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Sample records for capture therapy bnct

  1. FiR 1 Reactor in Service for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Although BNCT dominates the current utilization of the reactor, it also has an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics, etc. with isotope produc- tion and activation analysis services. The whole reactor building has been renovated, creating a dedicated clinical BNCT facility at the reactor. Close to 30 patients have been treated since May 1999, when the licence for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. (author)

  2. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  4. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na210B12H11SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author)

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA ((GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT) or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  7. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction (10B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT, and

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  9. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  10. Correlation between radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with gliblastoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Histopathological studies were performed on specimens from 8 patients, 3 had undergone salvage surgery and 5 were autopsied. For histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively. - Highlights: • It is very important to determine the curable BNCT radiation dose on histopathological aspect in BNCT. • Of 23 patients with GBM treated with BNCT, autopsy was performed in 5, salvage surgery in 3, and histopathological study in 8. • To achieve the histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the GTV and CTV was 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively

  11. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  13. The relationship between boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle irradiation therapy that is theoretically available for selective radiation of tumor cells. Boronophenylalanine-positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) was used in this study. Boron is used as a tracer compound for the neutron capture reaction and has been particularly useful for the recent noncraniotomy BNCT. In this report, we introduce this type of PET as a principal axis in BNCT and relationship with PET. We calculated the drug accumulation to the tumor before neutron irradiation to individualize the treatment. We decided the indication for BNCT on the basis of a PET study and are now expanding the indications to other systemic cancers, including head and neck, lung, and liver cancers. In addition, other irradiation modalities have developed a radiation plan on the basis of a PET study, and several studies attempted improving the results; however, the lesion is exposed to high radiation doses and appear as high accumulation on BPA-PET during BNCT. We determined the neutron exposure time from the dosage for normal tissue in the actual treatment, but the lesion/normal tissue ratio obtained from BPA-PET is for evaluating the tumor dose and following the treatment plan. We also found that a PET study was useful in the follow-up stage to aid in diagnosis of pathologic conditions such as increase in tumor volume, recurrence, or radiation necrosis and for patients who had already been treated for malignant brain tumor. (author)

  14. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Valente, M. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Moss, R.L.; Daquino, G.G.; Nievaart, V.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755ZG Petten, The Netherlands (Netherlands); Mariani, M.; Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio, 34/3 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Medical Physics Department, National Cancer Institute, Via Venezian 1, I-20131, Milan (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  15. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  16. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4He and 7Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 109 n/cm2 sec) or with 60Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10BPA or 10BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  17. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P.-A.; Lorusso, G. F.; Andres, R.; Van Meir, E. G.; Brunet, J.-F.; Hamou, M.-F.; Suda, T.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Droubay, T. C.; Tonner, B. P.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, M.; DeStasio, Gelsomina

    1998-10-01

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of ? in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case ?, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope à emission de photoélectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy.

  18. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B.; Redondo, J.; Baudat, P-A. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)] [and others

    1998-10-07

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of {sup 10}B in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope a emission de photoelectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy. (author)

  19. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis using Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA), a currently available BNCT treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: The BNCT treatment plans were constructed for 3 patients with MPM using the SERA system, with 2 opposed anterior-posterior beams. The 1B concentrations in the tumor and normal lung in this study were assumed to be 84 and 24 ppm, respectively, and were derived from data observed in clinical trials. The maximum, mean, and minimum doses to the tumors and the normal lung were assessed for each plan. The doses delivered to 5% and 95% of the tumor volume, D05 and D95, were adopted as the representative dose for the maximum and minimum dose, respectively. Results: When the D05 to the normal ipsilateral lung was 5 Gy-Eq, the D95 and mean doses delivered to the normal lung were 2.2-3.6 and 3.5-4.2 Gy-Eq, respectively. The mean doses delivered to the tumors were 22.4-27.2 Gy-Eq. The D05 and D95 doses to the tumors were 9.6-15.0 and 31.5-39.5 Gy-Eq, respectively. Conclusions: From a viewpoint of the dose-distribution analysis, BNCT has the possibility to be a promising treatment for MPM patients who are inoperable because of age and other medical illnesses

  20. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  1. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  2. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  3. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na210B10H10) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB- 10+BPA)-BNCT

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using fast neutrons: Effects in two human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results demonstrate that the effect of fast neutrons on cell survival in cell culture can be enhanced by boron neutron capture reaction. Even with lower enhancement ratios, the concept of NCT assisted fast neutron therapy may successfully be applied for tumor treatment with the Essen cyclotron. (orig.)

  5. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 108 n/ cm2/ s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 109 n/ cm2/ s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  7. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  8. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  9. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  10. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  11. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine (10BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina (10BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 106 MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of 10B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R2 = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R2 = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT treatment for each individual

  12. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  13. In-phantom dosimetry using the 13C(d,n)14N reaction for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction at Ed =1.5 MeV for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy is investigated. The 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction presents the advantages of carbon as a target material and its large cross section. The deuteron beam was produced by a tandem accelerator at MIT's Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications. The resulting neutron spectra were evaluated in terms of RBE-dose rates at different depths inside a water-filled brain phantom using a heavy water moderator and lead reflector assembly. All results were simulated using the code MCNP. (author)

  14. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  15. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single 7LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 (6LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% 6Li) and TLD-700 (7LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% 7LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom, with representative

  16. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  17. ET-14OPTIMISATION OF BORONOPHENYLALANINE (BPA) DELIVERY AND LAT1 EXPRESSION FOR THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Garth; Detta, Allah; Green, Stuart; Lockyer, Nick; Ngoga, Desire; Ghani, Zahir; Phoenix, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted radiotherapy where preferential boron uptake interacts with a neutron beam in cancerous cells causing irreparable alpha DNA damage. This requires the delivery of at least 30 parts per million (ppm) of 10B into tumour tissue and 30ppm boron) indicates potential BNCT targeting after surgery. Tumour boron uptake is governed by LAT-1 behaviour rather than BBB penetration and explains previous variable clinical results, whilst supporting the LAT1 determined selection of patients for BNCT

  18. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  19. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. - Highlights: • We performed experimental boron biodistribution studies for lung metastases. • 3 protocols employing BPA and GB-10 would be therapeutically useful. • BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic for experimental lung metastases

  20. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  1. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  2. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  3. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted

  4. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B1-0H10), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip + iv; BPA 46

  5. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  7. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected 10B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin (10B-PEG-BSA). 10B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 105 /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with 10B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 ± 1.74 ppm. The number of 10B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 1011 at 24 hrs after incubation with 10B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the 10B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of 10B atoms (more than 109 atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of 10B-PEG BSA or 10B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the 10B-PEG BSA or 10B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  8. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science

    1997-02-01

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in {sup 10}B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of {sup 10}B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin ({sup 10}B-PEG-BSA). {sup 10}B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 10{sup 5} /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 {+-} 1.74 ppm. The number of {sup 10}B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 10{sup 11} at 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of {sup 10}B atoms (more than 10{sup 9} atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  9. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake ...

  10. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  14. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  15. BNCT. Computational Analysis; BNCT. Analisis computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a new oncologic radiotherapy technique in the process of research which consists of injecting a non-poisonous pharmacovector into an ill patient in such a way that the tumor receives isotope boron-10, so that the tumoral area can later be bombarded with a beam of neutrons, many of which are captured the isotope in question. (Author)

  16. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  17. Feasibility of the Utilization of BNCT in the Fast Neutron Therapy Beam at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Katja; Lennox, Arlene J.; Kroc, Thomas K.; DeLuca, Jr., Paul M.

    2000-06-01

    The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from thermal to 66 MeV in neutron energy. It is clear that this spectrum is not well suited for the treatment of tumors with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) only However, since this spectrum contains thermal and epithermal components the authors are investigating whether BNCT can be used in this beam to boost the tumor dose. There are clinical scenarios in which a selective tumor dose boost of 10 - 15% could be clinically significant. For these cases the principal treatment would still be fast neutron therapy but a tumor boost could be used either to deliver a higher dose to the tumor tissue or to reduce the dose to the normal healthy tissue while maintaining the absorbed dose level in the tumor tissue.

  18. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  19. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  20. Computational dosimetry of a simulated combined standard X-Rays and BNCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.R., E-mail: mcasal@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Oncologia ' Angel H. Roffo' , Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 5481, Bs.As. (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Herrera, M.S., E-mail: mariettaherrera@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de General San Martin, 25 de Mayo and M. de Irigoyen, San Martin (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    There has been increasing interest in combining Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with standard radiotherapy, either concomitantly or as a BNCT treatment of a recurrent tumor that was previously irradiated with a medical electron linear accelerator (LINAC). In this work we report the simulated dosimetry of treatments combining X-rays and BNCT

  1. Advances in neutron capture therapy 2006. Proceedings of 12th international congress on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Twelfth International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy (ICNCT-12) is being held from October 9th to 13th, 2006 at the Kagawa International Congress Hall in Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan. The main theme of the congress is From the past to the Future'. Five symposiums were organized to accommodate all the contributions from the international scientific committees of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT), and two symposiums were added to balance the number of fields of specialties. The seven symposiums for ICNCT-12 are as follows: 1) Clinical Results of BNCT for Brain Tumors, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Treatment Planning system, 4) Drug Delivery System, 5) Biomedical and General Matters, 6) BNCT Systems using Accelerators, 7) New Applications and Protocols for BNCT. There are a total of 195 presentations in this congress: 3 special lectures, 34 symposium presentations, 10 presentations in two special sessions from the recipients of the Ralph G. Fairchild Award, 70 presentations in the oral parallel sessions and 78 presentations in the poster sessions. A compilation of 169 papers are published in this proceedings. The 165 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC): application for photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days).

  3. Boron determination in liver tissue by combining quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR) and histological analysis for BNCT treatment planning at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, C; Brochhausen, C; Altieri, S; Bartholomew, K; Bortolussi, S; Enzmann, F; Gabel, D; Hampel, G; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Schmidberger, H; Otto, G

    2011-09-01

    The typical primary malignancies of the liver are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, whereas colorectal liver metastases are the most frequently occurring secondary tumors. In many cases, only palliative treatment is possible. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) represents a technique that potentially destroys tumor tissue selectively by use of externally induced, locally confined secondary particle irradiation. In 2001 and 2003, BNCT was applied to two patients with colorectal liver metastases in Pavia, Italy. To scrutinize the rationale of BNCT, a clinical pilot study on patients with colorectal liver metastases was carried out at the University of Mainz. The distribution of the (10)B carrier (p-borono-phenylalanine) in the liver and its uptake in cancerous and tumor-free tissue were determined, focusing on a potential correlation between the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine and the biological characteristics of cancerous tissue. Samples were analyzed using quantitative neutron capture radiography of cryosections combined with histological analysis. Methodological aspects of the combination of these techniques and results from four patients enrolled in the study are presented that indicate that the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine strongly depends on the metabolic activity of cells. PMID:21692653

  4. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  5. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resulting neutron captures in 10B are used for radiation therapy. The occurrence point of the characteristic 478 keV prompt gamma rays agrees with the neutron capture point. If these prompt gamma rays are detected by external instruments such as a gamma camera or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the therapy region can be monitored during the treatment using images. A feasibility study and analysis of a reconstructed image using many projections (128) were conducted. The optimization of the detection system and a detailed neutron generator simulation were beyond the scope of this study. The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT-SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The quality of the prompt gamma ray SPECT image obtained from BNCT was evaluated quantitatively using three different boron uptake regions and was shown to depend on the location and size relations. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT-SPECT image were also estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multi tumor regions should be treated using the BNCT method, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from SPECT can be provided to the BNCT facilities based on the preceding imaging research. However, because the scope of this research was limited to checking the feasibility of 3D BNCT-SPECT image reconstruction using multiple projections, along with an evaluation of the image, some simulation conditions were taken from previous studies. In the future, a simulation will be conducted that includes optimized conditions for an actual BNCT facility, along with an imaging process for motion correction in BNCT. Although an excessively long simulation time was required to obtain enough events for image reconstruction, the feasibility of acquiring a 3D BNCT-SPECT image using multiple projections was confirmed using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a quantitative image analysis was

  6. The 250 kW FiR 1 TRIGA research reactor - International role in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and regional role in isotope production, education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish TRIGA reactor, FiR 1, has been in operation since 1962. From its early days the reactor created versatile research to support both the national nuclear program as well as generally the industry and health care sector. The volume of neutron activation analysis was impressive in the 70's and 80's. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was build at the FiR 1 reactor. The treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Over one hundred patient irradiations have been performed since May 1999. FiR 1 is one of the few facilities in the world providing this kind of treatments. Due to the BNCT project FiR 1 has become an important research and education unit for medical physics. Education and training play also a role at FiR 1 in the form of university courses and training of nuclear industry personnel. Isotopes for tracer studies are produced normally twice a week. The reactor is operated by four reactor operators and five shift supervisors; this in addition to their work as research scientists or research engineers. (author)

  7. Antiproliferative effect and apoptosis induction in melanoma treatment by boron neutron capture therapy (BCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo; Arruda-Neto, Joao; Maria, Durvanei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy where a compound having {sup 10}B is administered to cancer patients and is accumulated in tumor tissues. Thus, the tumor is irradiated with thermal neutrons, {sup 10}B absorbs and destroys them, producing alpha radiation. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is the agent responsible for delivering boron to the tumor tissue. After BPA administration, BNCT is used as a localized radiotherapy for many tumors treatment, mainly melanoma, which has a high mortality rate among all types of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and antitumor effects of BNCT application in human melanoma treatment. Materials and Methods: MEWO cells (human melanoma) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of BPA (8.36 to 0.52 mg/ml). After 90 minutes, they were irradiated with thermal neutron flux up to a dose of 8.4 Gy. The parameters analyzed were free radical production, cell cycle progression, cell death signaling pathways, cycling D1, caspase-3 and extracellular matrix synthesis produced, beyond the mitochondrial electric potential analysis. Results: After BNCT treatment, MEWO cells showed an amount of free radical increase about 10 times. Still, there was a significant decrease of cyclin D1, G0/G1 proliferation, synthesis and G2/M cell cycle phases. BNCT induced a mitochondrial electrical potential decrease, as well as fibrillar proteins of extracellular matrix. BNCT had a significant number of dead cell increase, mainly by necrosis. However, BNCT induced phosphorylated caspase 3 increase. Discussion/Conclusion: BNCT induced cell death increase by necrosis, mitochondrial electric potential decrease and free radical production increase. BNCT is cytotoxic to melanoma cells. Besides necrosis, phosphorylated caspase 3 increase was observed, accompanied by a proliferative response decrease regulated by the G1/S checkpoint and matrix extracellular synthesis

  8. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions, it is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM). Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. So far for 4 years and 3 months, we have treated with 37 times of BNCT for 21 patients (14 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results are (1) 10B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratio (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 6cases, PR: 11cases, PD: 3cases NE (not evaluated): 1case. Response rate was 81%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-51 months (mean: 9.8 months). 4-year survival rate was 39% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) A few adverse-effects such as transient mucositis, alopecia were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM. (author)

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy. When 10B absorbs thermal neutrons, the alpha and 7Li particles generated by the 10B (n, α) 7Li reaction are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and carry high kinetic energy (2.34 MeV), and have short ranges (4-9 micron-meters) of approximately one-cell diameter, resulting in a large relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and selective destruction of tumor cells containing 10B. We have, for the first time in the world, used BNCT to treat 11 patients with recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) after a standard primary therapy since 2001. The 11 patients were composed of 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 2 sarcomas. The results of BNCT were as follows. Regression rates (volume %) were complete response (CR): 2 cases, >90%: 5 cases, 73%: 1 case, 54%: 1 case, progressive disease (PD): 1 case, NE (not evaluated): 1 case. The response rate was 82%. Improvement of quality of life (QOL) was recognized, such as disappearance of tumor ulceration and covering with normal skin: relief of severe pain, bleeding, trismus and dyspnea: improvement of performance status (PS) (from 4 to 2) allowing the patients to return to work and elongate his survival period. Survival periods after BNCT were 1-38 months (mean: 8.5 months). The survival rate was 36% (4 cases). There are a few side-effects such as transient mucositis and alopecia less than Grade-2. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach even for a huge or far-advanced HNM. (author)

  11. Indication and possibility of boron neutron capture therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a targeted type of radiotherapy that has a number of significant advantages over conventional external beam photon irradiation, especially in that radiation can be selectively delivered to tumor cells. We had, first in the world, treated with BNCT for a patient with recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) in 2001. Methods : From December, 2001 to February, 2013, we had treated 37 patients with recurrent HNC by means of 54 applications of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). All of them had received standard therapy and subsequently developed recurrent disease for which there were no other treatment options. Results : All of the (1) Regression rates were complete response (CR) : 19 patients (51%), partial response (PR) : 14(38%), progressive disease (PD) : 3(8%), and not evaluated (NE) : 1(3%) patient. (2) The overall patient response rate was 91%, though all the patients had advanced disease. The 4-year and 7-year OS rates were 42% and 36%, respectively. (3) BNCT improved quality of life (QOL), performance status (PS) and survival times. (4) The primary adverse events were brain necrosis, osteomyelitis and transient mucositis and alopecia. Conclusions : Our results indicate that we could make sure that safety and effectiveness of BNCT, and BNCT represents a new and promising treatment modality in patients for whom there are no other treatment options. (author)

  12. Initiation of a phase-I trial of neutron capture therapy at the MIT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the New England Medical Center (NEMC), and Boston University Medical Center (BUMC) initiated a phase-1 trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on September 6, 1994, at the 5-MW(thermal) MIT research reactor (MITR). A novel form of experimental cancer therapy, BNCT is being developed for certain types of highly malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma and melanoma. The results of the phase-1 trials on patients with tumors in the legs or feet are described

  13. BNCT activities at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that satisfactory thermal/epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) could be designed at TRIGA research reactors These reactors are generally perceived as being safe to install and operate in populated areas. This contribution presents the most recent BNCT research activities on the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute, where epithermal neutron beam for 'in-vitro' irradiation has been developed and experimentally verified. Furthermore, The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials of human patients in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor has been carried out. The simulation results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beam throughout the world, could be installed in TC of the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  14. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na210B10H10) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  15. A toolkit for epithermal neutron beam characterisation in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Serén, Tom; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    2004-01-01

    Methods for dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been developed and utilised within the Finnish BNCT project as well as within a European project for a code of practise for the dosimetry of BNCT. One outcome has been a travelling toolkit for BNCT dosimetry. It consists of activation detectors and ionisation chambers. The free-beam neutron spectrum is measured with a set of activation foils of different isotopes irradiated both in a Cd-capsule and without it. Neutron flux (thermal and epithermal) distribution in phantoms is measured using activation of Mn and Au foils, and Cu wire. Ionisation chamber (IC) measurements are performed both in-free-beam and in-phantom for determination of the neutron and gamma dose components. This toolkit has also been used at other BNCT facilities in Europe, the USA, Argentina and Japan.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced and/or recurrent cancers in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study of 5 patients with advanced and/or recurrent cancer in the oral cavity was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The patients received therapy with the 10B-carrier p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with or without borocaptate sodium (BSH) and irradiation thereafter with epithermal neutrons. All underwent 18F-BPA PET studies before receiving BNCT to determine the accumulation ratios of BPA in tumor and normal tissues. The tumor mass was decreased in size and at minimum a transient partial response was achieved in all cases, though rapid tumor re-growth was observed in 2. Although tentative clinical responses and improvements in quality of life were recognized, obliteration of the tumor was not obtained in any of the cases. Additional studies are required to determine the utility and indication of BNCT for oral cancer. (author)

  17. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  18. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  19. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  20. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  1. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  2. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced salivary gland carcinoma in head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a among the radiation treatments known to have a selective lethal effect on tumor cells. This study summarizes the tumor responses and the acute and late adverse effects of BNCT in the treatment of patients with both recurrent and newly diagnosed T4 salivary gland carcinoma. Two patients with recurrent cancer and 3 with newly diagnosed T4 advanced malignancy were registered between October 2003 and September 2007, with the approval of the medical ethics committees of Kawasaki Medical School and Kyoto University. BNCT was performed, in a single fraction using an epithermal beam, at Japan Research Reactor 4. All patients achieved a complete response within 6 months of treatment. The median duration of the complete response was 24.0 months; the median overall survival time was 32.0 months. Three of the 5 patients are still alive; the other 2 died of distant metastatic disease. Open biopsy of the parotid gland after BNCT was performed in 1 patient and revealed no residual viable cancer cells and no serious damage to the normal glandular system. Although mild alopecia, xerostomia, and fatigue occurred in all patients, there were no severe adverse effects of grade 3 or greater. Our preliminary results demonstrate that BNCT is a potential curative therapy for patients with salivary gland carcinoma. The treatment does not cause any serious adverse effects, and may be used regardless of whether the primary tumor has been previously treated. (author)

  4. Therapy region monitoring based on PET using 478 keV single prompt gamma ray during BNCT: A Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Lu, Bo; Yoon, Do-Kun; Hong, Key Jo; Jang, HongSeok; Liu, Chihray; Suh, Tae Suk

    2016-04-01

    We confirmed the feasibility of using our proposed system to extract two different kinds of functional images from a positron emission tomography (PET) module by using an insertable collimator during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Coincidence events from a tumor region that included boron particles were identified by a PET scanner before BNCT; subsequently, the prompt gamma ray events from the same tumor region were collected after exposure to an external neutron beam through an insertable collimator on the PET detector. Five tumor regions that contained boron particles and were located in the water phantom and in the BNCT system with the PET module were simulated with Monte Carlo simulation code. The acquired images were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in the five boron regions, A, B, C, D, and E, the PET and single-photon images were 10.2%, 11.7%, 8.2% (center region), 12.6%, and 10.5%, respectively. We were able to acquire simultaneously PET and single prompt photon images for tumor regions monitoring by using an insertable collimator without any additional isotopes. PMID:26970679

  5. Biological models in vivo for boron neutronic capture studies as tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of experimental models for Boron Neutronic Capture studies as Tumors Therapy have as two main objectives: 1) To contribute to the basic knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved to increase the method therapeutical advantage, and 2) To explore the possible application of this therapeutic method to other pathologies. In this frame it was studied the carcinogenesis model of hamster cheek pouch, a type of human buccal cancer. Biodistribution studies of boron compound were performed in tumor, blood and in different precancerous and normal tissues as well as BNCT studies. Results validated this method for BNCT studies and show the capacity of the oral mucosa tumors of selectively concentrate the boron compound, showing a deleterious clear effect on the tumor after 24 hours with BNCT treatment. (author)

  6. Establishment of optimal thermal neutron capture therapy for 5 types of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies has already germinated in 1972, with a view to establishing the BNCT particularly suited for the treatment of various types of malignant melanoma, and has been succeeded by research teams comprised of multi-disciplinary members. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women, aged from 50 to 85 years) with malignant melanoma have been treated with BNCT; among them, six patients were completely cured, four had extremely reduced tumors, and two were still in the clinical process. The present Progress Report is a compilation of 39 research presentations for the recent two years. In this report, three patients are described. Of these, one patient had deep-seated lesions in right and left lymph nodes. These lesions were cured by the use of D2O that allowed neutron beams to reach them. Application of positron emission tomography to the diagnosis of melanoma is a highlight in this Report. (N.K.)

