irradiating it in the thermal column of the reactor, and re-implanting the organ in the patient. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research will be presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,α) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. (authors)

  18. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Colli, V.; Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF{sub 2}:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT. (authors)

  19. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author

    2004-01-01

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material Fluental TM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  20. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10 7 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF 3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  1. Analysis of metastasis of melanoma-bearing hamsters in thermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masataka; Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    1985-01-01

    Melanoma-bearing hamsters were divided into three groups: the MG I was treated with both 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine.HCl ( 10 B 1 -BPA) and neutron capture therapy (NCT); the MG II was treated with NCT alone; and the control group (MG III). The most satisfactory effect on regression was seen in the MG I. When the opposite site to the transplanted tumor site was exposed to thermal neutrons, no enhanced effect on metastasis was seen. Tumor cells of MG I and MG II were transplanted subcutaneously 24 hr after NCT into normal hamsters (MG It and MG IIt), and their growth and metastasis abilities were examined. MG It cells possessed neither growth nor metastasis ability; while MG IIt cells showed normal growth and metastasis abilities. Lethal effects on tumor cells seemed to occur in the MG I at 24 hr after NCT, suggesting no effects of NCT on the metastasis ability of tumor cells. Metastasis was seen in 2 of 8 animals in the MG III; however, inhibitory effects on tumor cells were the same as those in the other groups MG I and MG II. When the cells were exposed to 100 rad and 300 rad of gamma rays to assess effects of gamma rays during NCT, neither tumor growth nor lung metastasis was affected. When the tumor was excised with 5 mm margin, relapse occurred in a high incidence. There was no difference in lung metastasis between NCT and gamma irradiation. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Early effects of boron neutron capture therapy on rat glioma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Akai, F.; Fukawa, N.; Taneda, M.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Early effects of boron neutron capture therapy on malignant gliomas are characterized by reduction of the enhanced area regression of the peritumoral edema radiologically. The aim of this study is to investigate the early histological changes of tumors and inflammatory cells after BNCT in the rat brain. The rats were treated with BNCT using boronophenyialanine (BPA) 7 days after implantation of C6 glioma cells. The tumors were assessed their sizes and configurations with magnetic resonance imaging, then killed 4 days after BNCT. The mean tumor volumes were 39mm 3 in BNCT-treated group, and 138 mm 3 in the control group. In the histological examination, tumors of the BNCT group showed less pleomorphic appearance with atypical nuclei and mitotic figures, compared with the control group. Necrosis and edematous changes in the neuropile were negligible. There existed remnant tumors adjacent to the lateral ventricle. The reactions of the inflammatory cells were examined with ED-1 of macrophage marker. ED-1 positive cells and their processes were reduced in the marginal area of tumor in the BNCT group. BNCT reduce the tumor progression by suppression of the proliferation. Inhibition of the activated macrophages may reduce peritumoral edema in early phase. (author)

  3. Boron-containing thioureas for neutron capture therapy. Borhaltige Thioharnstoffe fuer die Neutroneneinfangtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketz, H.

    1993-10-21

    Melanin is produced in large amounts in malignant melanotic melanomas. Because thiourea compounds are covalently incorporated into melanin during its biosynthesis, the preparation of boronated thiourea-derivatives is of particular interest for the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). Accumulation of boron in tumors by means of boronated thiourea-derivatives may therefore provide levels of [sup 10]B which are useful for BNCT. In BNCT the tumor containing the boron compound is irradiated with epithermal neutrons to generate He- and Li-nuclei from the [sup 10]B which can then destroy the tumor cells. Because of the short ranges of these particles (approximately one cell diameter) the damage will be almost exclusively confined to the tumor leaving normal tissue unharmed. High accumulation of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole) in melanotic melanomas has been described in the literature. Boronated derivatives of methimazole were therefore synthesized. Boron was in the form of a boronic acid, a nido-carbonate and a mercaptoundeca hydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH). The synthesis of the boron cluster derivatives of methimazole (nido-carborate- and BSH-derivatives) with 9 resp. 12 boron atoms in the molecule were expected to achieve higher concentrations of boron in the tumor than in the case of the boronic acid compound with its single boron atom. (orig.)

  4. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Ichikawa, H.; Akisue, T.; Fujita, I.; Kishimoto, K.; Hara, H.; Imabori, M.; Kawamitsu, H.; Sharma, P.; Brown, S.C.; Moudgil, B.M.; Fujii, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kurosaka, M.; Fukumori, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  5. Evaluation of video capture equipment for secondary image acquisition in the PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Sasagaki, Michihiro; Hirabuki, Norio; Naito, Hiroaki; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    There are many cases in which picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are built with old-type existing modalities with no DICOM output. One of the methods for interfacing them to the PACS is to implement video capture (/ frame grabber) equipment. This equipment takes analog video signal output from medical imaging modalities, and amplitude of the video signal is A/D converted and supplied to the PACS. In this report, we measured and evaluated the accuracy at which this video capture equipment could capture the image. From the physical evaluation, we found the pixel values of an original image and its captured image were almost equal in gray level from 20%-90%. The change in the pixel values of a captured image was +/-3 on average. The change of gray level concentration was acceptable and had an average standard deviation of around 0.63. As for resolution, the degradation was observed at the highest physical level. In a subjective evaluation, the evaluation value of the CT image had a grade of 2.81 on the average (the same quality for a reference image was set to a grade of 3.0). Abnormalities in heads, chests, and abdomens were judged not to influence diagnostic accuracy. Some small differences were seen when comparing captured and reference images, but they are recognized as having no influence on the diagnoses.

  6. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.

    2006-01-01

    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  7. TU-FG-BRB-07: GPU-Based Prompt Gamma Ray Imaging From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Suh, T; Yoon, D; Jung, J; Shin, H; Kim, M [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusion: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  8. Applicability Evaluation of Simplified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhipei; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yuan; Liu, Na; Li, Chunbo

    2018-04-25

    We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals. The participants were divided into 3 groups: SCBT group, SCBT with medication group and medication group. The drop-out rates of these three groups, the therapy satisfaction of patients who received SCBT and the evaluation of SCBT from therapists were compared. (1) There was no significant difference among the drop-out rates in the three groups. (2) Only the duration and times of therapy were significantly different between the two groups of patients who received the SCBT, and the therapy satisfaction of the SCBT group was higher than that of the SCBT with medication group. (3) Eighteen therapists who conducted the SCBT indicated that the manual was easy to comprehend and operate, and this therapy could achieve the therapy goals. The applicability of SCBT for patients with GAD is relatively high, and it is hopeful that SCBT can become a psychological treatment which can be applied in medical institutions of various levels.

  9. Evaluation of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The author proposed improvement of the criteria for the effects of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. 104 patients were treated by transcatheter therapy. Their responses were determined by the usual criteria. Next, they were classified and evaluated in 3 groups, with the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks regarded as nacrosis. The result was determined, and its relationship to prognosis was studied in light of the repeated therapy. By the usual criteria, only 10% of patients were judged as PR, and there were no differences between therapies. Many of the NC cases had low AFP levels with therapy. At the initial therapy, the ratio of cases with low AFP levels was higher and the survival time was longer in the A group. So the A group was judged as most effective. Clinically, 10 patients were considered most benefitted by therapy. They were considered the A group, but all were judged as NC. Considering the effects of repeated therapy, 10 patients with NC were judged as the A-max group. Prognosis was poor in patients of the B-max and C-max groups. These results indicate that judgement by the usual criteria was inconsistent with clinical condition. It was improved by regarding the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks as necrosis. Estimations of effects and prognosis were made more accurate by considering repeated therapy. Thus, the proposed improvement of the criteria by CT is more useful to estimate transcatheter therapy of the hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for high-grade gliomas of the brain: a cautionary note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, George E.; Spence, Alexander M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method of treating high-grade gliomas of the brain that involves incorporating 10 B into the tumor using appropriate pharmacological agents and then irradiating the tumor with thermal or epithermal neutron beams. To date, over 120 patients have been treated in this manner by Japanese investigators using a thermal neutron beam from a nuclear reactor. Favorable reports on outcome have motivated considerable current research in BNCT. The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of the Japanese data by identifying the subset of patients from the United States who received this treatment in Japan and comparing their outcomes relative to a matched cohort who received conventional therapy in various Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies. Methods and Materials: The principal referral sources of patients to Japan for BNCT were identified and the names of patients sent for treatment obtained. The treating physicians in Japan were also contacted to see if additional patients from the United States had been treated. Either the patients or their next of kin were contacted, and permission was obtained to retrieve medical records including tumor pathology for central review. Prognostic variables according to an analysis of the RTOG brain tumor database by Curran et al. were determined from these records and used to construct a matched cohort of patients treated conventionally. Results: A total of 14 patients were identified who had traveled to Japan for BNCT treatment between July, 1987 and June, 1994. In the case of one patient (deceased), it was not possible to contact the next of kin. Material was obtained on the other 13 patients and review of the pathology indicated that 1 patient had a central nervous system lymphoma rather than a high-grade glioma. Survival data was analyzed for the other 12 patients on an actuarial basis, and this showed no difference compared to survival data for a

  11. Assessments in outcome evaluation in aphasia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, Jytte; Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outcomes of aphasia therapy in Denmark are documented in evaluation sessions in which both the person with aphasia and the speech-language therapist take part. The participants negotiate agreements on the results of therapy. By means of conversation analysis, we study how such agreements...... on therapy outcome are reached interactionally. The sequential analysis of 34 video recordings focuses on a recurrent method for reaching agreements in these outcome evaluation sessions. In and through a special sequence of conversational assessment it is claimed that the person with aphasia has certain...

  12. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  13. Treatment planning figures of merit in thermal and epithermal boron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A.; Mathur, J.N. (Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia)); Allen, B.J. (Ansto PMB 1 Menai, NSW (Australia). Biomedicine and Health)

    1994-05-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) figures of merit of advantage depth, therapeutic depth, modified advantage depth and maximum therapeutic depth have been studied as functions of [sup 10]B tumour to blood ratios and absolute levels. These relationships were examined using the Monte Carlo neutron photon transport code, MCNP, with an ideal 18.4 cm diameter neutron beam incident laterally upon an ellipsoidal neutron photon brain-equivalent model. Mono-energetic beams of 0.025 eV (thermal) and 35 eV (epithermal) were simulated. Increasing the tumour to blood [sup 10]B ratio predictably increases all figures of merit. [sup 10]B concentration was also shown to have a strong bearing on the figures of merit when low levels were present in the system. This is the result of a non-[sup 10]B dependent background dose. At higher levels however, the concentration of [sup 10]B has a diminishing influence. For boron sulphydryl (BSH), little advantage is gained by extending the blood [sup 10]B level beyond 30 ppm, whilst for D, L,-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) this limit is 10 ppm. Applying the epithermal beam under identical conditions, the therapeutic depth reaches the brain mid-line with a tumour to blood [sup 10]B ratio of only 5.7 for BPA. For BSH, the maximum therapeutic depth reaches the brain mid-line with a tumour to blood ratio of only 1.9 with 30 ppm in the blood. Human data for these compounds are very close to these requirements. (author).

  14. Dose distribution and clinical response of glioblastoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)], E-mail: mhide-m@gk9.so-net.ne.jp; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakatashirane 2-4, Tokai (Japan); Nakai, K.; Shirakawa, M.; Tsurubuchi, T.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The dose distribution and failure pattern after treatment with the external beam boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocol were retrospectively analyzed. BSH (5 g/body) and BPA (250 mg/kg) based BNCT was performed in eight patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV)-1 were defined as the residual gadolinium-enhancing volume. CTV-2 and CTV-3 were defined as GTV plus a margin of 2 and 3 cm, respectively. As additional photon irradiation, a total X-ray dose of 30 Gy was given to the T2 high intensity area on MRI. Five of the eight patients were alive at analysis for a mean follow-up time of 20.3 months. The post-operative median survival time of the eight patients was 27.9 months (95% CI=21.0-34.8). The minimum tumor dose of GTV, CTV-2, and CTV-3 averaged 29.8{+-}9.9, 15.1{+-}5.4, and 12.4{+-}2.9 Gy, respectively. The minimum tumor non-boron dose of GTV, CTV-2, and CTV-3 averaged 2.0{+-}0.5, 1.3{+-}0.3, and 1.1{+-}0.2 Gy, respectively. The maximum normal brain dose, skin dose, and average brain dose were 11.4{+-}1.5, 9.6{+-}1.4, and 3.1{+-}0.4 Gy, respectively. The mean minimum dose at the failure site in cases of in-field recurrence (IR) and out-field recurrence (OR) was 26.3{+-}16.7 and 14.9 GyEq, respectively. The calculated doses at the failure site were at least equal to the tumor control doses which were previously reported. We speculate that the failure pattern was related to an inadequate distribution of boron-10. Further improvement of the microdistribution of boron compounds is expected, and may improve the tumor control by BNCT.

  15. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.; Ma, R.

    2001-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  16. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean M. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  17. Application of drug delivery system to boron neutron capture therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagië, Hironobu; Ogata, Aya; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takamoto, Shinichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-04-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons ((10)B + (1)n --> (7)Li + (4)He (alpha) + 2.31 MeV (93.7 %)/2.79 MeV (6.3 %)). The resulting lithium ions and alphaparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give a high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5 - 9 mum) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma. Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-dodecaborate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH: BSH) and borono-phenylalanine ((10)BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. These low molecule compounds are easily cleared from cancer cells and blood, so high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues and cancer cells are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage to adjacent healthy cells. In order to achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, a drug delivery system (DDS) is an attractive intelligent technology for targeting and controlled release of drugs. We performed literature searches related to boron delivery systems in vitro and in vivo. We describe several DDS technologies for boron delivery to cancer tissues and cancer cells from the past to current status. We are convinced that it will be possible to use liposomes, monoclonal antibodies and WOW emulsions as boron delivery systems for BNCT clinically in accordance with the preparation of good commercial product (GCP) grade materials.

  18. Application of drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy. Basic research toward clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons ( 10 B+ 1 n → 7 Li+ 4 He (α) +2.31 MeV (93.7%)/2.79 MeV (6.3%)). The resulting lithium ions and αparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5-9 μm) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma etc, recently. Sodium borocaptate (Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH; BSH) and borono-phenylalanine ( 10 BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. To achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, drug delivery system (DDS) becomes an attractive intelligent technology as targeting and controlled release of drugs. We have firstly reported that 10 B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes are cytotoxic to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) after thermal neutron irradiation in vitro. The intra-tumoural injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10 B atoms in tumour cells, causing suppression of tumour growth in vivo following thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared polyethylene-glycol binding liposomes (PEG-liposomes) as an effective 10 B carrier to obviate phagocytosis by reticuloendotherial systems. We had prepared 10 BSH entrapped Water-in-Oil-in-Water (WOW) emulsion. The 10 B concentration in VX-2 tumour after intra-arterial injection of 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion was superior to the groups of 10 BSH entrapped conventional Lipiodol mix emulsion. 10 Boron entrapped WOW emulsion is one of the most useful for intra-arterial boron delivery carrier on BNCT to hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  19. Boron uptake measurements in a rat model for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.i [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J.G. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Gadan, M.A. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Protti, N.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Cansolino, L.; Zonta, C.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the Western countries. Despite the introduction over the last few years of new therapeutic agents, survival from lung cancer has shown no discernible improvement in the last 20 years. For these reasons any efforts to find and validate new effective therapeutic procedures for lung cancer are very timely. The selective boron uptake in the tumour with respect to healthy tissues makes Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a potentially advantageous option in the treatment of tumours that affect whole vital organs, and that are surgically inoperable. To study the possibility of applying BNCT to the treatment of diffuse pulmonary tumours, an animal model for boron uptake measurements in lung metastases was developed. Both healthy and tumour-bearing rats were infused with Boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sacrificed at different time intervals after drug administration. The lungs were extracted, and prepared for boron analysis by neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectroscopy. The boron concentrations in tumour and normal lung were plotted as a function of the time elapsed after BPA administration. The concentration in tumour is almost constant within the error bars for all the time intervals of the experiment (1-8 h), while the curve in normal lung decreases after 4 h from BPA infusion. At 4 h, the ratio of boron concentration in tumour to boron concentration in healthy lung is higher than 3, and it stays above this level up to 8 h. Also the images of boron distribution in the samples, obtained by neutron autoradiography, show a selective absorption in the metastases.

  20. Boron-neutron capture therapy for incurable cancer and inoperable brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have not yet improved the survival rate of patients with cancers of the brain, liver, etc. In these organs, an extirpation of the organ, which can be done for stomach, breast, cervix, lung, etc. is not allowed, and this fact is the cause of poor therapeutic results. Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) utilizes the nuclear reaction which will take place between the boron-10 (loaded in the cancer cells artificially) and the thermal neutrons (delivered by reactors). The secondary radiations, helium and lithium hit the cancer cell itself and cause the death of the cancer cell while sparing the surrounding normal cells. BNCT is now being tried also by Oda of Kyoto University (9 cases) and by Nakagawa of Tokushima University (7 cases). It has been tried by Mishima (Kobe University) on 12 skin melanoma patients, proving satisfactory local control of the melanomas. Mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BHS) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) have been tried for brain tumors and for melanoma. For cancers of the liver and abdominal viscerae, antibody to the tumor specific antigen has been considered a good carrier of boron-10. Surgeons Takahashi, Fujii, Fujii, Yanagie, and Sekiguchi and immunologist Nariuchi of Tokyo University have been involved in the research and have obtained encouraging results in animals. Hatanaka has been proving good effect of BNCT upon giant cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and skull base meningioma. These diseases, although pathologically benign, have posed difficult problems in neurosurgery. It will be exciting good news to the patients. In conclusion, BNCT appears to be a good means to treat difficult lesions in the brain and other organs which defy sophisticated modern therapeutic means. (author)

  1. Research of accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changkai; Ma Yingjie; Tang Xiaobin; Xie Qin; Geng Changran; Chen Da

    2013-01-01

    Background: 7 Li (p, n) reaction of high neutron yield and low threshold energy has become one of the most important neutron generating reactions for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Purpose Focuses on neutron yield and spectrum characteristics of this kind of neutron generating reaction which serves as an accelerator-based neutron source and moderates the high energy neutron beams to meet BNCT requirements. Methods: The yield and energy spectrum of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are researched using the Monte Carlo code-MCNPX2.5.0. And the energy and angular distribution of differential neutron yield by 2.5-MeV incident proton are also given in this part. In the following part, the character of epithermal neutron beam generated by 2.5-MeV incident protons is moderated by a new-designed moderator. Results: Energy spectra of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are got through the simulation and calculation. The best moderator thickness is got through comparison. Conclusions: Neutron beam produced by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction, with the bombarding beam of 10 mA and the energy of 2.5 MeV, can meet the requirement of BNCT well after being moderated. (authors)

  2. Validation of dose planning calculations for boron neutron capture therapy using cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, Hanna; Seppaelae, Tiina; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Merimaa, Katja; Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, POB 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kortesniemi, Mika, E-mail: hanna.koivunoro@helsinki.f [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki, POB 340, FI-00029 HUS (Finland)

    2010-06-21

    In this paper, the accuracy of dose planning calculations for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain and head and neck cancer was studied at the FiR 1 epithermal neutron beam. A cylindrical water phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom were applied with two beam aperture-to-surface distances (ASD). The calculations using the simulation environment for radiation application (SERA) treatment planning system were compared to neutron activation measurements with Au and Mn foils, photon dose measurements with an ionization chamber and the reference simulations with the MCNP5 code. Photon dose calculations using SERA differ from the ionization chamber measurements by 2-13% (disagreement increased along the depth in the phantom), but are in agreement with the MCNP5 calculations within 2%. The {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) reaction rates calculated using SERA agree within 10% and 8%, respectively, with the measurements and within 5% with the MCNP5 calculations at depths >0.5 cm from the phantom surface. The {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) reaction rate represents the nitrogen and boron depth dose within 1%. Discrepancy in the SERA fast neutron dose calculation (of up to 37%) is corrected if the biased fast neutron dose calculation option is not applied. Reduced voxel cell size ({<=}0.5 cm) improves the SERA calculation accuracy on the phantom surface. Despite the slight overestimation of the epithermal neutrons and underestimation of the thermal neutrons in the beam model, neutron calculation accuracy with the SERA system is sufficient for reliable BNCT treatment planning with the two studied treatment distances. The discrepancy between measured and calculated photon dose remains unsatisfactorily high for depths >6 cm from the phantom surface. Increasing discrepancy along the phantom depth is expected to be caused by the inaccurately determined effective point of the ionization chamber.

  3. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252 Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252 Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252 Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Kurooka, Masaaki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Asano, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10 B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10 B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  5. Inhibition of tumor growth in a glioma model treated with boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Soloway, A.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation attempts to determine whether increased survival time seen when the F98 glioma model is treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a result of inhibition of tumor growth caused by radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cells and normal tissue components. This indirect effect of radiation has been called the tumor bed effect. A series of tumor-bearing rats was studied, using a standardized investigational BNCT protocol consisting of 50 mg/kg of Na2B12H11SH injected intravenously 14 to 17 hours before neutron irradiation at 4 x 10(12) n/cm2. Ten rats, serving as controls, received no treatment either before or after tumor implantation. A second group of 10 rats was treated with BNCT 4 days before tumor implantation; these animals received no further treatment. The remaining group of 10 rats received no pretreatment but was treated with BNCT 10 days after implantation. Histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed in 2 animals from each group 17 days after implantation. Survival times of the untreated control animals (mean, 25.8 days) did not differ statistically from the survival times of the rats in the pretreated group (mean, 25.5 days). The rats treated with BNCT after implantation survived significantly longer (P less than 0.02; mean, 33.2 days) than the controls and the preirradiated animals. Tumor size indices calculated from measurements taken at the time of death were similar in all groups. These results indicate that, with this tumor model, BNCT does not cause a tumor bed effect in cerebral tissue. The therapeutic gains observed with BNCT result from direct effects on tumor cells or on the peritumoral neovascularity

  6. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  7. Potential of para-boronophenylalaninol as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy, referring to that of its enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.; Sakurai, Y.; Ono, K.; Suziki, M.; Nagata, K.; Takagaki, M.; Nagasawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of a newly developed 10 B-containing alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA), para-boronophenylalaninol (BPAol), as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy. C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors and C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. After oral administration of L-BPA or D-BPA, or intraperitoneal injection of L-BPAol or D-BPAol, the tumors were irradiated with reactor thermal neutron beams. For the combination with mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) and/or tirapazamine (TPZ), the tumors were heated at 40 degrees centigrade for 30 minutes right before neutron exposure, and/or TPZ was intraperitoneally injected 30 minutes before irradiation. The tumors were then excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling ( = quiescent (Q) cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were used for determining the apoptosis frequency in Q cells. The apoptosis and MN frequency in total (P + Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Without TPZ or MTH, L- and D-BPAol increased both frequencies markedly, especially for total cells. Although not significantly, L-BPA and D-BPAol increased both frequencies slightly more remarkably than D-BPA and L-BPAol, respectively. On combined treatment with both MTH and TPZ, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was markedly reduced. MTH increased the 10 B uptake of all 10 B-carriers into both tumor cells to some degree. Both L- and D-BPAol have potential as 10 B-carriers in neutron capture therapy, especially when combined with both MTH and TPZ

  8. An accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio González, Elizabeth; Martín Hernández, Guido

    2017-09-01

    BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a therapeutic modality used to irradiate tumors cells previously loaded with the stable isotope 10B, with thermal or epithermal neutrons. This technique is capable of delivering a high dose to the tumor cells while the healthy surrounding tissue receive a much lower dose depending on the 10B biodistribution. In this study, therapeutic gain and tumor dose per target power, as parameters to evaluate the treatment quality, were calculated. The common neutron-producing reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be for accelerator-based BNCT, having a reaction threshold of 1880.4 keV, was considered as the primary source of neutrons. Energies near the reaction threshold for deep-seated brain tumors were employed. These calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. A simple but effective beam shaping assembly (BSA) was calculated producing a high therapeutic gain compared to previously proposed facilities with the same nuclear reaction.

  9. PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemby Yulio Vallenry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5. MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (Фepi > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (Ḋf/Фepi 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu Фepi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, Ḋf/Фepi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, Ḋγ/Фepi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, Фth/Фepi = 1,51 dan J/Фepi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA. Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator   One of the cancer therapy methods is

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy combined with fractionated photon irradiation for glioblastoma: A recursive partitioning analysis of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Aiyama, H.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Kageji, T.; Kumada, H.; Isobe, T.; Endo, K.; Matsuda, M.; Tsurubuchi, T.; Shibata, Y.; Takano, S.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K.; Matsumura, A.

    2011-01-01

    Eight patients to received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) were selected from 33 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients (NCT(+) group). Serial 42 glioblastoma patients (NCT(−) group) were treated without BNCT. The median OS of the NCT(+) group and NCT (−) group were 24.4 months and 14.9 months. In the high risk patients (RPA class V), the median OS of the NCT(+) group tended to be better than that of NCT(−) group. 50% of BNCT patients were RPA class V. - Highlights: ► We treated 8 patients with boron neutron capture therapy (NCT) for glioblastoma. ► We compare the overall survival between NCT including series and without NCT series. ► The median overall survival of the NCT including series was 24.4 months. ► In the high risk patients, the median OS of NCT including series tended to be better.

  11. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron; Espectro de neutrones para terapia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with {sup 10}B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the {sup 10}B and produce a nucleus of {sup 7}Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  12. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  14. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  15. Development of a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Minsky, D.M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J.C.; Castell, W.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Nery, J.P.; Huck, H.; Igarzabal, M.; Fernandez Salares, A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). An ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4-2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.20-1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is one of the technologically simplest and cheapest solutions for optimized AB-BNCT. At present there is no BNCT facility in the world with the characteristics presented in this work. For the accelerator, results on its design, construction and beam transport calculations are discussed. Taking into account the peculiarities of the expected irradiation field, the project also considers a specific study of the treatment room. This study aims at the design of the treatment room emphasizing aspects related to patient, personnel and public radiation protection; dose monitoring; patient positioning and room construction. The design considers both thermal (for the treatment of shallow tumors) and epithermal (for deep-seated tumors) neutron beams entering the room through a port connected to the accelerator via a moderation and neutron beam shaping assembly. Preliminary results of dose calculations for the treatment room design, using the MCNP program, are presented

  16. Neutron capture therapy of epidermal growth factor (+) gliomas using boronated cetuximab (IMC-C225) as a delivery agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rolf F. E-mail: barth.1@osu.edu; Wu Gong; Yang Weilian; Binns, Peter J.; Riley, Kent J.; Patel, Hemant; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Tjarks, Werner; Bandyopadhyaya, A.K.; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Ciesielski, Michael J.; Fenstermaker, Robert A

    2004-11-01

    Cetuximab (IMC-C225) is a monoclonal antibody directed against both the wild-type and mutant vIII isoform of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the monoclonal antibody (MoAb), cetuximab, as a boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy (NCT) of brain tumors. Twenty-four hours following intratumoral (i.t.) administration of boronated cetuximab (C225-G5-B{sub 1100}), the mean boron concentration in rats bearing either F98{sub EGFR} or F98{sub WT} gliomas were 92.3{+-}23.3 {mu}g/g and 36.5{+-}18.8 {mu}g/g, respectively. In contrast, the uptake of boronated dendrimer (G5-B{sub 1000}) was 6.7{+-}3.6 {mu}g/g. Based on its favorable in vivo uptake, C225-G5-B{sub 1100} was evaluated as a delivery agent for BNCT in F98{sub EGFR} glioma bearing rats. The mean survival time (MST) of rats that received C225-G5-B{sub 1100}, administered by convection enhanced delivery (CED), was 45{+-}3 d compared to 25{+-}3 d for untreated control animals. A further enhancement in MST to >59 d was obtained by administering C225-G5-B{sub 1100} in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA). These data are the first to demonstrate the efficacy of a boronated MoAb for BNCT of an intracerebral (i.c.) glioma and are paradigmatic for future studies using a combination of boronated MoAbs and low molecular weight delivery agents.

  17. Evaluation of a target region capture sequencing platform using monogenic diabetes as a study-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Yanxia; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a genetic disease often caused by mutations in genes involved in beta-cell function. Correct sub-categorization of the disease is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling. Target-region capture sequencing is a combination of genomic region enrichment...... and next generation sequencing which might be used as an efficient way to diagnose various genetic disorders. We aimed to develop a target-region capture sequencing platform to screen 117 selected candidate genes involved in metabolism for mutations and to evaluate its performance using monogenic diabetes...

  18. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  19. Evaluations of fission product capture cross sections for ENDF/B-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenter, R.E.; Johnson, D.L.; Mann, F.M.; Schmittroth, F.

    1979-01-01

    Capture cross section evaluations were made for the 36 most important fission product absorbers in a fast reactor system. These evaluations were obtained by use of a generalized least-squares approach with calculations being performed with the computer code FERRET. These results will provide the major revisions to the ENDF/B-IV Fission Product Cross Section File which will be released as part of ENDF/B-V. Input for the cross section adjustment calculations included both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are presented. 14 figures

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhen, Haining; Jiang, Xinbiao; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xin; Guo, Geng; Mao, Xinggang; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [ 60 Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [ 60 Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine)-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM). The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [ 60 Co] γ-rays (P < 0.01). Nuclear condensation was determined using both a fluorescence technique and electron microscopy in all cell lines treated with BPA-BNCT. Furthermore, the cellular apoptotic rates in Group D and Group E treated with

  1. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  3. Dosimetric comparative analysis between 10 MV Megavoltage unidirectional beam and boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumors treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper present a comparative dosimetric analysis between boron neutron capture therapy and 10 MV megavoltage employed in brain tumor treatments, limited to a unidirectional beam. A computational phantom of a human head was developed to be used in computational simulations of the two protocols, conducted in MCNP5 code. This phantom represents several head's structures, mainly, the central nervous system and a tumor that represents a Glioblastoma Multiform - one of the most malignant and aggressive brain tumors. Absorbed and biological weighted dose rates and neutron fluency in the computational phantom were evaluated from the MCNP5 code. The biologically weighted dose rate to 10 MV megavoltage beam presented no specificity in deposited dose in tumor. The average total biologically weighted dose rate in tumor was 9.93E-04 RBE.Gy.h"-"1/Mp.s"-"1 while in healthy tissue it was 8.67E-04 RBE.Gy.h"-"1/Mp.s"-1. On the BNCT simulations the boron concentration was particularly relevant since the largest dose deposition happened in borate tissues. The average total biologically weighted dose rate in tumor was 3.66E-02 RBE.Gy.h"-"1/Mp.s"-"1 while in healthy tissue it was 1.39E-03 RBE.Gy.h"-"1/Mp.s"-"1. In comparison to the 10 MV megavoltage beam, BNCT showed clearly a largest dose deposition in the tumor, on average, 37 times larger than in the megavoltage beam, while in healthy tissue that average was only 1,6 time larger in BNCT. (author)

  4. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  5. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational evaluation of metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiamei

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of porous solids comprised of metal-containing nodes linked by organic ligands, have become promising materials for gas separations. In particular, their flexible chemistry makes them attractive for CO2 capture from flue gas streams in post-combustion plants. Although numerous efforts have been exerted on the investigation of MOFs for CO2 capture, the exploration of the effects from coexisting components present in very dilute proportions in flue gases is limited because of the experimental difficulty to determine the coadsorption of CO2 with trace components. In this regard, molecular simulations show superiority. In this study, molecular simulations are used to estimate the influence of impurities: water, O2, and SO2 on post-combustion CO2 capture in MOFs. Firstly, two MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs), HKUST-1 and Mg-MOF-74 are explored. Increase of CO 2 adsorption is observed for hydrated HKUST-1; on the contrary, the opposite water adsorption behavior is observed in hydrated Mg-MOF-74, leading to decrease of CO2 adsorption. Further, water effects on CO 2 capture in M-HKUST1 (M = Mg, Zn, Co, Ni) are evaluated to test whether comparing the binding energy could be a general method to evaluate water effects in MOFs with CUMs. It is found that the method works well for Zn-, Co-, and Ni-HKUST1 but partially for Mg-HKUST1. In addition, the effects of O2 and SO2 on CO2 capture in MOFs are also investigated for the first time, showing that the effects of O2 may be negligible but SO2 has negative effects in the CO 2 capture process in HKUST-1 systems. Secondly, the influences of water on CO2 capture in three UiO-66 MOFs with functional groups, --NH2, --OH and --Br are explored, respectively. For UiO-66-NH2 and -OH, the presence of water lowers CO2 adsorption significantly; in contrast, water shows much smaller effects in UiO-66-Br. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 decreases water adsorption but enhances CO

  7. Developing evaluation scales for horticultural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ae; Park, Sin-Ae; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2018-04-01

    This study developed evaluation scales for measuring the effects of horticultural therapy in practical settings. Qualitative and quantitative research, including three preliminary studies and a main study, were conducted. In the first study, a total of 779 horticultural therapists answered an open-end questionnaire based on 58 items about elements of occupational therapy and seven factors about singularity of horticultural therapy. In the second study, 20 horticultural therapists participated in in-depth interviews. In the third study, a Delphi method was conducted with 24 horticultural therapists to build a model of assessment indexes and ensure the validity. In the final study, the reserve scales were tested by 121 horticultural therapists in their practical settings for 1045 clients, to verify their reliability and validity. Preliminary questions in the effects area of horticultural therapy were developed in the first study, and validity for the components in the second study. In the third study, an expert Delphi survey was conducted as part of content validity verification of the preliminary tool of horticultural therapy for physical, cognitive, psychological-emotional, and social areas. In the final study, the evaluation tool, which verified the construct, convergence, discriminant, and predictive validity and reliability test, was used to finalise the evaluation tool. The effects of horticultural therapy were classified as four different aspects, namely, physical, cognitive, psycho-emotional, and social, based on previous studies on the effects of horticultural therapy. 98 questions in the four aspects were selected as reserve scales. The reliability of each scale was calculated as 0.982 in physical, 0.980 in cognitive, 0.965 in psycho-emotional, and 0.972 in social aspects based on the Cronbach's test of intra-item internal consistency and half reliability of Spearman-Brown. This study was the first to demonstrate validity and reliability by simultaneously

  8. Investigation on the neutron beam characteristics for boron neutron capture therapy with 3D and 2D transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of future Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experiments, where cells and animals irradiations are planned at the research reactor of Strasbourg University, the feasibility to obtain a suitable epithermal neutron beam is investigated. The neutron fluence and spectra calculations in the reactor are performed using the 3D Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-3 and the 2D SN code TWODANT. The preliminary analysis of Al 2 O 3 and Al-Al 2 O 3 filters configurations are carried out in an attempt to optimize the flux characteristics in the beam tube facility. 7 figs., 7 refs

  9. Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy [in humans] [at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center][at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of research records of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center using the Code of Federal Regulations, FDA Regulations and Good Clinical Practice Guidelines. Clinical data were collected FR-om subjects' research charts, and differences in conduct of studies at both centers were examined. Records maintained at Brookhaven National Laboratory were not in compliance with regulatory standards. Beth Israel's records followed federal regulations. Deficiencies discovered at both sites are discussed in the reports

  10. Clinical potential of boron neutron capture therapy for locally recurrent inoperable previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Diana; Quah, Daniel SC; Leech, Michelle; Marignol, Laure

    2015-01-01

    This review compares the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of previously irradiated, inoperable locoregional recurrent HNC patients and compares BNCT against the standard treatment of platinum-based chemotherapy. Our analysis of published clinical trials highlights efficacy of BNCT associated with mild side effects. However, the use of BNCT should be explored in stratified randomised trials. - Highlights: • BNCT can prolong median overall survival. • BNCT can be associated with severe adverse effects. • BNCT may be comparable to chemotherapy-based regimens. • BNCT may be comparable to re-irradiation techniques regimens in patients with low performance status.

  11. Study on the dose distribution of the mixed field with thermal and epi-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kanda, Keiji

    1994-01-01

    Simulation calculations using DOT 3.5 were carried out in order to confirm the characteristics of depth-dependent dose distribution in water phantom dependent on incident neutron energy. The epithermal neutrons mixed to thermal neutron field is effective improving the thermal neutron depth-dose distribution for neutron capture therapy. A feasibility study on the neutron energy spectrum shifter was performed using ANISN-JR for the KUR Heavy Water Facility. The design of the neutron spectrum shifter is feasible, without reducing the performance as a thermal neutron irradiation field. (author)

  12. Evaluation of commercial chromatographic adsorbents for the direct capture of polyclonal rabbit antibodies from clarified antiserum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Thomas, O.R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Protein A) as the affinity ligand, and differed from one another primarily with respect to the underlying base matrix. The remaining five matrices comprised various synthetic low molecular weight ligands immobilised on hydrophilic porous supports and these included: MEP HyperCel, MabSorbent AlP, Mab...... evaluated on the basis of dynamic binding capacity, recovery, and purity) were obtained, which allowed clear recommendations concerning the choice of adsorbents best suited for antibody capture from rabbit antisera, to be made....

  13. Valuing Metal-Organic Frameworks for Postcombustion Carbon Capture: A Benchmark Study for Evaluating Physical Adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Adil, Karim

    2017-08-22

    The development of practical solutions for the energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide is of prime importance and continues to attract intensive research interest. Conceivably, the implementation of adsorption-based processes using different cycling modes, e.g., pressure-swing adsorption or temperature-swing adsorption, offers great prospects to address this challenge. Practically, the successful deployment of practical adsorption-based technologies depends on the development of made-to-order adsorbents expressing mutually two compulsory requisites: i) high selectivity/affinity for CO2 and ii) excellent chemical stability in the presence of impurities. This study presents a new comprehensive experimental protocol apposite for assessing the prospects of a given physical adsorbent for carbon capture under flue gas stream conditions. The protocol permits: i) the baseline performance of commercial adsorbents such as zeolite 13X, activated carbon versus liquid amine scrubbing to be ascertained, and ii) a standardized evaluation of the best reported metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas to be undertaken. This extensive study corroborates the exceptional CO2 capture performance of the recently isolated second-generation fluorinated MOF material, NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, concomitant with an impressive chemical stability and a low energy for regeneration. Essentially, the NbOFFIVE-1-Ni adsorbent presents the best compromise by satisfying all the required metrics for efficient CO2 scrubbing.

  14. Evaluation of potential cost reductions from improved amine-based CO2 capture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Anand B.; Rubin, Edward S.; Keith, David W.; Granger Morgan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Technological innovations in CO 2 capture and storage technologies are being pursued worldwide under a variety of private and government-sponsored R and D programs. While much of this R and D is directed at novel concepts and potential breakthrough technologies, there are also substantial efforts to improve CO 2 capture technologies already in use. In this paper, we focus on amine-based CO 2 capture systems for power plants and other combustion-based applications. The current performance and cost of such systems have been documented in several recent studies. In this paper we examine the potential for future cost reductions that may result from continued process development. We used the formal methods of expert elicitation to understand what experts in this field believe about possible improvements in some of the key underlying parameters that govern the performance and cost of this technology. A dozen leading experts from North America, Europe and Asia participated in this study, providing their probabilistic judgments via a detailed questionnaire coupled with individual interviews. Judgments about detailed technical parameters were then used in an integrated power plant modeling framework (IECM-CS) developed for USDOE to evaluate the performance and costs of alternative carbon capture and sequestration technologies for fossil-fueled power plants. The experts' responses have allowed us to build a picture of how the overall performance and cost of amine-based systems might improve over the next decade or two. Results show how much the cost of CO 2 capture could be reduced via targeted R and D in key areas

  15. An evaluation method on seat comfort based on optical motion capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing TAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To research the sitting posture comfort evaluation method, through the example of comfort evaluation of the ergonomic seat and standard office seat, a methodology is introduced to evaluate the sitting posture comfort combining ergonomics theory. The proposed method is based on optical motion capture system, pressure sensor and JACK software, and TRC file is acquired by using EVART real-time capture software for identifying the spatial motion trail of human body. Then MATLAB software is used to analyze the human body motion data, and the sitting posture angle difference data for human body in different seats is acquired. TRC file is loaded into JACK software, and with the TAT REPORTER of JACK software, muscle force, moment of force and fatigue data, etc. are output, which are compared with the actual measured data from experiments, and ergonomics method is used for the evaluation. The result shows that the method of considering joint angles combining JACK software for data output is effective for evaluating sitting comfort.

  16. Hormone receptor densities in relation to 10B neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechter, O.; Schwartz, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    This presentation is a theoretical discussion of the possibility that appropriate steroid-carborane derivatives might be used to selectively deliver boron-10 ( 10 B) to tumor cells with sex-hormone receptors in sufficient concentration for effective neutron capture theory (NCT) of hormone-dependent mammary and prostatic cancer. The results indicate the concentrations of androgen receptors (AR) and progesterone receptors (PR) in malignant prostatic cells or of estrogen receptors (ER) in malignant mammary cells are two low to achieve nuclear 10 B concentrations of 1 + g per g of tumor by using a steroid ligand coupled to a single carborane cage

  17. Contemporary state of neutron capture therapy in the Czech Republic - (Part 2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dbalý, V.; Tovaryš, F.; Honová, H.; Petruželka, L.; Prokeš, K.; Burian, J.; Marek, M.; Honzátko, Jaroslav; Tomandl, Ivo; Kříž, O.; Janků, I.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2003), s. 60-63 ISSN 1210-7859 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : boron neutron therapy * radiotherapy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.047, year: 2003

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, M.