  7. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  9. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy outcomes for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively review outcomes of applying boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers. Patients who were treated with BNCT for either local recurrent or newly diagnosed unresectable head or neck cancers between December 2001 and September 2007 were included. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from hospital records. Either a combination of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine (BPA) or BPA alone were used as boron compounds. In all the treatment cases, the dose constraint was set to deliver a dose <10–12 Gy-eq to the skin or oral mucosa. There was a patient cohort of 62, with a median follow-up of 18.7 months (range, 0.7–40.8). A total of 87 BNCT procedures were performed. The overall response rate was 58% within 6 months after BNCT. The median survival time was 10.1 months from the time of BNCT. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 43.1% and 24.2%, respectively. The major acute Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were hyperamylasemia (38.6%), fatigue (6.5%), mucositis/stomatitis (9.7%) and pain (9.7%), all of which were manageable. Three patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced carotid artery hemorrhage, two of whom had coexistent infection of the carotid artery. This study confirmed the feasibility of our dose-estimation method and that controlled trials are warranted. (author)

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma

  12. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  13. A new NEDO research project towards hospital based accelerator BNCT using advanced DDS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new national project of developing a hospital based accelerator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with advanced drug delivery system (DDS) has been started in 2005. In this paper, the outline of the new project will be introduced. The project includes two main topics: 1) a hospital based accelerator for BNCT will be developed by a research consortium of Universities and companies. A fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) type of accelerator with internal target is planned. 2) New boronated DDS using different methods including porphyrins, virus envelope vector, and liposome are planned. BNCT may become a first line charged particle therapy if the hospital based accelerator become feasible due to broadening the opportunity to use the neutron source. Due to such clinical convenience, there will be also possibility to spread the indication of BNCT for the diseases (cancer and other diseases) which has not been the candidate for BNCT in the nuclear-reactor era. (author)

  14. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  15. Carborane derivatives loaded into liposomes as efficient delivery systems for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, S; Balzi, M; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Ciani, L; Clerici, A M; Faraoni, P; Ferrari, C; Gadan, M A; Panza, L; Pietrangeli, D; Ricciardi, G; Ristori, S

    2009-12-10

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an anticancer therapy based on the incorporation of (10)B in tumors, followed by neutron irradiation. Recently, the synthesis and delivery of new boronated compounds have been recognized as some of the main challenges in BNCT application. Here, we report on the use of liposomes as carriers for BNCT active compounds. Two carborane derivatives, i.e., o-closocarboranyl beta-lactoside (LCOB) and 1-methyl-o-closocarboranyl-2-hexylthioporphyrazine (H(2)PzCOB), were loaded into liposomes bearing different surface charges. The efficacy of these formulations was tested on model cell cultures, that is, DHD/K12/TRb rat colon carcinoma and B16-F10 murine melanoma. These induce liver and lung metastases, respectively, and are used to study the uptake of standard BNCT drugs, including borophenylalanine (BPA). Boron concentration in treated cells was measured by alpha spectrometry at the TRIGA mark II reactor (University of Pavia). Results showed high performance of the proposed formulations. In particular, the use of cationic liposomes increased the cellular concentration of (10)B by at least 30 times more than that achieved by BPA. PMID:19954249

  16. The combined effect of electroporation and borocaptate in boron neutron capture therapy for murine solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B-Enriched borocaptate (BSH) was administered intraperitoneally to SCCVII tumor-bearing C3H/He mice. Electroporation (EP) was conducted by using a tweezers-type electrode. The 10B contents in tumors were measured by prompt γ-ray spectrometry. The colony formation assay was applied to investigate the antitumor effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and thereby to estimate the intratumor localization of BSH. The 10B concentrations in tumors decreased with time following BSH administration, falling to 5.4(±0.1) ppm at 3 h, whereas EP treatment (3 repetitions) 15 min after BSH injection delayed the clearance of BSH from tumors, and the 10B level remained at 19.4(±0.9) ppm at 3 h. The effect of BNCT increased with the 10B concentration in tumors, and the combination with EP showed a remarkably large cell killing effect even at 3 h after BSH injection. The effect of BNCT, i.e., slope coefficient of the cell survival curve of tumors, without EP was proportional to tumor 10B level (r=0.982), and that of BSH-BNCT combined with EP lay close to the same correlation line. However, tumors subjected to EP after BSH injection did not show high radiosensitivity when irradiated after conversion to a single cell suspension by enzymatic digestion. This indicates that the increase of the BNCT effect by EP was a consequence of enclosure of BSH in the interstitial space of tumor tissue and not within tumor cells. This is different from a previous in vitro study. The combination of EP and BNCT may be clinically useful, if a procedure to limit EP to the tumor region becomes available or if an alternative similar method is employed. (author)

  17. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  18. Electroporation increases the effect of borocaptate (10B-BSH) in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The cell membrane permeability of borocaptate (10B-BSH) and its extent of accumulation in cells are controversial. This study was performed to elucidate these points. Methods and Materials: Two different treatments were applied to SCCVII tumor cells. The first group of tumor cells was incubated in culture medium with 10B-BSH or 10B-enriched boric acid, and was exposed to neutrons from the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). More than 99% of neutrons were thermal neutrons at flux base. The second group was pretreated by electroporation in combination with 10B-BSH, and thereafter the cells were irradiated with neutrons. The cell killing effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using BSH were investigated by colony formation assay. Results: Surviving cell fraction decreased exponentially with neutron fluence, and addition of BSH significantly enhanced the cell killing effect of neutron capture therapy (NCT) depending on 10B concentration. The effect of BSH-BNCT also increased with preincubation time of cells in the medium containing BSH. The electroporation of cells with BSH at 10 ppm 10B markedly enhanced BSH-BNCT effects in comparison with that of preincubation alone. The effect of BSH-BNCT with electroporation was equal to that of BNCT using 10B-boric acid at a same 10B concentration (10 ppm). Conclusions: BSH is suggested to penetrate the cells slowly and remained after washing. Electroporation can introduce BSH into the cells very efficiently, and BSH stays in the cells and is not lost by washing. Therefore, if electroporation is applied to tumors after BSH injection, 10B remains in tumors but is cleared from normal tissues, and selective accumulation of 10B in tumors will be achieved after an adequate waiting time

  19. Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. 10B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the 10B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the 10B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the 10B(n, α)7Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 μm, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to 10B-loaded cells

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy in cancer: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Juvenal, Guilermo J. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Div. of Nuclear Biochemistry; University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). School of Medicine. Dept. of Human Biochemistry

    2007-07-15

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron non-radioactive compounds by a tumor, and the subsequent irradiation of the area with an appropriate neutron beam. {sup 10}B is then activated to {sup 11}B, which will immediately decay releasing alpha particles and {sup 7}Li, of high linear energy transfer (LET) and limited reach. Clinical trials are being performed in patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanoma. We have explored its possible application to UTC. Our results demonstrated that a cell line of human UTC has a selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) both in vitro and after transplantation to nude mice. Treatment of mice by BNCT led to a complete control of growth and cure of 100% of the animals. Moreover dogs with spontaneous UTC also have a selective uptake of BPA. At the present we are studying the biodistribution of BPA in patients with UTC before its application in humans. (author)

  1. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations

  2. Effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujita, Yusei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, Akira [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohmae, Masatoshi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Izimisano Municipal Hospital, Rinku General Hospital, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Environment and Life Science, Osaka prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto (Japan); CEO of Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sakrai, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Sumi, Tetsuro; Iwai, Soichi; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, II Osaka University, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ono, Koji [Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Research Reactor Institut, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is necessary to explore new treatments for recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) to avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We have treated with BNCT 42 times for 26 patients (19 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 4 salivary gland carcinomas and 3 sarcomas) with a recurrent and far advanced HNM since 2001. Results of (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of FBPA-PET studies were SCC: 1.8-5.7, sarcoma: 2.5-4.0, parotid tumor: 2.5-3.7. (2) Therapeutic effects were CR: 12 cases, PR: 10 cases, PD: 3 cases NE (not evaluated): 1 case. Response rate was 85%. (3) Improvement of QOL such as a relief of severe pain, bleeding, and exudates at the local lesion, improvement of PS, disappearance of ulceration, covered with normal skin and preserved oral and maxillofacial functions and tissues. (4) Survival periods after BNCT were 1-72 months (mean: 13.6 months). Six-year survival rate was 24% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. (5) Adverse-events were transient mucositis and alopecia in most of the cases; three osteomyelitis and one brain necrosis were recognized. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach for advanced HNM.

  3. Sonoporation as an enhancing method for boron neutron capture therapy for squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiotherapy that is dependent on the accumulation of 10B compound in tumors. Low-intensity ultrasound produces a transient pore on cell membranes, sonoporation, which enables extracellular materials to enter cells. The effect of sonoporation on BNCT was examined in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) xenografts in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were administrated boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boronocaptate sodium (BSH) intraperitoneally. Two hours later, tumors were subjected to sonoporation using microbubbles followed by neutron irradiation. The 10B concentration was higher in tumors treated with sonoporation than in untreated tumors, although the difference was not significant in BPA. When tumors in mice that received BPA intraperitoneally were treated with sonoporation followed by exposure to thermal neutrons, tumor volume was markedly reduced and the survival rate was prolonged. Such enhancements by sonoporation were not observed in mice treated with BSH-mediated BNCT. These results indicate that sonoporation enhances the efficiency of BPA-mediated BNCT for oral SCC. Sonoporation may modulate the microlocalization of BPA and BSH in tumors and increase their intracellular levels

  4. A novel reactor concept for boron neutron capture therapy: annular low-low power reactor (ALLPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, B.; Levine, S.H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNC), originally proposed in 50's, has been getting renewed attention over the last {approx}10 years. This is in particular due to its potential for treating deep-seated brain tumors by employing epithermal neutron beams. Large (several MW) research reactors are currently used to obtain epithermal beams for BNCT, but because of cost and licensing issues it is not likely that such high-power reactors can be placed in regular medical centers. This paper describes a novel reactor concept for BNCT devised to overcome this obstacle. The design objective was to produce a beam of epithermal neutrons of sufficient intensity for BNCT at <50 kW using low enriched uranium. It is achieved by the annular reactor design, which is called Annular Low-Low Power Reactor (ALLPR). Preliminary studies using Monte Carlo simulations are summarized in this paper. The ALLPR should be relatively economical to build, and safe and easy to operate. This novel concept may increase the viability of using BNCT in medical centers worldwide. (author)

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  6. Development of inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To lead proper irradiation condition effectively, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing an inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy (NCT-IPS) based on the JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for BNCT. The leading methodology of an optimum condition in the NCT-IPS has been applied spatial channel theory with adjoint flux solution of Botzman transport. By analyzing the results obtained from the adjoint flux calculations according to the theory, optimum incident point of the beam against the patient can be found, and neutron spectrum of the beam which can generate ideal distribution of neutron flux around tumor region can be determined. The conceptual design of the NCT-IPS was investigated, and prototype of NCT-IPS with JCDS is being developed. (author)

  7. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. Dosimetry and dose planning in boron neutron capture therapy : Monte Carlo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.

    2012-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted radiotherapy modality. So far, 249 cancer patients have received BNCT at the Finnish Research Reactor 1 (FiR 1) in Finland. The effectiveness and safety of radiotherapy are dependent on the radiation dose delivered to the tumor and healthy tissues, and on the accuracy of the doses. At FiR 1, patient dose calculations are performed with the Monte Carlo (MC) -based treatmentplanning system (TPS), Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA). Initially, BNCT was applied to head and neck cancer, brain tumors, and malignant melanoma. To evaluate the applicability of the new target tumors for BNCT, calculation dosimetry studies are needed. So far, clinical BNCT has been performed with the neutrons from a nuclear reactor, while an accelerator based neutron sources applicable for hospital operation would be preferable. In this thesis, BNCT patient dose calculation practice in Finland was evaluated against reference calculations and experimental data in several cases. Calculations with two TPSs applied in clinical BNCT were compared. The suitability of the deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction-based compact neutron sources for BNCT were evaluated. In addition, feasibility of BNCT for noninvasive liver tumor treatments was examined. The deviation between SERA and the reference calculations was within 4% in the phantoms studied and in a brain cancer patient model elsewhere, except on the phantom or skin surface, for the boron, nitrogen, and photon dose components. These dose components produce 99% of the tumor dose and > 90% of the healthy tissue dose at points of relevance for treatment at the FiR 1 facility. The reduced voxel cell size ({<=} 0.5 cm) in the SERA edit mesh improved calculation accuracy on the surface. The erratic biased fastneutron run option in SERA led to significant underestimation (up to 30-60%) of the fastneutron dose, while more accurate fast

  9. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  10. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10B enriched decaborane

  11. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. PMID:21872481

  12. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  13. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  14. Formulation and preliminary evaluation of delivery vehicles for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Smith, James Richard; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue1. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness, assuming 10B can be preferentially located within glioma cells2. Poor selectivity is the main ...

  15. Formulation and preliminary evaluation of delivery vehicles for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo Olajumoke Bolanle

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of -particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 μm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness, assuming 10B can be preferentially located within glioma cells. Poor selectivity is the main r...

  16. Incorporation and characterization of boron neutron capture therapy agents into mesoporous silicon and silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ke; Coffer, Jeffery L. [Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Loni, Armando; Canham, Leigh T. [PSi Medica Ltd., Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom); Intrinsiq Materials Ltd., Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The tunable pore size, biodegradability, and surface chemistry of mesoporous silicon (BioSilicon trademark) are important to a broad spectrum of uses for drug delivery. For the case of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), encapsulation of a given boron-containing drug molecule within a porous BioSilicon trademark microparticle provides a vehicle for a brachytherapy method that avoids the necessity of drug modification. In this work, the loading and characterization of three clinically approved BNCT drugs into mesoporous Si is demonstrated. Because of difficulties associated with light element detection, a method based on a Beer's Law analysis of selected FTIR vibrational bands has been developed to estimate boron-containing drug loading in these materials. As a complementary nanostructural platform, a cathodic deposition process for the surface enriched growth of selected drugs onto the surface of silicon nanowires is also described. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  18. Identification of early and distinct glioblastoma response patterns treated by boron neutron capture therapy not predicted by standard radiographic assessment using functional diffusion map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic response of brain tumors is traditionally assessed according to the Macdonald criteria 10 weeks from the start of therapy. Because glioblastoma (GB) responds in days rather than weeks after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) that is a form of tumor-selective particle radiation, it is inconvenient to use the Macdonald criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by gadolinium-magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI). Our study assessed the utility of functional diffusion map (fDM) for evaluating response patterns in GB treated by BNCT. The fDM is an image assessment using time-dependent changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in tumors on a voxel-by-voxel approach. Other than time-dependent changes of ADC, fDM can automatically assess minimum/maximum ADC, Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), and the volume of enhanced lesions on Gd-MRI over time. We assessed 17 GB patients treated by BNCT using fDM. Additionally, in order to verify our results, we performed a histopathological examination using F98 rat glioma models. Only the volume of tumor with decreased ADC by fDM at 2 days after BNCT was a good predictor for GB patients treated by BNCT (P value = 0.022 by log-rank test and 0.033 by wilcoxon test). In a histopathological examination, brain sections of F98 rat glioma models treated by BNCT showed cell swelling of both the nuclei and the cytoplasm compared with untreated rat glioma models. The fDM could identify response patterns in BNCT-treated GB earlier than a standard radiographic assessment. Early detection of treatment failure can allow a change or supplementation before tumor progression and might lead to an improvement of GB patients’ prognosis

  19. DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy is partially repaired by DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Hirota, Yuki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo; Ono, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy that involves the use of a thermal or epithermal neutron beam in combination with a boron ((10)B)-containing compound that specifically accumulates in tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and the resultant fission reaction produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High-LET radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage, specifically of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of DNA ligase IV, a key player in the non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, in the repair of BNCT-induced DSBs. We analyzed the cellular sensitivity of the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines Lig4-/- p53-/- and Lig4+/+ p53-/- to irradiation using a thermal neutron beam in the presence or absence of (10)B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA). The Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line had a higher sensitivity than the Lig4+/+ p53-/-cell line to irradiation with the beam alone or the beam in combination with BPA. In BNCT (with BPA), both cell lines exhibited a reduction of the 50 % survival dose (D 50) by a factor of 1.4 compared with gamma-ray and neutron mixed beam (without BPA). Although it was found that (10)B uptake was higher in the Lig4+/+ p53-/- than in the Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line, the latter showed higher sensitivity than the former, even when compared at an equivalent (10)B concentration. These results indicate that BNCT-induced DNA damage is partially repaired using DNA ligase IV. PMID:26573366

  20. Neutron capture therapy for cancer: development at the National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves the concurrent presence of a flux of neutrons of adequate energy and Boron 10 as a capture agent. They interact to damage tumor cells but fail to produce significant damage to healthy tissue because the destructive effect occurs mainly in the tumor cells that have selectively accumulated boron. This technique is applied for the treatment of brain tumors of the glioblastoma multiform type and melanoma in different locations. The aim of this project at CNEA is to develop the technological, scientific, clinical know-how and facilities to undertake clinical trials in Argentina. The development of the irradiation facility, the clinical beam and dosimetry was developed at the RA-6 reactor, Bariloche Atomic Center. Treatment planning, instrumentation for the neutron beam, boron measurements, neutron beam for small animal irradiation at the RA-1 reactor and basic research in radiobiology, microdosimetry and autoradiography were developed at Constituyentes Atomic Center. It is also conducted an intense activity in accelerator based BNCT. The infusions to be injected to the patients are prepared at Ezeiza Atomic Center. The clinics of BNCT radiotherapy is developed at the Roffo Institute of Oncology and the neurosurgery at the Argerich Hospital. At present, the project is close to start in the following months to treat melanoma in the limbs, when the authorization procedure is completed. (author)

  1. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  3. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 μg 10B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg 10B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4–6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  4. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be u...

  5. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector ...

  6. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA): A therapeutic agent for boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, C. S.; Prasad, P V; Busse, Paul; L. Tang; Zamenhof, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    Noninvasive in vivo quantitation of boron is necessary for obtaining pharmacokinetic data on candidate boronated delivery agents developed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Such data, in turn, would facilitate the optimization of the temporal sequence of boronated drug infusion and neutron irradiation. Current approaches to obtaining such pharmacokinetic data include: positron emission tomography employing F-18 labeled boronated delivery agents (e.g., p-boronophenylalanine), ex vivo n...

  7. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  8. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Tumor cell killing effect of boronated dipeptide. Boromethylglycylphenylalanine on boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagaki, Masao; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Toru [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Spielvogel, B.F.

    1994-03-01

    The killing effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy; BNCT, is dependant on the boron concentration ratio of tumor to normal brain (T/N ratio), and also that of tumor to blood (T/B ratio). The clinical boron carrier of boro-captate (BSH) showed the large T/N ratio of ca. 8, however the T/B ratio was around 1, which indicated nonselective accumulation into tumor. Indeed high boron concentration of blood restrict the neutron irradiation dose in order to circumvent the normal endothelial damage, especially in the case of deeply seated tumor. Phenylalanine analogue of para borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is an effective boron carrier on BNCT for malignant melanoma. For the BNCT on brain tumors, however, BPA concentration in normal brain was reported to be intolerably high. In order to improve the T/N ratio of BPA in brain, therefore, a dipeptide of boromethylglycylphenylalanine (BMGP) was synthesized deriving from trimethylglycine conjugated with BPA. It is expected to be selectively accumulated into tumor with little uptake into normal brain. Because a dipeptide might not pass through the normal blood brain barrier (BBB). Its killing effect on cultured glioma cell, T98G, and its distribution in rat brain bearing 9L glioma have been investigated in this paper. The BNCT effect of BMGP on cultured cells was nearly triple in comparison with DL-BPA. The neutron dose yielding 1% survival ratio were 7x10{sup 12}nvt for BMGP and 2x10{sup 13}nvt for BPA respectively on BNCT after boron loading for 16 hrs in the same B-10 concentration of 20ppm. Quantitative study of boron concentration via the {alpha}-auto radiography and the prompt gamma ray assay on 9L brain tumor rats revealed that T/N ratio and T/B ratio are 12.0 and 3.0 respectively. Those values are excellent for BNCT use. (author).

  10. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo or mutant-type (SAS/mp53 p53 was examined. Methods Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. Results When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. Conclusion These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners.

  11. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  12. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  13. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  14. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  15. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  16. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  17. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  18. A suggestion for B-10 imaging during boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M

    2007-01-01

    Selective accumulation of B-10 compound in tumour tissue is a fundamental condition for the achievement of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), since the effectiveness of therapy irradiation derives just from neutron capture reaction of B-10. Hence, the determination of the B-10 concentration ratio, between tumour and healthy tissue, and a control of this ratio, during the therapy, are essential to optimise the effectiveness of the BNCT, which it is known to be based on the selective uptake of B-10 compound. In this work, experimental methods are proposed and evaluated for the determination in vivo of B-10 compound in biological samples, in particular based on neutron radiography and gammaray spectroscopy by telescopic system. Measures and Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the possibility of executing imaging of the 10B distribution, both by radiography with thermal neutrons, using 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillator screen and a CCD camera, and by spectroscopy, based on the revelation of gamm...

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released is microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.

  20. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to γ-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x108 n/cm-2/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for 10B(n, α) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  1. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to {gamma}-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup -2}/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  2. Three-dimensional radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that calculation of physically realistic radiation dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a complex, three-dimensional problem. Traditional one-dimensional (slab) and two-dimensional (cylindrical) models, while useful for neutron beam design and performance analysis, do not provide sufficient accuracy for actual clinical use because the assumed symmetries inherent in such models do not ordinarily exist in the real world. Fortunately, however, it is no longer necessary to make these types of simplifying assumptions. Recent dramatic advances in computing technology have brought full three-dimensional dose distribution calculations for BNCT into the realm of practicality for a wide variety of routine applications. Once a geometric model and the appropriate material compositions have been determined, either stochastic (Monte Carlo) or deterministic calculations of all dose components of interest can now be performed more rapidly and inexpensively for the true three-dimensional geometries typical of actual clinical applications of BNCT. Demonstrations of both Monte Carlo and Deterministic techniques for performing three-dimensional dose distribution analysis for BNCT are provided. Calculated results are presented for a three-dimensional Lucite canine-head phantom irradiated in the epithermal neutron beam available at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The deterministic calculations are performed using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The Monte Carlo calculations employ a novel method for obtaining spatially detailed radiation flux and dose distributions without the use of flux-at-a-point estimators. The calculated results are in good agreement with each other and with thermal neutron flux measurements taken using copper-gold flux wires placed at various locations in the phantom

  3. Boron determination in biological samples - Intercomparison of three analytical methods to assist development of a treatment protocol for neoplastic diseases of the liver with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Christian L.

    2012-01-01

    Die Bor-Neuroneneinfang-Therapie (engl.: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT) ist eine indirekte Strahlentherapie, welche durch die gezielte Freisetzung von dicht ionisierender Strahlung Tumorzellen zerstört. Die freigesetzten Ionen sind Spaltfragmente einer Kernreaktion, bei welcher das Isotop 10B ein niederenergetisches (thermisches) Neutron einfängt. Das 10B wird durch ein spezielles Borpräparat in den Tumorzellen angereichert, welches selbst nicht radioaktiv ist. rnAn der Johannes Gutenbe...

  4. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  5. Liposome and co-spray-dried PVP / o-carborane formulations for BNCT treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Smith, James Richard; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness. Poor selectivity is the main reason why BNCT has not become a mainstream cancer therap...

  6. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  7. Carboranyl Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-(β-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  8. Neutron capture therapy clinical development in the world%中子俘获疗法临床应用国际进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张紫竹; 金从军; 刘凯; 张国珍; 杨立军

    2012-01-01

    硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)目前在国际上已经临床应用于千余例患者,并取得了较好的治疗效果.主要对BNCT的原理、发展历史及国际BNCT临床进展情况作了主要介绍.对脑胶质瘤、恶性黑色素瘤、复发性头颈部肿瘤及转移性肝癌BNCT临床治疗情况及治疗效果作了较详细的讨论.%Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) method was applied to about one thousand clinical patients and achieved good results internationally. In this paper, the principle of BNCT, the development history and international BNCT clinical progress were mainly introduced. The BNCT clinical treatment situation and evaluation in glioblastoma (GBM) , malignant melanoma, recurrent head and neck cancer and metastatic liver cancer were discussed in detail.

  9. Effect of the p53 gene status on the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the p53 gene in the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) had not been studied. We examined the effect of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT on oral SCC cells showing either wild-type p53 (SAS/neo) or mutated-type p53 (SAS/mp53). Survival ratio of cells was determined by colony formation. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and nuclear DNA staining. When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo cells as compared with SAS/mp53. The proportion of apoptotic cells with DNA fragmentation was also increased in the cells with functional p53. These results suggest that oral SCC cells with mutated p53 cells are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53. BNCT must inhibit oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. (author)

  10. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Phase II clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray radiotherapy/temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme-Study design and current status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shinji, E-mail: neu046@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Hirota, Yuki; Miyata, Shiro; Takekita, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8931 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, we reported our clinical experiences of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The major differences of our protocol from the other past studies were simultaneous use of both sodium borocapate and boronophenylalanine, and combination with fractionated X-ray irradiation. These results showed the efficacy of combination therapy with external beam X-ray irradiation and BNCT. For our future study, we planned the multi-centric phase II clinical study for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients in Japan (OSAKA-TRIBRAIN0902, NCT00974987).

  13. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  14. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T., E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Andoh, T. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Division of Pediatrics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Sonobe, H. [Department of Pathology, Chugoku Central Hospital, Fukuyama 720-0001 (Japan); Epstein, Alan L. [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA 90033 (United States); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  15. Selective uptake of p-boronophenylalanine by osteosarcoma cells for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common non-hematologic primary cancer type that develops in bone. Current osteosarcoma treatments combine multiagent chemotherapy with extensive surgical resection, which in some cases makes necessary the amputation of the entire limb. Nevertheless its infiltrative growth leads to a high incidence of local and distant recurrences that reduce the percentage of cured patients to less than 60%. These poor data required to set up a new therapeutic approach aimed to restrict the surgical removal meanwhile performing a radical treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a particular radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions by atoms of 10B, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, could be a valid alternative or integrative option in case of osteosarcoma management, thanks to its peculiarity in selectively destroying neoplastic cells without damaging normal tissues. Aim of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of employing BNCT to treat the limb osteosarcoma. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is used to carry 10B inside the neoplastic cells. As a first step the endocellular BPA uptake is tested in vitro on the UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell line. The results show an adequate accumulation capability. For the in vivo experiments, an animal tumor model is developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by means of an intrafemoral injection of UMR-106 cells at the condyle site. The absolute amounts of boron loading and the tumor to normal tissue 10B ratio are evaluated 2 h after the i.v. administration of BPA. The boron uptake by the neoplastic tissue is almost twice the normal one. However, higher values of boron concentration in tumor are requested before upholding BNCT as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  16. Isodose Curves and Treatment Planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.