    2010-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy that has mainly been used to treat malignant brain tumours, melanomas, and head and neck cancer. In BNCT, the patient receives an intravenous infusion of a 10B-carrier, which accumulates in the tumour area. The tumour is irradiated with epithermal or thermal neutrons, which result in a boron neutron capture reaction that generates heavy particles to damage tumour cells. In Finland, boronophenylalanine fructose (BPA-F) is used as the 10B-carrier. Currently, the drifting of boron from blood to tumour as well as the spatial and temporal accumulation of boron in the brain, are not precisely known. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) could be used for selective BPA-F detection and quantification as aromatic protons of BPA resonate in the spectrum region, which is clear of brain metabolite signals. This study, which included both phantom and in vivo studies, examined the validity of 1H MRS as a tool for BPA detection. In the phantom study, BPA quantification was studied at 1.5 and 3.0 T with single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T with magnetic resonance imaging (MRSI). The detection limit of BPA was determined in phantom conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T using MRSI. In phantom conditions, BPA quantification accuracy of +- 5% and +- 15% were achieved with single voxel MRS using external or internal (internal water signal) concentration references, respectively. For MRSI, a quantification accuracy of <5% was obtained using an internal concentration reference (creatine). The detection limits of BPA in phantom conditions for the PRESS sequence were 0.7 (3.0 T) and 1.4 mM (1.5 T) mM with 20 x 20 single voxel MRS, and 1.0 mM with acquisition-weighted MRSI, respectively. In the in vivo study, an MRSI or single voxel MRS or both was performed for ten patients (patients 1-10) on the day of BNCT. Three patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and five patients had a recurrent or

  19. New optional IVC filter for percutaneous retrieval - in vitro evaluation of embolus capturing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.W.; Mossdorf, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Buecker, A.; Neuerburg, J.; Hoej, A.R.; Moelgaard-Nielsen, A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In-vitro evaluation of a new caval filter (Cook Celect Filter) developed for delayed percutaneous retrieval in comparison to the Guenther Tulip filter. Materials and Methods: The new Celect filter is constructed on the basis of the Tulip filter and consists of 4 primary anchoring legs and additional 8 thinner secondary wires to stabilize the filter and to guarantee adequate filtering efficiency. The filtering wires are of the same amount and equal distribution as the filtering wires of the Tulip filter. The secondary wires are arranged in such a way that percutaneous filter retrieval should be possible even if the wires are incorporated into the caval wall. In a flow model (tube size diameter 15-, diameter 22- and diameter 30 mm), the filter was exposed to single and multiple emboli (blood clots) of different sizes (3 x 5, 3 x 10, 5 x 10, 3 x 20, 5 x 20, 7 x 10, 7 x 20 to 10 x 24 mm) to analyse the embolus capturing efficiency under different conditions including eccentric and concentric, horizontal and vertical positions in comparison to the Tulip filter. All testing was carried out in SPSS analytic software; statistical significance was assumed for p-values <0.05. Results: The in-vitro embolus capturing efficiency of the Celect filter proved to be equivalent to the Tulip filter. In the single-embolus test, 91.6% of the clots were captured by the Celect filter and 87.2% by the Tulip filter (p=0.042). Large clots ranging from 7 x 10 to 10 x 24 mm were captured in all cases, whereas the capture rates for the 3 x 5-mm and 3 x 10-mm clots were lower. The filters captured significantly more clots in the concentric than in the eccentric location. There was no significant difference between the overall capture rates of the two filters in the multi-clot test (72.2% vs. 75.1%), which showed deterioration of filter function during multiple clot exposure. With the 15-mm tube, the Celect filter had a significantly higher capture rate than the Tulip filter, whereas it

  20. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  1. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  2. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-06-02

    ADA completed a DOE-sponsored program titled Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture under program DE-FE0004343. During this program, sorbents were analyzed for use in a post-combustion CO2 capture process. A supported amine sorbent was selected based upon superior performance to adsorb a greater amount of CO2 than the activated carbon sorbents tested. When the most ideal sorbent at the time was selected, it was characterized and used to create a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA). A preliminary 550 MW coal-fired power plant using Illinois #6 bituminous coal was designed with a solid sorbent CO2 capture system using the selected supported amine sorbent to both facilitate the TEA and to create the necessary framework to scale down the design to a 1 MWe equivalent slipstream pilot facility. The preliminary techno-economic analysis showed promising results and potential for improved performance for CO2 capture compared to conventional MEA systems. As a result, a 1 MWe equivalent solid sorbent system was designed, constructed, and then installed at a coal-fired power plant in Alabama. The pilot was designed to capture 90% of the CO2 from the incoming flue gas at 1 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. Testing was not possible at the design conditions due to changes in sorbent handling characteristics at post-regenerator temperatures that were not properly incorporated into the pilot design. Thus, severe pluggage occurred at nominally 60% of the design sorbent circulation rate with heated sorbent, although no handling issues were noted when the system was operated prior to bringing the regenerator to operating temperature. Testing within the constraints of the pilot plant resulted in 90% capture of the incoming CO2 at a flow rate equivalent of 0.2 to 0.25 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. The reduction in equivalent flow rate at 90% capture was

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation for a medical therapy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Neuman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design of a passively safe reactor facility for boron neutron capture therapy has been previously described. The medical therapy reactor (MTR) has a maximum power level of 10 MW(thermal) and utilizes 45 wt% uranium in UZrH, 20 wt% 235 U enriched hydride fuel matrix with 1 wt% erbium, which is a burnable poison and provides prompt negative reactivity feedback. The facility has five beam ports for patient treatment and advanced neutron beam research and is capable of 2,000 to 10,000 treatments per year, assuming single 8h/day, 5 day/week operation. The epithermal treatment flux from the beam ports is large, enabling single-session treatment of brain cancers of <10-min duration, with minimal fast neutron and gamma contaminants. The reactor core is designed with sufficient excess reactivity to yield a core lifetime equal to a facility lifetime of 30 yr. A preliminary safety evaluation was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis addressed accidents in several major categories, including a pump coastdown, a loss of secondary heat sink, and a $0.5 step reactivity insertion

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF THE EPITHERMAL NEUTRON BEAM FOR BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY AT THE BROOKHAVEN MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HOLDEN,N.E.

    2002-08-18

    Clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumor had been carried out for half a decade, using an epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven's Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a higher intensity, more forward-directed neutron beam with less contamination from gamma rays, fast and thermal neutrons are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  5. A Small-Animal Irradiation Facility for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the RA-3 Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Marcelo Miller; Silvia I. Thorp; Amanda E. Schwint; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica A. Trivillin; Leandro Zarza; Guillermo Estryk

    2007-11-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) has constructed a thermal neutron source for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CNEA have jointly conducted some initial neutronic characterization measurements for one particular configuration of this source. The RA-3 reactor (Figure 1) is an open pool type reactor, with 20% enriched uranium plate-type fuel and light water coolant. A graphite thermal column is situated on one side of the reactor as shown. A tunnel penetrating the graphite structure enables the insertion of samples while the reactor is in normal operation. Samples up to 14 cm height and 15 cm width are accommodated.

  6. Enhanced therapeutic effect on murine melanoma and angiosarcoma cells by boron neutron capture therapy using a boronated metalloporphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshihiko; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Kahl, S.B.; Toda, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    We have already achieved successful treatment of several human patients with malignant melanoma by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using 10 B 1 -paraboronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA·HCl). In this study we used a new compound, a manganese boronated protoporphyrin (Mn- 10 BOPP), and compared it to 10 B 1 -BPA·HCl with respect to uptake in murine melanoma and angiosarcoma cells as well as to their cell killing effect. 10 B uptake was measured in a new method, and the new compound was much more incorporated into both cells than 10 B 1 -BPA·HCl. Furthermore, melanoma and angiosarcoma cells preincubated with the new compound were 15 to 20 times more efficiently killed by BNCT than cells preincubated with 10 B 1 -BPA·HCl. (author)

  7. Design of neutron beams at the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL) for boron neutron capture therapy and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.L.; McMichael, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron beams are designed for capture therapy based on p-Li and p-Sc reactions using the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). The p-Li beam will provide a 2.5 x 10 9 n/cm 2 s epithermal flux with 7 x 10 5 γ/cm 2 s contamination. On a human brain phantom, this beam allows an advantage depth (AD) of 10 cm, an advantage depth dose rate (ADDR) of 78 cGy/min and an advantage ratio (AR) of 3.2. The p-Sc beam offers 5.9 x 10 7 n/cm 2 s and a dose performance of AD = 8 cm and AR = 3.5, suggesting the potential of near-threshold (p,n) reactions such as the p-Li reaction at E p = 1.92 MeV. A thermal radiography beam could also be obtained from ACWL

  8. Synthesis of o-carboranylmethyl ethers of steroids as potential target substrates for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderova, L.; Gruener, B.; Strouf, O.; Kimlova, I.

    1992-01-01

    o-carboranylmethyl ethers of steroids were synthesized by insertion of steroidal 2-propynyloxy derivatives into 6,9-bis(acetonitrile)decarborane. This reaction provided compounds with an estrane and androstane skeleton, potentially useful in boron neutron capture therapy of hormone-sensitive forms of cancer: 17β-o-carboranylmethyl ether of estradiol IXb (yield 14%) and 3β- and 17β-carboranylmethyl ethers of androstenediol Vb and VIIb (yield 12% and 13%, respectively). Jones oxidation gave the carboranyl derivative of androsten-17-one VIb in 75% yield. As shown by a study of insertion of 3β-(2-propynyloxy)cholest-5-ene (IVa), the low yields of the insertion reaction cannot be increased by change in the reaction conditions. The relative binding affinity of compound IXb to the estrogen receptor from rat uterine and human breast tumor cytosol was 3.0 and 0.29%, respectively, of that of estradiol. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs

  9. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  10. Intracellular targeting of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) to malignant glioma by transferrin-PEG liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Iida, Kyouko

    2006-01-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most difficult tumor to control with usual therapies. In our institute, we select boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an adjuvant radiation therapy after surgical resection. This therapy requires the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. In this study, we focused on a tumor-targeting 10 B delivery system (BDS) for BNCT that uses transferrin-conjugated polyethylene-glycol liposome encapsulating BSH (TF-PEG liposome-BSH) and compared 10 B uptake of the tumor among BSH, PEG liposome-BSH and TF-PEG liposome-BSH. In vitro, we analyzed 10 B concentration of the cultured human U87Δ glioma cells incubated in medium containing 20 μg 10 B/ml derived from each BDS by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In vivo, human U87Δ glioma-bearing nude mice were administered with each BDS (35mg 10 B/kg) intravenously. We analyzed 10 B concentration of tumor, normal brain and blood by ICP-AES. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH showed higher absolute concentration more than the other BDS. Moreover, TF-PEG liposome-BSH decreased 10 B concentration in blood and normal tissue while it maintained high 10 B concentration in tumor tissue for a couple of days. This showed the TF-PEG liposome-BSH caused the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH is more potent BDS for BNCT to obtain absolute high 10 B concentration and good contrast between tumor and normal tissue than BSH and PEG liposome-BSH. (author)

  11. Dosimetry and stability studies of the boron neutron capture therapy agent F-BPA-Fr using PET and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jonathan Paul

    The treatment of deep seated brain tumors such as glioblastoma Multiforme has been unsuccessful for many patients. Surgical debulking, chemotherapy and standard radiotherapy have met with limited success. Boron neutron capture therapy offers a binary mode brachytherapy based on the following capture reaction that may provide an innovative alternative to standard forms of treatment:10B + n /to/ 11B /to 7Li + 4He + 2.31 MeVBoron is chemically attached to a tumor binding compound creating a non-toxic neutron absorber. A dose of epithermal neutrons provides the catalyst to produce the lithium and alpha particles which destroy any tissue within a length of one cell diameter from the boron compound. This dissertation uses 19F-MRI and 18F-PET to provide answers to the localization and biodistribution questions that arise in such a treatment modality. Practical patient dosimetry and actual treatment planning using the PET data is also examined. Finally, theoretical work done in the areas of compartmental modelling dealing with pharmacokinetic uptake of the PET radiotracer and dose analysis in microdosimetry is also presented.

  12. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  13. Development and in vitro testing of liposomal gadolinium-formulations for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    For the improvement of current neutron capture therapy, several liposomal formulations of neutron capture agent gadolinium were developed and tested in a glioma cell model. Formulations were analyzed regarding physicochemical and biological parameters, such as size, zeta potential, uptake into cancer cells and performance under neutron irradiation. The neutron and photon dose derived from intracellular as well as extracellular Gd was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in correlation with the reduction of cell survival after irradiation. To investigate the suitability of Gd as a radiosensitizer for photon radiation, cells were also irradiated with synchrotron radiation in addition to clinically used photons generated by linear accelerator. Irradiation with neutrons led to significantly lower survival for Gd-liposome-treated F98 and LN229 cells, compared to irradiated control cells and cells treated with non-liposomal Gd-DTPA. Correlation between Gd-content and -dose and respective cell survival displayed proportional relationship for most of the applied formulations. Photon irradiation experiments showed the proof-of-principle for the radiosensitizer approach, although the photon spectra currently used have to be optimized for higher efficiency of the radiosensitizer. In conclusion, the newly developed Gd-liposomes show great potential for the improvement of radiation treatment options for highly malignant glioblastoma.

  14. Technology evaluation: cystic fibrosis therapy, Genzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, M I

    1999-04-01

    Genzyme is developing therapies to replace the defective forms of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in CF patients. The company is developing a gene therapy, as well as a recombinant production of CFTR for protein replacement therapy. Both approaches have been granted orphan drug status by the FDA [156348]. The results of several clinical trials were discussed at the first annual meeting of the American Society of Gene Therapy in May 1998. A single dose nasal administration was well tolerated by volunteers, but had disappointing efficacy. In a study completed at the Royal Brompton Hospital, London, a single dose aerosol application of GL-67:DOPE was administered to eight patients, while another eight received GL-67:DOPE plus pCF1-CFTR. In the second group, a moderate increase in the potential difference in the lung was observed, with a slight trend towards bacterial adherence normalization in the airway cells. Seven of the patients in the second group, and three patients who received lipid alone, developed, flu-like symptoms within 24 h. A trial at the University of Alabama, using the same formulation, showed that flu-like symptoms developed in six of eight patients by day two, and in all patients by day seven [290120]. In 1995, the company began a clinical safety trial involving delivery of a normal CF gene to the patient's lungs via an adenovirus vector. The administration involves the inhalation of an aerosol containing the vector or, separately, delivery to one lobe of the patient's lung via a bronchoscope [191678]. To evaluate additional delivery methods for the gene, Genzyme has an exclusive research agreement for the use of Vical's cytofectins as non-viral delivery vectors for CFTR. Also under investigation are delivery systems for the nasal epithelium using liposomes or lipid-DNA complexes. These protocols are being developed in collaboration with the National Heart & Lung Institute, London, and an undisclosed

  15. Environmental and thermodynamic evaluation of CO2 capture, transport and storage with and without enhanced resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Dufour, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the environmental and thermodynamic performance of six coal-fired power plants with CO 2 capture and storage. The technologies examined are post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine, membrane separation, cryogenic fractionation and pressure swing adsorption, pre-combustion capture through coal gasification, and capture performing conventional oxy-fuel combustion. The incorporation of CO 2 capture is evaluated both on its own and in combination with CO 2 transport and geological storage, with and without beneficial use. Overall, we find that pre-combustion CO 2 capture and post-combustion through membrane separation present relatively low life-cycle environmental impacts and high exergetic efficiencies. When accounting for transport and storage, the environmental impacts increase and the efficiencies decrease. However, a better environmental performance can be achieved for CO 2 capture, transport and storage when incorporating beneficial use through enhanced oil recovery. The performance with enhanced coal-bed methane recovery, on the other hand, depends on the impact categories evaluated. The incorporation of methane recovery results in a better thermodynamic performance, when compared to the incorporation of oil recovery. The cumulative energy demand shows that the integration of enhanced resource recovery strategies is necessary to attain favourable life-cycle energy balances. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of six different CO 2 capture technologies for coal-fired power plants. ► Calculation of life-cycle environmental impacts and exergetic efficiencies. ► Suitability of post-combustion capture with membrane separation. ► Suitability of pre-combustion capture through coal gasification. ► Improved performance when incorporating enhanced resource recovery

  16. Capturing presence moments: the art of mindful practice in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores theoretical and practical views of mindfulness and phenomena of presence moments. The potential for altering life and enabling change through lived experience of mindful presence moments has relevance for occupational therapy practice. To suggest ways for occupational therapists to become mindfully present during practice. Based on theoretical perspectives drawn from the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and education, a four-fold approach will be outlined for occupational therapists to practice mindfully and experience presence moments. This approach emphasizes key concepts of awareness, non-judgment, reflection, curiosity, and commitment to practice. A clinical scenario is used to illustrate the approach. The ideas raised in this paper need to be incorporated into daily practice by occupational therapists so that a culture of mindful practice can be cultivated. Suggestions are provided throughout the paper for an agenda of potential research studies to address aspects of mindfulness and presence moments more fully.

  17. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  18. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, M.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT

  19. UMCE-FM: Untethered Motion Capture Evaluation for Flightline Maintenance Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kider, Jr., Joseph T; Stocker, Catherine R; Badler, Norman I

    2008-01-01

    .... The primary objective was to determine the potential of untethered motion capture capabilities for real-time human subject motion capture and performance data collection with full-scale physical props...

  20. Comparative evaluation of power plants with CO2 capture. Thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina

    2011-01-01

    CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) in the energy sector is seen as a bridge technology for CO 2 mitigation, due to the ever-growing environmental impact of anthropogenic-emitted greenhouse gases. In this work, eight power plant concepts using CO 2 capture technologies are assessed based on their efficiency, economic feasibility and environmental footprint. Exergy-based analyses are used for evaluating the considered power plants through comparison with a reference plant without CO 2 capture. While conventional exergy-based analyses provide important information that can lead to improvements in plant performance, additional insight about individual components and the interactions among equipment can aid further assessment. This led to the development of advanced exergy-based analyses, in which the exergy destruction, as well as the associated costs and environmental impacts are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. Based on the avoidable parts, the potential for improvement is revealed, while based on the endogenous/exogenous parts, the component interactions are obtained. Among the examined plants with CO 2 capture, the most efficient are those working with oxy-fuel technology. An exergoeconomic analysis shows a minimum increase in the relative investment cost (in Euro/kW) of 80% for the conventional approach (chemical absorption) and an increase of 86% for the oxy-fuel plant with chemical looping combustion. The latter shows a somewhat decreased environmental impact when compared to that of the reference plant. On the contrary, the plant with chemical absorption results in a higher environmental penalty due to its high efficiency penalty. Therefore, accepting that all assumptions and data related to the calculations of the environmental impacts are reliable, efficiency improvement seems to be a more significant factor in potentially decreasing a plant's environmental impact. With advanced exergy-based analyses, interdependencies

  1. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Carl [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Steen, William [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Triana, Eugenio [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Machalek, Thomas [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davila, Jenny [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Schmit, Claire [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Andrew [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Temple, Brian [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Lu, Yongqi [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lu, Hong [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Zhang, Luzheng [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ruhter, David [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Sayyah, Maryam [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ito, Brandon [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Suslick, Kenneth [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent

  2. Studies for the application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Perona, Marina; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Nievas, Susana I.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy for cancer, which it is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 that it is a non radioactive isotope of the natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to produce an alpha particle and a nucleus of lithium-7. Both particles have a range smaller than the diameter of a cell causing cell tumor death without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissues. In previous studies we have shown that BNCT can be a possibility for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC). However, more than 80 % of patients with thyroid neoplasm present differentiated carcinoma (CDT). These carcinomas are treated by surgery followed by therapy with 131 I and mostly these forms are well controlled. But in some patients recurrence of the tumor is observed. BNCT can be an alternative for these patients in who the tumor lost the capacity to concentrate iodide. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. Materials and Methods: The human cell lines of follicular (WRO) and papillary carcinomas (TPC-1) were grown in RPMI and modified DMEM medium respectively. Both supplemented with 10 % of SFB. The cell line of thyroid rat, FRTL-5, used as control normal, was cultured in DMEM/F12. The uptakes of 125 I and p-borophenylalanine BPA (6.93mM) were studied. The intracellular boron concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) at 2 hr post incubation. The NIH strain of male nude mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks and weighing 20 to 25 g were implanted (s.c) in the back right flank with different concentrations of tumor cells. The size of the tumors was measured with a caliper twice or three times a week and the volume was calculated according the following formulae: A 2 x B/2 (were A is the width and B is the length). To evaluate the BPA uptake, animals

  3. A physical and engineering study on the irradiation techniques in neutron capture therapy aiming for wider application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.; Katoh, I.; Miyatake, S.-I.; Yanagie, H.

    2003-01-01

    The solo-irradiation of thermal neutrons has been applied for brain cancer and malignant melanoma in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the medical irradiation facility of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), from the first clinical trial in 1974. In 1997, after the facility remodeling, the application of the mix-irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons was started, and the depth dose distribution for brain cancer has been improved in some degree. In 2001, the solo-irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons also started. It is specially mentioned that the application to oral cancers started at the same time. The BNCT clinical trial using epi-thermal neutron irradiation at KUR, amounts to twelve as of March 2003. The seven trials; more than a half of the total trials, are for oral cancers. From this fact, we think that the wider application to the other cancers is required for the future prosperity of BNCT. The cancers applied for BNCT in KUR at the present time, are brain cancer, melanoma and oral cancers, as mentioned above. The cancers, expected to be applied in near future, are liver cancer, pancreas cancer, lung cancer, tongue cancer, breast cancer, etc.. Any cancer is almost incurable by the other therapy including the other radiation therapy. In the wider application of BNCT to these cancers, the dose-distribution control suitable to each cancer and/or each part, is important. The introduction of multi-directional and/or multi-divisional irradiation is also needed. Here, a physical and engineering study using two-dimensional transport calculation and three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation for the irradiation techniques in BNCT aiming for wider application is reported

  4. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for lung and pancreatic cancer treatment by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreatic cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 8 ncm -2 s -1 . The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for both lung and pancreatic cancer treatment. (author)

  5. In vitro studies of cellular response to DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M.; Pontiggia, O.; Carpano, M.; Thomasz, L.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.; Simian, M.; Kahl, S.; Juvenal, G.; Pisarev, M.; Dagrosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the mechanisms of cellular response to DNA damage induced by BNCT. Thyroid carcinoma cells were incubated with 10 BPA or 10 BOPP and irradiated with thermal neutrons. The surviving fraction, the cell cycle distribution and the expression of p53 and Ku70 were analyzed. Different cellular responses were observed for each irradiated group. The decrease of Ku70 in the neutrons +BOPP group could play a role in the increase of sensitization to radiation.

  6. Evaluation of sea otter capture after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Weltz, F.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    After the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Exxon Company, U.S.A., began rescuing sea otters (Enhydra lutris). The primary objective of this operation was to capture live, oiled sea otters for cleaning and rehabilitation. Between 30 March and 29 May 1989, 139 live sea otters were captured in the sound and transported to rehabilitation centers in Valdez, Alaska. Within the first 15 days of capture operations, 122 (88%) otters were captured. Most sea otters were captured near Knight, Green, and Evans islands in the western sound. The primary capture method consisted of dipnetting otters out of water and off beaches. While capture rates declined over time, survival of captured otters increased as the interval from spill date to capture date increased. The relative degree of oiling observed for each otter captured declined over time. Declining capture rates led to the use of tangle nets. The evidence suggests the greatest threat to sea otters in Prince William Sound occurred within the first 3 weeks after the spill. Thus, in the future, the authors believe rescue efforts should begin as soon as possible after an oil spill in sea otter habitat. Further, preemptive capture and relocation of sea otters in Prince William Sound may have increased the number of otters that could have survived this event.

  7. Basic study of gadolinium neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshifumi; Takagaki, Masao; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko

    1994-01-01

    We measured the time-course of gadolinium take up in 91 brain tumor tissues obtained during surgical operations, and compared those results against measurements of gadolinium concentration changes in serum in 31 cases of both malignant and benign brain tumors. The contents of gadolinium in tissues were measured using the ICP spectroscopic method. The results shown wide variations in each class. In malignant gliomas, the maximum Tumor/Blood (T/B) ratio is around 10-30%, reached in 30-40 minutes after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA, but it is rapidly excreted from the tissue and decreased to lower than 10% at 60 minutes after the injection. There is no measurable correlation between the tissue concentration of gadolinium and the histological grading of astrocytomas. In the case of meningiomas, T/B ratio is 20-30%, and has a tendency to increase gradually even 60 minutes after administration. In one case of rapid recurrent meningioma, the T/B ratio beyond 100% and became 640% at 85 minutes after the injection. In this case, Gd-NC therapy will promise the best result. The main clinical effect of Gd-NCT is due to the 6.30MeV γ-rays, which have a long pathway, and 1.53MeV high-RBE Auger electron. Intraparenchynal capillaries in the brain usually have a thickness of 3.5μm of endothelial cells. The capillaries occupate about 4% of the area of any cross-sectional plane of the brain. Under these conditions, Gd has full therapeutic effect without damaging either normal brain tissues or vascular components, provided the T/B ratio is kept higher than 10%. The further problem of the Gd-NCT is that (1) Gd is situated exclusively in the extracellular spaces as opposed to intracellular-or intranuclearspaces. The development of Gd compounds which will be incorporated into the nucleus is required. (2) It is necessary to keep a high gadolinium T/B ratio during the whole irradiation period, which is 1-2 hours in a 5MW reactor such as the one being used at Kyoto University. (J.P.N.)

  8. Reactor-moderated intermediate-energy neutron beams for neutron-capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to producing an intermediate energy beam is moderating fission neutrons escaping from a reactor core. The objective of this research is to evaluate materials that might produce an intermediate beam for NCT via moderation of fission neutrons. A second objective is to use the more promising moderator material in a preliminary design of an NCT facility at a research reactor. The evaluations showed that several materials or combinations of materials could produce a moderator source for an intermediate beam for NCT. The best neutron spectrum for use in NCT is produced by Al 2 O 3 , but mixtures of Al metal and D 2 O are also attractive. Using the best moderator materials, results were applied to the design of an NCT moderator at the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor's bio-medical facility. The amount of photon shielding and thermal neutron absorber were optimized with respect to the desired photon dose rate and intermediate neutron flux at the patient position

  9. Effects of secondary interactions on the dose calculation in treatments with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the secondary contributions of dose (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head head phantom.A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary contributions of dose can contribute more in the direction to raise the dose in the fabric healthy that in the tumor, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. (author)

  10. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric D.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

    2018-01-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

  11. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Waks, Jonathan W; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of 1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatar Vento, V.; Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D.; Valda, A.A.; Kreiner, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  13. Application of adjoint Monte Carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R.L.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Van der Hagen, T.H.; Van Dam, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the adjoint transport theory in order to optimize Monte Carlo based radiotherapy treatment planning. The technique is applied to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy where most often mixed beams of neutrons and gammas are involved. In normal forward Monte Carlo

  14. In vitro studies of the cellular response to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Casal, M; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M; Dagrosa, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, we have started to study the mechanisms of DNA damage and repair induced by BNCT in thyroid carcinoma some years ago. We have shown different genotoxic patterns for tumor cells irradiated with gamma rays, neutrons alone or neutrons plus different compounds, boronophenylalanine (BPA) or α, β - dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (BOPP). In the present study we analyzed the expression of Ku70, Rad51 and Rad54 components of non homologous end-joing (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, respectively, induced by BNCT in human cells of thyroid carcinoma. Methods: A human cell line of follicular thyroid carcinoma (WRO) in exponential growth phase was distributed into the following groups: 1) Gamma Radiation, 2) Radiation with neutrons beam (NCT), 3) Radiation with n th in presence of BPA (BNCT). A control group for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux= 1.10 10 n/cm 2 sec) or with a source of 60 Co. The irradiations were performed during different lapses in order to obtain a total physical dose of 3 Gy (±10%). The mRNA expressions of Ku70, Rad 51 and Rad 54 were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at different times post irradiation (2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h). DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence using an antibody against the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, which indicates double strand breaks in the DNA. Results: The expression of Rad51 increased at 2 h post-irradiation and it lasted until 6 h only in the neutron and neutron + BPA groups (p<0.05). Rad54 showed an up-regulation from 2 to 24 h in both groups irradiated with the neutron beam (with and without BPA) (p<0.05). On the other hand, Ku70 mRNA did not show a modification of its expression in the irradiated groups respect to the control group. Conclusion: these results would indicate an activation of the HRR pathway in the thyroid carcinoma cells treated by

  15. Epithermal neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy at the Power Burst Facility and the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Parsons, D.K.; Rushton, B.L.; Nigg, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear design studies have been performed for two reactor-based epithermal neutron beams for cancer treatment by neutron capture therapy (NCT). An intermediate-intensity epithermal beam has been designed and implemented at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Measurements show that the BMRR design predictions for the principal characteristics of this beam are accurate. A canine program for research into the biological effects of NCT is now under way at BMRR. The design for a high-intensity epithermal beam with minimal contamination from undesirable radiation components has been finalized for the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This design will be implemented when it is determined that human NCT trials are advisable. The PBF beam will exhibit approximately an order of magnitude improvement in absolute epithermal flux intensity over that available in the BMRR, and its angular distribution and spectral characteristics will be more advantageous for NCT. The combined effects of beam intensity, angular distribution, spectrum, and contaminant level allow the desired tumor radiation dose to be delivered in much shorter times than are possible with the currently available BMRR beam, with a significant reduction (factor of 3 to 5) in collateral dose due to beam contaminants

  16. Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and the Development of a Dedicated Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Di Paolo, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Valda, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Kesque, J. M.; Giboudot, Y.; Levinas, P.; Fraiman, M.; Romeo, V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Progress on an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. A 30 mA proton beam of 2.5 MeV are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The first design and construction of an ESQ module is discussed and its electrostatic fields are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Also new beam transport calculations through the accelerator are presented

  17. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment.

  18. A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nievaart, V A [Reactor Physics Department, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Moss, R L [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Postbus 2, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kloosterman, J L [Reactor Physics Department, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Hagen, T H J J van der [Reactor Physics Department, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Dam, H van [Reactor Physics Department, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-09-21

    The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the {sup 10}B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the {sup 10}B concentration, the RBE factors for {sup 10}B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour.

  19. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masamichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  20. Boronated monoclonal antibody 225.28S for potential use in neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.; Moore, D.E.; Patwardhan, A.; Hersey, P.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of conjugating boron cluster compounds to monoclonal antibodies has been examined by several groups of research workers in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedures reported to date for boronation of monoclonal antibodies resulted in either an inadequate level of boron incorporation, the precipitation of the conjugates, or a loss of immunological activity. The present report describes the conjugation of dicesium-mercapto-undecahydrododecaborate (Cs2B12H11SH) to 225.28S monoclonal antibody directed against high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigens (HMW-MAA), using poly-L-ornithine as a bridge to increase the carrying capacity of the antibody and to minimize change in the conformational structure of antibody. The method produces a boron content of 1,300 to 1,700 B atoms per molecule 225.28S while retaining the immunoreactivity. Characterization in terms of the homogeneity of the conjugation of the boron-monoclonal antibody conjugates has been studied by gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange HPLC

  1. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Torii, Yoshiya

    2002-09-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal for the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System to set the patient in an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design and procedure of dosimetry, operation manual, data and library structure for JCDS (ver.1.0). (author)

  2. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  3. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.D. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 x 10 8 n/cm 2 · s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n epi and 20 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n epi , respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    1999-01-01

    Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

  5. Monitoring of blood-10B concentration for boron neutron capture therapy using prompt gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaijmakers, C.P.J.; Konijnenberg, M.W.; Dewit, L.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Haritz, D.; Huiskamp, R.; Philipp, K.; Siefert, A.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the blood- 10 B concentration of laboratory dogs receiving boron neutron capture therapy, in order to obtain optimal agreement between prescribed and actual dose. A prompt gamma-ray analysis system was developed for this purpose at the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The technique was compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and showed good agreement. A substantial variation in 10 B clearance pattern after administration of borocaptate sodium was found between the different dogs. Consequently, the irradiation commencement was adjusted to the individually determined boron elimination curve. Mean blood- 10 B concentratios during irradiation of 25.8±2.2 μg/g (1 SD, n=18) and 49.3±5.3 μg/g (1 SD, n=17) were obtained for intended concentrations of 25 μg/g and 50 μg/g, respectively. These variations are a factor of two smaller than irradiations performed at a uniform post-infusion irradiation starting time. Such a careful bolld- 10 B monitoring procedure is a prerequisite for accurately obtaining such steep dose-response curves as observed during the dog study. (orig.)

  6. Application of the boron neutron capture therapy to undifferentiated thyroid cancer using two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaggi, Mabel; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Longhino, Juan M.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Calzetta Larrieu, Osvaldo A.; Kahl, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) human cell line ARO, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-(ba-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the ip injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45ppm with both compounds Vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the ip BOPP injection and 1 hr after BPA, the ratios were: tumor/blood 3,75; tumor /distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6,65 and tumor/lung 3,8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy). (author)

  7. Development of a tri dimensional Monte Carlo code for the study of the microdosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A charged particles transport Monte Carlo code, specially designed for the boron neutron capture therapy microdosimetry study was developed. The code allows the use of real tri dimensional problem geometry, using serial microscopy slides from a biological substrate where the 10 B(n, Alpha) 7 Li, 14 N(n,p) 14 C reactions and events can occur. The spatial distribution of sources ( 10 B, 14 N concentrations), regions of interest (where the energy deposition, linear energy transfer and other parameters will be calculated) and other zones (without boron) are obtained from the images. The code is in the benchmarking stage, using geometrically simple cases and experimental data obtained from microdosimetric spectra from TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters) doped with 10 B. It allows to obtain LET spectra discriminated by event classes, chord-length distributions, dose and frequency mean values and visualizations of the spatial energy deposition. A similar version of the code uses bidimensional images from a tissue sample containing a great number of cellular structures. An equivalence between the microdosimetry of a bidimensional case and a tri dimensional one can be done. If the real distribution of 10 B is known, for example by high resolution alpha-track autoradiography, the code can use this information explicitly. (author) [es

  8. Evaluation of capture techniques for long-billed curlews wintering in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Texas coast harbors the largest, eastern-most populations of Long-billed Curlews (Numenius americanus) in North America; however, very little is known about their migration and wintering ecology. Curlews are readily captured on their breeding grounds, but experience with capturing the species during the non-breeding season is extremely limited. We assessed the efficacy of 6 capture techniques for Long-billed Curlews in winter: 1) modified noose ropes, 2) remotely controlled bow net, 3) Coda Netgun, 4) Super Talon net gun, 5) Hawkseye whoosh net, and 6) cast net. The Coda Netgun had the highest rate of captures per unit of effort (CPUE = 0.31; 4 curlew captures/13 d of trapping effort), followed by bow net (CPUE = 0.17; 1 capture/6 d of effort), whoosh net (CPUE = 0.14; 1 capturel7 d of effort), and noose ropes (CPUE = 0.07; 1 capturel15 d of effort). No curlews were captured using the Super Talon net gun or a cast net (3 d and 1 d of effort, respectively). Multiple capture techniques should be readily available for maximum flexibility in matching capture methods with neophobic curlews that often unpredictably change referred feeding locations among extremely different habitat types.

  9. Selective boron delivery by intra-arterial injection of BSH-WOW emulsion in hepatic cancer model for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Dewi, Novriana; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Seguchi, Koji; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Murata, Yuji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Mikado, Shoji; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Fujihara, Mitsuteru; Sakurai, Yuriko; Mouri, Kikue; Yanagawa, Masashi; Iizuka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Fujino, Takashi; Ogura, Koichi; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Yui, Sho; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Takamoto, Sinichi; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Hasumi, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a 10 BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We prepared the 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 10 12  n cm -2 . Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. Biodistribution results have revealed that 10 B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis observed after neutron irradiation in the groups treated with 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion, whereas many tumour nodules were recognized in the liver, abdominal cavity, peritoneum and bilateral lobes of the lung in the non-injected group. Tumour growth suppression and cancer-cell-killing effect was observed from the morphological and pathological analyses of the 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion-injected group, indicating its feasibility to be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT. Advances in knowledge: The results of the current study have shown that entrapped 10 BSH has the potential to increase the range of therapies available for hepatocellular carcinoma which is considered to be one of the most difficult tumours to cure.

  10. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  11. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  12. Evaluating the development of carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Alphen, Klaas; Noothout, Paul M.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Turkenburg, Wim C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as an important solution to solve the twin challenge of reducing GHG emissions, while utilizing fossil fuel reserves to meet future energy requirements. In this study an innovation systems perspective is applied to review the development of CCS technologies in the US between 2000 and 2009 and to come up with policy recommendations for technology managers that wish to accelerate the deployment of CCS. The analysis describes the successful built-up of an innovation system around CCS and pinpoints the key determinants for this achievement. However, the evaluation of the system's performance also indicates that America's leading role in the development of CCS should not be taken for granted. It shows that the large CCS R and D networks, as well as the extensive CCS knowledge base, which have been accumulated over the past decade, have not yet been valorized by entrepreneurs to explore the market for integrated CCS concepts linked to power generation. Therefore, it is argued that the build-up of the innovation system has entered a critical phase that is decisive for a further thriving development of CCS technologies in the US. This study provides a clear understanding of the current barriers to the technology's future deployment and outlines a policy strategy that (1) stimulates technological learning; (2) facilitates collaboration and coordination in CCS actor networks; (3) creates financial and market incentives for the technology; and (4) provides supportive regulation and sound communication on CCS. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Ankistrodesmus falcatus for Bicarbonate-Based Integrated Carbon Capture System (BICCAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltran Arnel B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of alkaliphilic microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus in the Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System (BICCAPS. The system utilized bicarbonate as carbon source for microalgae production. BICCAPS parameters such as pH, algal biomass productivity and CO2 utilization (inorganic carbon conversion, Ci were observed at different sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 loading concentration and type of culture media. The highest productivity was observed at 10 g/L of NaHCO3 loading in BRSP medium at 3.5539 mg/L/day. This value is 30% lower compared to the control experiment (continuously aerated bioreactor. The Ci values of the different system ranges from 1.17 x 10-4 to 1.51 x 10-4 moles/L/day. Both the pH of the BRSP and NPK media at 10 g/L and 30g/L loading of NaHCO3 increased through time. The result shows that A. falcatus has a potential in BICCAPS utilization.

  14. Development and evaluation of a hand tracker using depth images captured from an overhead perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnuch, Stephen; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-03-27

    We present the development and evaluation of a robust hand tracker based on single overhead depth images for use in the COACH, an assistive technology for people with dementia. The new hand tracker was designed to overcome limitations experienced by the COACH in previous clinical trials. We train a random decision forest classifier using ∼5000 manually labeled, unbalanced, training images. Hand positions from the classifier are translated into task actions based on proximity to environmental objects. Tracker performance is evaluated using a large set of ∼24 000 manually labeled images captured from 41 participants in a fully-functional washroom, and compared to the system's previous colour-based hand tracker. Precision and recall were 0.994 and 0.938 for the depth tracker compared to 0.981 and 0.822 for the colour tracker with the current data, and 0.989 and 0.466 in the previous study. The improved tracking performance supports integration of the depth-based tracker into the COACH toward unsupervised, real-world trials. Implications for Rehabilitation The COACH is an intelligent assistive technology that can enable people with cognitive disabilities to stay at home longer, supporting the concept of aging-in-place. Automated prompting systems, a type of intelligent assistive technology, can help to support the independent completion of activities of daily living, increasing the independence of people with cognitive disabilities while reducing the burden of care experienced by caregivers. Robust motion tracking using depth imaging supports the development of intelligent assistive technologies like the COACH. Robust motion tracking also has application to other forms of assistive technologies including gaming, human-computer interaction and automated assessments.