    The development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been progressing in both ^{10 }B compound development and testing and neutron beam delivery. Animal tests are now in progress with several ^{10}B compounds and once the results of these animal tests are promising, patient trials can be initiated. The objective of this study is to create a treatment planning method based on the dose calculations by a Monte Carlo code of a mixed radiation field to provide linkage between phantom dosimetry and patient irradiation. The research started with an overall review of the development of BNCT. Three epithermal neutron facilities are described, including the operating Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) beam, the designed Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) beam, and a designed accelerator based neutron source. The flux and dose distributions in a head model have been calculated for irradiation by these neutron beams. Different beam parameters were inter -compared for effectiveness. Dosimetric measurements in an elliptical lucite phantom and a cylindrical water phantom were made and compared to the MCNP calculations for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Repeated measurements were made and show consistent. To improve the statistical results calculated by MCNP, a neutron source plane was designed to start neutrons at the BMRR irradiation port. The source plane was used with the phantoms for dosimetric calculations. After being verified by different phantom dosimetry and in-air flux measurements at the irradiation port, the source plane was used to calculate the flux and dose distributions in the head model. A treatment planning program was created for use on a PC which uses the MCNP calculated results as input. This program calculates the thermal neutron flux and dose distributions of each component of radiation in the central coronal section of the head model for irradiation by a neutron beam. Different combinations of head orientations and irradiation

  17. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  18. BNCT and Targeted Radiotherapy (TRT) developments in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of treatment modalities for cancer including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, these treatments are not always effective. The search for new and more efficient ways to combat cancer has opened new perspectives. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a new approach in cancer treatment that has been proposed to combat glioblastomas of the brain, neck cancer and malignant melanomas, tumors that are resistant to traditional cancer therapies. BNCT is based on the 10B(n,α)7Li nuclear reaction, which can potentially deliver a very high and fatal radiation dose to cancerous cells by concentrating boron in them. It is a promising, though complicated treatment. This type of therapy offers a number of potentially significant advantages compared to traditional radiation therapy. Treatment is better targeted to cancerous cells so that when a tumour is irradiated with neutrons, the damage to normal tissue is respectively less. It is also less demanding for the patient as treatment is only one to two sessions, compared to conventional radiation therapy where patients can be treated up to 30 times. It provides an excellent example of the importance of innovation in the search for a cure to cancer. The recent developments in BNCT in Romania as well as the major drawbacks will be presented. (authors)

  19. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  20. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  1. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, the United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical

  2. Modelling collimator of radial beam port Kartini reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the cancer therapy methods is BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). BNCT utilizes neutron nature by 10B deposited on cancer cells. The superiority of BNCT compared to the radiation therapy is the high level of selectivity since its level is within cell. This study was carried out on collimator modelling in radial beam port of reactor Kartini for BNCT. The modelling was conducted by simulation using software of Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP 5). MCNP5 is a package of the programs for both simulating and calculating the problem of particle transport by following the life cycle of a neutron since its birth from fission reaction, transport on materials, until eventually lost due to the absorption reaction or out from the system. The collimator modelling used materials which varied in size in order to generate the value of each of the parameters in accordance with the recommendation of the IAEA, the epithermal neutron flux (ϕepi) > 1.0 x 109n.cm-2s-1, the ratio between the neutron dose rate fast and epithermal neutron flux (Df/ϕepi) < 2.0 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio of gamma dose rate and epithermal neutron flux (Dγ/ϕepi) < 2.0 X10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, the ratio between the thermal and epithermal neutron flux (ϕTh/ϕepi)< 0.05 and the ratio between the current and flux of the epithermal neutron (J/ϕepi) > 0.7. Based on the results of the optimization of the modeling, the materials and sizes of the collimator construction obtained were 0.75 cm Ni as collimator wall, 22 cm Al as a moderator and 4.5 cm Bi as a gamma shield. The outputs of the radiation beam generated from collimator modeling of the radial beam port were ϕepi = 5.25 x 106 n.cm-2.s-1, Df/ϕepi = 1.17 x 10-13Gy.cm2.n-1, Dγ/ϕepi = 1.70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, ϕTh/ϕepi = 1.51 and J/ϕepi = 0.731. Based on this study, the result of the beam radiation coming out of the radial beam port dis not fully meet the criteria recommended by IAEA so need to continue this study to get the criteria of IAEA

  3. Study of characteristics for heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Danial; Sardari, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head, patient's body, and treatment room ambient. Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons, the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy. By varying the target thickness, an optimum thickness exists for which, at the given electron energy, maximum photon flux is achievable. If a source of high-energy photons i.e. bremsstrahlung, is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target, a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible. This study consists of two parts. 1. Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data. 2. Ev...

  4. Progress on the accelerator based SPES-BNCT project at INFN Legnaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisent, A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Colautti, P [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Esposito, J [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Nardo, L De [Physics Department, Padova University (Italy); Conte, V [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Agosteo, D [Nuclear Engineering Department, Milano Polytechnic (Italy); Jori, G [Biology Department, Padova University (Italy); Posocco, P A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tecchio, L B [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA - FIS-NUC, Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - FIS-ION, Rome (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In the framework of an advanced Exotic Ion Beam facility project, named SPES (Study and Production of Exotic Species), that will allow a frontier program in Nuclear and Interdisciplinary Physics, an intense thermal neutron beam facility, devoted to perform Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experimental treatments on skin melanoma tumor is currently under construction based on the SPES proton driver. A vast radiobiological investigation in vitro and in vivo has started with the new {sup 10}B carriers developed. Special microdosimetric detectors have been constructed to properly measure all the BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the Enea-Casaccia TAPIRO reactor.

  5. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  6. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  7. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  8. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  9. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  10. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, L. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, M. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the {sup 10}B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  11. Gadolinium as a Neutron Capture Therapy Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jing-Luen Allen

    The clinical results of treating brain tumors with boron neutron capture therapy are very encouraging and researchers around the world are once again making efforts to develop this therapeutic modality. Boron-10 is the agent receiving the most attention for neutron capture therapy but ^{157}Gd is a nuclide that also holds interesting properties of being a neutron capture therapy agent. The objective of this study is to evaluate ^{157}Gd as a neutron capture therapy agent. In this study it is determined that tumor concentrations of about 300 mug ^{157}Gd/g tumor can be achieved in brain tumors with some FDA approved MRI contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, and up to 628 mug ^{157 }Gd/g tumor can be established in bone tumors with Gd-EDTMP. Monte Carlo calculations show that with only 250 ppm of ^{157}Gd in tumor, neutron capture therapy can deliver 2,000 cGy to a tumor of 2 cm diameter or larger with 5 times 10^{12} n/cm ^2 fluence at the tumor. Dose measurements which were made with films and TLD's in phantoms verified these calculations. More extended Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate that neutron capture therapy with Gd possesses comparable dose distribution to B neutron capture therapy. With 5 times 10^{12 } n/cm^2 thermal neutrons at the tumor, Auger electrons from the Gd produced an optical density enhancement on the films that is similar to the effect caused by about 300 cGy of Gd prompt gamma dose which will further enhance the therapeutic effects. A technique that combines brachytherapy with Gd neutron capture therapy has been evaluated. Monte Carlo calculations show that 5,000 cGy of prompt gamma dose can be delivered to a treatment volume of 40 cm^3 with a 3-plane implant of a total of 9 Gd needles. The tumor to normal tissue advantage of this method is as good as ^{60} Co brachytherapy. Measurements of prompt gamma dose with films and TLD-700's in a lucite phantom verify the Monte Carlo evaluation. A technique which displays the Gd

  12. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  13. Thermal neutron irradiation field design for boron neutron capture therapy of human explanted liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S

    2007-12-01

    The selective uptake of boron by tumors compared to that by healthy tissue makes boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an extremely advantageous technique for the treatment of tumors that affect a whole vital organ. An example is represented by colon adenocarcinoma metastases invading the liver, often resulting in a fatal outcome, even if surgical resection of the primary tumor is successful. BNCT can be performed by irradiating the explanted organ in a suitable neutron field. In the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor at Pavia University, a facility was created for this purpose and used for the irradiation of explanted human livers. The neutron field distribution inside the organ was studied both experimentally and by means of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP). The liver was modeled as a spherical segment in MCNP and a hepatic-equivalent solution was used as an experimental phantom. In the as-built facility, the ratio between maximum and minimum flux values inside the phantom ((phi(max)/phi(min)) was 3.8; this value can be lowered to 2.3 by rotating the liver during the irradiation. In this study, the authors proposed a new facility configuration to achieve a uniform thermal neutron flux distribution in the liver. They showed that a phi(max)/phi(min) ratio of 1.4 could be obtained without the need for organ rotation. Flux distributions and dose volume histograms were reported for different graphite configurations. PMID:18196797

  14. Insights into the use of gadolinium and gadolinium/boron-based agents in imaging-guided neutron capture therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deagostino, Annamaria; Protti, Nicoletta; Alberti, Diego; Boggio, Paolo; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is done with (10)B, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary treatment combining neutron irradiation with the delivery of boron-containing compounds to tumors. Currently, the use of Gd for NCT has been getting more attention because of its highest neutron cross-section. Although Gd-NCT was first proposed many years ago, its development has suffered due to lack of appropriate tumor-selective Gd agents. This review aims to highlight the recent advances for the design, synthesis and biological testing of new Gd- and B-Gd-containing compounds with the task of finding the best systems able to improve the NCT clinical outcome. PMID:27195428

  15. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of 252Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from 252Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom

  16. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma; Chkillou, B.; Jehouani, A. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-04-15

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from {sup 252}Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom.

  17. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Chkillou, B; Jehouani, A

    2009-04-01

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from (252)Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom. PMID:19168369

  18. Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.; Kashino, G.; Liu, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.

    2009-06-01

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), 275 clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been performed as of March 2006, and the effectiveness of BNCT has been revealed. In order to further develop BNCT, it is desirable to supply accelerator-based epithermal-neutron sources that can be installed near the hospital. We proposed the method of filtering and moderating fast neutrons, which are emitted from the reaction between a beryllium target and 30-MeV protons accelerated by a cyclotron accelerator, using an optimum moderator system composed of iron, lead, aluminum and calcium fluoride. At present, an epithermal-neutron source is under construction from June 2008. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator, beam transport system, neutron-yielding target, filter, moderator and irradiation bed. In this article, an overview of this system and the properties of the treatment neutron beam optimized by the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code are presented. The distribution of biological effect weighted dose in a head phantom compared with that of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is shown. It is confirmed that for the accelerator, the biological effect weighted dose for a deeply situated tumor in the phantom is 18% larger than that for KUR, when the limit dose of the normal brain is 10 Gy-eq. The therapeutic time of the cyclotron-based neutron sources are nearly one-quarter of that of KUR. The cyclotron-based epithermal-neutron source is a promising alternative to reactor-based neutron sources for treatments by BNCT.

  19. Dynamic infrared imaging of the skin reaction in melanoma patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project conducted jointly by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and the oncology institute A. Roffo, Argentina, we have recently started a program designed to investigate the ability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up our cutaneous melanoma patients. BNCT offers a unique opportunity to study the response of the integumentary system to single fractions and high doses of neutrons and heavy ions, providing information that could be potentially important in radiation accidents for people exposed to these kinds of radiation fields. Medical infrared thermography is a non-invasive and functional imaging method, that provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that appear as differences in the skin infrared emission. Although it is highly sensitive, it is unspecific, like other conventional imaging techniques. For this reason, infrared thermography must be employed as an adjunct method to other diagnostic procedures and the clinical observation. An infrared camera is employed, with an uncooled ferroelectric focal plane array of 320x240 detector elements, providing a video signal of the infrared emission in the 8-14 μm wavelength band. After patient preparation and acclimation, a basal study of the irradiated region is performed, including high and low dose areas, as well as normal and tumor tissues, and eventually other detectable structures (e.g. scars and veins). Thereafter, a provocation test (a cold stimulus) is applied and the temperature recovery is registered as a function of time. In addition, a 3D computational dosimetry of the irradiated region is performed, which allows a complete representation of the isodose contours mapped onto the 3D reconstruction representing the skin. This reconstruction permits selecting regions of different doses for studying the local response

  20. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vujic, J L; Greenspan, E; Guess, S; Karni, Y; Kastenber, W E; Kim, L; Leung, K N; Regev, D; Verbeke, J M; Waldron, W L; Zhu, Y

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  1. New concepts for compact accelerator/target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new target concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, that enable a large reduction in the proton beam current needed to produce epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) are described. In the NIFTI concept, high energy neutrons produced by (p, n) reactions of 2.5 MeV protons on Li are down scattered to treatment energies (∼ 20 keV) by relatively thin layers of PbF2 and iron. In the DISCOS concept, treatment energy neutrons are produced directly in a succession of thin (∼ 1 micron) liquid Li films on rotating Be foils. These foils interact with a proton beam that operates just above threshold for the (p, n) reaction, with an applied DC field to re-accelerate the proton beam between the target foils

  2. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly

  3. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  4. The design, construction and performance of a variable collimator for epithermal neutron capture therapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Ali, S. J.; Harling, O. K.

    2004-05-01

    A patient collimator for the fission converter based epithermal neutron beam (FCB) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) was built for clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A design was optimized by Monte Carlo simulations of the entire beam line and incorporates a modular construction for easy modifications in the future. The device was formed in-house by casting a mixture of lead spheres (7.6 mm diameter) in epoxy resin loaded with either 140 mg cm-3 of boron carbide or 210 mg cm-3 of lithium fluoride (95% enriched in 6Li). The cone shaped collimator allows easy field placement anywhere on the patient and is equipped with a laser indicator of central axis, beam's eye view optics and circular apertures of 80, 100, 120 and 160 mm diameter. Beam profiles and the collateral dose in a half-body phantom were measured for the 160 mm field using fission counters, activation foils as well as tissue equivalent (A-150) and graphite walled ionization chambers. Leakage radiation through the collimator contributes less than 10% to the total collateral dose up to 0.15 m beyond the edge of the aperture and becomes relatively more prominent with lateral displacement. The measured whole body dose equivalent of 24 ± 2 mSv per Gy of therapeutic dose is comparable to doses received during conventional therapy and is due principally (60-80%) to thermal neutron capture reactions with boron. These findings, together with the dose distributions for the primary beam, demonstrate the suitability of this patient collimator for BNCT.

  5. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×106 n/cm2 shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. - Highlights: • Feasibility of using laser-accelerated proton beam for BNCT has been investigated. • The considered beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ~2×106 (n/cm2.shot). • For BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz

  6. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure.

  7. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika [Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Maekitie, Antti [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Revitzer, Hannu [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Esopo (Finland); Kouri, Mauri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.fi [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT

  11. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  12. Impact of intra-arterial administration of boron compounds on dose-volume histograms in boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head-and-neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of head-and-neck tumors treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to determine the advantage of the intra-arterial (IA) route over the intravenous (IV) route as a drug delivery system for BNCT. Methods and Materials: Fifteen BNCTs for 12 patients with recurrent head-and-neck tumors were included in the present study. Eight irradiations were done after IV administration of boronophenylalanine and seven after IA administration. The maximal, mean, and minimal doses given to the gross tumor volume were assessed using a BNCT planning system. Results: The results are reported as median values with the interquartile range. In the IA group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 68.7 Gy-Eq (range, 38.8-79.9), 45.0 Gy-Eq (range, 25.1-51.0), and 13.8 Gy-Eq (range, 4.8-25.3), respectively. In the IV group, the maximal, mean, and minimal dose given to the gross tumor volume was 24.2 Gy-Eq (range, 21.5-29.9), 16.4 Gy-Eq (range, 14.5-20.2), and 7.8 Gy-Eq (range, 6.8-9.5), respectively. Within 1-3 months after BNCT, the responses were assessed. Of the 6 patients in the IV group, 2 had a partial response, 3 no change, and 1 had progressive disease. Of 4 patients in the IA group, 1 achieved a complete response and 3 a partial response. Conclusion: Intra-arterial administration of boronophenylalanine is a promising drug delivery system for head-and-neck BNCT

  13. Neutron capture therapy. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art report on neutron capture therapy. Summarizes the progress made in recent decades. Multidisciplinary approach. Written by the most experienced specialists Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is based on the ability of the non-radioactive isotope boron-10 to capture thermal neutrons with very high probability and immediately to release heavy particles with a path length of one cell diameter. This in principle allows for tumor cell-selective high-LET particle radiotherapy. NCT is exciting scientifically but challenging clinically, and a key factor in success is close collaboration among very different disciplines. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the progress made in NCT in recent years. Individual sections cover all important aspects, including neutron sources, boron chemistry, drugs for NCT, dosimetry, and radiation biology. The use of NCT in a variety of malignancies and also some non-malignant diseases is extensively discussed. NCT is clearly shown to be a promising modality at the threshold of wider clinical application. All of the chapters are written by experienced specialists in language that will be readily understood by all participating disciplines.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Furuya, Y. [Department of Surgery, Satukidai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Local recurrence breast cancer is one of the most difficult conditions to cure and there is a need for new therapy. If sufficient boron compound can be targeted to the tumor, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be applied to local recurrent breast cancer. In this study, we performed a preliminary dosimetry with a phantom model of the mammary gland at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), and a feasibility dosimetry with JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute. We performed preliminary dosimetry of a phantom model of the mammary gland with thermal neutron irradiation (OO-0011 mode) on LiF collimation at KUR. The thermal neutron flux was 5.16 E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the surface of phantom. The blood boron concentration is estimated to be 30 ppm; tumor boron concentration is also estimated to be 90 ppm according to tumor/blood ratio 3 and skin/blood ratio 1.2. Tumor RBE dose is estimated to be 47 Gy/h, and skin RBE dose is 12.4 Gy/h. In case of advanced breast cancer, we performed the feasibility estimation of 3D construction of tumor according to the MRI imaging of a patient with epithermal neutron mode at JRR4. The blood boron concentration (ppm) and tumor/normal tissue ratio are estimated to be 24 and 3.5, respectively. Skin RBE dose is restricted to 10 Gy/h, the maximum tumor RBE dose, minimum tumor RBE dose, and mean tumor RBE dose are 42.2, 11.3, and 28.9 Gy-Eq, respectively, in half hour irradiation. In this study, we showed the possibility to apply BNCT to local recurrent breast cancer. We can irradiate tumors selectively and as safely as possible, reducing the effects on neighboring healthy tissues.

  15. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  16. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  17. Medical aspects of boron-slow neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier radiations of patients with cerebral tumors disclosed the need: (1) to find a carrier of the boron compound which would leave the blood and concentrate in the tumor, (2) to use a more penetrating neutron beam, and (3) to develop a much faster method for assaying boron in blood and tissue. To some extent number1 has been accomplished in the form of Na2 B12 H11 SH, number2 has yet to be achieved, and number3 has been solved by the measurement of the 478-keV gamma ray when the 10B atom disintegrates following its capture of a slow neutron. The hitherto unreported data in this paper describe through the courtesy of Professor Hiroshi Hatanaka his studies on the pharmacokinetics and quality control of Na2 B12 H11SH based on 96 boron infusions in 86 patients. Simultaneous blood and tumor data are plotted here for 30 patients with glioblastomas (Grade III-IV gliomas), illustrating remarkable variability. Detailed autopsy findings on 18 patients with BNCT showed radiation injury in only 1. Clinical results in 12 of the most favorably situated glioblastomas reveal that 5 are still alive with a 5-year survival rate of 58% and the excellent Karnofsky performance rating of 87%. For the first time evidence is presented that slow-growing astrocytomas may benefit from BNCT. 10 references, 8 figures, 5 tables

  18. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours.

  19. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, M.

    2010-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy that has mainly been used to treat malignant brain tumours, melanomas, and head and neck cancer. In BNCT, the patient receives an intravenous infusion of a 10B-carrier, which accumulates in the tumour area. The tumour is irradiated with epithermal or thermal neutrons, which result in a boron neutron capture reaction that generates heavy particles to damage tumour cells. In Finland, boronophenylalanine fructose (BPA-F) is used as the 10B-carrier. Currently, the drifting of boron from blood to tumour as well as the spatial and temporal accumulation of boron in the brain, are not precisely known. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) could be used for selective BPA-F detection and quantification as aromatic protons of BPA resonate in the spectrum region, which is clear of brain metabolite signals. This study, which included both phantom and in vivo studies, examined the validity of 1H MRS as a tool for BPA detection. In the phantom study, BPA quantification was studied at 1.5 and 3.0 T with single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T with magnetic resonance imaging (MRSI). The detection limit of BPA was determined in phantom conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T using MRSI. In phantom conditions, BPA quantification accuracy of +- 5% and +- 15% were achieved with single voxel MRS using external or internal (internal water signal) concentration references, respectively. For MRSI, a quantification accuracy of <5% was obtained using an internal concentration reference (creatine). The detection limits of BPA in phantom conditions for the PRESS sequence were 0.7 (3.0 T) and 1.4 mM (1.5 T) mM with 20 x 20 single voxel MRS, and 1.0 mM with acquisition-weighted MRSI, respectively. In the in vivo study, an MRSI or single voxel MRS or both was performed for ten patients (patients 1-10) on the day of BNCT. Three patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and five patients had a recurrent or

  1. Recent advances in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since the discovery of the neutron. This paper briefly summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds with evident tumor specificity and extended biological half-lives. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT using band-pass filtered beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, XP.; Yu, BX; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J.; Zhang, GL.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, AW.; Li, CY.; Liu, WJ; Hu, T.; Lv, JG.

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimat...

  3. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  4. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  5. Tandem-ESQ for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the '7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. (author)

  6. Folate receptor-mediated boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for boron neutron capture therapy of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Congxin; Cai, Feng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Zhou, Yongmao; Zhang, Zizhu; Liu, Xiaohai; Ma, Sihai; Yang, Yakun; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Bao, Xinjie; Li, Guilin; Wei, Junji; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2013-02-01

    Invasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are difficult to completely resect and often develop tumor recurrence after initial surgery. Currently, no medications are clinically effective in the control of NFPA. Although radiation therapy and radiosurgery are useful to prevent tumor regrowth, they are frequently withheld because of severe complications. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy that selectively and maximally damages tumor cells without harming the surrounding normal tissue. Folate receptor (FR)-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles is a novel boron delivery agent that can be selectively taken up by FR-expressing cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. In this study, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles were selectively taken up by NFPAs cells expressing FR but not other types of non-FR expressing pituitary adenomas. After incubation with boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles and following irradiation with thermal neutrons, the cell viability of NFPAs was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were simultaneously increased. However, cells administered the same dose of FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles without neutron irradiation or received the same neutron irradiation alone did not show significant decrease in cell viability or increase in apoptotic cells. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated and the expression of Bax was up-regulated in NFPAs after treatment with FR-mediated BNCT. In conclusion, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles may be an ideal delivery system of boron to NFPAs cells for BNCT. Furthermore, our study also provides a novel insight into therapeutic strategies for invasive NFPA refractory to conventional therapy, while exploring these new applications of BNCT for tumors, especially benign tumors.

  7. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  8. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are amphiphilic

  9. Neutron capture therapy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since shortly after the discovery of the neutron. This paper summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds designed to serve as vehicles for boron transport to tumor. Whole-body (mouse) Neutron Capture Radiograms (NCR) of some of the most promising compounds are presented; these graphically demonstrate selective uptake in tumor, at times varying from hours to days post administration. Comparison is made to the ubiquitous distribution of inorganic boron compounds used in the first clinical trials of NCT. Since some compounds are now available that allow physiological targeting of boron to tumor at concentrations adequate for therapy, the NCR technique can be used to evaluate important questions concerning the microdistribution of boron within the tumor. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT by using band-pass filtered neutron beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 35 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  10. Multiphysics Analysis of the 2.5 MeV BNCT RFQ Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowen, Zhu; Kun, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), is an advanced cancer therapy that destroys the cancer tumors using the well-known Li(p,n)Be . Because of the highly selectively reaction between a boron and a neutron, BNCT is effective for rapidly spreading cancer, invasive carcinoma, such as head and neck cancer, melanoma, malignant brain tumors and so on. The PKU RFQ group proposes an RFQ based neutron source for BNCT application. The 162.5 MHz four-vane RFQ will accelerate 20-mA H+ from 35.0 keV to 2.50 MeV in CW mode, and delivers a neutron yield of 1.73*10^13 n/sec/cm^2. The thermal management will become the most important issues. The detailed multiphysics analysis of the BNCT RFQ will be studied, and the RFQ frequency shift during nominal operating condition is also predicted. The multiphysics analysis is performed by using the CST Multiphysics Model and verified with ANSYS Multiphysics.

  11. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18F (T1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  12. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  13. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  14. Assessment of dose rate scaling factors used in NCTPlan treatment planning code for the BNCT beam of THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has been used to investigate the feasibility and to enhance the technology of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for years. A rebuilt epithermal beam port for BNCT at THOR was finished in the summer of 2004, and then researches and experiments were performed to hasten the first clinical treatment case of BNCT in Taiwan in the near future. NCTPlan, a Monte Carlo-based clinical treatment planning code, was used to calculate the dose-rate distributions of BNCT in this work. A self-made Snyder head phantom with a servo-motor control system was irradiated in front of the THOR BNCT beam exit. The phantom was made from a 3 mm shell of quartz wool impregnated with acrylic casting resin mounted on an acrylic base, and was filled with water. Gold foils (bare and cadmium-covered) and paired ion chambers (one with graphite wall and filled with CO2 gas, another with A-150 plastic tissue equivalent wall and filled with tissue equivalent gas) were placed inside the Snyder phantom to measure and estimate the depth-dose distributions in the central axis of the beam. Dose components include the contribution of thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, photons and emitted α particles from 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. Comparison and analysis between computed and measured results of depth-dose distributions were made in this work. Dose rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were defined as normalization factors derived individually for each dose component in the BNCT in-phantom radiation field that provide the best agreement between measured and computed data. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry and the determined DRSFs used in NCTPlan code for the BNCT beam of THOR.