  15. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the TRIGA Mark II of Pavia, Italy - The BNCT of the diffuse tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Gadan, M.A. [University of Pavia (Italy); INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, of Pavia (Italy)

    2008-10-29

    The selectivity based on the B distribution rather than on the irradiation field makes Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) a valid option for the treatment of the disseminated tumours. As the range of the high LET particles is shorter than a cell diameter, the normal cells around the tumour are not damaged by the reactions occurring in the tumoral cells. PAVIA 2001: first treatment of multiple hepatic metastases from colon ca by BNCT and auto-transplantation technique: TAOrMINA project. The liver was extracted after BPA infusion, irradiated in the Thermal Column of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II reactor, and re-implanted in the patient. Two patients were treated, demonstrating the feasibility of the therapy and the efficacy in destroying the tumoral nodules sparing the healthy tissues. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research are presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,{alpha}) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. The dose distribution in the thorax are simulated using MCNP and the anthropomorphic model ADAM. To have a good thermal flux distribution inside the lung epithermal neutrons must be used, which thermalize crossing the first tissue layers. Thermal neutrons do not penetrate and the obtained uniformity is poor. In the future, the construction of a PGNAA facility using a horizontal channel of the TRIGA Mark II is planned. With this method the B concentration can be measured also in liquid samples (blood, urine) and

  16. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  17. Medical set-up of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant glioma at the Japan research reactor (JRR)-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Nose, T.; Shibata, Y.; Nakai, K.; Sakurai, F.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The University of Tsukuba project for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was initiated at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1992. The clinical study for BNCT began at the Japan Research Reactor (JRR)-2 of the JAERI in November 1995. By the end of 1998, a new medical irradiation facility had been installed in JRR-4 of that included a new medical treatment room and patient-monitoring area adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical treatment room was built to reflect a hospital-type operation room that includes an operating table with a carbon head frame, anesthesia apparatus with several cardiopulmonary monitors, etc. Following craniotomy in the treatment room, a patient under anesthesia is transported into the irradiation room for BNCT. The boron concentration in tissue is measured with prompt gamma ray analysis (PGA) and simultaneously by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) methods. For the immediate pre- and post-BNCT care, a collaborating neurosurgical department of the University of Tsukuba was prepared in the vicinity of the JAERI. The long term follow-up is done at the University of Tsukuba Hospital. Epithermal neutron beam also became available at the new JRR-4. By changing the thickness and/or the configuration of heavy water, a cadmium plate, and a graphite reflector, the JRR-4 provides a variety of neutron beams, including three typical beams (Epithermal mode and Thermal modes I and II). Intraoperative BNCT using the thermal beam is planned to study at the beginning of the clinical trial. The ongoing development of the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and radiobiological studies have focused in the application of the epithermal beam for BNCT. After obtaining these basic data, we are planning to use the epithermal beam for intraoperative BNCT. (author)

  18. Design of collimator in the radial piercing beam port of Kartini reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Ilma Muslih A; Andang Widiharto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for in vivo experiment of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini Research Reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni (95%) as collimator wall, 15 cm thick of Al as moderator, 1 cm thick of Pb as γ-ray shielding, 1.5 cm thick of Boral as additional material, with 2 cm aperture diameter, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 5.03 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 2.17 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 and 1.16 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -l , minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.12, and maximum directionality of 0.835 . It did not fully pass the IAEA's criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -l . Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 and fast neutron flux close to 2 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 it is still feasible for BNCT in vivo experiment. (author)

  19. Tumor cell killing effect of boronated dipeptide. Boromethylglycylphenylalanine on boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Masao; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Toru; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Spielvogel, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    The killing effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy; BNCT, is dependant on the boron concentration ratio of tumor to normal brain (T/N ratio), and also that of tumor to blood (T/B ratio). The clinical boron carrier of boro-captate (BSH) showed the large T/N ratio of ca. 8, however the T/B ratio was around 1, which indicated nonselective accumulation into tumor. Indeed high boron concentration of blood restrict the neutron irradiation dose in order to circumvent the normal endothelial damage, especially in the case of deeply seated tumor. Phenylalanine analogue of para borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is an effective boron carrier on BNCT for malignant melanoma. For the BNCT on brain tumors, however, BPA concentration in normal brain was reported to be intolerably high. In order to improve the T/N ratio of BPA in brain, therefore, a dipeptide of boromethylglycylphenylalanine (BMGP) was synthesized deriving from trimethylglycine conjugated with BPA. It is expected to be selectively accumulated into tumor with little uptake into normal brain. Because a dipeptide might not pass through the normal blood brain barrier (BBB). Its killing effect on cultured glioma cell, T98G, and its distribution in rat brain bearing 9L glioma have been investigated in this paper. The BNCT effect of BMGP on cultured cells was nearly triple in comparison with DL-BPA. The neutron dose yielding 1% survival ratio were 7x10 12 nvt for BMGP and 2x10 13 nvt for BPA respectively on BNCT after boron loading for 16 hrs in the same B-10 concentration of 20ppm. Quantitative study of boron concentration via the α-auto radiography and the prompt gamma ray assay on 9L brain tumor rats revealed that T/N ratio and T/B ratio are 12.0 and 3.0 respectively. Those values are excellent for BNCT use. (author)

  20. Valuing Metal-Organic Frameworks for Postcombustion Carbon Capture: A Benchmark Study for Evaluating Physical Adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Jiang, Hao; Assen, Ayalew Hussen Assen; Mallick, Arijit; Cadiau, Amandine; Aqil, Jamal; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The development of practical solutions for the energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide is of prime importance and continues to attract intensive research interest. Conceivably, the implementation of adsorption-based processes using different

  1. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  2. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  3. Effect of the p53 gene status on the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Kamida, A.; Kato, I.; Yura, Y.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Ohnishi, K.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the p53 gene in the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) had not been studied. We examined the effect of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT on oral SCC cells showing either wild-type p53 (SAS/neo) or mutated-type p53 (SAS/mp53). Survival ratio of cells was determined by colony formation. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and nuclear DNA staining. When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo cells as compared with SAS/mp53. The proportion of apoptotic cells with DNA fragmentation was also increased in the cells with functional p53. These results suggest that oral SCC cells with mutated p53 cells are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53. BNCT must inhibit oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. (author)

  4. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  5. Evaluation of capture techniques on lesser prairie-chicken trap injury and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Mitchell, Natasia R.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Haukos, David A.; Dixon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Ethical treatment of research animals is required under the Animal Welfare Act. This includes trapping methodologies that reduce unnecessary pain and duress. Traps used in research should optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the proposed research study. Several trapping techniques are used in the study of lesser prairie-chickens, despite lack of knowledge of trap injury caused by the various methods. From 2006 to 2012, we captured 217, 40, and 144 lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus using walk-in funnel traps, rocket nets, and drop nets, respectively, in New Mexico and Texas, to assess the effects of capture technique on injury and survival of the species. We monitored radiotagged, injured lesser prairie-chickens 7–65 d postcapture to assess survival rates of injured individuals. Injuries occurred disproportionately among trap type, injury type, and sex. The predominant injuries were superficial cuts to the extremities of males captured in walk-in funnel traps. However, we observed no mortalities due to trapping, postcapture survival rates of injured birds did not vary across trap types, and the daily survival probability of an injured and uninjured bird was ≥99%. Frequency and intensity of injuries in walk-in funnel traps are due to the passive nature of these traps (researcher cannot select specific individuals for capture) and incidental capture of individuals not needed for research. Comparatively, rocket nets and drop nets allow observers to target birds for capture and require immediate removal of captured individuals from the trap. Based on our results, trap injuries would be reduced if researchers monitor and immediately remove birds from walk-in funnels before they injure themselves; move traps to target specific birds and reduce recaptures; limit the number of consecutive trapping days on a lek; and use proper netting techniques that incorporate quick, efficient, trained handling procedures.

  6. Intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy for malignant gliomas. First clinical results of Tsukuba phase I/II trial using JAERI mixed thermal-epithermal beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Shibata, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Since October 1999, a clinical trial of intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT) is in progress at JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using mixed thermal-epithermal beam (thermal neutron beam I: TNB-I). Compared to pure thermal beam (thermal neutron beam II: TNB-II), TNB-I has an improved neutron delivery into the deep region than TNB-II. The clinical protocol and the preliminary results will be discussed. (author)

  7. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, V Thatar; Bergueiro, J; Cartelli, D; Valda, A A; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika [Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Maekitie, Antti [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Revitzer, Hannu [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Esopo (Finland); Kouri, Mauri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.fi [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  10. Effects of boron neutron capture therapy using borocaptate sodium in combination with a tumor-selective vasoactive agent in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Baba, Hideo.

    1998-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) destroys tumor cells by means of α particles and recoil protons emitted by 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. For BNCT to be effective, the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B must be larger than 1.0, because neutron distribution is not selective. We examined the combination of 10 B-enriched borocaptate sodium (BSH) with flavone acetic acid (FAA) as a model compound which causes vascular collapse in squamous cell carcinoma in mice (SCCVII tumors) and would increase the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B. FAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected, and 5 min later BSH (75 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered, followed 15 to 180 min later by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The 10 B concentrations were measured by prompt gamma ray spectrometry. Without FAA, tumor 10 B concentrations were less than or equal to normal tissue concentrations at all time intervals, except that the concentrations were 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in tumor than muscle at 15 and 180 min after injection of BSH. With FAA, 10 B concentrations 2.1- to 6.9-fold greater in tumor than in muscle were achieved at all intervals tested. For blood and skin, significant differential accumulations were found in tumors at 120 and 180 min. Tumor/liver ratios were less than 1 at all times. Cell survival was determined by in vivo/in vitro colony assay, and increasing radiosensitization correlated with increasing tumor 10 B concentrations, whether or not they were achieved with FAA. Tumor control rates, determined at 180 days after BNCT, similarly appeared to depend only on 10 B levels at the time of irradiation. Because 10 B levels correlate with the radiation response of tissues, a therapeutic gain would be expected whenever the tumor levels exceed normal tissue levels, such as in tumors located in muscle irradiated at 15-180 min after FAA+BSH, or in those in skin irradiated at 120 and 180 min. (author)

  11. Design of polymeric carrier containing boron for boron neutron capture therapy and its use in tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is the synthesis of a new alternative boron containing polymer carrier to be used for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) (one of the treatment methods for brain tumours) and to investigate its use in cell cultures. First of all, B-containing copolymer were synthesized by complex-radical copolymerization of vinylphenylboronic acid and maleic anhydride with 2, 2- azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator in DMF solvent at 65 degree Celsius under nitrogen atmosphere. Macro branched derivatives of these polymers were synthesized by the partial grafting with α-hydroxy,ω -methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide). Characterization of Poly(VPBA-co-MA) and these macro branched copolymers were performed by FTIR, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, DSC and TGA analyses. As a result of these analyses, it was observed that these macro branched copolymers had a higher crystallinity and thermal stability than the copolymer. These properties of macro branched copolymers are explained by self-organized H-bonding effect in radical copolymerization and grafting reactions and by the formation of self assembled supramolecular architecture. The selected macro branched copolymer was incorporated by poly(ethylene imine) in order to uptake to cell and thus, this synthesized macro complex copolymer [(VFBA-co-MA)-g-PEG/PEI] was charged with positive charge. As a result of FTIR analysis, it was observed that COO - .NH + complex was formed. After the cell culture experiment, it was observed that this macro complex copolymer labelled with fluorescein up took to HeLa cells with 7 % efficiency. And then, folic acid was incorporated in [(VFBA-co-MA)-g-PEG/PEI] macro complex in order to provide selective targeting properties with tumour cells. As a result of the experiment of cell culture containing mixture of HeLa and fibroblast cell, it was observed that [(VFBA-co-MA)-g-PEG/PEI]-FA macro complex went towards to HeLa cells selectively by means of fluorescence microscopy. Poly

  12. Evaluation of trap capture in a geographically closed population of brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, C.L.; Christy, M.T.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Ellingson, A.R.; Savidge, J.A.; Dean-Bradley, K.; Bischof, R.

    2009-01-01

    1. Open population mark-recapture analysis of unbounded populations accommodates some types of closure violations (e.g. emigration, immigration). In contrast, closed population analysis of such populations readily allows estimation of capture heterogeneity and behavioural response, but requires crucial assumptions about closure (e.g. no permanent emigration) that are suspect and rarely tested empirically. 2. In 2003, we erected a double-sided barrier to prevent movement of snakes in or out of a 5-ha semi-forested study site in northern Guam. This geographically closed population of >100 snakes was monitored using a series of transects for visual searches and a 13 ?? 13 trapping array, with the aim of marking all snakes within the site. Forty-five marked snakes were also supplemented into the resident population to quantify the efficacy of our sampling methods. We used the program mark to analyse trap captures (101 occasions), referenced to census data from visual surveys, and quantified heterogeneity, behavioural response, and size bias in trappability. Analytical inclusion of untrapped individuals greatly improved precision in the estimation of some covariate effects. 3. A novel discovery was that trap captures for individual snakes consisted of asynchronous bouts of high capture probability lasting about 7 days (ephemeral behavioural effect). There was modest behavioural response (trap happiness) and significant latent (unexplained) heterogeneity, with small influences on capture success of date, gender, residency status (translocated or not), and body condition. 4. Trapping was shown to be an effective tool for eradicating large brown treesnakes Boiga irregularis (>900 mm snout-vent length, SVL). 5. Synthesis and applications. Mark-recapture modelling is commonly used by ecological managers to estimate populations. However, existing models involve making assumptions about either closure violations or response to capture. Physical closure of our population on a

  13. Electronic data capture in a rural African setting: evaluating experiences with different systems in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    King, Carina; Hall, Jenny; Banda, Masford; Beard, James; Bird, Jon; Kazembe, Peter; Fottrell, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud As hardware for electronic data capture (EDC), such as smartphones or tablets, becomes cheaper and more widely available, the potential for using such hardware as data capture tools in routine healthcare and research is increasing.\\ud \\ud Objective\\ud \\ud We aim to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of four EDC systems being used simultaneously in rural Malawi: two for Android devices (CommCare and ODK Collect), one for PALM and Windows OS (Pendragon), and a custom-b...

  14. Comparison and evaluation of two exome capture kits and sequencing platforms for variant calling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Deng, Yutian; Li, Jing; Huang, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Bing

    2015-08-05

    To promote the clinical application of next-generation sequencing, it is important to obtain accurate and consistent variants of target genomic regions at low cost. Ion Proton, the latest updated semiconductor-based sequencing instrument from Life Technologies, is designed to provide investigators with an inexpensive platform for human whole exome sequencing that achieves a rapid turnaround time. However, few studies have comprehensively compared and evaluated the accuracy of variant calling between Ion Proton and Illumina sequencing platforms such as HiSeq 2000, which is the most popular sequencing platform for the human genome. The Ion Proton sequencer combined with the Ion TargetSeq Exome Enrichment Kit together make up TargetSeq-Proton, whereas SureSelect-Hiseq is based on the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon v4 Kit and the HiSeq 2000 sequencer. Here, we sequenced exonic DNA from four human blood samples using both TargetSeq-Proton and SureSelect-HiSeq. We then called variants in the exonic regions that overlapped between the two exome capture kits (33.6 Mb). The rates of shared variant loci called by two sequencing platforms were from 68.0 to 75.3% in four samples, whereas the concordance of co-detected variant loci reached 99%. Sanger sequencing validation revealed that the validated rate of concordant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (91.5%) was higher than the SNPs specific to TargetSeq-Proton (60.0%) or specific to SureSelect-HiSeq (88.3%). With regard to 1-bp small insertions and deletions (InDels), the Sanger sequencing validated rates of concordant variants (100.0%) and SureSelect-HiSeq-specific (89.6%) were higher than those of TargetSeq-Proton-specific (15.8%). In the sequencing of exonic regions, a combination of using of two sequencing strategies (SureSelect-HiSeq and TargetSeq-Proton) increased the variant calling specificity for concordant variant loci and the sensitivity for variant loci called by any one platform. However, for the

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas : Development and Evaluation of Existing and Novel Process Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Zahra, M.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main global challenges in the years to come is to reduce the CO2 emissions in view of the apparent contribution to global warming. Carbon dioxide capture, transport, and storage (CCS) from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increased interest as an intermediate solution towards

  16. Integration of a high-pressure piperazine capture plant with a power plant: an energetic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.V. van der; Kler, R.C.F. de; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture can have a significant contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, it also requires a considerable amount of energy, causing a significant decrease in the net electricity output of the power plant it is associated with. A vast array of research initiatives is

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Lecture Capture: Lessons Learned from an Undergraduate Political Research Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 4-year quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of lecture capture in an undergraduate political research class. Students self-enrolled in either a traditional in-class lecture-discussion section or a fully online section of a required political research course. The class sessions from the in-class…

  18. Evaluating the development of carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, K. van; Noothout, P.M.; Hekkert, M.P.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as an important solution to solve the twin challenge of reducing GHG emissions, while utilizing fossil fuel reserves to meet future energy requirements. In this study an innovation systems perspective is applied to review the development of CCS technologies

  19. Economic evaluation of pre-combustion CO2-capture in IGCC power plants by porous ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Johannes; Maas, Pascal; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process simulations of IGCC with pre-combustion capture via membranes were done. • Most promising technology is the water–gas-shift-membrane-reactor (WGSMR). • Energetic evaluations showed minimum efficiency loss of 5.8%-points for WGSMR. • Economic evaluations identified boundary limits of membrane technology. • Cost of electricity for optimum WGSMR-case is 57 €/MW h under made assumptions. - Abstract: Pre-combustion-carbon-capture is one of the three main routes for the mitigation of CO 2 -emissions by fossil fueled power plants. Based on the data of a detailed technical evaluation of CO 2 -capture by porous ceramic membranes (CM) and ceramic membrane reactors (WGSMR) in an Integrated-Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plant this paper focuses on the economic effects of CO 2 -abatement. First the results of the process simulations are presented briefly. The analysis is based on a comparison with a reference IGCC without CO 2 -capture (dry syngas cooling, bituminous coal, efficiency of 47.4%). In addition, as a second reference, an IGCC process with CO 2 removal based on standard Selexol-scrubbing is taken into account. The most promising technology for CO 2 -capture by membranes in IGCC applications is the combination of a water gas shift reactor and a H 2 -selective membrane into one water gas shift membrane reactor. For the WGSRM-case efficiency losses can be limited to about 6%-points (including losses for CO 2 compression) for a CO 2 separation degree of 90%. This is a severe reduction of the efficiency loss compared to Selexol (10.3% points) or IGCC–CM (8.6% points). The economic evaluation is based on a detailed analysis of investment and operational costs. Parameters like membrane costs and lifetime, costs of CO 2 -certificates and annual operating hours are taken into account. The purpose of these evaluations is to identify the minimum cost of electricity for the different capture cases for the variation of the boundary

  20. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-06-01

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Syncope: causes, clinical evaluation, and current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditt, D G; Remole, S; Milstein, S; Bailin, S

    1992-01-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem comprising the sudden loss of both consciousness and postural tone, with a subsequent spontaneous and relatively prompt recovery. Often it is difficult to differentiate a true syncopal spell from other conditions, such as seizure disorders, or from some simple accidents. Even more difficult is the identification of the cause of syncopal episodes. Nonetheless, establishing a definitive diagnosis ia an important task given the high risk of recurrent symptoms. Careful use of noninvasive and invasive cardiovascular studies (including electrophysiologic testing and tilt-table testing) along with selected hematologic, biochemical, and neurologic studies provides, in the majority of cases, the most effective strategy for obtaining a specific diagnosis and for directing therapy.

  2. Field evaluation of effectiveness of the BG-Sentinel, a new trap for capturing adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of new tools to gather field information about vector ecological parameters has increased. This report evaluated the BG-Sentinel Trap (BGS-Trap, a promising new attempt to improve collection of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The efficacy of the BGS-Trap was compared with the CDC backpack aspirator, one of the commonest used methods for capturing adult mosquitoes. BGS-Traps captured significantly more Ae. aegypti males (chi2 = 21.774, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 56.007, df = 1, P < 0.05 than CDC aspirator during all days of field collection. However, CDC aspirator was significantly more efficient to capture Culex quinquefasciatus males (chi2 = 5.681, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 6.553, df = 1, P < 0.05. BGS-Traps captured host-seeking females (varying between 68.75 to 89.8% in detriment of females in other behavioral and physiological stages. BGS-Traps proved to be efficient and can be used for monitoring adult mosquito populations.

  3. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian J.; Kerlin, Tim; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Cortis, Giles; Doggett, Stephen L.; Toi, Cheryl; Fall, Ken; McMahon, Jamie L.; Townsend, Michael; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as s...

  4. The roles of the Q (q) wave in lead I and QRS frontal axis for diagnosing loss of left ventricular capture during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Su, Yan-Gang; Bai, Jin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Qin, Sheng-Mei; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Loss of left ventricular (LV) capture may lead to deterioration of heart failure in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Recognition of loss of LV capture in time is important in clinical practice. A total of 422 electrocardiograms were acquired and analyzed from 53 CRT patients at 8 different pacing settings (LV only, right ventricle [RV] only, biventricular [BV] pacing with LV preactivation of 60, 40, 20, and 0 milliseconds and RV preactivation of 20 and 40 milliseconds). A modified Ammann algorithm by adding a third step-presence of Q (q, or QS) wave-to the original 2-step Ammann algorithm and a QRS axis shift method were devised to identify the loss of LV capture. The accuracy of modified Ammann algorithm was significantly higher than that of Ammann algorithm (78.9% vs. 69.1%, P capture. The LV preactivation, or simultaneous BV activation and LV lead positioned in nonposterior or noninferior wall can increase the diagnostic power of the modified Ammann algorithm and QRS axis shift method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, E. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)], E-mail: epozzi@cnea.gov.ar; Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I. [Instrumentation and Control Department, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Zarza, L.; Estryk, G. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Quintana, J. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in {sup 6}Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  6. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E.; Nigg, D.W.; Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I.; Heber, E.M.; Zarza, L.; Estryk, G.; Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M.; Itoiz, M.E.; Aromando, R.F.; Quintana, J.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10 9 n cm -2 s -1 and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10 6 n cm -2 s -1 , indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in 6 Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  7. Effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Liu, Y; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Kinashi, Y; Ono, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by measuring the response of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours received reactor thermal neutron beam irradiation following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)] in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results BPA-BNCT increased the sensitivity of the total tumour cell population more than BSH-BNCT. However, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. With or without a 10B–carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Without irradiation, nicotinamide treatment decreased the number of lung metastases. With irradiation, BPA-BNCT, especially in combination with nicotinamide treatment, showed the potential to reduce the number of metastases more than BSH-BNCT. Conclusion BSH-BNCT in combination with MTH improves local tumour control, while BPA-BNCT in combination with nicotinamide may reduce the number of lung metastases. PMID:22391496

  8. Evaluation of evidence within occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Persson, Dennis; Nygren, Carita

    2010-01-01

    therapy intervention related to the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within stroke rehabilitation. Design: Systematic searches of research studies published in English during 2000-2007 in peer-reviewed journals were undertaken. Thirty-nine articles and one Cochrane review were...... after rehabilitation. There is also considerable evidence for the use of everyday life occupations in occupational therapy. Occupational therapy was evaluated as an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation improving outcomes in everyday life occupations including activities of daily living (ADL...

  9. Fractionated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Locally Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling-Wei, E-mail: lwwang@vghtpe.gov.tw [Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Wei [Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Ho, Ching-Yin [National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yuan-Hao [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Liu, Hong-Ming; Peir, Jinn-Jer [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiang-Huei [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chi-Wei [National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ko-Han [Taoyuan Veterans Hospital, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Chu, Pen-Yuan [National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lo, Wen-Liang; Kao, Shou-Yen [National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of fractionated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent head and neck (H&N) cancer after photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective phase 1/2 trial, 2-fraction BNCT with intravenous L-boronophenylalanine (L-BPA, 400 mg/kg) was administered at a 28-day interval. Before each fraction, fluorine-18-labeled-BPA–positron emission tomography was conducted to determine the tumor/normal tissue ratio of an individual tumor. The prescription dose (D80) of 20 Gy-Eq per fraction was selected to cover 80% of the gross tumor volume by using a dose volume histogram, while minimizing the volume of oral mucosa receiving >10 Gy-Eq. Tumor responses and adverse effects were assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1 and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0, respectively. Results: Seventeen patients with a previous cumulative radiation dose of 63-165 Gy were enrolled. All but 2 participants received 2 fractions of BNCT. The median tumor/normal tissue ratio was 3.4 for the first fraction and 2.5 for the second, whereas the median D80 for the first and second fraction was 19.8 and 14.6 Gy-Eq, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 19.7 months (range, 5.2-52 mo), 6 participants exhibited a complete response and 6 exhibited a partial response. Regarding acute toxicity, 5 participants showed grade 3 mucositis and 1 participant showed grade 4 laryngeal edema and carotid hemorrhage. Regarding late toxicity, 2 participants exhibited grade 3 cranial neuropathy. Four of six participants (67%) receiving total D80 > 40 Gy-Eq had a complete response. Two-year overall survival was 47%. Two-year locoregional control was 28%. Conclusions: Our results suggested that 2-fraction BNCT with adaptive dose prescription was effective and safe in locally recurrent H&N cancer. Modifications to our protocol may yield more satisfactory results in the future.

  10. Morphometric and immunocytochemical analysis of melanoma samples for individual optimization of therapy for boron neutron capture (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, M; Dagrosa, A; Brandizzi, D; Nievas, S; Olivera, M S; Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors from different patients with the same histological diagnosis can show different responses to ionizing radiation including BNCT. Further knowledge about individual tumor characteristics is needed in order to optimize the individual application of this therapy. In previous studies we have shown different patterns of boron intracellular concentration in three human melanoma cell lines. When we performed xenografts with these cell lines in nude mice a wide range of boron concentrations in tumor was observed. We also evaluated the tumor temperature obtained by thermography. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the BPA uptake related to different histological and thermal characteristics of each tumor in nude mice bearing human melanoma. We also studied the proliferation and the vasculature in tumors by immunohistochemical studies and the relationship with the BPA uptake. Materials and Methodos: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) into the back right flank with 3.106 human melanoma cells (MELJ). To evaluate the BPA uptake, animals were injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (ip) and sacrificed 2 h post administration. Each sample of tumor was divided into two equal parts, one for uptake of B and another for histological studies. Boron measurements in tissues were performed by ICP-OES. For the histological studies, samples from the tumors were fixed in buffered 10% formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Infrared imaging studies were performed the day before the biodistribution, measuring the tumor and body temperatures. Immunohistochemical studies were performed with antibodies Ki-67 and CD31. The first one is a marker of proliferative rate and the second one is a specific marker of endothelial cells which allows to identify the vasculature. Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and avidin biotin complex immunostaining were used. Results: Tumor BPA uptake showed

  11. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2008-11-25

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of (10)B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  12. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciofani Gianni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  13. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Molinari, Ana J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB

  14. The Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy on Fear-Related Capture of Attention in Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor: A Comparison to Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; McHugo, Maureen; Zald, David H; Neimat, Joseph S

    2018-01-01

    In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) involves significant non-motor sequelae, including disruptions in cognitive and emotional processing. Fear recognition appears to be affected both by the course of the disease and by a common interventional therapy, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Here, we examined if these effects extend to other aspects of emotional processing, such as attentional capture by negative emotional stimuli. Performance on an emotional attentional blink (EAB) paradigm, a common paradigm used to study emotional capture of attention, was examined in a cohort of individuals with PD, both on and off STN-DBS therapy (n=20). To contrast effects of healthy aging and other movement disorder and DBS targets, we also examined performance in a healthy elderly (n=20) and young (n=18) sample on the same task, and a sample diagnosed with Essential Tremor (ET) undergoing therapeutic deep brain stimulation of the ventral-intermediate nucleus (VIM-DBS, n=18). All four groups showed a robust attentional capture of emotional stimuli, irrespective of aging processes, movement disorder diagnosis, or stimulation. PD patients on average had overall worse performance, but this decrement in performance was not related to the emotional capture of attention. PD patients exhibited a robust EAB, indicating that the ability of emotion to direct attention remains intact in PD. Congruent with other recent data, these findings suggest that fear recognition deficits in PD may instead reflect a highly specific problem in recognition, rather than a general deficit in emotional processing of fearful stimuli.

  15. Evaluation of Stochastic Rainfall Models in Capturing Climate Variability for Future Drought and Flood Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. F. M. K.; Lockart, N.; Willgoose, G. R.; Kuczera, G. A.; Kiem, A.; Nadeeka, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key objectives of stochastic rainfall modelling is to capture the full variability of climate system for future drought and flood risk assessment. However, it is not clear how well these models can capture the future climate variability when they are calibrated to Global/Regional Climate Model data (GCM/RCM) as these datasets are usually available for very short future period/s (e.g. 20 years). This study has assessed the ability of two stochastic daily rainfall models to capture climate variability by calibrating them to a dynamically downscaled RCM dataset in an east Australian catchment for 1990-2010, 2020-2040, and 2060-2080 epochs. The two stochastic models are: (1) a hierarchical Markov Chain (MC) model, which we developed in a previous study and (2) a semi-parametric MC model developed by Mehrotra and Sharma (2007). Our hierarchical model uses stochastic parameters of MC and Gamma distribution, while the semi-parametric model uses a modified MC process with memory of past periods and kernel density estimation. This study has generated multiple realizations of rainfall series by using parameters of each model calibrated to the RCM dataset for each epoch. The generated rainfall series are used to generate synthetic streamflow by using a SimHyd hydrology model. Assessing the synthetic rainfall and streamflow series, this study has found that both stochastic models can incorporate a range of variability in rainfall as well as streamflow generation for both current and future periods. However, the hierarchical model tends to overestimate the multiyear variability of wet spell lengths (therefore, is less likely to simulate long periods of drought and flood), while the semi-parametric model tends to overestimate the mean annual rainfall depths and streamflow volumes (hence, simulated droughts are likely to be less severe). Sensitivity of these limitations of both stochastic models in terms of future drought and flood risk assessment will be discussed.

  16. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Kerlin, Tim; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Cortis, Giles; Doggett, Stephen L; Toi, Cheryl; Fall, Ken; McMahon, Jamie L; Townsend, Michael; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-10-06

    Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light traps in our trials. The trap efficacy of the SMACK was assessed against Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light traps (standard and ultraviolet) and the Encephalitis Vector Survey (EVS) trap in a series of Latin square field trials conducted in North Queensland, Australia. The ability of the SMACK to serve as a sentinel arbovirus surveillance tool was assessed in comparison to Passive Box Traps (PBT) during the 2014 wet season in the Cairns, Australia region and individually in the remote Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Australia during the 2015 wet season. The SMACK caught comparable numbers of mosquitoes to both CDC light traps (mean capture ratio 0.86: 1) and consistently outperformed the EVS trap (mean capture ratio 2.28: 1) when CO2 was supplied by either a gas cylinder (500 ml/min) or dry ice (1 kg). During the 2014 arbovirus survey, the SMACK captured significantly (t 6 = 2.1, P = 0.04) more mosquitoes than the PBT, and 2 and 1 FTA® cards were positive for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, respectively, while no arboviruses were detected from PBTs. Arbovirus activity was detected at all three surveillance sites during the NPA survey in 2015 and ca. 27 % of FTA® cards tested positive for either Murray Valley encephalitis virus (2 detections), West Nile virus (Kunjin subtype; 13 detections), or both viruses on two occasions. These results demonstrate that the SMACK is a versatile, simple, and effective passive arbovirus

  17. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.; Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C.; Somacal, H.R.; Thatar Vento, V.; Huck, H.; Valda, A.A.; Repetto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  18. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, T; Fujimoto, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Kawabata, S; Kirihata, M; Akisue, T; Yayama, K; Kurosaka, M; Miyatake, S; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake l-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of (10)B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a new approach for clear cell sarcoma (CCS) treatment: Trial using a lung metastasis model of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Sakuma, Toshiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Akisue, Toshihiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In the present study, we established a lung metastasis animal model of CCS and investigated the therapeutic effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA). Biodistribution data revealed tumor-selective accumulation of (10)B. Unlike conventional gamma-ray irradiation, BNCT significantly suppressed tumor growth without damaging normal tissues, suggesting that it may be a potential new therapeutic option to treat CCS lung metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  2. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Sudo, T.; Fujita, I.; Imabori, M.; Moritake, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kirihata, M.; Akisue, T.; Yayama, K.; Kurosaka, M.; Miyatake, S.; Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of 10 B (45–74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  4. {sup 1}H and {sup 10}B NMR and MRI investigation of boron- and gadolinium-boron compounds in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, M., E-mail: marco.bonora@unipv.it [Physics Department ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [CNISM Unit (Italy); Corti, M.; Borsa, F. [Physics Department ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [CNISM Unit (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Altieri, S. [Nuclear and Theoretical Physics Department, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)] [INFN Pavia (Italy); Zonta, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Cansolino, L.; Ferrari, C.; Dionigi, P. [Surgical Sciences Department, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Porta, A.; Zanoni, G.; Vidari, G. [Organic Chemistry Department, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    {sup 10}B molecular compounds suitable for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are tagged with a Gd(III) paramagnetic ion. The newly synthesized molecule, Gd-BPA, is investigated as contrast agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with the final aim of mapping the boron distribution in tissues. Preliminary Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements, which include {sup 1}H and {sup 10}B relaxometry in animal tissues, proton relaxivity of the paramagnetic Gd-BPA molecule in water and its absorption in tumoral living cells, are reported.

  5. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergueiro, J; Igarzabal, M; Sandin, J C Suarez; Somacal, H R; Vento, V Thatar; Huck, H; Valda, A A; Repetto, M; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of experiment existing parameter physics for supporting of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) method a t the piercing radial beam port of Kartini research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indry Septiana Novitasari; Yosaphat Sumardi; Widarto

    2014-01-01

    The experiment existing parameters physics for supporting of in vivo and in vitro test facility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preliminary study at the piercing radial beam port has been done. The existing experiments is needed for determining that the parameter physics is fulfill the BNCT method requirement. To realize the existing experiment have been done by design analysis, methodology, calculation method and some procedure related with radiation safety analysis and environment. Preparation for existing experiment physics such as foil detector of Gold (Au) should be irradiated for 30 minute, irradiation instrument and procedure related with the experiment for radiation safety. (author)

  7. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  8. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  9. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  10. Evaluating the use of biomass energy with carbon capture and storage in low emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Naomi E.; Gough, Clair; Mander, Sarah; Littleton, Emma W.; Welfle, Andrew; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2018-04-01

    Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is heavily relied upon in scenarios of future emissions that are consistent with limiting global mean temperature increase to 1.5 °C or 2 °C above pre-industrial. These temperature limits are defined in the Paris Agreement in order to reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. Here, we explore the use of BECCS technologies in a reference scenario and three low emission scenarios generated by an integrated assessment model (IMAGE). Using these scenarios we investigate the feasibility of key implicit and explicit assumptions about these BECCS technologies, including biomass resource, land use, CO2 storage capacity and carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment rate. In these scenarios, we find that half of all global CO2 storage required by 2100 occurs in USA, Western Europe, China and India, which is compatible with current estimates of regional CO2 storage capacity. CCS deployment rates in the scenarios are very challenging compared to historical rates of fossil, renewable or nuclear technologies and are entirely dependent on stringent policy action to incentivise CCS. In the scenarios, half of the biomass resource is derived from agricultural and forestry residues and half from dedicated bioenergy crops grown on abandoned agricultural land and expansion into grasslands (i.e. land for forests and food production is protected). Poor governance of the sustainability of bioenergy crop production can significantly limit the amount of CO2 removed by BECCS, through soil carbon loss from direct and indirect land use change. Only one-third of the bioenergy crops are grown in regions associated with more developed governance frameworks. Overall, the scenarios in IMAGE are ambitious but consistent with current relevant literature with respect to assumed biomass resource, land use and CO2 storage capacity.

  11. Evaluating population expansion of black bears using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Catherine C.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hare, Matthew P.; Hurst, Jeremy E.

    2017-01-01

    The population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in southern New York, USA has been growing and expanding in range since the 1990s. This has motivated a need to anticipate future patterns of range expansion. We conducted a non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture (SCR) study to estimate black bear density and identify spatial patterns of population density that are potentially associated with range expansion. We collected hair samples in a 2,519-km2 study area in southern New York with barbed-wire hair snares and identified individuals and measured genetic diversity using 7 microsatellite loci and 1 sex-linked marker. We estimated a mean density of black bears in the region of 13.7 bears/100 km2, and detected a slight latitudinal gradient in density consistent with the documented range expansion. However, elevation and the amounts of forest, crop, and developed landcover types did not influence density, suggesting that bears are using a diversity of resources in this heterogeneous landscape outside their previously described distribution. These results provide the first robust baseline estimates for population density and distribution associated with different landcover types in the expanded bear range. Further, genetic diversity was comparable to that of non-expanding black bear populations in the eastern United States, and in combination with the latitudinal density gradient, suggest that the study area is not at the colonizing front of the range expansion. In addition, the diversity of landcover types used by bears in the study area implies a possible lack of constraints for further northern expansion of the black bear range. Our non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture approach has utility for studying populations of other species that may be expanding in range because SCR allows for the testing of explicit, spatial ecological hypotheses. 

  12. Electronic data capture in a rural African setting: evaluating experiences with different systems in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carina; Hall, Jenny; Banda, Masford; Beard, James; Bird, Jon; Kazembe, Peter; Fottrell, Ed

    2014-01-01

    As hardware for electronic data capture (EDC), such as smartphones or tablets, becomes cheaper and more widely available, the potential for using such hardware as data capture tools in routine healthcare and research is increasing. We aim to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of four EDC systems being used simultaneously in rural Malawi: two for Android devices (CommCare and ODK Collect), one for PALM and Windows OS (Pendragon), and a custom-built application for Android (Mobile InterVA--MIVA). We report on the personal field and development experience of fieldworkers, project managers, and EDC system developers. Fieldworkers preferred using EDC to paper-based systems, although some struggled with the technology at first. Highlighted features include in-built skip patterns for all systems, and specifically the 'case' function that CommCare offers. MIVA as a standalone app required considerably more time and expertise than the other systems to create and could not be customised for our specific research needs; however, it facilitates standardised routine data collection. CommCare and ODK Collect both have user-friendly web-interfaces for form development and good technical support. CommCare requires Internet to build an application and download it to a device, whereas all steps can be done offline with ODK Collect, a desirable feature in low connectivity settings. Pendragon required more complex programming of logic, using a Microsoft Access application, and generally had less technical support. Start-up costs varied between systems, and all were considered more expensive than setting up a paper-based system; however running costs were generally low and therefore thought to be cost-effective over the course of our projects. EDC offers many opportunities for efficient data collection, but brings some issues requiring consideration when designing a study; the decision of which hardware and software to use should be informed by the aim of data collection

  13. Evaluation of a portable markerless finger position capture device: accuracy of the Leap Motion controller in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, James Y; Lulic, Tea; Gonzalez, Dave A; Tran, Johnathan; Dickerson, Clark R; Roy, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Although motion analysis is frequently employed in upper limb motor assessment (e.g. visually-guided reaching), they are resource-intensive and limited to laboratory settings. This study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of a new markerless motion capture device, the Leap Motion controller, to measure finger position. Testing conditions that influence reliability and agreement between the Leap and a research-grade motion capture system were examined. Nine healthy young adults pointed to 15 targets on a computer screen under two conditions: (1) touching the target (touch) and (2) 4 cm away from the target (no-touch). Leap data was compared to an Optotrak marker attached to the index finger. Across all trials, root mean square (RMS) error of the Leap system was 17.30  ±  9.56 mm (mean ± SD), sampled at 65.47  ±  21.53 Hz. The % viable trials and mean sampling rate were significantly lower in the touch condition (44% versus 64%, p motion capture systems, the Leap Motion controller is sufficiently reliable for measuring motor performance in pointing tasks that do not require high positional accuracy (e.g. reaction time, Fitt's, trails, bimanual coordination).

  14. Technical and economic evaluation of biogas capture and treatment for the Piedras Blancas landfill in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisca, Franco Matías; Montoro, Marcos Alexis; Glatstein, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Córdoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero-order model, Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]), Scholl Canyon model, and triangular model. Variability in waste properties, weather, and landfill management conditions are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of implementing different treatment systems. The results show the advantages of capturing and treating LFG in order to reduce the emissions of gases responsible for global warming and to determine the revenue rate needed for the project's financial requirements. This particular project reduces by half the emission of equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) compared with the situation where there is no gas treatment. In addition, the study highlights the need for a change in the electricity prices if it is to be economically feasible to implement the project in the current Argentinean electrical market. Methane has 21 times more greenhouse gas potential than carbon dioxide. Because of that, it is of great importance to adequately manage biogas emissions from landfills. In addition, it is environmentally convenient to use this product as an alternative energy source, since it prevents methane emissions while preventing fossil fuel consumption, minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. Performed analysis indicated that biogas capturing and energy generation implies 3 times less equivalent carbon dioxide emissions; however, a change in the Argentinean electrical market fees are required to guarantee the

  15. Study of the interaction of boron-containing amino acids for the neutron capture therapy with biologically interesting compounds by using 'three-spot zone electrophoresis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Mitsue; Morimoto, Tsuguhiro; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Ichimoto, Itsuo.

    1995-01-01

    As the boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy, p-borono phenylalanine (BPA) is the boron compound which has been clinically used together with sodium borocaptate. It was found by the electrophoresis behavior that the BPA interacted with organic carboxylic acids in its dissolved state. In this paper, the electrophoresis behavior of general amino acids as seen in three-spot zone electrophoresis and the peculiar interaction of the amino acids having dihydroxyboryl radical are described. Zone electrophoresis has been developed as separation means, and three-spot process excludes the errors due to accidental factors as far as possible. The behaviors of zone electrophoresis of ordinary neutral amino acids, orthoboric acid and p-BPA are reported. For utilizing the features of boron neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to develop the carrier which is singularly taken into cancer cells. There is not a good method for discriminating normal cells and cancer cells. As for the administration of BPA to patients, its solubility is insufficient, therefore, its fructose complex has been used. The research on the biochemical peculiarity of boron is important. (K.I.)