  15. Comparison of intracerebral delivery of carboplatin and photon irradiation with an optimized regimen for boron neutron capture therapy of the F98 rat glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rolf F., E-mail: rolf.barth@osumc.edu [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yang Weilian; Huo Tianyao [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Riley, Kent J.; Binns, Peter J. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grecula, John C., E-mail: john.grecula@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Gupta, Nilendu, E-mail: nilendu.gupta@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Rousseau, Julia, E-mail: julia.rousseau@yahoo.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Elleaume, Helene, E-mail: h.elleaume@esrf.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    In this report we have summarized our studies to optimize the delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of F98 glioma bearing rats. These results have been compared to a chemoradiotherapeutic approach using the same tumor model. The best survival data from our BNCT studies were obtained using a combination of BPA and sodium borocaptate BSH administered via the internal carotid artery, in combination with blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D). This treatment resulted in a mean survival time (MST) of 140 d with a 25% cure rate. The other approach combined intracerebral administration of carboplatin by either convection enhanced delivery (CED) or Alzet pump infusion, followed by external beam photon irradiation. This resulted in MSTs of 83 d and 112 d, respectively, with a cure rate of 40% for the latter. However, a significant problem that must be solved for both BNCT and this new chemoradiotherapeutic approach is how to improve drug uptake and microdistribution within the tumor.

  16. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p < 0.05). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Elshahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensions of the moderator and the reflector were optimized through optimization of epithermal / fast neutron intensity ratio as a function of geometric parameters of the setup. Results: The results of our calculation showed the capability of our setup to treat the tumor within 4 cm of the head surface. The calculated peak therapeutic ratio for the setup was found to be 2.15. Conclusion: With further improvement in the polyethylene moderator design and brain phantom irradiation arrangement, the setup capabilities can be improved to reach further deep-seated tumor.

  18. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  19. Gamma/neutron dose evaluation using Fricke gel and alanine gel dosimeters to be applied in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiosurgery is a non-invasive surgery carried out by means of directed beams of ionizing radiation. This procedure was developed since there are many diseases for which conventional surgical treatment can not be applied, due to difficult or vital structures being damaged. Neutron radiation from nuclear reactors is used in a kind of radiosurgery called Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of brain tumours which depends on the interaction of slow neutrons with 10B isotope injected in the tumour to produce alpha particles. Gel Dosimetry allows three-dimensional (3D) measurement of absorbed dose in tissueequivalent dosimeter phantoms. The measure technique is based on the transformation of ferrous ions (Fe2+) and ferric ions (Fe3+). The ferric ions concentration can be measured by spectrophotometry technique comparing the two wavelengths, 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions concentration and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration. This work aims to study the gamma/neutron reactor dose relationship to be applied in BNCT using gel dosimeters. The Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) and Alanine Gel (AG) gel solutions produced at IPEN using gelatine 300 bloom were mixed with Na2B4O7 salt containing 19,9% of 10B isotope. This solutions were used to evaluate thermal and epithermal neutrons and gamma doses at an irradiation cell on BH3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN

  20. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  1. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  2. Postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten Irradiation Facility (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is based on the reaction occurring between the isotope 10B and thermal neutrons. A low energy neutron is captured by the nucleus and it disintegrates into two densely ionising particles, Li nucleus and He nucleus (α particle), with high biological effectiveness. On the basis of comprehensive preclinical investigations in the frame of the European Collaboration with Na2B12H11SH (BSH), as boron delivery agent, the first European phase I, clinical trial was designed at the only available epithermal beam in Europe, at the High Flux Reactor, Petten, in the Netherland. The goal of this study is to establish the safe BNCT dose for cranial tumors under defined conditions. BNCT is applied as postoperative radiotherapy in 4 fractions, after removal of the tumor for a group of patients suffering from glioblastoma, who would have no benefit from conventional treatment, but have sufficient life expectancy to detect late radiation morbidity due to BNCT. The starting dose is set at 80% of the dose where neurological effects occured in preclinical large animal experiments following a single fraction. The radiation dose will be escalated, by constant boron concentration in blood, in 4 steps for cohorts of ten patients, after an observation period of at least 6 months after the end of BNCT of the last patient of a cohort. The adverse events on healthy tissues due to BSH and due to the radiotherapy will be analysed in order to establish the maximal tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity. Besides of the primary aim of this study the survival will be recorded. The first patient was treated in October 1997, and further four patients have been irradiated to date. The protocol design proved to be well applicable, establishing the basis for scientific evaluation, for performance of safe patient treatment in a very complex situation and for opening the possibility to perform further clinical research work on BNCT. (orig.)

  3. Characteristics of a heavy water photoneutron source in boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danial Salehi; Dariush Sardari; M.Salehi Jozani

    2013-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators are currently the most commonly used method of radiation therapy for cancerous tumors.Photons with energies greater than 8-10 MeV potentially generate neutrons through photonuclear interactions in the accelerator's treatment head,patient's body,and treatment room ambient.Electrons impinging on a heavy target generate a cascade shower of bremsstrahlung photons,the energy spectrum of which shows an end point equal to the electron beam energy.By varying the target thickness,an optimum thickness exists for which,at the given electron energy,maximum photon flux is achievable.If a source of high-energy photons i.e.bremsstrahlung,is conveniently directed to a suitable D2O target,a novel approach for production of an acceptable flux of filterable photoneturons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application is possible.This study consists of two parts.1.Comparison and assessment of deuterium photonuclear cross section data.2.Evaluation of the heavy water photonuclear source.

  4. A Small-Animal Irradiation Facility for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at the RA-3 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) has constructed a thermal neutron source for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CNEA have jointly conducted some initial neutronic characterization measurements for one particular configuration of this source. The RA-3 reactor (Figure 1) is an open pool type reactor, with 20% enriched uranium plate-type fuel and light water coolant. A graphite thermal column is situated on one side of the reactor as shown. A tunnel penetrating the graphite structure enables the insertion of samples while the reactor is in normal operation. Samples up to 14 cm height and 15 cm width are accommodated

  5. For boron neutron capture therapy,synthesizing boron-polymer compounds and testing in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to establish a focus point at Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) in the field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy which is a binary radiotherapy method for brain tumours. Moreover in the scope of the project, a new alternative of 10B-carrier compounds will be synthesized, the neutron source will be determined and the infrastructure to start the clinical trials of BNCT in our country will be established. BNCT is a binary radiotherapy method and the successful of this method is depend on the synthesized boron compounds which have the selective targeting property with tumour cells and neutron optimization. The water-soluble polymer based boron compounds having biochemical and physiological properties will be synthesized and cell culture experiment will be done. In addition, after the neutron source is set up in our country, the infrastructure studies will be started in order to start the clinical trials of BNCT. In this project, there are three different groups as boron compounds, neutron physics and medical group. Neutron physics group is starting the calculations of neutron beam parameters using in BNCT application. But, medical group has no active studies yet. Boron compounds group has been carried out two different experimental studies. In the first experimental study, functional groups have been bound to boron containing polymers to enhance the selectively targeting property and characterized by various analysis methods. Later, cell culture experiment will be done. The first study has been carried out with Hacettepe University. Up to present, completed studies are listed as: -Maleic anhydride oligomer was synthesized and then 2-aminoethyl diphenyl borate (2-AEPB) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was bound to this oligomer, respectively. Thus, [MAH]n-g1-2-AEPB-g2-PEG was synthesized. -2-AEPB compound were bound to poly(acrylic acid) polymer at different three mole ratio.Then, the selected Poli(Ac)-g1-2-AEPB polymer was

  6. Boron thermal/epithermal neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of various particle beams for radiotherapy represents an attempt to improve dose distribution, and to provide high LET radiations which are less sensitive to ambient physical and radiobiological factors such as oxygen tension, cell cycle, and dose rate. In general, a compromise is necessary as effective RBE is reduced in order to spread the dose distribution over the anticipated tumor volume. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, and then activating these atoms subsequently via an external radiation beam has mator advantages; problems associated with high uptake of these isotopes in competing cell pools are obviated, and the general tumor volume can be included in the treatment field of the activating beam. As long as the normal tissues supporting tumor show a low uptake of the isotope to be activated, and as long as the range of the reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to tumor, with a consequent high therapeutic ratio. Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) is generally carried out by activating boron-10 with low energy neutrons. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the /sup 10/B(n, ..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is approx. 10..mu.., or one cell diameter, a situation that is optimal for cell killing. Significant advantages may be gained by using the NCT procedure in conjunction with improved tissue penetration provided with epithermal or filtered beams, and new compounds showing physiological binding to tumor.

  7. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  8. Discrimination of various contributions to the absorbed dose in BNCT: Fricke-gel imaging and intercomparison with other experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it; Agosteo, S.; Marchesi, P.; Nava, E.; Palazzi, P.; Pecci, A.; Rosi, G.; Tinti, R

    2000-11-15

    A method is described for the 3D measurements of absorbed dose in a ferrous sulphate gel phantom, exposed in the thermal column of a nuclear reactor. The method, studied for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) purposes, allows absorbed dose imaging and profiling, with the separation of different contributions coming from different secondary radiations, generated from thermal neutrons. In fact, the biological effectiveness of the different radiations is different. Tests with conventional dosimeters were performed too.

  9. Labelled compounds of interest as antitumour agents. Pt. 4: Deuteration and tritiation of a nitroimidazole-carborane designed for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching the anion generated from a 2-(ω-carboranylalkyl)dithiane with 2H2O at -78oC and at 0oC introduced deuterium exclusively at C-2 of the carborane. Extension of this model reaction to a bioreductively-targetted carborane allowed the synthesis of 2-[2H]- and 2-[3H]-isotopomers of a nitroimidazole-carborane which is of interest in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer. (author)

  10. AB-BNCT beam shaping assembly based on 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Accelerator Based-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) has been performed. The reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be has been considered using a proton beam on a lithium fluoride target. Proton energy and the dimensions of a simple BSA geometry have been varied to obtain a set of different configurations. The optimal configuration of this set is shown.

  11. AB-BNCT beam shaping assembly based on {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    A numerical optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Accelerator Based-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) has been performed. The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be has been considered using a proton beam on a lithium fluoride target. Proton energy and the dimensions of a simple BSA geometry have been varied to obtain a set of different configurations. The optimal configuration of this set is shown.

  12. BNCT-Project at the Finnish TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epithermal neutron irradiation station for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) will be constructed in the thermal column of the Finnish Triga reactor. The first target of the BNCT at FiR 1 is the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The epithermal neutrons have the capability to penetrate deep into the brain tissue thermalizing at the same time. The thermal neutrons are captured by 10B-nuclei situated ideally in the tumor cells only and thus the reaction products destroy selectively only the tumor cells. The graphite filling of the thermal column will be replaced by a special moderator material: Al+AlF3. The moderator material and its thickness has been chosen so that the system produces as much as possible epithermal neutrons with low fast neutron and gamma contamination. Both fast neutrons and gamma radiation are harmful for the patient. To reduce the gamma radiation there is a lead-bismuth gamma shield at the outer end of the moderator block. In spite of the low power (250 kW) of the reactor the needed epithermal neutron dose to destroy the tumor will be accumulated in a reasonable time e.g. 0.5 to 1.5 h. This is possible because of the rather short distance between the reactor core and the irradiation target. (author)

  13. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO and medical research in BNCT; development of the technique for boron concentration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Dong; Byun, Soo Hyun; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Suk Kwon; Kim, In Jung; Park, Chang Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective and Necessity of the Project- Development of a boron concentration analysis facility used for BNCT. - Development of the technique for boron concentration analysis. Contents and Scopes of the Project - Construction of the boron concentration analysis facility based on PGAA. Estimation of the neutron beam characteristics. -Establishment of the technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Estimation of the reliability for the boron analysis. Results of the Project -Installation of the boron concentration analysis facility at Hanaro. - Neutron beam characteristics are the sample position (neutron flux : 7.9 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s, Cd-ratio : 266) Technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Boron detection sensitivity and limit (detection sensitivity : 2, 131 cps/mg-B, detection limit : 67 ng for 10,000 sec). 63 refs., 37 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  14. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  15. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  16. Combined TL and 10B-alanine ESR dosimetry for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, A; D'Oca, M C; Lo Giudice, B; Brai, M; Borio, R; Forini, N; Salvadori, P; Manera, S

    2004-01-01

    The dosimetric technique described in this paper is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors using an alanine-boric compound acid enriched with (10)B, and beryllium oxide thermoluminescent (TL) detectors; with this combined dosimetry, it is possible to discriminate the doses due to thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in a mixed field. Irradiations were carried out inside the thermal column of a TRIGA MARK II water-pool-type research nuclear reactor, also used for Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) applications, with thermal neutron fluence from 10(9) to 10(14) nth cm(-2). The ESR dosemeters using the alanine-boron compound indicated ESR signals about 30-fold stronger than those using only alanine. Moreover, a negligible correction for the gamma contribution, measured with TL detectors, almost insensitive to thermal neutrons, was necessary. Therefore, a simultaneous analysis of our TL and ESR detectors allows discrimination between thermal neutron and gamma doses, as required in BNCT. PMID:15353720

  17. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  18. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  19. Nuclear Physics meets Medicine and Biology: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    F. Ballarini, F; S. Bortolussi, S; P. Bruschi, P; A.M. Clerici, A M; A. De Bari, A; P. Dionigi, P; C. Ferrari, C; M.A. Gadan, M A; N. Protti, N; S. Stella, S; C. Zonta, C; A. Zonta, A; S. Altieri, S

    2010-01-01

    BNCT is a tumour treatment based on thermal-neutron irradiation of tissues enriched with 10B, which according to the 10B(n, )7Li reaction produces particles with high Linear Energy Transfer and short range. Since this treatment can deliver a therapeutic tumour dose sparing normal tissues, BNCT represents an alternative for diffuse tumours and metastases, which show poor response to surgery and photontherapy. In 2001 and 2003, in Pavia BNCT was applied to an isolated liver, which was infused with boron, explanted, irradiated and re-implanted. A new project was then initiated for lung tumours, developing a protocol for Boron concentration measurements and performing organ-dose Monte Carlo calculations; in parallel, radiobiology studies are ongoing to characterize the BNCT effects down to cellular level. After a brief introduction, herein we will present the main activities ongoing in Pavia including the radiobiological ones, which are under investigation not only experimentally but also theoretically, basing on...

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy: An interdisciplinary co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international (European) undertaking in BNCT in the Netherlands has required close scrutiny of the organisational structure required to establish BNCT facilities. The multidisciplinary co-operation and the tasks of the participants in the hospital (Radiation Oncologist, Medical Physicist, Pharmacist and other medical and paramedical staff) and those attached to the reactor) are described. The organisational structure and regulatory aspects required for the international functioning of the Petten treatment facility are provided for guidance to new projects in this field. (author)

  1. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  2. Retrospective review of the clinical BNCT trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Ma, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The primary objective of the phase I/II dose escalation studies was to evaluate the safety of the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A secondary objective was to retrospectively assess the palliation of GBM by BNCT. Fifty-three subjects with GBM were treated under multiple dose escalation protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Twenty-six subjects were treated using one field, 17 subjects were treated using 2 fields and 10 subjects were treated using 3 fields. BPA-F related toxicity was not observed. The maximum radiation dose to a volume of approximately 1 cc of the normal brain varied from 8.9 to 15.9 gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq). The volume-weighted average radiation dose to normal brain varied from 1.9 to 9.5 Gy-Eq. Six RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 or 4 toxicities were attributed to BNCT. Four of the 53 subjects are still alive with 3 of them free of recurrent disease with over two years follow-up. The median times to progression and median survival time from diagnosis were 28.4 weeks and 12.8 months respectively. (author)

  3. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu

    2006-08-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm{sup 2} treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm {sup 10}B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm{sup 2} fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm{sup 2} tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm {sup 10}B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The measured dose enhancement at 5.0-cm depth

  4. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  5. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  6. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  7. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the 'B(n,a)'Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term open-quotes compound biological effectivenessclose quotes (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a open-quotes boron localization factorclose quotes, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq)

  8. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  9. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin (∼ 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs

  10. Demonstration of three-dimensional deterministic radiation transport theory dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo stochastic simulation technique has traditionally been the only well-recognized method for computing three-dimensional radiation dose distributions in connection with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research. A deterministic approach to this problem would offer some advantages over the Monte Carlo method. This paper describes an application of a deterministic method to analytically simulate BNCT treatment of a canine head phantom using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven medical research reactor (BMRR). Calculations were performed with the TORT code from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an implementation of the discrete ordinates, or Sn method. Calculations were from first principles and used no empirical correction factors. The phantom surface was modeled by flat facets of approximately 1 cm2. The phantom interior was homogeneous. Energy-dependent neutron and photon scalar fluxes were calculated on a 32x16x22 mesh structure with 96 discrete directions in angular phase space. The calculation took 670 min on an Apollo DN10000 workstation. The results were subsequently integrated over energy to obtain full three-dimensional dose distributions. Isodose contours and depth-dose curves were plotted for several separate dose components of interest. Phantom measurements were made by measuring neutron activation (and therefore neutron flux) as a function of depth in copper--gold alloy wires that were inserted through catheters placed in holes drilled in the phantom. Measurements agreed with calculations to within about 15%. The calculations took about an order of magnitude longer than comparable Monte Carlo calculations but provided various conveniences, as well as a useful check

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  12. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  13. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  14. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  15. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  16. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  17. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel liposome containing BPA-peptide conjugate for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Makoto [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)], E-mail: m0720347@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yamamto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Aburai, Kenichi [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kawatobi, Sho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Tsurubuchi, Takao; Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, Yuusaku; Okuno, Hiroaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We aimed at securing sufficient concentrations of {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by developing a new drug delivery system. We have designed and developed a novel lipid analog and succeeded in using it to develop the new boron component liposome. It consisted of three different kinds of amino acid derivatives and two fatty acids, and could react directly with the peptide synthesized first on resin by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. In this study, lipid analog conjugated with HIV-TAT peptide (domain of human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) was synthesized and successfully incorporated into liposomes.

  19. In-phantom dosimetry for BNCT with Fricke and normoxic-polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, G.; Agosteo, S.; Carrara, M.; Gay, S.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Vanossi, E.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of in-phantom dose distributions and images are important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy treatment planning. The method for spatial determination of absorbed doses in thermal or epithermal neutron fields, based on Fricke-xylenol-orange-infused gel dosimeters in form of layers, has revealed to be very reliable, as gel layer dosimeters give the possibility of obtaining spatial dose distributions and measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields, by means of a properly studied procedure. Quite recently, BNCT has been applied to treat liver metastases; in this work the results of in-phantom dosimetry for explanted liver in BNCT treatments are described. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters in which a polymerization process appears as a consequence of absorbed dose, have been recently tested, because of their characteristic absence of diffusion. In fact, due to the diffusion of ferric ions, Fricke-gel dosimeters require prompt analysis after exposure to avoid spatial information loss. In this work the preliminary results of a study about the reliability of polymer gel in BNCT dosimetry are also discussed. Gel layers have been irradiated in a phantom exposed in the thermal column of the TRIGA MARK II reactor (Pavia). The results obtained with the two kinds of gel dosimeter have been compared.

  20. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  1. Growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer grafts in nude mice by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10B and thermal neutrons to release alpha-particles (4He) and lithium-7 ions (7Li). The 4He kills cells in the range of 10 μm from the site of 4He generation. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to kill tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy tissues, if 10B-compounds could be selectively delivered. We have described that 10B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes exerted cytotoxic effect on human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) in a dose-dependent manner by thermal neutron irradiation in vitro as reported previously. In the present study, the cytotoxic effect of a locally injected 10B compound solution or multilamellar liposomes containing a 10B compound to human pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in nude mice was evaluated after thermal neutron irradiation. AsPC-1 cells (1 x 107) injected subcutaneously into a nude mouse grew to a tumor weighing 100-300 mg after 2 weeks. At this time 200 μg 10B compounds was locally injected in the tumor and irradiated with 2 x 1012 n/cm2 thermal neutron. Tumor growth of 10B-treated groups was suppressed as compared with control group. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in the tumor tissues. For effective tumor destruction, 10B dose more than 60 μg was necessary. The tumor tissue injected with saline only and irradiated showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These data indicate that the accumulation of 10B atoms to the tumor site is mandatory for the cytotoxic effect by thermal neutron irradiation. (author)

  2. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Babcock, R.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland`s Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995.

  3. New carbon-carbon linked amphiphilic carboranyl-porphyrins as boron neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel amphiphilic carboranyl-porphyrins have been synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). These compounds have carbon-carbon bonds between the carborane residues and the porphyrin meso-phenyl groups, and contain 28-31% boron by weight . (author)

  4. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance. PMID:27467416

  5. Non-linear model for the kinetics of 10B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to create non-linear model for estimating the blood 10B time-concentration after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The models were applied to data from 8 patients who were part of the phase I BNCT clinical trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All patients received a two-hour infusion of BPA-F of 290 mg BPA/kg body weight, with the infusion speed adjusted to the body weight of each patient. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The model development is based on averaged and interpolated data from data sets of these patients

  6. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values.

  7. Recent progress of basic studies for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2001-01-01

    Epi-thermal neutron irradiation for malignant brain tumors is the mainstream of recent studies in boron neutron capture therapy. To improve the depth dose distribution in water phantom, a LiF plate (5 mmt, 6 cm {phi}) is located in the front of center axis of KUR irradiation field. Thermal neutron flux at the center surface of the water phantom is shielded by the LiF plate. The depth and peripheral dose distribution of thermal neutron flux becomes to uniform. The boron dose at 6 cm in the depths of the phantom increases to about 1.71 times greater than the usual irradiation field. Two-kinds of nuclear medicines, Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH(BSH) and Borono Phenyl Alanine (BPA), have been used for boron neutron capture therapy. BPA-ol, a new medicine of modified compound of the BPA can be used effectively on hyperthermia of cancer parts to 42 - 43degC. Cell death and mutagenesis of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) after pre-incubation with BPA and BSH are investigated for the validity of boron neutron capture therapy. The effects of BSH on the cell death and the mutagenesis are few in comparison with those of BPA. It is thought that the BSH is not accumulated in the cell. The effects of boron neutron capture therapy on sensitivity of intratumor quiescent and total cells are investigated. (Suetake, M.)

  8. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration

  9. Proceedings of the first international symposium on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Brownell, G.L. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This meeting was arranged jointly by MIT and BNL in order to illuminate progress in the synthesis and targeting of boron compounds and to evaluate and document progress in radiobiological and dosimetric aspects of neutron capture therapy. It is hoped that this meeting will facilitate transfer of information between groups working in these fields, and encourage synergistic collaboration.

  10. Conceptual design project: Accelerator complex for nuclear physics studies and boron neutron capture therapy application at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) Yerevan, Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avagyan, R.H.; Kerobyan, I.A.

    2015-07-15

    The final goal of the proposed project is the creation of a Complex of Accelerator Facilities at the Yerevan Physics Institute (CAF YerPhI) for nuclear physics basic researches, as well as for applied programs including boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The CAF will include the following facilities: Cyclotron C70, heavy material (uranium) target/ion source, mass-separator, LINAC1 (0.15–1.5 MeV/u) and LINAC2 (1.5–10 MeV/u). The delivered by C70 proton beams with energy 70 MeV will be used for investigations in the field of basic nuclear physics and with energy 30 MeV for use in applications.

  11. Apoptosis of human melanoma cells induced by boron neutron capture therapy%硼中子俘获疗法促人黑色素瘤细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷; 丁大冬; 李斌; 陈桂林; 韦永新; 谢学顺; 杨天权; 吴庭枫; 周幽心

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)体外杀伤人黑色素瘤细胞的效应及机制.方法 首先检测黑色素瘤细胞A375吸收含硼化合物二羟基苯丙氨酸硼(BPA)的情况,然后采用医院中子照射器(IHNI-1)对含硼(10B)细胞进行照射.克隆存活实验检测细胞的放射敏感性,MTT法检测细胞增殖率,流式细胞术检测凋亡,Western blot检测胞质内细胞色素C表达和caspase-9的激活.结果 BPA孵育24 h,A375细胞10B浓度为(2.884±0.148)μg/107个细胞,达到了BNCT杀伤细胞的要求.富含10B的细胞经中子照射2.1 min后存活分数降低为对照组的58%(t=2.964,P<0.05),细胞经中子照射后24 h增殖率下降为对照组的83%(t=3.286,P<0.05),BNCT组细胞凋亡率达(55.2±7.9)%,明显高于对照组(t =9.754,P<0.05),胞质内细胞色素C水平上升且caspase-9激活程度增加(t=7.625、8.307,P<0.05).结论 BNCT能够杀伤黑色素瘤细胞,其机制可能通过线粒体途径诱导细胞凋亡.%Objective To study the effect and underlying mechanism of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on human melanoma cells.Methods The situation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake of human melanoma cells A375 was detected and then the boron-10 (10B) enriched cells were irradiated by an in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI-1).The radiation sensitivity was measured using clonogenic survival assay,the proliferation was examined by MTT assay,apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry,and the protein expression of cytochrome C in cytosol and activation of caspase-9 was detected by Western blot.Results 10B concentration in A375 cells approached to (2.884 ± 0.148)μg/107 cells after 24 h culture with BPA,which met the requirement of BNCT.At 2.1 min after neutron radiation,the survival fraction of BNCT group was decreased to 58% of control (t =2.964,P < 0.05).At 24 h after BNCT,the cell viability was decreased to 83% of control (t =3.286,P < 0.05),the apoptosis ratio was (55.2 ± 7

  12. BNCT and dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some portion of the radiation dose received by a patient during BNCT consists of primary and secondary gammas. The biological effect of that portion of the dose will depend upon the time history of the delivered dose. The well-known models for relating time-dose effects to clinical experience, are of questionable value in understanding dose effects in the time regime of a few hours, and for doses of less than tolerance. In order to examine the time-dose effect in the regime of interest to BNCT a simple phenomenological model was developed and normalized to the accepted body of clinical experience. The model has been applied to the question of fractionation of BNCT and the results are presented. The model is simply a linear healing model with two time constants. In other words, a first hit of radiation is assumed to wound (or potentiate) a cell. Given time, the cell will fully repair itself. If a second hit occurs before the cell has healed, the cell is killed. Apparently, there are two kinds of healing, one which occurs in 30 to 60 minutes, the other in two to four days. A small fraction of the cells will die on the first hit

  13. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  14. Medical and biological requirements for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional radiation therapy, tumor doses applied to most solid tumors are limited by the tolerance of normal tissues. The promise of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy lies in its potential to deposit high doses of radiation very specifically to tumor tissue. Theoretically ratios of tumor to normal tissue doses can be achieved significantly higher than conventional radiotherapeutic techniques would allow. Effective dose distributions obtainable are a complex function of the neutron beam characteristics and the macro and micro distributions of boron in tumor and normal tissues. Effective RBE doses are calculated in tumors and normal tissue for thermal, epithermal and 2 keV neutrons

  15. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  16. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours. (author)

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  18. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile

  19. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reaction can be applied to the therapy and diagnosis about the tumor simultaneously. After the compound labeled with the boron is accumulated at the tumor site, the alpha particle induced by the reaction between the thermal neutron and the boron induces tumor cell death. Also, the 478 keV prompt gamma ray is emitted from the same reaction point. If this single prompt photon is detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the tomographic image of the therapy region can be monitored during the radiation treatment. However, in order to confirm the therapy region using the image during the treatment, the image needs to be provided promptly. Due to a relatively long acquisition time required to get SPECT images, both reduced number of projections and the fast image reconstruction schemes are needed to provide the images during radiation treatment. The computation time for image reconstruction using the GPU with the modified OSEM algorithm was measured and compared with the computation time using CPU. Through the results, we confirmed the feasibility of the image reconstruction for prompt gamma ray image using GPU for the BNCT. In the further study, the development of the algorithm for faster reconstruction of the prompt gamma ray image during the BNCT using the GPU computation will be conducted. Also, the analysis of the target to background level about the reconstructed image will be performed using the extracted image profile.

  20. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  1. Monte-Carlo simulation of primary stochastic effects induced at the cellular level in boron neutron capture therapy; Simulation Monte-Carlo des effets stochastiques primaires induits au niveau cellulaire lors de la therapie par capture de neutrons sur le {sup 10}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirioni, L.; Patau, J.P.; Nepveu, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1998-04-01

    A Monte Carlo code is developed to study the action of particles in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Our aim is to calculate the probability of dissipating a lethal dose in cell nuclei. Cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes are considered as non-concentric ellipsoids. All geometrical parameters may be adjusted to fit actual configurations. The reactions {sup 10}B(n,{gamma} {alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 14}N(n,p) {sup 14}C create heavy ions which slow clown losing their energy. Their trajectories can be simulated taking into account path length straggling. The contribution of each reaction to the deposited dose in different cellular compartments can be studied and analysed for any distribution of {sup 10}B. (authors)

  2. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.it; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in {sup 10}B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  3. 用于硼中子俘获治疗的超热中子束理论设计%Theoretical design of an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓敏; 潘洁; 宁静; 谢向东; 杨国山

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design a scheme of epithermal neutron beam used for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).Methods Based on Tsinghua University experimental reactor and its No.1 passage,five schemes comprised of moderate materials,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials were designed according to different locations of materials placed in No.1 passage.To select a proper scheme from five schemes,the neutron fluence rate,the neutron dose rate and γ dose rate at exit of beam in each scheme were calculated with Monte Carlo simulating methods and then contrasted with BNCT technique criterion.Results The scheme of epithermal neutron beam meeting technical requirements of BNCT was obtained,in which the thickness of moderate material,absorbing materials of thermal neutron and γ shielding materials are 53.5 cm,2 mm and 9 cm,respectively.Conclusions The theoretical scheme could provide some reference to realize BNCT on reactor.%目的 设计用于硼中子俘获治疗(BNCT)的超热中子束理论方案.方法 基于清华大学试验核反应堆,以其1号孔道为材料布放孔道,设计了由慢化材料、热中子吸收材料、γ屏蔽材料组成,但材料布放位置具有差异的5种理论方案;利用蒙特卡罗(MC)模拟方法,分别计算5种方案束出口处的中子注量率、剂量率及γ剂量率值,通过与BNCT技术指标对比,从5种方案中选择一种合适的方案.结果 得到了一个符合BNCT各项技术指标的超热中子束理论方案,其慢化材料厚度为53.5 cm、热中子吸收材料厚度为2 mm、γ屏蔽材料厚度为9 cm.结论 本研究给出的超热中子束理论方案为基于反应堆实现BNCT提供一定的理论参考.

  4. Boron imaging with a microstrip silicon detector for applications in BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, A.; Basilico, F.; Bolognini, D.; Borasio, P.; Cappelletti, P.; Chiari, P.; Conti, V.; Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S.; Giannini, G.; Hasan, S.; Mascagna, V.; Mauri, P.; Monti, A. F.; Mozzanica, A.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Scazzi, S.; Vallazza, E.; Zanini, A.

    2009-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique exploiting the α particles produced after the irradiation of the isotope 10 of boron with thermal neutrons in the capture reaction B(n,α)710Li. It is used to treat tumours that for their features (radioresistance, extension, localization near vital organs) cannot be treated through conventional photon-beams radiotherapy. One of the main limitations of this technique is the lack of specificity (i.e. the ability of localizing in tumour cells, saving the healthy tissues) of the compounds used to carry the 10B isotope in the organs to be treated. This work, developed in the framework of the INFN PhoNeS project, describes the possibility of boron imaging performed exploiting the neutrons photoproduced by a linac (the Clinac 2100C/D of the S. Anna Hospital Radiotherapy Unit in Como, Italy) and detecting the α s with a non-depleted microstrip silicon detector: the result is a 1D scan of the boron concentration. Several boron doped samples have been analysed, from solutions of H3BO3 (reaching a minimum detectable amount of 25 ng of 10B) to biological samples of urine containing BPA and BSH (the two molecules currently used for the clinical trials in BNCT) in order to build kinetic curves (showing the absolute 10B concentration as a function of time). Further measurements are under way to test the imaging system with 10BPA-Fructose complex perfused human lung samples.

  5. Design of a SPECT tomographic image system for online dosimetry in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a numerical analysis of a projected tomographic image system for online dose measurements in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In 94% of neutron capture reactions in boron, the 7Li ion is emitted in an excited state which decays through a characteristic 478 keV prompt gamma ray. In BNCT a large fraction of this radiation escapes from the patient body. Its detection is thus attractive for a noninvasive boron dose measurement and an online absorbed dose evaluation. For this purpose we have proposed a dedicated SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging system. The proposed system can obtain images of 21x21cm2 divided in 1x1cm2 pixels by measuring 20 projections with 41 bins each, with 8% uncertainties in reconstructed dose. (author)

  6. Determination of radiobiological parameters for the safe clinical application of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report the effects of BNCT irradiation on the skin and spinal cord of Fischer 344 rats, for known concentrations of 10B in the blood and these normal tissues, are compared with the effects of the neutron beam alone or photon irradiation. The biological effectiveness of irradiation in the presence of the capture agents BSH and BPA have been compared. Irradiations were carried out using the thermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Therapy experiments were also carried out as part of this study, using the rat 9L-gliosarcoma cell line, in order to establish the potential therapeutic advantage that might be achieved using the above capture agents. This cell line grows as a solid tumor in vivo as well as in vitro. The implications of these findings, with respect to the clinical use of the Petten HBII based epithermal neutron beam, will be discussed

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy; Radioterapia per cattura neutronica del boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattioda, F. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy); Merlone, A. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Burn, K.W.; Tinti, R. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. energia; Capannesi, G.; Rosi, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. innovazione; Casali, F.; Nava, E. [Bologna UNiv., Bologna (Italy); Gambarini, G. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    Boron radiotherapy in cancer treatment and the feasibility of using the Tapiro reactor as a neutron source is discussed. In particle, the article aims to focus attention on the possibility using ENEA's (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Tapiro reactor, appropriately modified, as a suitable neutron source for the experimental phase of boron neutron capture therapy in Italy. [Italian] Sono presentati gli studi sulla radioterapia per cattura neutronica del boro nella cura di alcune neoplasie e l'utilizzo del reattore Tapiro come sorgente di neutroni nel progetto italiano di ricerca condotto dall'ENEA.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report

  9. Non-linear model for the kinetics of {sup 10}B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, P.; Savolainen, S. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Department of Physics; Hiismaeki, P. [VTT Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to create non-linear model for estimating the blood {sup 10}B time-concentration after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The models were applied to data from 8 patients who were part of the phase I BNCT clinical trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All patients received a two-hour infusion of BPA-F of 290 mg BPA/kg body weight, with the infusion speed adjusted to the body weight of each patient. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The model development is based on averaged and interpolated data from data sets of these patients.

  10. A micro-PET/CT approach using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine in an experimental animal model of F98 glioma for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L., E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Petroni, D.; Panetta, D. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Burchielli, S. [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Matteucci, M. [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Pascali, G.; Del Turco, S. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Altieri, S. [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salvadori, P.A. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The present study focuses on a micro-PET/CT application to be used for experimental Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which integrates, in the same frame, micro-CT derived anatomy and PET radiotracer distribution. Preliminary results have demonstrated that {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-tyrosine (FET)/PET allows the identification of the extent of cerebral lesions in F98 tumor bearing rat. Neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectrometry on axial tissues slices confirmed the tumor localization and extraction, after the administration of fructose-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Therefore, FET-PET approach can be used to assess the transport, the net influx, and the accumulation of FET, as an aromatic amino acid analog of BPA, in experimental animal model. Coregistered micro-CT images allowed the accurate morphological localization of the radiotracer distribution and its potential use for experimental BNCT.

  11. Feasibility of BNCT radiobiological experiments at the HYTHOR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J.; Ceballos, C.; Soncin, M.; Fabris, C.; Friso, E.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Jori, G.; Rosi, G.; Nava, E.

    2008-06-01

    HYTHOR (HYbrid Thermal spectrum sHifter tapirO Reactor) is a new thermal-neutron irradiation facility, which was installed and became operative in mid 2005 at the TAPIRO (TAratura PIla Rapida potenza 0) fast reactor, in the Casaccia research centre (near Rome) of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie Energia ed Ambiente). The facility has been designed for in vivo radiobiological studies. In HYTHOR irradiation cavity, 1-6 mice can be simultaneously irradiated to study skin melanoma treatments with the BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy). The therapeutic effects of HYTHOR radiation field on mouse melanoma has been studied as a preliminary investigation before studying the tumour local control due to boron neutron capture effect after boronated molecule injection. The method to properly irradiate small animals has been precisely defined. Results show that HYTHOR radiation field is by itself effective in reducing the tumour-growth rate. This finding has to be taken into account in studying the effectiveness of new 10B carriers. A method to properly measure the reduction of the tumour-growth rate is reported and discussed.

  12. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyNT = 1,35x108 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10-10 Gy/NT and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10-14 Gy/NT. (author)

  13. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  14. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  15. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  16. Design of a plate type fuel based - low power medical reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been renewed for cancer therapy with some indication of its potential efficacy in recent years. To solve the most important problem that thermal neutrons are attenuated rapidly in tissue due to absorption and scattering, thermal neutron beams are replaced by epithermal neutron beams. Thus, epithermal neutron beams are directed towards a patient's head, during their passage through tissue these neutrons rapidly lose energy by elastic scattering until they end up as thermal neutrons in target tumor volume. The thermal neutrons thus formed, are captured by the 10B atoms which become 11B atoms in the excited state for a very short time 10-12 sec. The 11B atoms then decay producing alpha particles, 7Li recoil nuclei and gamma rays. Tumor cells are killed selectively by the energetic alpha particles and 7Li fission products. We propose a 300kW slab type reactor core having thin and large surface areas so that most of the neutrons emerging from the faces and entering moderator region are fission spectrum neutrons to acquire high intense epithermal neutron beam with high quality. All faces of the slab core, East-West region and North-South region, were considered for epithermal neutron beam collimators. Plate-type U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel having high uranium density is very compatible with composing of a slab type core. The reactor core is loaded with 3.89kg U235 and has the dimension of about 23.46cm width, 31.28cm length and 64.8cm height, with 216 locations to place 204 fuel elements, eight control plates and four safety plates. The general-purpose MCNP 4B code was used to carry out the neutron and photon transport computations. Both keff criticality and fixed source problems were computed. We could reduce at least 7 times long computer time (105 to 140 h in a run) needed to initiate enough neutrons in a run ( 6000 to 8000 cycles in a run with 3000 neutrons per cycle) using the PVM (Parallel Virtual

  17. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  18. Selective thermal neutron capture therapy of cancer cells using their specific functional differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory and the history of selective thermal neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma, thermal neutron capture therapy which has been developed by authors, synthesis and effects of 10B-compounds accumulating in melanoma cells and absorbing thermal neutron easily, and many experiments concerning this therapy were reviewed and discussed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. New compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT) and their significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Clearly the most effective tumor therapy would be obtained by the selective targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. Although many biomolecules are known to be taken up in tumors, the targeting of cytotoxic agents to tumors is limited by the fact that other essential cell pools compete with equal or even greater effectiveness. The approach of delivering stable non-toxic isotopes to tumor, with activation by means of an external radiation beam, is advantageous for two reasons: (1) it obviates problems associated with high uptake of isotopes in normal tissues, as these cell pools can be excluded from the radiation field, and (2) the general tumor area can be included in the activating beam field; thus, the possibility exists that all microscopic tumor extensions can be irradiated. As long as range of reaction products is short, dose will be restricted to the tumor, with a resultant high therapeutic ratio. This method can be accomplished with either photon activation therapy (PAT) or Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), the latter will be emphasized here. The range of the high LET, low OER particles from the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is approx. 10 ..mu..m, or one cell diameter; hence this reaction is optimal for cell killing. A number of biomolecules have been investigated as possible vehicles for transport of boron to tumors, including phenothiazines, thiouracils, porphyrins, nucleosides, and amino acids. Biodistributions of these compounds show selective concentration in tumor adequate for therapy. The biological halflives are in the order of days, allowing the possibility of fractionated or protracted irradiations. The radiobiological and physical implication of these parameters on NCT are discussed. The possibility of using an approximately-monoenergetic, scandium-filtered beam of about 2 keV, to reduce the dose from background radiations by about 85%, is also discussed. (ERB)

  20. Carborane compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using thiouracil as a vehicle for stable nuclei such as 10B for neutron capture therapy (NCT) of melanoma was first discussed by Fairchild and co-workers in 1982. The author's research has been directed towards the design and synthesis of a number of o-carboranyl-thiouracils, the ten boron atoms of the carborane cage having a clear advantage for NCT. The first step was the preparation, previously reported, of thiouracils bearing an alkyl group continuing a triple bond for later elaboration to a carborane. The present paper describes the continuation of this work with the preparation of the carboranes of this series and its extension to the synthesis of a thiouracil in which a carboranylalkyl group is attached to the nitrogen in the 3-position

  1. Physico-technical progress in neutron-capture therapy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes mainly development studies on the determination method of in vivo 10B for the purpose of employment for neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma and other tumors. To darify the efficacy of the neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to determine 10B concentration in the diseased part. This study aimed at in vivo 10B concention determination in living sample to the level of ppm order with 10 % of analytical error within 1 hour, and these determination conditions were satified by prompt γ-ray (478 keV) determination of 10B (n, αγ)7Li reaction. This method required no sample pretreatment. Further, data normalization by γ-ray of H(n, γ)D reaction permitted no disturbance by sample shape or size. Lower limit of detection of the proposed method was estimated in terms of measuring time and statistical error by the equations of 10B concentration and error analysis derived by the authors. As for the effect of prompt γ-rays of 23Na(n, γ)24Na and 6Li(n, γ)7Li reactions, it was clarified that the former showed no disturbance but some correction was necessary in case of less than 0.1 g of smaple size owing to the latter reaction. In vivo sample determination showed the proposed method was practical. In this paper some results of phantom experiment for in vivo non-destructive 10B measurement and related simulation calculation, and examination of effect of (γ, n) reaction in heavy water of biomedical irradiation equipment on radiation quality were also described. (Takagi, S.)

  2. Computerized axial tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scan follow-up of two patients after boron neutron capture therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.R.; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Using computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we are following a 30-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white male, both with biopsy-proven Glioblastoma Multiforme, from their preoperative through post-operative stages and pre- and post-BNCT treatment. The images visually demonstrate the evolving changes in the tumor and surrounding cortex. These patients were treated by Hiroshi Hatanaka of Teikyo University, at the Musashi Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor which is a 100 kW Triga-II facility that has been used by Hatanaka for many years for BNCT therapy. 10 figs.

  3. Computerized axial tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scan follow-up of two patients after boron neutron capture therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.R.; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we are following a 30-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white female and a 64-year old, white male, both with biopsy-proven Glioblastoma Multiforme, from their preoperative through post-operative stages and pre- and post-BNCT treatment. The images visually demonstrate the evolving changes in the tumor and surrounding cortex. These patients were treated by Hiroshi Hatanaka of Teikyo University, at the Musashi Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor is a 100 kW Triga-II facility that has been used by Hatanaka for many years for BNCT therapy. 7 figs.

  4. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaumann, H.R. E-mail: blaumann@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sanz, D.E.; Longhino, J.M.; Larrieu, O.A. Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm{sup 2} rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  5. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaumann, H R; Sanz, D E; Longhino, J M; Larrieu, O A Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm(2) rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  6. Resumption of JRR-4 and characteristics of neutron beam for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Horiguchi, H; Kishi, T; Motohashi, J; Sasajima, F; Kumada, H

    2011-12-01

    The clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) have been conducted using Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). On December 28th, 2007, a crack of a graphite reflector in the reactor core was found on the weld of the aluminum cladding. For this reason, specifications of graphite reflectors were renewed; dimensions of the graphite were reduced and gaps of water were increased. All existing graphite reflectors of JRR-4 were replaced by new graphite reflectors. In February 2010 the resumption of JRR-4 was carried out with new graphite reflectors. We measured the characteristics of neutron beam at the JRR-4 Neutron Beam Facility. A cylindrical water phantom of 18.6 cm diameter and 24 cm depth was set in front of the beam port with 1cm gap. TLDs and gold wires were inserted within the phantom when the phantom was irradiated. The results of the measured thermal neutron flux and the gamma dose in water were compared with that of MCNP calculation. The neutron energy spectrum of the calculation model with new reflector had little variation compared to that with old reflector, but intensities of the neutron flux and gamma dose with new reflector were rather smaller than those with old reflector. The calculated results showed the same tendency as that of the experimental results. Therefore, the clinical trials of BNCT in JRR-4 could be restarted.

  7. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Tanja; Grunewald, Catrin; Blaickner, Matthias; Ziegner, Markus; Schütz, Christian; Iffland, Dorothee; Hampel, Gabriele; Nawroth, Thomas; Langguth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma has focused mainly on the use of 10B as neutron capture isotope. However, 157Gd offers several advantages over boron, such as higher cross section for thermal neutrons and the possibility to perform magnetic resonance imaging during neutron irradiation, thereby combining therapy and diagnostics. We have developed different liposomal formulations of gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist®) for application in neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma. The f...

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  9. Photoneutron source for in-hospital BNCT treatment. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent studies in Italy have focused on the possibility of exploiting high energy electron linear accelerators, normally used in gamma radiotherapy, as photo-neutrons source for in-hospital medical applications. Neutrons are produced by Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) reactions from high energy photons on high Z targets; by proper material and geometry optimization, interesting fluence rates of thermalized neutrons can be made available, with minimized fast neutron and gamma backgrounds, for a fractionated type of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) devoted to external treatment of some specific tumors. A photoneutron converter, constituted by high Z core and surrounded by Low Z materials, is shaped to produce thermal beam inside an irradiation cavity. A feasibility study on Beam Shaping Assembly using MCNPGN simulation code is performed on various geometrical shapes and material selection. A first prototype of the photoconverter has been realized and tested at some hospital high energy medical LINAC facilities. In this paper the preliminary experimental results of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectra produced by the photoconverter prototype are compared to the simulation data. (author)

  10. INEL BNCT Program: Bulletin, Volume 5, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for June, 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and animal data charts. Specific highlights include: final-dosage-form BSH samples were analyzed for purity, with the sample from Centronic Ltd the most free from contamination and oxidation products; MRI spectroscopy will be upgraded to provide a potential for boron resolution of 0.75 cm/pixel; neutron and gamma measurements were made for the HFR epithermal neutron beam; the current status of six spontaneous brain-tumor dogs; production of MoAbs against the pituitary CRF receptor; growth of BL6 in low Phe/Tyr medium; an altered synthetic pathway for carboranyl alanine; and encapsulation of {ital i}-B{sub 20}H{sub 18}{sup 2-} into liposomes for baseline murine studies. 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  11. Current clinical results of the Tsukuba BNCT trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A. E-mail: matsumur@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nakai, K.; Shibata, Y.; Endo, K.; Sakurai, F.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y

    2004-11-01

    Nine high grade gliomas (5 glioblastomas and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas) were treated with BSH-based intaoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). BSH (100 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected, followed by single fraction irradiation using the mixed thermal/epithermal beam of Japan Research Reactor 4. The blood boron level at the time of irradiation averaged 29.9 (18.8-39.5) {mu}g/g. The peak thermal neutron flux as determined by post-irradiation measurements varied from 1.99 to 2.77x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No serious BSH-related toxicity was observed in this series. The interim survival data in this study showed median survival times of 23.2 months for glioblastoma and 25.9 months for anaplastic astrocytoma, results which are consistent with the current conventional radiotherapy with/without boost radiation. Of the 4 residual tumors, 2 showed complete response (CR) and 2 showed partial response (PR) within 6 months following BNCT. No linear correlation was proved between the dose and the occurrence of early neurological events. The maximum boron dose of 11.7-12.2 Gy in the brain related to the occurrence of radiation necrosis. The clinical application of a mixed thermal/epithermal beam and JRR-4 facilities on BSH-based IOBNCT proved to be safe and effective in this series.

  12. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of 10B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared 10BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), 10BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The 10B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that 10B entrapped WOW emulsion could be

  13. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  14. a New Method to Measure 10B Uptake in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Hospital Bnct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegani, E. M.; Basilico, F.; Bolognini, D.; Borasio, P.; Capelli, E.; Cappelletti, P.; Chiari, P.; Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S.; Giannini, G.; Hasan, S.; Mattera, A.; Mauri, P.; Monti, A. F.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Zanini, A.

    2010-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique still under development that could become crucial in the fight against some types of cancer (extended ones, located near vital organs or radio resistant). This binary technique requires the administration to the patient of a boron delivery agent and the irradiation with a thermal neutron beam. The high LET particles produced in the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction are exploited to destroy the tumour cells. This work presents a new system based on neutron autoradiography with a non-depleted self-triggering microstrip silicon detector, using a neutron beam produced by a hospital Linac. The system is fast, real time and allows the detection of 10B contents down to 25 ng. The main results on the study of 10B uptake in biological samples will be described in terms of kinetic curves (10B uptake as a function of time).

  15. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, XP; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J; Zhang, GL; Zhao, H; Zhang, AW; Li, CY; Liu, WJ; Hu, T; Lv, JG

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimator is greater than 10^6 n/cm^2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography.

  16. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of the neutron collimator is greater than 1.0×106 n/cm2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography. (authors)

  17. Neutron spectra measurement and comparison of the HFR and THOR BNCT beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims to measure the spectra of HB11 (high flux reactor, HFR) and the Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beams by multiple activation foils. The self-shielding corrections were made with the aid of MCNP calculations. The initial spectra were adjusted by a sophisticated process named coarse-scaling adjustment using SAND-EX, which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with excellent continuity. The epithermal neutron flux of the THOR beam is about three times of HB11. The thermal neutron flux, boron and gold reaction rates along the central axis of a PMMA phantom are calculated for both adjusted spectra for comparison.

  18. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  19. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  20. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  1. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  2. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  3. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  4. Investigation of current status in Europe and USA on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes on the spot investigation results of current status of medical irradiation in Europe and USA at Feb. 1999. In HFR (Netherlands), the phase 1 study with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EU had been already finished in those days, at the same time, an improvement of medical irradiation field of VTT(Finland) had been finishing and then clinical trial research had been about to start. On the other hand, phase 1 studies by two groups of BNL (Brook heaven National Laboratory) and MIT (Nuclear Engineering of Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in US were now in almost final stage, and they would start on phase 2 study. Either reactors of MIT and BNL were in modification to increase neutron flux, especially that employing fission converter into the irradiation facility and installation of irradiation room were carrying out in the former. In Europe and USA, the accelerator-based BNCT planes are now in progress vigorously, and will have reality. A reform of dynamitron accelerator at University of Birmingham was progressed, and the clinical treatment would be started from September 2000. The accelerator group at MIT has a small type of tandem accelerator, and they were performing basic experiment for BNCS (Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy) with this accelerator. The concept design for an accelerator and a moderator had been finished at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of Berkeley. (author)

  5. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: An assessment of clinical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J.W., E-mail: john.hopewell@gtc.ox.ac.uk [Green Templeton College and Particle Therapy Cancer Research Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gorlia, T. [Data Center, EORTC, Brussels (Belgium); Pellettieri, L. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Giusti, V. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); H-Stenstam, B. [Nykoeping Hospital, County of Sormland (Sweden); Skoeld, K. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the potential of BNCT, with L-boronophenylalanine (L-BPA), as first line radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM from a phase II BNCT study was compared with those from the two arms of a phase III study with conventional radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT plus concomitant and adjuvant medication with temozolomide (TMZ). A small subgroup, for which the methylation status of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA-repair gene was known, was also considered. The results indicated that the use of BNCT with BPA should be explored in a stratified randomized phase II trial in which patients with the unmethylated MGMT DNA-repair gene are offered BNCT vs. RT plus TMZ.