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma-correlation between radiation dose and radiation injury and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and clinical outcome of sodium borocaptate-based intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy in patients with malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: The first protocol (P1998, n = 8) prescribed a maximal gross tumor volume (GTV) dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a dose-escalated protocol was introduced (P2001, n 11), which prescribed a maximal vascular volume dose of 15 Gy or, alternatively, a clinical target volume (CTV) dose of 18 Gy. Results: The GTV and CTV doses in P2001 were 1.1-1.3 times greater than those in P1998. The maximal vascular volume dose of those with acute radiation injury was 15.8 Gy. The mean GTV and CTV dose in long-term survivors with glioblastoma was 26.4 and 16.5 Gy, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between the GTV dose and median survival time was found. In the 11 glioblastoma patients in P2001, the median survival time was 19.5 months and 1- and 2-year survival rate was 60.6% and 37.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Dose escalation contributed to the improvement in clinical outcome. To avoid radiation injury, the maximal vascular volume dose should be <12 Gy. For long-term survival in patients with glioblastoma after boron neutron capture therapy, the optimal mean dose of the GTV and CTV was 26 and 16 Gy, respectively

  17. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  18. Evaluation of radiophoby phenomenon among patients undergoing radioisotope therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, M.; Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the radiophoby symptoms among 81 patients with different type hyperthyroidism undergoing 1-131 (450-600 MBq) treatment. The state anxiety as well as the trait anxiety levels using Spielberger's scale have been evaluated. Its values were 1 - 6 points (average 3) and 3 - 7 points (average 6) respectively for state anxiety and trait one. These results indicated that radioisotope therapy causes increase of patient's anxiety level. (author)

  19. Capturing the Interpersonal Implications of Evolved Preferences? Frequency of Sex Shapes Automatic, but Not Explicit, Partner Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lindsey L; McNulty, James K; Meltzer, Andrea L; Olson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    A strong predisposition to engage in sexual intercourse likely evolved in humans because sex is crucial to reproduction. Given that meeting interpersonal preferences tends to promote positive relationship evaluations, sex within a relationship should be positively associated with relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, prior research has been inconclusive in demonstrating such a link, with longitudinal and experimental studies showing no association between sexual frequency and relationship satisfaction. Crucially, though, all prior research has utilized explicit reports of satisfaction, which reflect deliberative processes that may override the more automatic implications of phylogenetically older evolved preferences. Accordingly, capturing the implications of sexual frequency for relationship evaluations may require implicit measurements that bypass deliberative reasoning. Consistent with this idea, one cross-sectional and one 3-year study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between sexual frequency and automatic partner evaluations but not explicit satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of automatic measurements to understanding interpersonal relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with physical therapy following primary THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Kimona; Naziri, Qais; Johnson, Aaron J; Memon, Talha; Dattilo, Jonathan; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is intended to maximize a patient's range of motion and function and improve the quality of life. No universally accepted standard of care exists for physical therapy among physicians or therapists. However, it may be crucial to enhance efforts to more fully elucidate contributing parameters that affect patient experiences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various factors contributing to patient satisfaction with postoperative physical therapy. One hundred consecutive patients (110 hips) who underwent THA were prospectively surveyed for satisfaction with postoperative physical therapy. All surveys were filled out anonymously by the patients, and investigators were blinded to clinical outcomes and who was surveyed. Seventy-six percent of patients reported being satisfied with their rehabilitation experiences. Factors, including patient age and sex, duration of therapy, number of patients per session, continuity of care with the same therapist, amount of hands-on time spent with the therapist, number of patients per session, and total number of sessions completed, were significantly correlated with patient satisfaction. Co-pay amount did not significantly affect patient satisfaction. These factors may be underappreciated by physicians and physical therapists. To maximize patient satisfaction with physical therapy, physicians should identify institutions whose therapists are willing to spend adequate hands-on time during one-on-one or small-group sessions while maintaining the greatest possible continuity of care with a single provider. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Electronic data capture in a rural African setting: evaluating experiences with different systems in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina King

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As hardware for electronic data capture (EDC, such as smartphones or tablets, becomes cheaper and more widely available, the potential for using such hardware as data capture tools in routine healthcare and research is increasing. Objective: We aim to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of four EDC systems being used simultaneously in rural Malawi: two for Android devices (CommCare and ODK Collect, one for PALM and Windows OS (Pendragon, and a custom-built application for Android (Mobile InterVA – MIVA. Design: We report on the personal field and development experience of fieldworkers, project managers, and EDC system developers. Results: Fieldworkers preferred using EDC to paper-based systems, although some struggled with the technology at first. Highlighted features include in-built skip patterns for all systems, and specifically the ‘case’ function that CommCare offers. MIVA as a standalone app required considerably more time and expertise than the other systems to create and could not be customised for our specific research needs; however, it facilitates standardised routine data collection. CommCare and ODK Collect both have user-friendly web-interfaces for form development and good technical support. CommCare requires Internet to build an application and download it to a device, whereas all steps can be done offline with ODK Collect, a desirable feature in low connectivity settings. Pendragon required more complex programming of logic, using a Microsoft Access application, and generally had less technical support. Start-up costs varied between systems, and all were considered more expensive than setting up a paper-based system; however running costs were generally low and therefore thought to be cost-effective over the course of our projects. Conclusions: EDC offers many opportunities for efficient data collection, but brings some issues requiring consideration when designing a study; the decision of which hardware

  2. About neutron capture therapy method development at WWR-SM reactor in institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaeva, G.A.; Baytelesov, S.A.; Dosimbaev, A.A.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Gritsay, O.O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is developing method of swellings treatment, on which specialists set one's serious hopes, as at its realization the practical possibilities of the effect on any swellings open. The essence of method is simple and lies in the fact that to the swelling enter preparation containing boron or gadolinium, which one have a large capture cross-section of the thermal and slow neutrons. Then the swelling is irradiated once with the slow (epithermal) neutron beam with fluency about 10 9 neutrons /sm 2 s for a short time and single. As a result of thermal neutrons capture by the boron (or gadolinium) nuclei secondary radiation which affecting swelling cells is emitted. NCT of oncologic diseases makes the specific demands to physical parameters of neutron beams. Now research reactors are often used for NCT. However, research reactor WWR-SM (INP, Uzbekistan AS, Tashkent) doesn't provide with the epithermal neutron beams and to develop this technique the reactor, first of all, needs for obtaining the epithermal neutron beams with energy spectrum in range from 1 eV up to 10 keV and with intensity ∼ 10 9 neutron /sm 2 s. Practically it is connected with upgrade of at least one of existed reactor channels, namely with equipping with the special equipment (filters), forming from the reactor spectrum the beam of necessary energy neutrons. It requires realization of preliminary model calculations, including calculations of capture cross-sections, of filters types and their geometrical parameters on the basis of optimal selected materials. Such calculations, as a rule, are carried out on the basis of Monte-Carlo method and designed software for calculation of nuclear reactor physical and technical characteristics [1]. In this work the calculation results of devices variants and problems discussion, related with possibility of WWR-SM reactor using for NCT are presented. (author)

  3. DeitY-TU face database: its design, multiple camera capturing, characteristics, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh

    2014-10-01

    The development of the latest face databases is providing researchers different and realistic problems that play an important role in the development of efficient algorithms for solving the difficulties during automatic recognition of human faces. This paper presents the creation of a new visual face database, named the Department of Electronics and Information Technology-Tripura University (DeitY-TU) face database. It contains face images of 524 persons belonging to different nontribes and Mongolian tribes of north-east India, with their anthropometric measurements for identification. Database images are captured within a room with controlled variations in illumination, expression, and pose along with variability in age, gender, accessories, make-up, and partial occlusion. Each image contains the combined primary challenges of face recognition, i.e., illumination, expression, and pose. This database also represents some new features: soft biometric traits such as mole, freckle, scar, etc., and facial anthropometric variations that may be helpful for researchers for biometric recognition. It also gives an equivalent study of the existing two-dimensional face image databases. The database has been tested using two baseline algorithms: linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis, which may be used by other researchers as the control algorithm performance score.

  4. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  5. Preclinical and phase I studies of monoclonal antibodies in melanoma: Application to boron neutron capture therapy of melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersey, P.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide an attractive method of selectively localizing sufficient boron atoms around tumour cells to capture neutrons. Assuming that 10(8)-10(10) 10B atoms are needed for one capture event and that 10(3)-10(4) atoms can be coupled to each antibody molecule, then 10(5)-10(6) antibody molecules gathered on an individual cell will destroy that cell. Binding to normal tissues, on the other hand, would need to be at least 20-fold less than that to tumour tissues to avoid toxic effects of neutrons on surrounding tissues. Preclinical studies in animals show that several MAbs may bind to melanoma cells in sufficient quantities in vitro to localize the required amount of boron per cell. Whether this will occur in vivo, however, may depend not only on antigen density but a variety of other properties of the tumour cells and MAbs. These include the Ig class and affinity of the antibody and whether the antibody is internalized into the tumour cell. The ratio of uptake between tumour and normal tissue is governed by such factors as the percentage of tumour cells within a tumour expressing the antigen and whether the MAb react with normal tissues. Use of Fab or F(ab)2 preparations of the MAb may increase the uptake ratio by preventing uptake of MAb by cells with Fc receptors. In contrast to preclinical animal studies, tumour/normal tissue uptake ratios in phase I studies in humans have been disappointingly low.80 references

  6. Evaluation of the recombinant antigens Wb14 and WbT for the capture antibody diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Pastor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a parasitic disease caused mainly by the Wuchereria bancrofti worm and that affects up to 120 million people worldwide. LF is the second cause of chronic global deformity, responsible for 15 million people with lymphedema (elephantiasis and 25 million men with scrotal hydrocele. Its diagnosis is still associated with numerous difficulties, such as the sample collection periods (microfilaria nocturnal periodicity and limited diagnostic kits. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to evaluate two recombinant antigens (Wb14 and WbT as part of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based antibody capture tests for LF. METHODS The recombinant antigens rWb14 and rWbT were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and an antibody capture ELISA was performed. For this, sera were used from microfilaremic individuals with W. bancrofti (MF, chronic pathology (CP, individuals infected with Strongyloides (SP and healthy controls from endemic (EN and non-endemic (NE areas. FINDINGS Both tests showed similar results, with 90% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. In comparison with the BM14 ELISA commercial test, the Wb14 and WbT antigens performed with identical sensitivity but greater specificity. Reduced positivity with the CP suggested a potential to monitor cure. This was not confirmed, however, when sera from individuals up to seven years after treatment were assayed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The Wb14 and WbT ELISAs were considered efficient and promising diagnostic tests. Due to the importance of antibody capture analysis to evaluate the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF, the tests proposed here appear as great alternatives to the available commercial system.

  7. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  8. SU-F-T-183: Design of a Beam Shaping Assembly of a Compact DD-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, M; Liu, Y; Nie, L [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To design a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to shape the 2.45-MeV neutrons produced by a deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator and to optimize the beam output for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors Methods: MCNP is used for this simulation study. The simulation model consists of a neutron surface source that resembles an actual DD source and is surrounded by a BSA. The neutron source emits 2.45-MeV neutrons isotropically. The BSA is composed of a moderator, reflector, collimator and filter. Various types of materials and geometries are tested for each component to optimize the neutron output. Neutron characteristics are measured with an 2×2×2-cm{sup 3} air-equivalent cylinder at the beam exit. The ideal BSA is determined by evaluating the in-air parameters, which include epithermal neutron per source neutron, fast neutron dose per epithermal neutron, and photon dose per epithermal neutron. The parameter values are compared to those recommended by the IAEA. Results: The ideal materials for reflector and thermal neutron filter were lead and cadmium, respectively. The thickness for reflector was 43 cm and for filter was 0.5 mm. At present, the best-performing moderator has 25 cm of AlF{sub 3} and 5 cm of MgF{sub 2}. This layout creates a neutron spectrum that has a peak at approximately 10 keV and produces 1.35E-4 epithermal neutrons per source neutron per cm{sup 2}. Additional neutron characteristics, fast neutrons per epithermal neutron and photon per epithermal neutron, are still under investigation. Conclusion: Working is ongoing to optimize the final layout of the BSA. The neutron spectrum at the beam exit window of the final configuration will have the maximum number of epithermal neutrons and limited photon and fast neutron contaminations within the recommended values by IAEA. Future studies will also include phantom experiments to validate the simulation results.

  9. Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Human Motions in Physical Therapy Using Mixture Density Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Ferguson, J M; Lee, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient's exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient's physician with recommendations for improvement. The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject's performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach employs the recent progress in the field of

  10. Status of recent fast capture cross section evaluations for important fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is made between recent evaluations of fission-product cross sections as given in the CNEN/CEA, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/V-V, JENDL-1, RCN-2 and RCN-3 data libraries. The intercomparison is restricted to 24 important fission products in a fast power reactor. The evaluation methods used to obtain the various data files are reviewed and possible shortcomings are indicated. A survey is given of the experimental data based used in the various evaluations. Some graphs are included showing the new ENDF/B-V and RCN-3 fastcapture cross-section evaluations. Further intercomparisons are made by means of multi-group and one-group cross sections. It is shown that lumped fission-product cross sections calculated from the most recent versions of the data files are in quite good agreement with each other. This review concludes with a discussion on observed discrepancies and requests for new measurements. 78 references

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1994-12-31

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L.; Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E.; Chadha, M.

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report

  13. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Flexible Integrated Gasification Polygeneration Facilities Equipped with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, M.; Yelverton, W. H.; Dodder, R. S.; Loughlin, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Among the diverse menu of technologies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, one option involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the generation of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process reactor and combined cycle turbine produce liquid fuels and electricity, respectively. With low concentrations of sulfur and other contaminants, the synthetic fuels are expected to be cleaner than conventional crude oil products. And with CO2 as an inherent byproduct of the FT process, most of the GHG emissions can be eliminated by simply compressing the CO2 output stream for pipeline transport. In fact, the incorporation of CCS at such facilities can result in very low—or perhaps even negative—net GHG emissions, depending on the fraction of biomass as input and its CO2 signature. To examine the potential market penetration and environmental impact of coal and biomass to liquids and electricity (CBtLE), which encompasses various possible combinations of input and output parameters within the overall energy landscape, a system-wide analysis is performed using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model. With resource supplies, energy conversion technologies, end-use demands, costs, and pollutant emissions as user-defined inputs, MARKAL calculates—using linear programming techniques—the least-cost set of technologies that satisfy the specified demands subject to environmental and policy constraints. In this framework, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed both national and regional databases to characterize assorted technologies in the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and generation sectors of the U.S. energy system. Here, the EPA MARKAL database is updated to include the costs and emission characteristics of CBtLE using figures from the literature. Nested sensitivity analysis is then

  14. Development and Evaluation of Secure Socket Layer Visualization Tool with Packet Capturing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure Socket Layer (SSL has become a fundamental technology that secures browser-processed personal details sent to the server. As a result, communication and computer engineers are advised to learn the protocol. However, understanding SSL is very difficult because of its intricate communication procedure. To solve this problem, we developed a visualization tool for understanding SSL. This paper describes the design, implementation methods, and evaluation of the tool. The evaluation results show that the visualization tool is effective for learning SSL.

  15. Mobile phone-based evaluation of latent tuberculosis infection: Proof of concept for an integrated image capture and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Safa; Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Goliath, René; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Douglas, Tania S

    2018-05-08

    The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language. The system enables capture of images by the person being screened for latent tuberculosis infection. Measurement precision was tested using a 3D printed induration. Real-world use of the tool was simulated by application to a set of mock skin indurations, created by a make-up artist, and the performance of the tool was evaluated. The usability of the application was assessed with the aid of a questionnaire completed by participants. The tool was found to measure the 3D printed induration with greater precision than the current ruler and pen method, as indicated by the lower standard deviation produced (0.3 mm versus 1.1 mm in the literature). There was high correlation between manual and algorithm measurement of mock skin indurations. The height of the skin induration and the definition of its margins were found to influence the accuracy of 3D reconstruction and therefore the measurement error, under simulated real-world conditions. Based on assessment of the user experience in capturing images, a simplified user interface would benefit wide-spread implementation. The mobile application shows good agreement with direct measurement. It provides an alternative method for measuring tuberculin skin test indurations and may remove the need for an in-person follow-up visit after test administration, thus improving latent tuberculosis infection screening throughput. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Evaluation of Physical Capture Efficiency and Disinfection Capability of a Novel Iodinated Filter Medium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratnesar, Shanna; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wander, Joe; Lundgren, Dale; Farrah, Sam; Wanakule, Prinda; Blackburn, Matthew; Lan, Mei-Fang

    2006-01-01

    ...% that of the glass-fiber HEPA filter (0.0054 in H2O/(in/min) vs 0.065 in H2O/(in/min)). Biological disinfection by the medium was evaluated using Micrococcus luteus and Echerichia coli vegetative bacterial cells...

  17. Evaluating the use of gas discharge visualization to measure massage therapy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie; Patel, Nitin; Schwartz, Gary; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of massage therapy using gas discharge visualization (GDV), a computerized biophysical electrophoton capture (EPC), in tandem with traditional self-report measures to evaluate the use of GDV measurement to assess the bioenergetic whole-person effects of massage therapy. Methods This study used a single treatment group, pre–post-repeated measures design with a sample of 23 healthy adults. This study utilized a single 50-min full-body relaxation massage with participants. GDV measurement method, an EPC, and traditional paper-based measures evaluating pain, stress, muscle tension, and well-being were used to assess intervention outcomes. Results Significant differences were found between pre- and post-measures of well-being, pain, stress, muscle tension, and GDV parameters. Pearson correlations indicate the GDV measure is correlated with pain and stress, variables that impact the whole person. Conclusions This study demonstrates that GDV parameters may be used to indicate significant bioenergetic change from pre- to post-massage. Findings warrant further investigation with a larger diverse sample size and control group to further explore GDV as a measure of whole-person bioenergetic effects associated with massage. PMID:26087069

  18. Biodistribution of nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivative prepared with a planetary ball mill for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Chika; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivatives (Gd-nanoGR) were prepared with a wet ball-milling process for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. Ball-milling of solid mass of gadopentetic acid distearylamide with soybean lecithin as a dispersant in the presence of water and subsequent sonication at 70degC resulted in the Gd-nanoGR with the particle size of 63 nm. Biodistribution study using melanoma-bearing hamsters demonstrated that the i.v. injection of the Gd-nanoGR made a higher gadolinium accumulation in tumor (109 μg Gd/g wet tumor at 6h after administration), when compared with the gadolinium-loaded micellar-like nanoparticles previously reported. (author)

  19. Preparation of a radioactive boron compound (B-I-131-lipiodol) for neutron capture therapy of hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.I.; Chung, H.P.; Chung, R.J.; Wen, H.W.; Wei, Y.Y.; Kai, J.J.; Lui, W.Y.; Chi, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    In our research, a radioactive boron compound, B-I-131-lipiodol, that can be selectively retained in hepatoma cells was prepared. Combining the effect of α particles produced by boron neutron capture reaction with the β particles released by radionuclides in the radioactive boron compounds will produce a synergistic killing effect on cancer cells. Human hepatoma HepG2 cell cultures were used to examine the stability and the intracellular distribution of the radioactive boron drug. Microscopes were used to examine the interaction and retention of B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the individual hepatoma cell. Moreover, ICP-AES and NaI scintillation counter were performed to determine boron concentrations and I-131 radioactivity, respectively. Results showed that B-I-131-lipiodol with a boron concentration and a specific radioactivity ranged from 500-2000 ppm and 0.05-10 mCi/mL respectively was stably retained in serum. The radiochemical purity of B-I-131-lipiodol was 98%. After supplement with a medium containing B-I-131-lipiodol, the HepG2 cells had intracellular B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the cytoplasm as seen by inverted light microscope, the I-131 and boron can be stably retained in HepG2 cells. (author)

  20. Radiological protection considerations during the treatment of glioblastoma patients by boron neutron capture therapy at the high flux reactor in Petten, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.; Rassow, J.; Finke, E.; Sauerwein, W.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    2001-01-01

    A clinical trial of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma patients has been in progress at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten since October 1997. The JRC (as licence holder of the HFR) must ensure that radiological protection measures are provided. The BNCT trial is a truly European trial, whereby the treatment takes place at a facility in the Netherlands under the responsibility of clinicians from Germany and patients are treated from several European countries. Consequently, radiological protection measures satisfy both German and Dutch laws. To respect both laws, a BNCT radioprotection committee was formed under the chairmanship of an independent radioprotection expert, with members representing all disciplines in the trial. A special nuance of BNCT is that the radiation is provided by a mixed neutron/gamma beam. The radiation dose to the patient is thus a complex mix due to neutrons, gammas and neutron capture in boron, nitrogen and hydrogen, which, amongst others, need to be correctly calculated in non-commercial and validated treatment planning codes. Furthermore, due to neutron activation, measurements on the patient are taken regularly after treatment. Further investigations along these lines include dose determination using TLDs and boron distribution measurements using on-line gamma ray spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Validation and Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated By Boron-Rich Liposomes in Multiple Murine Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Maitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. Mice were implanted with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH3(CH215–7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na3[1-(2`-B10H9-2-NH3B10H8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection in a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. Despite relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.