  7. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: Accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, F.I. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.W. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Lui, W.Y. [Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 {mu}g B/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4 h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3 h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  8. Evaluation of D(d,n)3 He reaction neutron source models for BNCT irradiation system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ze'en; LUO Peng; Tooru KOBAYASHI; Gerard BENGUA

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical method was developed to calculatc the yield.energy spectrum and angular distribution of neutrons from D(d,n)3 He(D-D)reaction in a thick deuterium-titanium target for incident deuterons in energies lower than 1.0MeV.The data of energy spectrum and angular distribution wefe applied to set up the neutron source model for the beam-shaping-assembly(BSA)design of Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy(BNCT)using MCNP-4C code.Three cases of D-D neutron source corresponding to incident deuteron energy of 1000.400 and 150 kaV were investigated.The neutron beam characteristics were compared with the model of a 2.45 MeV mono-energetic and isotropic neutron source using an example BSA designed for BNCT irradiation.The results show significant differences in the neutron beam characteristics,particularly the fast neutron component and fast neutron dose in air,between the non-isotropic neutron source model and the 2.5 MeV mono-energetic and isotropic neutron source model.

  9. Tratamiento del cáncer por captura neutrónica de boro: Su aplicación al carcinoma indiferenciado de tiroides Boron neutron capture therapy applied to undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Pisarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides es un tumor muy agresivo, de muy mal pronóstico y sin tratamiento efectivo. La terapia por captura neutrónica de boro (BNCT podría ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Se basa en la captación selectiva de boro por el tumor y su activación por un haz de neutrones. El boro activado libera un núcleo de litio-7 y una partícula alfa, las cuales tienen una alta transmisión linear de energía (linear energy transfer, LET y un alcance de 5-9 µm, destruyendo el tumor. En estudios previos hemos mostrado que la línea celular humana de cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides (ARO tiene una captación selectiva de borofenilalanina (10BPA tanto in vitro como después de ser implantada en ratones NIH nude. También demostramos en estos animales inyectados con BPA e irradiados con un haz de neutrones térmicos, un 100% de control sobre el crecimiento tumoral y un 50% de cura histológica. En trabajos posteriores mostramos que la porfirina 10BOPP tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester de 2,4-bis-(a,b-dihydroxyethyl-deutero-porphyrin IX cuando es inyectada 5-7 días antes que el BPA se obtiene una concentración tumoral de boro de aproximadamente el doble que el BPA solo (45-38 ppm vs. 20 ppm. La posterior irradiación con neutrones mostró un 100% de remisión completa en animales con tumores cuyo volumen pre-tratamiento era de 50 mm³ o menor. Los perros padecen CIT espontáneo, con un comportamiento biológico similar al humano, y una captación selectiva de BPA, abriendo la posibilidad de su tratamiento por BNCT.Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to the lack of an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET. In previous

  10. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  11. Exploring new labelling strategies for boronated compounds: towards fast development and efficient assessment of BNCT drug candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Gona, Kiran Babu

    2015-01-01

    208 p. La terapia por captura de neutrones (BNCT o Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), fue descrita por primera vez por Locher en 1936 y es una modalidad terapéutica binaria para el tratamiento del cáncer que se basa en la captura de neutrones térmicos por medio de átomos de 10B, previamente acumulados en las células tumorales. La captura del neutrón térmico resulta en la formación de un núcleo de 11B, que fisiona para generar dos iones altamente energéticos: 4He2+ y 7Li3+. El daño y la poster...

  12. Investigation on the reflector/moderator geometry and its effect on the neutron beam design in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Y; Rahmani, F; Khalafi, H

    2015-12-01

    In order to provide an appropriate neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a special Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) must be designed based on the neutron source specifications. A typical BSA includes moderator, reflector, collimator, thermal neutron filter, and gamma filter. In common BSA, the reflector is considered as a layer which covers the sides of the moderator materials. In this paper, new reflector/moderator geometries including multi-layer and hexagonal lattice have been suggested and the effect of them has been investigated by MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. It was found that the proposed configurations have a significant effect to improve the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio which is an important neutron beam parameter.

  13. Spectral performance of a composite single-crystal filtered thermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the University of Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, J; Nigg, D W; Hawthorne, M F; McKibben, C

    2009-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron fluxes produced at the irradiation location are 9.6 x 10(8) and 8.8 x 10(8)neutrons/cm(2)s, respectively. Calculated and measured cadmium ratios (Au foils) are 217 and 132. These results indicate a well-thermalized neutron spectrum with sufficient thermal neutron flux for a variety of small animal BNCT studies.

  14. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Ziegner.fl@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz DE-55128 (Germany); Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad PK-44000 (Pakistan); Blaickner, Matthias [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Palmans, Hugo [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, Peter [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Böck, Helmuth [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  15. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  16. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

  17. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  18. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  19. Quantitative analysis of proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Yoon, Do-Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    From the theoretical point of view, the PBFT has some strong advantages over currently existing radiotherapy methods. First, boron-based tumor targeting is required prior to performing the treatments such as boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Tumor targeting should be performed before the BNCT by injecting the boronate compound. If boron is not taken up by the normal tissue, the normal tissue can be spared the irradiation by alpha particles. When boron uptake occurs in the target region, selective therapy is possible by neutron capture reaction of labeled boron particles in the target region. Likewise, when boron is distributed in the tumor region for the PBFT, the proposed method can represent a more critical discriminative therapy than either the BNCT or conventional particle therapy. In the conventional proton therapy, in order to deliver a dose to a tumor, the proton beam energy has to be adjusted along the tumor region (e.g., shape and depth). The proton therapy aims at delivering the maximal dose to the tumor by using protons only. In this study, the effectiveness of the PBFT with respect to several physical parameters was evaluated quantitatively by using Monte Carlo simulations. We confirmed that the PBFT can be used to perform critical discriminative therapy. Also, the results of our studies can be used for constructing the PFBT dose database that can be utilized in treatment planning systems (TPSs)

  20. Organisation and management of the first clinical trial of BNCT in Europe (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is based on the ability of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons and to disintegrate instantaneously producing high LET particles. The only neutron beam available in Europe for such a treatment is based at the European High Flux Reactor HFR at Petten (The Netherlands). The European Commission, owners of the reactor, decided that the potential benefit of the facility should be opened to all European citizens and therefore insisted on a multinational approach to perform the first clinical trial in Europe on BNCT. This precondition had to be respected as well as the national laws and regulations. Together with the Dutch authorities actions were undertaken to overcome the obvious legal problems. Furthermore, the clinical trial at Petten takes place in a nuclear research reactor, which apart from being conducted in a non-hospital environment, is per se known to be dangerous. It was therefore of the utmost importance that special attention is given to safety, beyond normal rules, and to the training of staff. In itself, the trial is an unusual Phase I study, introducing a new drug with a new irradiation modality, with really an unknown dose-effect relationship. This trial must follow optimal procedures, which underscore the quality and qualified manner of performance. (orig.)

  1. Dosimetric implications of new compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Systemic application of radiolabeled or cytotoxic agents should allow targeting of primary and metastatic neoplasms on a cellular level. In fact, drug uptake in non-target cell pools often exceeds toxic levels before sufficient amounts are delivered to tumor. In addition, at the large concentration of molecules necessary for therapy, effects of saturation are often found. Application of NCT can circumvent problems associated with high uptake in competing non-target cell pools, as the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is activated only within the radiation field. A comparison with other modes of particle therapy indicated that NCT provides significant advantages. It is however, difficult to obtain vehicles for boron transport which demonstrate both the tumor specificity and concentration requisite for NCT. A number of biomolecules have been investigated which show both the necessary concentration and specificity. These include chlorpromazine, thiouracil, porphyrins, amino acids, and nucleosides. However, these analogs have yet to be made available for NCT. Dosimetric implications of binding sites are considered, as well as alternate neutron sources. (ERB)

  2. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  4. To gadolinium using for neutron capture therapy researches at WWR-SM reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of using gadolinium (isotope and natural) for the medical purposes in neutron-capture therapy of cancer diseases is carried out. Results of definition of the epithermal neutron beam irradiation dose for biological objects with gadolinium-containing preparations are presented by using the WWR-SM reactor. (authors)

  5. Neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma: dosimetry and microdosimetry approaches; Therapie par capture de neutrons des melanomes oculaires: approches dosimetrique et microdosimetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Methlin, G. [Centre Paul Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Abbe, J.C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Stampfler, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Lefebvre, O. [Faculte de Medecine, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sahel, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1994-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) aims at destroying cancerous cells with the {alpha} and {sup 7}Li particles produced by the neutron capture reaction on {sup 10}B. This note reports on the study of the boron distribution in tissues on an animal model (nude mice) xenografted with a human ocular melanoma after an i.p.injection of 2g/kg of {sup 10}B-BPA and in cells cultured in the presence of 530 {mu}mol/l of {sup 10}B-BPA. A concentration of 64 ppm of {sup 10}B in the active part of the tumour with a ratio of concentrations versus the skin of 3.7 are observed. Investigations on cells reveal the presence of boron in the cytoplasm. The biological, dosimetric and microdosimetric consequences of these findings are discussed. (authors). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. (orig.)

  7. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, C L; Brochhausen, C; Hampel, G; Iffland, D; Kuczewski, B; Otto, G; Schmitz, T; Stieghorst, C; Kratz, J V

    2012-10-01

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. PMID:22918535

  8. Intercomparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, C.L. [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C. [University of Mainz, Institute of Pathology, Mainz (Germany); Hampel, G.; Iffland, D.; Schmitz, T.; Stieghorst, C.; Kratz, J.V. [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Kuczewski, B. [Regional Council Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Otto, G. [University of Mainz, Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Boron determination in blood and tissue samples is a crucial task especially for treatment planning, preclinical research, and clinical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Comparison of clinical findings remains difficult due to a variety of analytical methods, protocols, and standard reference materials in use. This paper addresses the comparability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative neutron capture radiography, and prompt gamma activation analysis for the determination of boron in biological samples. It was possible to demonstrate that three different methods relying on three different principles of sample preparation and boron detection can be validated against each other and yield consistent results for both blood and tissue samples. The samples were obtained during a clinical study for the application of BNCT for liver malignancies and therefore represent a realistic situation for boron analysis. (orig.)

  9. Implications for clinical treatment from the micrometer site dosimetric calculations in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Trent L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States)], E-mail: tnichol2@utk.edu; Kabalka, George W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); Miller, Laurence F. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901 (United States); McCormack, Michael T. [Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37920 (United States); Johnson, Andrew [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy has now been used for several malignancies. Most clinical trials have addressed its use for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A few trials have focused on the treatment of malignant melanoma with brain metastases. Trial results for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme have been encouraging, but have not achieved the success anticipated. Results of trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma have been very promising, though with too few patients for conclusions to be drawn. Subsequent to these trials, regimens for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, hepatic metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon, and head and neck malignancies have been developed. These tumors have also responded well to boron neutron capture therapy. Glioblastoma is an infiltrative tumor with distant individual tumor cells that might create a mechanism for therapeutic failure though recurrences are often local. The microdosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy can provide an explanation for this observation. Codes written to examine the micrometer scale energy deposition in boron neutron capture therapy have been used to explore the effects of near neighbor cells. Near neighbor cells can contribute a significantly increased dose depending on the geometric relationships. Different geometries demonstrate that tumors which grow by direct extension have a greater near neighbor effect, whereas infiltrative tumors lose this near neighbor dose which can be a significant decrease in dose to the cells that do not achieve optimal boron loading. This understanding helps to explain prior trial results and implies that tumors with small, closely packed cells that grow by direct extension will be the most amenable to boron neutron capture therapy.

  10. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre...

  11. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  12. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  13. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  14. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy of composite liposomes for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma has focused mainly on the use of 10B as neutron capture isotope. However, 157Gd offers several advantages over boron, such as higher cross section for thermal neutrons and the possibility to perform magnetic resonance imaging during neutron irradiation, thereby combining therapy and diagnostics. We have developed different liposomal formulations of gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist®) for application in neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma. The formulations were characterized physicochemically and tested in vitro in a glioma cell model for their effectiveness. Liposomes entrapping gadolinium-DTPA as neutron capture agent were manufactured via lipid/film-extrusion method and characterized with regard to size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. For neutron irradiation, F98 and LN229 glioma cells were incubated with the newly developed liposomes and subsequently irradiated at the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz. The dose rate derived from neutron irradiation with 157Gd as neutron capturing agent was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in relation to the respective cell survival. The liposomal Gd-DTPA reduced cell survival of F98 and LN229 cells significantly. Differences in liposomal composition of the formulations led to distinctly different outcome in cell survival. The amount of cellular Gd was not at all times proportional to cell survival, indicating that intracellular deposition of formulated Gd has a major influence on cell survival. The majority of the dose contribution arises from photon cross irradiation compared to a very small Gd-related dose. Liposomal gadolinium formulations represent a promising approach for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma cells. The liposome composition determines the uptake and the survival of cells following radiation, presumably due to different uptake pathways of liposomes and intracellular deposition of gadolinium-DTPA. Due to the small range of the

  15. The BNCT facility at the HFR Petten: Quality assurance for reactor facilities in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first clinical trial in Europe of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma was opened in July 1997. The trial is a Phase I study with the principal aim to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose and the dose limiting toxicity under defined conditions. It is the first time that a clinical application could be realised on a completely multi-national scale. The treatment takes place at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a German radiotherapist, and treats patients coming from different European countries. It has therefore been necessary to create a very specialised organisation and contractual structure with the support of administrations from different countries, who had to find and adapt solutions within existing laws that had never foreseen such a situation. Furthermore, the treatment does not take place in an hospital environment and even more so, the facility is at a nuclear research reactor. Hence, special efforts were made on quality assurance, in order that the set-up at the facility and the personnel involved complied, as closely as possible, with similar practices in conventional radiotherapy departments. (author)

  16. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  17. New EORTC clinical trials for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to ethical reasons, a separated optimization of the two components of BNCT in the frame of clinical investigations can only be performed applying the whole binary system. The ongoing trial at HFR (High Flux Reactor Petten) has proven the feasibility of BNCT under defined conditions. On that basis the European Commission supported a comprehensive research project on boron imaging including three further clinical studies. In the first trial the boron uptake related to the blood boron concentration and surrounding normal tissue in various solid tumours will be examined using BSH (Sodiumborocaptate), BPA (Boronophenylalanine) or both in order to explore tumour entities, which may gain benefit from BNCT. The major objectives of the second trial are to define the maximum tolerated single and cumulative dose, and the dose limiting toxicity of BSH. The third clinical trial, a phase II study is designed to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of fractionated BNCT at the Petten treatment facility against cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma using BPA. (author)

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boronated polyglycerol dendrimers as potential agent for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) generation 5 was used to obtain a boronated macromolecule for boron neutron capture therapy. The PGLD dendrimer was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth processes denominated divergent synthesis. The PGLD dendritic structure was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques. The synthesized dendrimer presented low dispersion in molecular weights (Mw/Mn = 1.05) and a degree of branching of 0.82, which characterize the polymer dendritic structure. Quantitative neutron capture radiography was used to investigate the boron-10 enrichment of the polyglycerol dendrimer. The in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells of 10B-PGLD dendrimer indicate lower cytotoxicity, suggesting that the macromolecule is a biocompatible material. (author)

  19. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A.J., E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Baldo, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  20. Gamma residual radioactivity measurements on rats and mice irradiated in the thermal column of a TRIGA Mark II reactor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Nicoletta; Manera, Sergio; Prata, Michele; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; di Tigliole, Andrea Borio; Bortolussi, Silva; Bruschi, Piero; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Garioni, Maria; Postuma, Ian; Reversi, Luca; Salvini, Andrea; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-12-01

    The current Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experiments performed at the University of Pavia, Italy, are focusing on the in vivo irradiations of small animals (rats and mice) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of BNCT in the treatment of diffused lung tumors. After the irradiation, the animals are manipulated, which requires an evaluation of the residual radioactivity induced by neutron activation and the relative radiological risk assessment to guarantee the radiation protection of the workers. The induced activity in the irradiated animals was measured by high-resolution open geometry gamma spectroscopy and compared with values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. After an irradiation time of 15 min in a position where the in-air thermal flux is about 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2) s(-1), the specific activity induced in the body of the animal is mainly due to 24Na, 38Cl, 42K, 56Mn, 27Mg and 49Ca; it is approximately 540 Bq g(-1) in the rat and around 2,050 Bq g(-1) in the mouse. During the irradiation, the animal body (except the lung region) is housed in a 95% enriched 6Li shield; the primary radioisotopes produced inside the shield by the neutron irradiation are 3H by the 6Li capture reaction and 18F by the reaction sequence 6Li(n,α)3H → 16O(t,n)18F. The specific activities of these products are 3.3 kBq g(-1) and 880 Bq g(-1), respectively. PMID:25353239

  1. A PC-based computer program for the estimation of the radiation dose in vitro and in vivo boron neutron capture irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) microdosimetry of charged particle radiation depends on total boron concentration and intracellular boron distribution. Due to the inhomogeneity of boron distribution in cells, radiation doses to both tumor and normal tissue are influenced by boron and nitrogen concentrations and intracellular distributions, cell volume and shape, nuclear size and geometrical structure of the tissue. For correct calculation of the radiation dose in BNCT, these factors should be taken into account. Several computer models have been developed previously in order to estimate the absorbed dose from charged particles in BNCT (Gabel et al.; Kobayashi and Kanda). In these models, however, single values for mean Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) are used to convert high LET radiation doses to isoeffective photon equivalent doses. The RBE depends on both LET and endpoint, such as surviving fraction of tumor cells or normal tissue tolerance (Barendsen et al.). Since LET is not constant along the track of a charged particle, the RBE cannot be considered constant for particles generated by boron and nitrogen neutron capture. Experimental RBE data to be used in BNCT have been gathered, but without consensus (Gabel et al.; Fukuda et al.). A computer program designed to run on a microcomputer has been written in Turbo Pascal to determine energy deposition in cell nuclei resulting from charged particle emission after boron or nitrogen neutron capture in nuclear, cytoplasmic and extracellular compartments. This computer model goes beyond former models in estimating a microscopic RBE for each individual charged particle track segment that traverses a cell nucleus. Another refinement is the implementation of dynamic modelling, which offers a more realistic simulation of cell and tissue geometry. This was approached by varying cell geometry and arrangement parameters within a simulation

  2. Dose Determination using alanine detectors in a Mixed Neutron and Gamma Field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Liver Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for liver malignancies is being investigated at the University of Mainz. One important aim is the set-up of a reliable dosimetry system. Alanine dosimeters have previously been applied for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields in antiproton therapy, and may...

  3. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  4. Neutron capture therapy of murine melanoma on new boron carriers with use of capillary neutron optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.; Naidenov, M. G.; Koldaeva, E. Y.; Petrov, S. A.; Zhizhin, K. Y.; Kuznettsov, N. T.; Brattsev, V. A.; Grigorieva, E. Y.

    2005-07-01

    The Boron-10 NCT is one of the most perspective methods of human anticancer treatment. The introduction of this efficient method into medical practice makes possible more selective and precise destruction of tumour cells without any damage of normal tissues. The basis of NCT method is destructive effect of products of nuclear reaction 10B(n,α,γ)7Li. This reaction produces particles-helium nuclei (alpha-particles) and lithium nuclei-with too high linear energetic loss in animal tissues and poor integrated sweep (to 14 μm) what is comparable with single cell diameter. Actual use of BNCT for treatment of human malignant tumours is dependent on resolution of various and complex scientific and technical problems. Namely: the development of novel boron preparations selectively carrying 10B into cancer cells, providing optimal concentration and microdistribution of 10B in these and remaining there during all necessary irradiation time; formation of therapeutic neutron fluxes of needed power, spectrum and intensity; provision of adequate planning and monitoring methods for current 10B-NCT making possible to evaluate a boron concentration in animal tissues in real time, to see macro- and microdistribution of the same, allowing precise microdosimetry; optimization of irradiation regimens and of drug administration schedules conformably to concrete neutron flux in different objects.

  5. Phantoms with 10BF3 detectors for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two acrylic cube phantoms have been constructed for BNCT applications that allow the depth distribution of neutrons to be measured with miniature 10BF3 detectors in 0.5-cm steps beginning at 1-cm depth. Sizes and weights of the cubes are 14 cm, 3.230 kg, and 11 cm, 1.567 kg. Tests were made with the epithermal neutron beam from the patient treatment port of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. Thermal neutron depth profiles were measured with a bare 10BF3 detector at a reactor power of 50 W, and Cd-covered detector profiles were measured at a reactor power of 1 kW. The resulting plots of counting rate versus depth illustrate the dependence of neutron moderation on the size of the phantom. But more importantly the data can serve as benchmarks for testing the thermal and epithermal neutron profiles obtained with accelerator-based BNCT facilities. Such tests could be made with these phantoms at power levels about five orders of magnitude lower than that required for the treatment of patients with brain tumors. copyright 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  6. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  7. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  8. Characterization measurement of a thick CdTe detector for BNCT-SPECT – Detection efficiency and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author's group is carrying out development of BNCT-SPECT with CdTe device, which monitors the therapy effect of BNCT in real-time. From the design calculations, the dimensions were fixed to 1.5×2×30 mm3. For the collimator it was confirmed that it would have a good spatial resolution and simultaneously the number of counts would be acceptably large. After producing the CdTe crystal, the characterization measurement was carried out. For the detection efficiency an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. Also, the detector has a very good energy resolution so that gamma-rays of 478 keV and 511 keV could be distinguished in the spectrum. - Highlights: • BNCT-SPECT is developed with CdTe device to estimate therapy effect of BNCT. • By design calculations, CdTe dimensions are determined to be 1.5×2×30 mm3. Collimator length is 10 cm with 2 mm diameter hole. • Producing the crystal, efficiency and energy resolution were measured. • Excellent agreement was obtained between measurement and calculation. Discrimination of 478 keV and 511 keV was confirmed in the spectrum

  9. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for lung and pancreatic cancer treatment by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreatic cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5 x 108 ncm-2s-1. The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for both lung and pancreatic cancer treatment. (author)

  10. Preliminary study of MAGAT polymer gel dosimetry for boron-neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Uchida, Ryohei; Suzuki, Minoru; Usui, Shuji; Tominaga, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    MAGAT gel dosimeter with boron is irradiated in Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The cylindrical gel phantoms are exposed to neutron beams of three different energy spectra (thermal neutron rich, epithermal and fast neutron rich and the mixed modes) in air. Preliminary results corresponding to depth-dose responses are obtained as the transverse relaxation rate (R2=1/T2) from magnetic resonance imaging data. As the results MAGAT gel dosimeter has the higher sensitivity on thermal neutron than on epi-thermal and fast neutron, and the gel with boron showed an enhancement and a change in the depth-R2 response explicitly. From these results, it is suggested that MAGAT gel dosimeter can be an effective tool in BNCT dosimetry.

  11. Accelerator based neutron source for the neutron capture therapy at hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for the hospital-based boron neutron capture therapy is proposed and discussed. Kinematically collimated neutrons are produced via near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction at proton energies of 1.883 - 1.9 MeV. Steady-state accelerator current of 40 mA allows to provide therapeutically useful beams with treatment times of tens of minutes. The basic components of the facility are a hydrogen negative ion source, an electrostatic tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation, a sectioned rectifier, and a thin lithium neutron generating target on the surface of tungsten disk cooled by liquid metal heat carrier. Design features of facility components are discussed. The possibility of stabilization of proton energy is considered. At proton energy of 2.5 MeV the neutron beam production for NCT usage after moderation is also considered. (author)

  12. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses. PMID:19175101

  13. Functional and histological assessment of the radiobiology of normal rat lung in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the radiobiology and sensitivity of the normal rat lung to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiation. Rat thorax irradiations were carried out with x-rays or with neutrons in the presence or absence of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Lung damage were assessed functionally with breathing rate measurement up to 180 days after irradiation and then histologically. Breathing rates 20% (∼3 σ) above the control group (sham-irradiated rats) mean were considered as positive responses to lung radiation damage. Though most responding animals demonstrated radiation induced pneumonitis (≤110 days) as well as pulmonary fibrosis (>110 days), some animals receiving neutrons plus BPA showed only the latter. The breathing rate dose response data were fit using probit analysis. The ED50 values measured for x-rays, neutron beam only, and neutrons plus BPA were 11.5±0.4 Gy, 9.2±0.5 Gy, and 6.7±0.4 Gy, respectively. The biological weighting factors for the neutron beam (n+γ), the thermal neutron dose component, and the 10B dose component were determined to be 1.2±0.1, 2.2±0.4, and 2.3±0.3, respectively. The histological dose response curves were linear. Consistent with the functional assay, the weighting factors measured histologically were 1.2±0.1 for the thermal neutron beam and 1.9±0.2 for the 10B dose component. (author)

  14. On-line reconstruction of low boron concentrations by in vivo γ-ray spectroscopy for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiation therapy in which the neutron capture reaction of 10B is used for the selective destruction of tumours. At the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, a therapy facility with an epithermal neutron beam has been built. In the first instance, patients with brain tumours will be treated. The doses delivered to the tumour and to the healthy tissue depend on the thermal neutron fluence and on the boron concentrations in these regions. An accurate determination of the patient dose during therapy requires knowledge of these time-dependent concentrations. For this reason, a γ-ray telescope system, together with a reconstruction formalism, have been developed. By using a γ-ray detector in a telescope configuration, boron neutron capture γ-rays of 478 keV emitted by a small specific region can be detected. The reconstruction formalism can calculate absolute boron concentrations using the measured boron γ-ray detection rates. Besides the boron γ-rays, a large component of 2.2 MeV γ-rays emitted at thermal neutron capture in hydrogen is measured. Since the hydrogen distribution is almost homogeneous within the head, this component can serve as a measure of the total number of thermal neutrons in the observed volume. By using the hydrogen γ-ray detection rate for normalization of the boron concentration, the reconstruction tool eliminates the greater part of the influence of the inhomogeneity of the thermal neutron distribution. MCNP calculations are used as a tool for the optimization of the detector configuration. Experiments on a head phantom with 5 ppm 10B in healthy tissue showed that boron detection with a standard deviation of 3% requires a minimum measuring time of 2 min live time. From two position-dependent measurements, boron concentrations in two compartments (healthy tissue and tumour) can be determined. The reconstruction of the boron concentration in healthy tissue can be done with a standard deviation of 6

  15. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint; John K. Hartwell; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica Trivillin; Jorge Castillo; Luis Wentzeis; Patrick Sloan; Charles A. Wemple

    2004-10-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  16. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Hartwell, J.K.; Heber, E.M.; Trivillin, V.; Castillo, J.; Wentzeis, L.; Sloan, P.; Wemple, C.A.

    2004-10-04

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  17. Final Report: 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) for Cancer, May 15, 1998 - May 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8th International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer (8th ISNCTC) was held in La Jolla, CA on Sept. 13-18, 1998. This biennial meeting of the International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy (ISNCT) was hosted by Society President M.F. Hawthorne (UCLA Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry). The Symposium brought together scientists (300 registrants from 21 countries) from diverse fields to report the latest developments in NCT. Topics of the 275 papers presented (30 plenary lectures, 81 oral presentations, and 164 posters) included the physics of neutron sources, chemistry of tumor-targeting agents, dosimetry, radiobiological studies, and clinical applications

  18. Accelerator-based neutron source for the neutron-capture and fast neutron therapy at hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanov, B. F.; Belov, V. P.; Bender, E. D.; Bokhovko, M. V.; Dimov, G. I.; Kononov, V. N.; Kononov, O. E.; Kuksanov, N. K.; Palchikov, V. E.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Salimov, R. A.; Silvestrov, G. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Soloviov, N. A.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    The proton accelerator complex for neutron production in lithium target discussed, which can operate in two modes. The first provides a neutron beam kinematically collimated with good forward direction in 25° and average energy of 30 keV, directly applicable for neutron-capture therapy with high efficiency of proton beam use. The proton energy in this mode is 1.883-1.890 MeV that is near the threshold of the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction. In the second mode, at proton energy of 2.5 MeV, the complex-produced neutron beam with maximum energy board of 790 keV which can be used directly for fast neutron therapy and for neutron-capture therapy after moderation. The project of such a neutron source is based on the 2.5 MeV original electrostatic accelerator tandem with vacuum insulation developed at BINP which is supplied with a high-voltage rectifier. The rectifier is produced in BINP as a part of ELV-type industrial accelerator. Design features of the tandem determining its high reliability in operation with a high-current (up to 40 mA) H - ion beam are discussed. They are: the absence of ceramic accelerator columns around the beam passage region, good conditions for pumping out of charge-exchange gaseous target region, strong focusing optics and high acceleration rate minimizing the space charge effects. The possibility of stabilization of protons energy with an accuracy level of 0.1% necessary for operation in the near threshold region is considered. The design description of H - continuous ion source with a current of 40 mA is also performed. To operate with a 100 kW proton beam it is proposed to use liquid-lithium targets. A thin lithium layer on the surface of a tungsten disk cooled intensively by a liquid metal heat carrier is proposed for use in case of the vertical beam, and a flat liquid lithium jet flowing through the narrow nozzle - for the horizontal beam.

  19. Biodistribution of the compounds BSH and BPA used for BNCT in four different tumor entities in relation to blood and normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) relies on the selective delivery of a boronated compound to tumour cells. The compounds BSH and BPA are in use as experimental drugs in clinical trials, demonstrating some ability to target glioblastoma and melanoma. The aim of this study is to identify other tumor entities apart from melanoma and glioblastoma that may obtain benefit from BNCT using the 2 available drugs. The potential of applying both compounds subsequently to obtain a favourable absolute 10B concentration in the tumour and an optimised 10B-ratio between tumor, blood and healthy tissue was also evaluated. For the investigations different human tumours (glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (MV3), sarcoma (S3) and adenocarcinoma (PC-3) were transplanted subcutaneously at the right chest wall in nu/nu mice. Animals received either BSH (200 mg/kg) or BPA (700 mg/kg) or both compounds subsequently as intraperitoneal injection. The boron concentration in tissues was measured by prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. For all tissues evaluated but especially for tumor samples the measured values showed quite high standard deviations even under the very controlled experimental conditions applied in these experiments. Therefore, a considerable amount of analyses are necessary for a statistically reliable analysis. Preliminary results show significant differences in the accumulation of both compounds in the different tumour entities and in the different organs evaluated. After the application of BSH high boron concentrations have especially been found in the kidneys and liver, after application of BPA high concentrations were also found in the kidneys and the liver but also quite high values in the skin and the lung. The application of both drugs leads to higher absolute values that are however lower as expected assuming an additive increase of uptake

  20. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  1. Boron neutron capture irradiation: setting up a clinical programme in Nice; Irradiation par capture de neutrons: mise en place d`un programme clinique a Nice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Frenay, M.; Herault, J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Milano, G.; Demard, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Antoine Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Paquis, P.; Lonjon, M.; Lebrun-Frenay, C.; Grellier, P.; Chatel, M. [Hopital Pasteur, 06 - Nice (France); Nepveu, F.; Patau, J.P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Breteau, N. [Hopital de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron capture irradiation aims to selectively destroy tumor tumor cell using {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reactions produced within themselves. Following the capture reaction, an {alpha} particle and a, {sup 7}Li ion are emitted. Carrying an energy of 2.79 MeV, they destroy all molecular structures along their path close to 10 {mu}m. These captures, used exclusively with a `slow` neutron irradiation, provide a neutron capture therapy (BNCT). If they are used in addition to a fast neutron beam irradiation, they provide a neutron capture potentiation (NCP). The Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice is actively involved in the European Demonstration project for BNCT of grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) after surgical excision and BSH administration. Taking into account the preliminary results obtained in Japan, work on an `epithermal` neutron target compatible with various cyclotron beams is in progress to facilitate further developments of this technique. For NCP, thermalized neutron yield has been measured in phantoms irradiated in the fast neutron beam of the biomedical cyclotron in Nice. A thermal peak appears after 5 cm depth in the tissues, delayed after the fast neutron peak at 1.8 cm depth. Thus, a physical overdosage of 10 % may be obtained if 100 ppm of {sup 10}B are assumed in the tissues. Our results using CAL 58 GBM cell line demonstrate a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.19 when 100 ppm of boric acid are added to the growth medium. Thus for the particles, issued from neutron capture, a biological efficiency at least twice that of fast neutrons can be derived. These results, compared with historical data on fast neutron irradiation of glioblastoma, suggest that a therapeutic window may be obtained for GBM. (author). 26 refs.

  2. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  3. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  4. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  5. Evaluation of carboranylporphyrins as boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to determine the biodistribution of three carboranyl-porphyrins, designated H2DCP, H2TCP and H2TBP following intracerebral (i.c.) administration by means of convection enhanced delivery (CED) to F98 glioma bearing rats. Tumor boron concentrations immediately after CED were 36 and 88 μg/g for H2DCP and H2TCP, respectively, and were 103 and 62 μg/g for H2TCP and H2TBP, respectively, 24h after termination of CED. The corresponding normal brain concentrations were 5.2, 3.3 and 0.8 μg/g, and blood and liver concentrations all were 2TCP and H2TBP as boron delivery agents in F98 glioma bearing rats. BNCT was carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITRR) 24 h after CED of 200 μl of either 0.5 mg of H2TCP or H2TBP. Untreated control rats all died within 29 days after tumor implantation and had a mean survival time (MST) of 23±3 days and irradiated controls had a MST of 27±3 days. Animals that received H2TCP by CED, followed by BNCT, had a MST of 35±4 days and animals received H2TBP had a MST of 44±10 days. Further studies were carried out using H2TBP at a dose of 0.2 mg administered by a Harvard pump, either alone or in combination with i.v. BPA, and the corresponding MSTs were 34±3 d and 43±9 d, respectively. Histopathologic examination of the brains of animals that died revealed large numbers of porphyrin laden macrophages and extracellular accumulations of free porphyrin indicating that tumor cell uptake was suboptimal. Further studies are planned to synthesize and evaluate new compounds that will have enhanced cellular uptake and efficacy as boron delivery agents for NCT. (author)

  6. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  7. 硼中子俘获疗法对胶质瘤干细胞增殖和细胞周期的影响%Effect of boron neutron capture therapy on cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in glioma stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷; 钱兴龙; 李炎炎; 张紫竹; 李斌; 陈桂林; 韦永新; 谢学顺; 周幽心

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on cell cycle procession in human glioma stem cells (GSCs) in vitro,and to analyze the difference of sensitivity for BNCT on GSCs and glioma cells.Methods Firstly,uptake of boronophenylalarine (BPA) on human GSCs SU2 and glioma cells SHG-44 was detected.Then the cells enriched boron-10 (10B) were irradiated by In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI-1).The radiation sensitivity was measured using clonogenic survival assay.The proliferation was examined by MTT assay.The cell cycle procession was determined using flow cytometry.The protein expression of cyclin B1,CDK1 and P21[WAF1] were detected by Western blot.Results 10B concentration of SU2 and SHG-44 cells arrived at (1.76 ±0.28) and (2.50 ±0.12) μg/107cells at 24 h in 5 mMBPA.After radiation by IHNI-1,the survival fraction and viability of cells enriched 10B were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 orP < 0.01),compared with those of 10B-free.The BNCT sensitivity of SU2 cells was lower than that of SHG-44 cells (P < 0.05).The proportion of G2/M phase of SU2 and SHG-44 cells was increased after BNCT compared with that of 10B-free(P < 0.05).The protein levels of cyclin B1 and CDK1 were decreased(P < 0.01),and that of P21[WAF1] was increased(P < 0.01).Conclusions The BNCT sensitivity of GSCs was lower than that of glioma cells.BNCT could inhibite cell regeneration and proliferation and make G2/M to be blocked by inhibition of cell cycle protein formation.%目的 研究硼中子俘获疗法(BNCT)对体外培养人胶质瘤干细胞(GSCs)周期进程的影响及机制,比较GSCs和胶质瘤细胞株SHG-44对BNCT敏感性的差异.方法 首先检测人GSCsSU2和人胶质瘤细胞株SHG-44吸收含硼化合物二羟基苯丙氨酸硼(BPA)的情况,然后采用医院中子照射器(IHNI-1)对含硼(10B)细胞进行照射,克隆存活实验检测细胞的放射敏感性,MTT法检测细胞增殖率,流式细胞

  8. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 108/cm2s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  9. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  10. Can epithermal boron neutron capture therapy treat primary and metastatic liver cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A. [Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Carolan, M.C. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong (Australia); Allen, B.J. [St George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: The poor prognosis of metastatic cancer to the liver calls for the investigation of alternative treatment modalities. This paper analyses the possible use of epithermal boron neutron capture therapy for the palliative treatment of these cancers. We examine possible treatment planning scenarios for selected tumour to liver boron ratios, and specifically for the epithermal beam at the HFR, Petten. It is required that a therapeutic ratio> 1 be achieved over the entire organ. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP. The geometrical model used a `variable voxel` technique to reconstruct an anthropomorphic phantom from CT scans. Regions of interest such as the liver were modelled to a resolution of a few millimetres, whereas surrounding regions were modelled with lesser detail thereby facilitating faster computation time. Three dimensional dose distributions were calculated for a frontal beam directed at the liver, and found to be in satisfactory agreement with measurements using bare and cadmium covered gold foils, PIN and MOSFET dosimeters for fast neutron and gamma measurements respectively. Dose distributions were calculated for orthogonal epithermal neutron beams to the front and side, using the parameters of the epithermal beam at Petten, and assumed tumour and normal tissue boron-10 concentrations of 30 ppm and 7.5 ppm boron-10 respectively. The therapeutic ratio (i e the dose to the tumour relative to the maximum dose to normal tissue) was found to be about 1.8, reducing to unity for the limiting condition of a tumour in the posterior liver. This result opens up the possibility of palliative therapy for the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer.

  11. Role of the Tapiro Fast Research Reactor in Neutron Capture Therapy in Italy Calculations and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal-neutron research reactors are currently the most common source of neutron beams for both research and clinical trials of neutron capture therapy (NCT). Neutron spectra suitable for NCT are typically produced either by beam filtering or spectrum shifting techniques. However, fast-neutron reactors are also being considered for NCT application as it is recognized that they may allow for improved beam quality. TAPIRO is a low power, high flux, highly enriched (93.5% 235U) fast reactor. The power is 5 kW and the maximum neutron flux in the core is 3x1012 cm-2.s-1. Both a thermal and an epithermal column have been designed and constructed, aimed at dosimetry and animal experiments. The configurations of the columns have been designed by means of Monte Carlo calculations. The columns have been characterized by means of measurements performed with activation techniques and thermoluminescence and gel dosimeters. Experimental results have shown good consistency with calculations. Moreover, they have confirmed the good quality of the beams obtainable with such a reactor. An epithermal column for clinical trials of patients with brain gliomas has been designed and is under construction. The treatment planning figures-of-merit in an anthropomorphic phantom look very satisfactory. (author)

  12. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan)], E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fujita, I. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Kishimoto, K.; Hara, H. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Kawamitsu, H. [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Sharma, P.; Brown, S.C.; Moudgil, B.M. [Particle Engineering Research Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32611 (United States); Fujii, M. [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  13. Basic study for development of new tumor specific agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New tissue specific agents for neutron capture therapy was studied. Monoclonal labeled gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-MoAb) and porphyrin (ATN-10)-Gd-DTPA (Gd-ATN10) were studied as possible agents by using 9-L experimental brain tumor model. The tissue concentration were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. Gd-MoAb showed persistent retention in the tumor on MRI, but tissue gadolinium concentration was not detectable in the tumor by ICP analyzer, while there was high accumulation of Gd-MoAb in the liver. Gd-ATN10 showed prolonged and high accumulation in the tumor up to 48 hours on MRI. Gadolinium concentration reached up to 9 ppm in the tumor by 0.02 mmol/kg administration, but it disappeared within 6 hours after administration. This dissociation between MRI and ICP analysis was due to separation of ATN-10 and Gd-DTPA. As conclusions, the porphyrin compounds are potential agents for delivering gadolinium or boron specific to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrinfic to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrin and Gd-DTPA is needed. (author)

  14. Design of an accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is mainly suited in the treatment of some tumor kinds which revealed ineffective to the traditional radiotherapy. In order to take advantage of such a therapeutic modality in hospital environments, neutron beams of suitable energy and flux levels provided by compact size facilities are needed. The advantages and drawbacks of several neutron beams are here analysed in terms of therapeutic gains. In detail the GEANT-3/MICAP simulations show that high tumor control probability, with sub-lethal dose at healthy tissues, can be achieved by using neutron beams of few keV energy having a flux of about 109 neutrons/(cm2 s). To produce such a neutron beam, the feasibility of a proton accelerator is investigated. In particular an appropriate choice of the radiofrequency parameters (modulation, efficiency of acceleration, phase shift, etc.) allows the development of relatively compact accelerators, having a proton beam current of 30 mA and an energy of 2 MeV, which could eventually lead to setting up of hospital-based neutron facilities.

  15. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  16. Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

  17. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  18. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy. Part I: Absorbed dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, P J; Riley, K J; Harling, O K; Kiger, W S; Munck af Rosenschöld, P M; Giusti, V; Capala, J; Sköld, K; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Spurny, F

    2005-12-01

    An international collaboration was organized to undertake a dosimetry exchange to enable the future combination of clinical data from different centers conducting neutron capture therapy trials. As a first step (Part I) the dosimetry group from the Americas, represented by MIT, visited the clinical centers at Studsvik (Sweden), VTT Espoo (Finland), and the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) at Rez (Czech Republic). A combined VTT/NRI group reciprocated with a visit to MIT. Each participant performed a series of dosimetry measurements under equivalent irradiation conditions using methods appropriate to their clinical protocols. This entailed in-air measurements and dose versus depth measurements in a large water phantom. Thermal neutron flux as well as fast neutron and photon absorbed dose rates were measured. Satisfactory agreement in determining absorbed dose within the experimental uncertainties was obtained between the different groups although the measurement uncertainties are large, ranging between 3% and 30% depending upon the dose component and the depth of measurement. To improve the precision in the specification of absorbed dose amongst the participants, the individually measured dose components were normalized to the results from a single method. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) that is typical of concentrations realized clinically with the boron delivery compound boronophenylalanine-fructose, systematic discrepancies in the specification of the total biologically weighted dose of up to 10% were apparent between the different groups. The results from these measurements will be used in future to normalize treatment plan calculations between the different clinical dosimetry protocols as Part II of this study. PMID:16475772

  19. Characterization measurement of a thick CdTe detector for BNCT-SPECT - detection efficiency and energy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Nakamura, Soichiro; Manabe, Masanobu; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itsuro

    2014-06-01

    Author׳s group is carrying out development of BNCT-SPECT with CdTe device, which monitors the therapy effect of BNCT in real-time. From the design calculations, the dimensions were fixed to 1.5×2×30mm(3). For the collimator it was confirmed that it would have a good spatial resolution and simultaneously the number of counts would be acceptably large. After producing the CdTe crystal, the characterization measurement was carried out. For the detection efficiency an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. Also, the detector has a very good energy resolution so that gamma-rays of 478keV and 511keV could be distinguished in the spectrum. PMID:24581600

  20. Reference dosimetry calculations for neutron capture therapy with comparison of analytical and voxel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorley, J T; Kiger, W S; Zamenhof, R G

    2002-02-01

    As clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) are initiated in the U.S. and other countries, new treatment planning codes are being developed to calculate detailed dose distributions in patient-specific models. The thorough evaluation and comparison of treatment planning codes is a critical step toward the eventual standardization of dosimetry, which, in turn, is an essential element for the rational comparison of clinical results from different institutions. In this paper we report development of a reference suite of computational test problems for NCT dosimetry and discuss common issues encountered in these calculations to facilitate quantitative evaluations and comparisons of NCT treatment planning codes. Specifically, detailed depth-kerma rate curves were calculated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4B for four different representations of the modified Snyder head phantom, an analytic, multishell, ellipsoidal model, and voxel representations of this model with cubic voxel sizes of 16, 8, and 4 mm. Monoenergetic and monodirectional beams of 0.0253 eV, 1, 2, 10, 100, and 1000 keV neutrons, and 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 MeV photons were individually simulated to calculate kerma rates to a statistical uncertainty of neutron beam with a broad neutron spectrum, similar to epithermal beams currently used or proposed for NCT clinical trials, was computed for all models. The thermal neutron, fast neutron, and photon kerma rates calculated with the 4 and 8 mm voxel models were within 2% and 4%, respectively, of those calculated for the analytical model. The 16 mm voxel model produced unacceptably large discrepancies for all dose components. The effects from different kerma data sets and tissue compositions were evaluated. Updating the kerma data from ICRU 46 to ICRU 63 data produced less than 2% difference in kerma rate profiles. The depth-dose profile data, Monte Carlo code input, kerma factors, and model construction files are available

  1. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT.

  2. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  3. Summary of recent BNCT Polish programme and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryziński, M A; Maciak, M; Wielgosz, M

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Polish achievements on the ground of BNCT research. Starting from preliminary built therapeutic stand at MARIA reactor going through designing of unique detectors for in-phantom and in-beam measurements for mixed radiation fields and finally coming to boron carriers synthesizing and examination in cellular and animal models. Now it is planned to restart research on boron compounds in specially designed BIMA line, to set up epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT research and education and to improve recombination detectors for neutron beams characterisation. PMID:26293009

  4. A NEW SINGLE-CRYSTAL FILTERED THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Brockman; David W. Nigg; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2008-09-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron flux produced at the irradiation location is on the order of 9.5x108 neutrons/cm2-s, with a measured cadmium ratio (Au foils) of 105, indicating a well-thermalized spectrum.

  5. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facilities of the research and clinical treatments of neutron capture therapy using HANARO are developed, and they are ready to install. They are BNCT irradiation facility and prompt gamma neutron activatiion analysis facility. Since every horizontal neutron facility of HANARO is long and narrow tangential beam tube, it is analysed that sufficient epithermal neutrons for the BNCT cannot be obtained but sufficient thermal neutrons can be obtained by a filter composed of silicon and bismuth single crystals. Since the thermal neutron penetaration increases significantly when the crystals are cooled, a filter cooled by liquid nitrogen is developed. So as to avoid interference with the reactor operation, a water shutter is developed. The irradiation room is designed for the temporary surgical operation as well. Handling tools to remove activated beam port plug and to install water shutter and filter are developed. The basic structure of the irradiation room is already installed and most of other parts are ready to install. Since no free beam port is available for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, a method obtaining almost pure thermal neutrons by the vertical diffraction of extra beam for the polarized neutron spectrometer is developed. This method is confirmed by analysis and experiments to give high enough neutron beam. Equipment and devices are provided to install this facility

  6. Design and preparation of ethyl cellulose microcapsules of gadopentetate dimeglumine for neutron-capture therapy using the Wurster process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H; Tokumitsu, H; Miyamoto, M; Jono, K; Kanamori, R; Akine, Y; Tokita, N

    1993-06-01

    Microcapsules of hygroscopic, highly water-soluble gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA-DM) for use in preliminary in vivo experiments for neutron-capture therapy were designed. They were prepared with such properties as a particle size small enough to be suspended and injected through a syringe, a negligible release of Gd-DTPA-DM, and a high drug content by means of the Wurster process, a spray coating method using a spouted bed with a draft tube. They were composed of lactose cores of 53-63 microm, an undercoat of ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a drug-layer of Gd-DTPA-DM, EC and PVP, a waterproof coat and a release-sustaining overcoat of EC and cholesterol (1:1), and a surface treated with hydrogenated egg lecithin. By curing at 110 degrees C for 30 min after mixing with 20% pulverized mannitol powder, the 20% overcoating suppressed the release of Gd-DTPA-DM from 75-106 microm microcapsules to less than 10% for the first 20 min, which was the period required to prepare a suspension, inject it and irradiate the neutron. The microcapsules could be used to confirm that the intracellular presence of Gd is not critical in gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. PMID:8370113

  7. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  8. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: halfon@phys.huji.ac.il; Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Steinberg, D. [Biofilm Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah (Israel); Nagler, A.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Polacheck, I. [Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center (Israel); Srebnik, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2009-07-15

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  9. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  10. Determination of boron in biological samples for the needs of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the actual concentration of 10B in a patient's blood is a prerequisite for determining the start and length of patient irradiation. The Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis (PGRA) method enables this nuclide to be determined rapidly and reliably within the region of 1 to 100 ppm. In this method, the characteristic line at 478 keV from the nuclear reaction 10B+n → 7Li+α+γ during sample exposure to thermal neutrons is used to determine boron. The facility which has been built up for this purpose comprises, in particular, a large-volume semiconductor detector for recording gamma rays emerging from the radiative neutron capture on the target

  11. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT of explanted livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingeneria Nucleare; Colautti, P. [INFN, Padova (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; Corrado, M.G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; d`Errico, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Matzke, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Monti, S.; Tinti, R. [ENEA-ERG-FIRE, Bologna (Italy); Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    An accelerator-based thermal neutron source for BNCT of the explanted liver was designed using the MCNP code. Neutrons are generated via (d,n) reactions by 7 MeV deuterons bombarding a beryllium target. The therapy constraints were approached by simulating an irradiation cavity placed inside a graphite reflector parallelepiped containing a heavy-water moderator in turn enclosing the beryllium target. The experimental verification was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy). The thermal and epithermal neutron flux was measured at various positions in the irradiation cavity by means of activation techniques employing bare and cadmium covered indium foils. Further measurements were performed with BF{sub 3} detectors. The fast neutron component of the dose equivalent and the energy spectrum above 100keV were assessed by means of a recently developed technique employing variable threshold superheated drop detectors. The prompt gamma ray dose was measured with {sup 7}LiF TLDs. (author).

  12. Optimum design of a moderator system based on dose calculation for an accelerator driven Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, R; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2014-06-01

    An accelerator based BNCT has been desired because of its therapeutic convenience. However, optimal design of a neutron moderator system is still one of the issues. Therefore, detailed studies on materials consisting of the moderator system are necessary to obtain the optimal condition. In this study, the epithermal neutron flux and the RBE dose have been calculated as the indicators to look for optimal materials for the filter and the moderator. As a result, it was found that a combination of MgF2 moderator with Fe filter gave best performance, and the moderator system gave a dose ratio greater than 3 and an epithermal neutron flux over 1.0×10(9)cm(-2)s(-1).