  2. MODELING THE RADIATION SHIELDING OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BASED ON 2.4 MEV D-D NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mu’Alim

    2018-01-01

    PEMODELAN PERISAI RADIASI PADA FASILITAS BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BERBASIS GENERATOR NEUTRON D-D 2,4 MeV. Telah dimodelkan perisai radiasi pada fasilitas Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT berbasis reaksi D-D pada Neutron Generator 2,4 MeV dengan Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Pemodelan ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi untuk fasilitas BNCT berbasis generator neutron 2,4 MeV. Pemodelan dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan perisasi radiasi. Bahan yang dipilih adalah beton barit, parafin, polietilen terborasi dan timbal. Perhitungan dilakukan menggunakan program MCNPX dengan tally F4 untuk menentukan laju dosis yang keluar dari perisai radiasi. Desain periasi radiasi dinyatakan optimal jika radiasi yang dihasilkan diluar perisai radiasi tidak melebihi Nilai Batas Dosis (NBD yang telah ditentukan oleh BAPETEN. Hasilnya, diperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi menggunakan lapisan utama beton barit setebal 100 cm yang mengelilingi ruangan 100 cm x 100 cm x 166,4 cm dan polietilen terborasi 40 cm yang mengelilingi bahan beton barit. Kemudian ditambahkan beton barit 10 cm dan polietilen terborasi 10 cm untuk mengurangi radiasi primer yang lurus dari BSA setelah keluar dari lapisan utama. Laju dosis terbesar adalah 4,58 μSv·jam-1 pada sel 227 dan laju dosis rata-rata yang dihasilkan adalah sebesar 0,65 µSv·jam-1. Nilai laju dosis tersebut masih dibawah ambang batas NBD yang diperbolehkan oleh BAPETEN untuk pekerja radiasi. Kata kunci: Perisai radiasi, tally, laju dosis radiasi, BSA, BNCT

  3. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  4. OCTAVIUS: evaluation of flexibility and operability of amine based post combustion CO2 capture at the Brindisi Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangiaracina, A.; Zangrilli, L.; Robinson, L.; Kvamsdal, H.M.; Os, P.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Solvent storage is an option for amine based post combustion capture that can be used to de-couple the capture of CO2 and the energy demand of the process. In this process, electricity output of a power station is temporarily increased by diverting steam from the CO2 capture plant back to the steam

  5. Assessing Patients’ Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Hollars, Shannon N.; Adler, Abby D.; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Braun, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients’ skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions. PMID:25408560

  6. i-Assess: Evaluating the impact of electronic data capture for OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sandra; Sibbald, Debra; Coetzee, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Tablet-based assessments offer benefits over scannable-paper assessments; however, there is little known about the impact to the variability of assessment scores. Two studies were conducted to evaluate changes in rating technology. Rating modality (paper vs tablets) was manipulated between candidates (Study 1) and within candidates (Study 2). Average scores were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Cronbach's alpha and generalizability theory. Post-hoc analyses included a Rasch analysis and McDonald's omega. Study 1 revealed a main effect of modality (F (1,152) = 25.06, p 0.8) and inter-station reliability remained constant (0.3). Rasch analyses showed no relationship between station difficulty and rating modality. Analyses of average scores may be misleading without an understanding of internal consistency and overall reliability of scores. Although updating to tablet-based forms did not result in systematic variations in scores, routine analyses ensured accurate interpretation of the variability of assessment scores. This study demonstrates the importance of ongoing program evaluation and data analysis.

  7. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  8. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  9. Comparison of quality assurance for performance and safety characteristics of the facility for Boron Neutron Capture therapy in Petten/NL with medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, Juergen; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Voorbraak, Wim; Moss, Ray; Vroegindeweij, Corine; Hideghety, Katalin; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: The European Council Directive on health protection 97/43/EURATOM requires radiotherapy quality assurance programmes for performance and safety characteristics including acceptance and repeated tests. For Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten/NL such a programme has been developed on the basis of IEC publications for medical electron accelerators. Results: The fundamental differences of clinical dosimetry for medical electron accelerators and BNCT are presented and the order of magnitude of dose components and their stability and that of the main other influencing parameter 10 B concentration for BNCT patient treatments. A comparison is given for requirements for accelerators and BNCT units indicating items which are not transferable, equal or additional. Preliminary results of in vivo measurements done with a set of 55 Mn, 63 Cu and 197 Au activation foils for all single fields for the four fractions at all 15 treated patients show with <±4% up to now a worse reproducibility than the used dose monitoring systems (±1.5%) caused by influence of hair position on the foil-skull distance. Conclusions: Despite the more complex clinical dosimetry (because of four relevant dose components, partly of different linear energy transfer (LET)) BNCT can be regulated following the principles of quality assurance procedures for therapy with medical electron accelerators. The reproducibility of applied neutron fluence (proportional to absorbed doses) and the main safety aspects are equal for all teletherapy methods including BNCT

  10. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkin MJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary Jane Minkin,1 Ricardo Maamari,2 Suzanne Reiter3 1Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, USA; 3Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USA Abstract: Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ≥18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ≥1 year or with a double oophorectomy, and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1–6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator], completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88% and applied it at bedtime (71%, a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes. Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%, or lower-than-recommended doses (45%, most frequently to avoid messiness (33% or leakage (30%. More tablet users (69% than cream users (14% were "extremely satisfied" with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which

  11. Evaluation of an antigen-capture EIA for the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Geng, Y; Harrison, T J; Huang, W; Song, A; Wang, Y

    2015-11-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been developed for hepatitis E virus (HEV) antigen (HEV-Ag) detection and marketed in China. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the assay and assess the value of HEV-Ag detection in the diagnosis of HEV infection in comparison with HEV RNA detection. Using serial dilutions of a genotype 4 HEV strain, significant correlation was found between the EIA (S/CO) and HEV RNA (IU/mL) concentration in the range 10(3.5) to 10(0.5) IU/mL HEV RNA, the Pearson correlation coefficient r approached 0.97. The EIA detection limit was 54.6 IU/mL, compared to 24 IU/mL for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. In clinical samples from hepatitis E patients, the HEV-Ag and HEV RNA positivity rates were 55.6% (65/117) and 60.7% (71/117) in sera and 76.7% (56/73) and 84.9% (62/73) in stools, and the concordance of these two markers was 77.8% in sera and 80.8% in stools. In serum samples, the HEV-Ag positivity rate and the concordance between HEV-Ag and HEV RNA were inversely proportional to the presence of anti-HEV antibody. The presence of anti-HEV IgG could reduce the S/CO of the HEV-Ag EIA. These results reveal a significant correlation between the detection of HEV-Ag and HEV RNA. The sensitivity of the HEV-Ag EIA was lower than real-time RT-PCR but could be higher than conventional nested RT-PCR. Therefore, the detection of HEV-Ag in serum and faeces is valuable for the diagnosis and prognosis of HEV infection in developing regions where real-time RT-PCR is not available. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedures using microfluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrych, Elzbieta, E-mail: ejedrych@ch.pw.edu.pl [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 300-664 Warsaw (Poland); Pawlicka, Zuzanna; Chudy, Michal; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 300-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-10

    A hybrid PDMS/glass microfluidic system for evaluation of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy is presented. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was used as a precursor of photosensitizer. The geometry of the microdevice presented in this paper enables to test different concentrations of the photosensitizer in a single assay. The viability of the A549 cells was determined 24 h after PDT procedure (irradiation with light which induced a photosensitizer accumulated in carcinoma cells, {lambda} = 625 nm). The presented results confirmed the possibility to perform the photodynamic therapy process in vitro in microscale and the possibility to assess its effectiveness. Moreover, because two identical microstructures on a single chip were performed, the microchip can be used for examination simultaneously various cell lines (carcinoma and normal) or various photosensitizers.

  13. Comparison of three experimental protocols in pre clinical studies for thyroid cancer treatment using sodium butyrate in combination with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Majdalani E; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Pisarev, M; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). However new strategies are being assayed in order to optimize its application. Histone de acetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) like sodium butyrate (NaB), are emerging as a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which target the epigenome. Since histone hyper acetylation mediates changes in chromatin conformation, HDAC-I are involved in different epigenetically controlled activities like apoptosis, proliferation, cell differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and motility. The purpose of the present studies was to analyze different treatment regimens of combination of NaB and boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in animals bearing transplants of a human thyroid carcinoma Methods: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) with 10 6 of human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO). Three regimens were evaluated in 48 animals after 15 days when tumors had a size between 50 and 100 mm 3 . Group 1 (n=10): BPA and NaB (50 mM) via i.p. at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.w. 24 h before boron compound administration; group 2 (n=10): BPA and NaB 3.4% in the water ad libitum during a month after 15 days post-implantation; group 3 (n=10): BPA alone. In all the groups BPA was injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (i.p.) and the animals were sacrificed at 2 h post-administration. Boron measurements in tissues and blood were performed by ICP-OES. A control group without NaB (n=6) for each regimen was included. The tumor growth and the body weight were determined twice a week during a month. Results: The administration of NaB 3.4% during a month previous to BNCT did not modify the body weight of the mice and decreased the tumor growth compared to its control group (p<0.01). The biodistribution studies showed a tumor boron concentration of 32.6 ± 1.4 ppm for group 1 (NaB 50 mM plus BPA), of 16.9 ± 3.7 ppm

  14. Scalp Dose Evaluation According Radiation Therapy Technique of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Joon Yung; Park, Soo Yun; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    Opposing portal irradiation with helmet field shape that has been given to a patient with brain metastasis can cause excess dose in patient's scalp, resulting in hair loss. For this reason, this study is to quantitatively analyze scalp dose for effective prevention of hair loss by comparing opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy designed to protect patient's scalp with conventional radiation therapy. Scalp dose was measured by using three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO) after five thermo-luminescence dosimeters were positioned along center line of frontal lobe by using RANDO Phantom. Scalp dose and change in dose distribution were compared and analyzed with DVH after radiation therapy plan was made by using Radiation Treatment Planning System (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System, USA) and 6 MV X-ray (Clinac 6EX, VARIAN, USA). When surface dose of scalp by using thermo-luminescence dosimeters was measured, it was revealed that scalp dose decreased by average 87.44% at each point in MLC technique and that scalp dose decreased by average 88.03% at each point in TOMO compared with HELMET field therapy. In addition, when percentage of volume (V95%, V100%, V105% of prescribed dose) was calculated by using Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) in order to evaluate the existence or nonexistence of hotspot in scalp as to three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO), it was revealed that MLC technique and TOMO plan had good dose coverage and did not have hot spot. Reducing hair loss of a patient who receives whole brain radiotherapy treatment can make a contribution to improve life quality of the patient. It is expected that making good use of opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy to protect scalp of a patient based on this study will reduce hair loss of a patient.

  15. Scalp Dose Evaluation According Radiation Therapy Technique of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joon Yung; Park, Soo Yun; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Opposing portal irradiation with helmet field shape that has been given to a patient with brain metastasis can cause excess dose in patient's scalp, resulting in hair loss. For this reason, this study is to quantitatively analyze scalp dose for effective prevention of hair loss by comparing opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy designed to protect patient's scalp with conventional radiation therapy. Scalp dose was measured by using three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO) after five thermo-luminescence dosimeters were positioned along center line of frontal lobe by using RANDO Phantom. Scalp dose and change in dose distribution were compared and analyzed with DVH after radiation therapy plan was made by using Radiation Treatment Planning System (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System, USA) and 6 MV X-ray (Clinac 6EX, VARIAN, USA). When surface dose of scalp by using thermo-luminescence dosimeters was measured, it was revealed that scalp dose decreased by average 87.44% at each point in MLC technique and that scalp dose decreased by average 88.03% at each point in TOMO compared with HELMET field therapy. In addition, when percentage of volume (V95%, V100%, V105% of prescribed dose) was calculated by using Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) in order to evaluate the existence or nonexistence of hotspot in scalp as to three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO), it was revealed that MLC technique and TOMO plan had good dose coverage and did not have hot spot. Reducing hair loss of a patient who receives whole brain radiotherapy treatment can make a contribution to improve life quality of the patient. It is expected that making good use of opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy to protect scalp of a patient based on this study will reduce hair loss of a patient.

  16. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  17. Usability evaluation of a locomotor therapy device considering different strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langthaler Sonja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability of medical devices is one of the main determining factors in preventing use errors in treatment and strongly correlates to patient safety and quality of treatment. This thesis demonstrates the usability testing and evaluation of a prototype for locomotor therapy of infants. Therefore, based on the normative requirements of the EN 62366, a concept combined of evaluation procedures and assessing methods was created to enable extensive testing and analysis of the different aspects of usability. On the basis of gathered information weak points were identified and appropriate measures were presented to increase the usability and operating safety of the locomotor prototype. The overall outcome showed an usability value of 77.4% and an evaluation score of 6.99, which can be interpreted as “satisfactory”.

  18. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  19. Application of 10B entrapped PEG-liposome to boron neutron-capture therapy for pancreatic cancer model in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Maruyama, K.; Takizawa, T.; Ishida, O.; Ogura, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, K.; Rant, J.; Skvarc, J.; Ilic, R.; Shinohara, A.; Chiba, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects for tumor were evaluated with intravenous injection 10 B PEG-liposome (Stealth liposome) on human pancreatic carcinoma wenografts in nude mice with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10 B bare-liposome or 10 B PEG liposome, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of 10 B PEG-liposome caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. These results suggest that intravenous injection of 10 B PEG-liposome can increase the retention of 10 B atoms by tumor cells, causing tumor growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation.(author)

  20. Tumor blood vessel 'normalization' improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  1. Trial production of hyper-thermal neutron generator for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and its radiation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    In NCT, it was at first important to give a cancer portion to radiation dose required for its recovery. By finding out that whole cross-section of water comprising of a living body decreased monotonously with increase of neutron energy from about 100 barn against thermal neutron, became about 40 barn at about 0.5 eV and kept constant to 40 barn till at about 100 eV, application of thermal neutron shifted to higher temperature side, called Hyper thermal neutron, to NCT is proposed. The Hyper thermal neutron radiation can be expected to have similar controllability to that of the thermal neutron radiation. In 1977 fiscal year, a trial Hyper thermal neutron generator was produced on a base of up-to-date investigation results. As a part of property evaluation of the generator, evaluation of energy spectra in the Hyper thermal neutron generated at LINAC by TOF was conducted to confirm shift of the spectra to high temperature side. And, a Fantom experiment at KUR heavy water neutron radiation facility was also conducted to confirm effect of improvement in deep portion dose distribution. (G.K.)

  2. Clinical trial of neutron capture therapy for brain tumors at New England Medical Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.A.; Madoc-Jones, H.; Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A proposal is submitted that is based on the conclusions of a NCT expert panel recently convened at BNL by the Department of Energy to evaluate the status of NCT and to recommend what preclinical tasks should be accomplished prior to a clinical study being undertaken. The proposal is for two years of preclinical research and preparations, followed in the third year by a pilot clinical trial of ten patients with grade-IV astrocytoma brain tumors, for whom the prognosis with existing treatment modalities is less than a 5% three-year survival rate. Preclinical tasks would include modifying the MIT Nuclear Reactor medical facility to produce an epithermal as well as the existing and highly thermalized neutron treatment beam; characterizing the transport behavior of these beams in both physical and mathematical models of the human head, and developing a treatment planning scheme for NCT; further development of the neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography track-etch method for measuring macro- and micro-distributions of B-10 uptake in tissues and blood; investigations into the B-10 cellular uptake pattern of human tumors; and examination of the nature of endothelial cell vascular damage in B-10-containing animals undergoing irradiation with neutrons. With the successful completion of the above preclinical tasks we feel we will be in a position to embark in the third year on a pilot clinical evaluation

  3. Development and evaluation of a Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Meadows, C; Bolten, K; Saville, W J A

    2006-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses caused primarily by the protozoal parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Currently available antemortem diagnostic testing has low specificity. The hypothesis of this study was that serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses experimentally challenged with S neurona would have an increased S neurona-specific IgM (Sn-IgM) concentration after infection, as determined by an IgM capture enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). The ELISA was based on the S neurona low molecular weight protein SNUCD-1 antigen and the monoclonal antibody 2G5 labeled with horseradish peroxidase. The test was evaluated using serum and CSF from 12 horses experimentally infected with 1.5 million S neurona sporocysts and 16 horses experimentally infected with varying doses (100 to 100,000) of S neurona sporocysts, for which results of histopathologic examination of the central nervous system were available. For horses challenged with 1.5 million sporocysts, there was a significant increase in serum Sn-IgM concentrations compared with values before infection at weeks 2-6 after inoculation (P neurona, there were significant increases in serum Sn-IgM concentration at various points in time after inoculation, depending on the challenge dose (P < .01). In addition, there was a significant increase between the CSF Sn-IgM concentrations before and after inoculation (P < .0001). These results support further evaluation of the assay as a diagnostic test during the acute phase of EPM.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy: A guide to the understanding of the pathogenesis of late radiation damage to the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.; Whitehouse, E.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.

    1994-01-01

    Before the commencement of new boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials in Europe and North America, detailed information on normal tissue tolerance is required. In this study, the pathologic effects of BNCT on the central nervous system (CNS) have been investigated using a rat spinal cord model. The neutron capture agent used was 10 B-enriched sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH), at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight. Rats were irradiated on the thermal beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The large spine of vertebra T 2 was used as the lower marker of the irradiation field. Rats were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone to a maximum physical absorbed dose of 11.4 Gy, or with thermal neutrons in combination with BSH, to maximum absorbed physical doses of 5.7 Gy to the CNS parenchyma and 33.7 Gy to the blood in the vasculature of the spinal cord. An additional group of rats was irradiated with 250 kVp X-rays to a single dose of 35 Gy. Spinal cord pathology was examined between 5 and 12 months after irradiation. The physical dose of radiation delivered to the CNS parenchyma, using thermal neutron irradiation in the presence of BSH, was a factor of two to three lower than that delivered to the vascular endothelium, and could not account for the level of damage observed in the parenchyma. The histopathological observations of the present study support the hypothesis that the blood vessels, and the endothelial cells in particular, are the critical target population responsible for the lesions seen in the spinal cord after BNCT type irradiation and by inference, after more conventional irradiation modalities such as photons or fast neutrons. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Selective boron accumulation in human ocular melanoma by 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine administration for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadabayashi, Nobutoshi; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Honda, Chihiro; Mishima, Yutaka.

    1994-01-01

    Malignant melanoma occurs not only in the skin but also in ocular tissues. Ocular melanoma located superficially as in conjunctiva can be treated successfully by BNCT. In the present study, we investigated 10 B dynamics in ocular melanoma and the surrounding normal tissues, to evaluate the possibility of applying BNCT to ocular melanoma. In three ocular melanoma patients, 10 B concentration in melanoma after administration of 10 B-BPA by oral or drip infusion ranged from 10.4 to 21.5 ppm. The boron concentrations in lens and vitreous body were lower than blood level, whereas higher than blood in sclera and palpebral skin. These results suggest that we can treat such a superficial melanoma lesions as conjunctival melanoma by BNCT using 10 B 1 -BPA. (author)

  6. A preclinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of spontaneous tumors in cats at RA-6 in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Calzetta, Osvaldo A.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Longhino, J.; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, Maria de los A.

    2005-01-01

    BNCT is a binary treatment modality that combines irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam with tumor-seeking, boron containing drugs to produce selective irradiation of tumor tissue. Having demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of RA-1. Having demonstrated partial tumor control with no radio toxic effects, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of BPA-BNCT on tumor and normal tissue in 3 cases of spontaneous SCC in feline patients employing a higher neutron fluence than in the previous study. The present study was performed at RA-6 with the thermalized epithermal neutron beam. All three irradiations were successful. Except for an initial, moderate and reversible mucositis, no significant radio toxic effects were observed in terms of clinical follow-up, histological examination, biochemical analysis and assessment of autopsy material. Partial tumor control was evidenced in terms of growth inhibition and partial necrosis and improvement in the quality of life during the survival period. Optimization of the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT would require improvement in boron tumor targeting and strategies to increase in-depth dose in large tumors. (author)

  7. Neutron capture therapy of an Egf receptor positive glioma using boronated cetuximab alone or in combination with boronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gong; Yang, Weilian; Barth, Rolf F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (IMC-C225), which is directed against EGFR, as a boron delivery agent for NCT of a human EGFR gene transfected rat glioma, designated F98 EGFR . A heavily boronated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer (BD) was chemically linked to cetuximab by means of heterobifunctional reagents. In vitro, the bioconjugate (BD-C225) was specifically taken up by F98 EGFR glioma cells (41.8 μg/g) compared to receptor (-) F98 WT cells (9.1 μg/g). Glioma cells were stereotactically implanted into the brains of Fischer rats and biodistribution studies were initiated 14 d later. The amount of boron retained by F98 EGFR gliomas 24 h following either convection enhanced delivery (CED) or intratumoral (i.t.) injection were 77.2 and 50.8 μg/g, respectively, and normal brain and blood values were 180 d) compared to 40 d for i.v. BPA alone and 31 d and 26 d for irradiated and untreated controls, respectively. Our data convincingly demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of molecular targeting of EGFR using either boronated cetuximab alone or in combination with BPA and should provide a platform for the future development of combinations of high and low molecular weight delivery agents for BNCT of brain tumors. (author)

  8. Gadolinium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for cancer neutron-capture therapy. Pharmaceutical characteristics and in vitro antitumor effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ichikawa, Hideki; Nakatani, Yugo

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of Gd-nanoCPs was carried out based on the w/o emulsion-droplet coalescence technique. Chitosan with different molecular weight (Mw) (950, 50, 10 kDa) was applied a various concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2.5%). B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were employed to evaluate the cell-association properties of Gd-nanoCPs and the antitumor effect with thermal neutron irradiation. In the formulation study, as the Mw of chitosan decreased, the mean particle diameter decreased to 155 nm with 10 kDa chitosan at the smallest. Then, decrease in the chitosan concentration in the chitosan solution contributed to a decrease in mean particle diameter and an increase in gadolinium content. The Gd content in the Gd-nanoCPs prepared with 0.5% chitosan reached 22% at the maximum. The amount of Gd associated with cell was also dependent on the Mw of chitosan. In the subsequent Gd-NCT study in vitro, the most highly Gd-containing (22%) and finest (155 nm) Gd-nanoCPs prepared at 0.5% of 10 kDa chitosan exhibited the strongest tumor cell growth suppression. It is expected that use of Gd-nanoCP prepared here may lead to improved performance in NCT. (author)

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information