  13. Self-shielding effects in neutron spectra measurements for neutron capture therapy by means of activation foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Józefowicz, Krystyna; Pytel, Beatrycze; Koziel, Alina

    2004-01-01

    The design and optimisation of a neutron beam for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is accompanied by the neutron spectra measurements at the target position. The method of activation detectors was applied for the neutron spectra measurements. Epithermal neutron energy region imposes the resonance structure of activation cross sections resulting in strong self-shielding effects. The neutron self-shielding correction factor was calculated using a simple analytical model of a single absorption event. Such a procedure has been applied to individual cross sections from pointwise ENDF/B-VI library and new corrected activation cross sections were introduced to a spectra unfolding algorithm. The method has been verified experimentally both for isotropic and for parallel neutron beams. Two sets of diluted and non-diluted activation foils covered with cadmium were irradiated in the neutron field. The comparison of activation rates of diluted and non-diluted foils has demonstrated the correctness of the applied self-shielding model.

  14. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles. The first step toward T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Björkdahl, O; Sørensen, P G; Hansen, T; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

  15. IMPROVED COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart R. Slattery; David W. Nigg; John D. Brockman; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2010-05-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. This is essential for detailed dosimetric studies required for the anticipated research program.

  16. Optimal timing of neutron irradiation for boron neutron capture therapy after intravenous infusion of sodium borocaptate in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A cooperative study in Europe and Japan was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and boron uptake of sodium borocaptate (BSH: Na2B12H11SH), which has been introduced clinically as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: Data from 56 patients with glioblastoma who received BSH intravenous infusion were retrospectively reviewed. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 50 patients, and boron uptake was investigated in 47 patients. Patients received BSH doses between 12 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation, the infused boron dose was scaled linearly to 100 mg/kg BSH. Results: In BSH pharmacokinetics, the average value for total body clearance, distribution volume of steady state, and mean residence time was 3.6±1.5 L/h, 223.3±160.7 L, and 68.0±52.5 h, respectively. The average values of the boron concentration in tumor adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, the boron concentration in blood adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, and the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 37.1±35.8 ppm, 35.2±41.8 ppm, and 1.53±1.43, respectively. A good correlation was found between the logarithmic value of Tadj and the interval from BSH infusion to tumor tissue sampling. About 12-19 h after infusion, the actual values for Tadj and tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 46.2±36.0 ppm and 1.70±1.06, respectively. The dose ratio between tumor and healthy tissue peaked in the same interval. Conclusion: For boron neutron capture therapy using BSH administered by intravenous infusion, this work confirms that neutron irradiation is optimal around 12-19 h after the infusion is started

  17. Dosimetry and stability studies of the boron neutron capture therapy agent F-BPA-Fr using PET and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jonathan Paul

    The treatment of deep seated brain tumors such as glioblastoma Multiforme has been unsuccessful for many patients. Surgical debulking, chemotherapy and standard radiotherapy have met with limited success. Boron neutron capture therapy offers a binary mode brachytherapy based on the following capture reaction that may provide an innovative alternative to standard forms of treatment:10B + n /to/ 11B /to 7Li + 4He + 2.31 MeVBoron is chemically attached to a tumor binding compound creating a non-toxic neutron absorber. A dose of epithermal neutrons provides the catalyst to produce the lithium and alpha particles which destroy any tissue within a length of one cell diameter from the boron compound. This dissertation uses 19F-MRI and 18F-PET to provide answers to the localization and biodistribution questions that arise in such a treatment modality. Practical patient dosimetry and actual treatment planning using the PET data is also examined. Finally, theoretical work done in the areas of compartmental modelling dealing with pharmacokinetic uptake of the PET radiotracer and dose analysis in microdosimetry is also presented.

  18. Development and in vitro testing of liposomal gadolinium-formulations for neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the improvement of current neutron capture therapy, several liposomal formulations of neutron capture agent gadolinium were developed and tested in a glioma cell model. Formulations were analyzed regarding physicochemical and biological parameters, such as size, zeta potential, uptake into cancer cells and performance under neutron irradiation. The neutron and photon dose derived from intracellular as well as extracellular Gd was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations and set in correlation with the reduction of cell survival after irradiation. To investigate the suitability of Gd as a radiosensitizer for photon radiation, cells were also irradiated with synchrotron radiation in addition to clinically used photons generated by linear accelerator. Irradiation with neutrons led to significantly lower survival for Gd-liposome-treated F98 and LN229 cells, compared to irradiated control cells and cells treated with non-liposomal Gd-DTPA. Correlation between Gd-content and -dose and respective cell survival displayed proportional relationship for most of the applied formulations. Photon irradiation experiments showed the proof-of-principle for the radiosensitizer approach, although the photon spectra currently used have to be optimized for higher efficiency of the radiosensitizer. In conclusion, the newly developed Gd-liposomes show great potential for the improvement of radiation treatment options for highly malignant glioblastoma.

  19. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vähätalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Järviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppälä, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment. PMID:26298436

  20. From radiation-induced chromosome damage to cell death: modelling basic mechanisms and applications to boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Altieri, S

    2011-02-01

    Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed to interpret radiation-induced cell killing; after briefly discussing some of these models, in this paper, a mechanistic approach based on an experimentally observed link between chromosome aberrations and cell death was presented. More specifically, a model and a Monte Carlo code originally developed for chromosome aberrations were extended to simulate radiation-induced cell death applying an experimentally observed one-to-one relationship between the average number of 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and deletions) per cell and -ln S, S being the fraction of surviving cells. Although such observation was related to X rays, in the present work, the approach was also applied to protons and alpha particles. A good agreement between simulation outcomes and literature data provided a model validation for different radiation types. The same approach was then successfully applied to simulate the survival of cells enriched with boron and irradiated with thermal neutrons at the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia, to mimic a typical treatment for boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:21159746

  1. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  2. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.;

    2006-01-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  3. Potential of para-boronophenylalaninol as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy, referring to that of its enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the potential of a newly developed 10B-containing alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), para-boronophenylalaninol (BPAol), as a boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy. C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors and C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. After oral administration of L-BPA or D-BPA, or intraperitoneal injection of L-BPAol or D-BPAol, the tumors were irradiated with reactor thermal neutron beams. For the combination with mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) and/or tirapazamine (TPZ), the tumors were heated at 40 degrees centigrade for 30 minutes right before neutron exposure, and/or TPZ was intraperitoneally injected 30 minutes before irradiation. The tumors were then excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling ( = quiescent (Q) cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were used for determining the apoptosis frequency in Q cells. The apoptosis and MN frequency in total (P + Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Without TPZ or MTH, L- and D-BPAol increased both frequencies markedly, especially for total cells. Although not significantly, L-BPA and D-BPAol increased both frequencies slightly more remarkably than D-BPA and L-BPAol, respectively. On combined treatment with both MTH and TPZ, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was markedly reduced. MTH increased the 10B uptake of all 10B-carriers into both tumor cells to some degree. Both L- and D-BPAol have potential as 10B-carriers in neutron capture therapy, especially when combined with both MTH and TPZ

  4. Transferrin-loaded nido-carborane liposomes. Synthesis and intracellular targeting to solid tumors for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron ion cluster lipids, as a double-tailed boron lipid synthesized from heptadecanol, formed stable liposomes at 25% molar ratio toward DSPC with cholesterol. Transferrin was able to be introduced on the surface of boron liposomes (Tf-PEG-CL liposomes) by the coupling of transferrin to the PEG-CO2H moieties of PEG-CL liposomes. The biodistribution of Tf-PEG-CL liposomes showed that Tf-PEG-CL liposomes accumulated in tumor tissues and stayed there for a sufficiently long time to increase tumor:blood concentration ratio. A 10B concentration of 22 ppm in tumor tissues was achieved by the injection of Tf-PEG-CL liposome at 7.2 mg/kg body weight 10B in tumor-bearing mice. After neutron irradiation, the average survival rate of mice not treated with Tf-PEG-CL liposomes was 21 days, whereas that of the treated mice was 31 days. Longer survival rates were observed in the mice treated with Tf-PEG-CL liposomes; one of them even survived for 52 days after BNCT. (author)

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma: preliminary results with the combined use of BPA and BOPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaggi, M. E-mail: viaggi@cnea.gov.ar; Dagrosa, M.A.; Longhino, J.; Blaumann, H.; Calzetta, O.; Kahl, S.B.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated human thyroid cancer (UTC) ARO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the i.p. injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45 ppm with both compounds vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the i.p BOPP injection and 1 h after BPA the ratios were: tumor/blood 3.75; tumor/distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6.65 and tumor/lung 3.8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy)

  6. Design and preparation of gadolinium-reservoir microcapsules for neutron-capture therapy by means of the Wurster process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M; Ichikawa, H; Fukumori, Y; Akine, Y; Tokuuye, K

    1997-12-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-containing microcapsules designed for neutron-capture therapy (NCT) were prepared by a spouted bed coating process. Microcapsules were designed as a Gd-reservoir. They were prepared with the following properties: particle size was smaller than 50 microns, Gd-content was as high as possible, and release of Gd was suppressed as long as possible. Calcium carbonate (20-32 microns) was selected as a speed particle. As a Gd-source, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) or a synthesized water-insoluble Gd-DTPA derivative, Gd-DTPA-distearylamide (Gd-DTPA-SA), was layered onto the seed particles. The release-suppressing layer was composed of aqueous acrylic latex of 9:9:4 poly(ethyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). In preliminary studies, Gd-DTPA microcapsules with 41-45 microns (mass median diameter) were prepared; they released Gd with a short lag-time and 3h-prolongation. Complete release suppression was, however, difficult to achieve because of high water-solubility of Gd-DTPA. Hence, a hydrophobic derivative, Gd-DTPA-SA, was next used as a Gd source. Gd-DTPA-SA microcapsules could be prepared with a mass median diameter of 52 microns. Gd-DTPA-SA content of the microcapsules was 38% and release of Gd was suppressed to less than 0.2% over 60 d. PMID:9433776

  7. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  8. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  9. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  10. Online detection of radiation produced in Boron-10 neutron capture reaction: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron microdistribution in both tumor and normal tissue sections can be studied by the autoradiography technique in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). A measurement of boron concentration in tissue is obtained through the evaluation of the density of tracks produced by alpha and lithium ions generated in the neutron capture reaction 10B(n,α) 7Li. This knowledge is pivotal when a BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) protocol is considered. A new methodology is proposed in order to record alpha and lithium events in real time, as light spots superimposed to the tissue section image. CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) and CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) are used as detectors, with the advantage of avoiding the superposition of events. Commercial web cams were employed for the preliminary experiments. They were partially disassembled in order to get the sensor chip uncovered. These devices were exposed to different radiation sources: 6.118 MeV alpha particles (252Cf), 0.662 MeV gamma rays (137Cs) and thermal neutrons (moderated 241Am-Be source, 103n.cm2.seg-1), to analyze the characteristics of the respective images. Pictures from tissue sections put in contact with the sensor surface were also acquired. A software was developed in Matlab to perform the image capture and processing. Early results show the feasibility of using these devices to study the distribution 10B in tissue samples. (author)

  11. Neutron capture therapy (NCT) and in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) a new technology on binary targeting radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is finally becoming 'a new option against cancer'. The difficulties for its development progress of that firstly is to improve the performance of boron compounds,secondly, it is the requirements of quantification and accuracy upon radiation dosimetry evaluation in clinical trials. Furthermore, that is long anticipation on hospital base neutron sources. It includes dedicated new NCT reactor, accelerator based neutron sources, and isotope source facilities. In addition to reactors, so far, the technology of other types of sources for clinical trials is not yet completely proven. The In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator specially designed for NCT, based on the MNSR successfully developed by China, can be installed inside or near the hospital and operated directly by doctors. The Irradiator has two neutron beams for respective treatment of the shallow and deep tumors. It is expected to initiate operation in the end of this year. It would provide a safe, low cost, and effective treatment tool for the NCT routine application in near future. (authors)

  12. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  13. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  14. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  15. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  16. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  17. Doxorubicin-Loaded Carborane-Conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles as Delivery System for Combination Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hejian; Zhou, Dongfang; Qi, Yanxin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin; Meng, Fanbo; Huang, Yubin

    2015-12-14

    Carborane-conjugated amphiphilic copolymer nanoparticles were designed to deliver anticancer drugs for the combination of chemotherapy and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-2-methyl-2(2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane)propyloxycarbonyl-propyne carbonate) (PLMB) was synthesized via the versatile reaction between decaborane and side alkynyl groups, and self-assembled with doxorubicin (DOX) to form drug-loaded nanoparticles. These DOX@PLMB nanoparticles could not only suppress the leakage of the boron compounds into the bloodstream due to the covalent bonds between carborane and polymer main chains, but also protect DOX from initial burst release at physiological conditions because of the dihydrogen bonds between DOX and carborane. It was demonstrated that DOX@PLMB nanoparticles could selectively deliver boron atoms and DOX to the tumor site simultaneously in vivo. Under the combination of chemotherapy and BNCT, the highest tumor suppression efficiency without reduction of body weight was achieved. This polymeric nanoparticles delivery system could be very useful in future chemoradiotherapy to obtain improved therapeutic effect with reduced systemic toxicity. PMID:26564472

  18. A new approach to dose estimation and in-phantom figure of merit measurement in BNCT by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, R; Afarideh, H

    2011-12-01

    In-phantom figures of merit of the radiobiological dose distribution are the main criteria for evaluation of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) plan and neutron beam evaluation. Since in BNCT there are several reactions, which contribute to the total dose of the tissue, the calculation of the dose distribution is complicated and requires lengthy and time-consuming simulations. Any changes in the beam shaping assembly (BSA) design would lead to the change of the neutron/gamma spectrum at exit of therapeutic window. As a result of any changes in the beam spectrum, the dose distribution in the tissue will be altered; therefore, another set of lengthy and time-consuming simulations to recalculate the dose distribution would have to be performed. This study proposes a method that applies artificial neural network (ANN) for quick dose prediction in order to avoid lengthy calculations. This method allows us to estimate the depth-dose distribution and in-phantom figures of merit for any energy spectrum without performing a complete Monte Carlo code (MCNP) simulation. To train the ANNs for modeling the depth-dose distribution, this study used a database containing 500 simulations of the neutron depth-dose distribution and 280 simulations of the gamma depth-dose distribution. The calculations were carried out by the MCNP for various mono-energetic neutrons, ranging from thermal up to 10 MeV energy and 280 gamma energy group, ranging from 0.01 MeV up to 20 MeV, through the SNYDER head phantom which is located at the exit of the BSA. The trained ANN was capable of establishing a map between the neutron/gamma beam energy and the dose distribution in the phantom as an input and a response, respectively. The current method is founded upon the observation that the dose which is released by the beam of composite energy spectrum can be decomposing into the various energy components which make the neutron/gamma spectrum. Therefore, in this procedure the neutron/gamma energy

  19. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) modal studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  1. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, M W; Sørensen, P G; Björkdahl, O; Jensen, M R; Gundersen, H J G; Bjørnholm, T

    2006-03-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and chemical assays and reveal profound changes in surface chemistry and structural characteristics. In vitro thermal neutron irradiation of B16 melanoma cells incubated with sub-100 nm nanoparticles (381.5 microg/g (10)B) induces complete cell death. The nanoparticles alone induce no toxicity.

  2. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Somacal, H.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huck, H.; Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Repetto, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma (CCS): Biodistribution study of p-borono-L-phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, T. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki University, Kiyotake 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi University, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yayama, K. [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyatake, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Ichikawa, H., E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare melanocytic malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Our previous study demonstrated that in vitro cultured CCS cells have the ability to highly uptake L-BPA and thus boron neutron capture therapy could be a new option for CCS treatment. This paper proved that a remarkably high accumulation of {sup 10}B (45-74 ppm) in tumor was obtained even in a CCS-bearing animal with a well-controlled biodistribution followed by intravenous administration of L-BPA-fructose complex (500 mg BPA/kg).

  4. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  5. Synthesis of PBAD-lipiodol nanoparticles for combination treatment with boric acid in boron neutron capture therapy for hepatoma in-vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to increase BNCT efficiency for hepatoma by a combined treatment of phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol nanoparticles (PBAD-L nanoparticles) with boric acid. The size of PBAD-L nanoparticles were 400-750 nm at the boron concentrations of 0.3-2.7 mg/ml. After 24 hours the boron concentration in PBAD-L nanoparticles treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells was 112 ppm, while that in rat liver Clone 9 cells was 52 ppm. With the use of 25 μg B/ml boric acid, after 6 hours the boron concentration in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells were 75 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. In a combined treatment, boron concentration in HepG2 cells which were treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles for 18 hours and then combined with boric acid for 6 hours was 158 ppm. After neutron irradiation, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles was 12.6%, while that in the ones with a combined treatment was 1.3%. In conclusion, the combined treatment provided a higher boron concentration in HepG2 cells than treatments with either PBAD-L nanoparticles or boric acid, resulting in a higher therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in hepatoma cells. (author)

  6. Applicability of thermoluminescent dosimeters in X-ray organ dose determination and in the dosimetry of systemic and boron neutron capture radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main detectors used for clinical dosimetry are ionisation chambers and semiconductors. Thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters are also of interest because of their following advantages: (i) wide useful dose range, (ii) small physical size, (iii) no need for high voltage or cables, i.e. stand alone character, and (iv) tissue equivalence (LiF) for most radiation types. TL detectors can particularly be used for the absorbed dose measurements performed with the aim to investigate cases where dose prediction is difficult and not as part of a routine verification procedure. In this thesis, the applicability of TL detectors was studied in different clinical applications. Particularly, the major phenomena (e.g. energy dependence, sensitivity to high LET radiation, reproducibility) affecting on the precision and accuracy of TL detectors in the dose estimations were considered in this work. In organ dose determinations of diagnostic X-ray examinations, the TL detectors were found to be accurate within 5% (1 S.D.). For in viva studies using internal irradiation source, i.e. for systemic radiation therapy, a method for determining the absorbed doses to organs was introduced. The TL method developed was found to be able to estimate the absorbed doses to those critical organs near the body surface within 50%. In the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), TL detectors were used for gamma dose and neutron fluence measurements. They were found able to measure the neutron dose component with the accuracy of 16%, and therefore to be a useful addition to the activation foils in BNCT neutron dosimetry. The absorbed gamma doses can be measured with TL detectors within 20% in the mixed neutron-gamma field, which enables in viva measurements at BNCT beams with approximately the same accuracy. In this study, the uncertainties of TL dosimeters were found to be high but not essentially greater than those in other measurement techniques used for clinical dosimetry

  7. Study of the interaction of boron-containing amino acids for the neutron capture therapy with biologically interesting compounds by using 'three-spot zone electrophoresis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy, p-borono phenylalanine (BPA) is the boron compound which has been clinically used together with sodium borocaptate. It was found by the electrophoresis behavior that the BPA interacted with organic carboxylic acids in its dissolved state. In this paper, the electrophoresis behavior of general amino acids as seen in three-spot zone electrophoresis and the peculiar interaction of the amino acids having dihydroxyboryl radical are described. Zone electrophoresis has been developed as separation means, and three-spot process excludes the errors due to accidental factors as far as possible. The behaviors of zone electrophoresis of ordinary neutral amino acids, orthoboric acid and p-BPA are reported. For utilizing the features of boron neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to develop the carrier which is singularly taken into cancer cells. There is not a good method for discriminating normal cells and cancer cells. As for the administration of BPA to patients, its solubility is insufficient, therefore, its fructose complex has been used. The research on the biochemical peculiarity of boron is important. (K.I.)

  8. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  9. BNCT of 3 cases of spontaneous head and neck cancer in feline patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Trivillin, V.A.; Heber, E.M.; Angeles Cantarelli, Maria de los; Itoiz, M.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Rebagliati, R.J.; Batistoni, Daniel; Schwint, A.E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    Having demonstrated BPA-BNCT induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of the RA-1 Reactor within a preclinical context. The biodistribution studies showed that, in all three cases evaluated, BPA delivered absolute boron values to tumor in the range that proved therapeutically useful in the experimental model of SCC. BPA-BNCT studies showed no radiotoxic effects, partial tumor control in terms of impaired growth and partial necrosis, an improvement in clinical condition and prolonged survival beyond the terminal condition of the feline patients at the time of recruitment.

  10. Experimental approach to the BNCT treatment of human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program named Taormina, is concerned with an attempt to set up a method to use Boron neutron capture therapy for liver metastases in diffused tumours. According to our project, the liver will be explanted, treated with a solution of organic Boron compound, then irradiated in a thermal neutron field. Such modalities give the significant advantage to preserve the remaining patient organs from damage. A collaboration including nuclear physicists and surgeons of the University of Pavia planned the original research project. Researchers in the fields of chemistry and anatomy gave contributions during the experiment in their particular fields of competence. The conditions which must be satisfied to get a safe neutron treatment are given. The Thermal Column (TC) of the reactor Triga Mark II of the University of Pavia was modified to reach the objectives. The possibility to get useful values of T parameter by searching the modalities to take the greatest possible advantage from the so called blood-brain barrier is investigated. Such a barrier effect, due to the particular metabolism of tumour cells, produces Boron accumulation into tumour tissues while Boron solutions are circulating inside the blood channels. The results of processing of 24 rats are given. The rather poor statistics do not allow meaningful conclusions but only some optimistic hope

  11. A treatment planning comparison of BPA- or BSH-based BNCT of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose during clinical BNCT requires knowledge (or reasonably valid assumptions) about the boron concentrations in tumor and normal tissues. For conversion of physical dose (Gy) into photon-equivalent dose (Gy-Eq), relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and/or compound-adjusted biological effectiveness (CBE) factors are required for each tissue. The BNCT treatment planning software requires input of the following values: the boron concentration in blood and tumor, RBEs in brain, tumor and skin for the high-LET beam components, the CBE factors for brain, tumor, and skin, and the RBE for the gamma component.

  12. Conceptual design of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in the thermalizing column of TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in TC/DC of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients.(author)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanostructured materials with potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging, neutron-capture therapy and targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F., E-mail: ghanotakis@chemistry.uoc.g [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Two Gadolinium nanostructured materials, Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} nanoparticles and Gd(OH){sub 3} nanorods, were synthesized and extensively characterized by various techniques. In addition to the potential use of Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) application, it could also be used in targeted drug delivery. An antibiotic (nalidixic acid), two amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid), a fatty acid and a surfactant (SDS) were intercalated in the nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic acid in order to be capable of targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing sites, such as tumor human cells.

  14. Biodistribution of nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivative prepared with a planetary ball mill for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivatives (Gd-nanoGR) were prepared with a wet ball-milling process for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. Ball-milling of solid mass of gadopentetic acid distearylamide with soybean lecithin as a dispersant in the presence of water and subsequent sonication at 70degC resulted in the Gd-nanoGR with the particle size of 63 nm. Biodistribution study using melanoma-bearing hamsters demonstrated that the i.v. injection of the Gd-nanoGR made a higher gadolinium accumulation in tumor (109 μg Gd/g wet tumor at 6h after administration), when compared with the gadolinium-loaded micellar-like nanoparticles previously reported. (author)

  15. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unilamellar liposomes formulated with an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer, and encapsulating Na3[ae-B10-H9)-2-NH3B10H8] were prepared by probe sonication and investigated in vivo. Microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was utilized to determine the biodistribution of boron in various tissues following either a single tail vein injection or two identical injections (separated by 24 hours) of the liposomal suspension in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas in their right flank. Double-injection protocols resulted in a boron content in the tumor exceeding 50 µg of boron per gram of tissue for 48 to 72 hours subsequent to the initial injection while tumor:blood boron ratios were more ideal from 54 hours (1.9:1) to 96 hours (5.7:1) subsequent to the initial injection. Tumor bearing mice were given a double-injection of liposomes containing the 10B-enriched analogs of the aforementioned agents and subjected to a 30 minute irradiation by thermal neutrons with a flux of 8.8 x 108 (±7%) neutrons/cm2 s integrated over the energy range of 0.0 - 0.414 eV. Significant tumor response for a single BNCT treatment was demonstrated by growth curves versus a control group. Vastly diminished tumor growth was witnessed at 14 days (186% increase versus 1551% in controls) in mice that were given a second injection/radiation treatment 7 days after the first. Mice given a one hour neutron irradiation following the double-injection of liposomes had a similar response (169% increase at 14 days) suggesting that neutron fluence is the limiting factor towards BNCT efficacy in this study.

  17. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ∼10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema)

  18. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortesniemi, M. E-mail: mika.kortesniemi@hus.fi; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15{+-}8 and 320{+-}70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7{+-}0.1 {mu}g/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  20. BNCT dosimetry performed with a mini twin tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, D; Colautti, P; Lollo, M; Esposito, J; Conte, V; De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Ceballos, C

    2009-07-01

    The BNCT radiation field is complex because different beam components are mixed, each one having different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Microdosimetry with tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) has proven to be an ideal dosimetric technique for mixed radiation fields, because it is able both to measure the absorbed dose and to assess the radiation field relative biological effectiveness with good accuracy. An ideal detector for BNCT should contain two TEPCs, one detector loaded with, while the other one without (10)B in order to record all beam components with a unique measurement. Moreover, such a detector should be of tiny size in order to be able to measure in the intense BNCT radiation fields without significant pile-up effects. TEPCs have been shown to be pretty good dosimeters for mixed radiation fields. In this paper the first mini twin TEPC counter for BNCT is presented, as well as first measurement at the new HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at TAPIRO nuclear reactor and comparison with related Monte Carlo calculations.

  1. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  2. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?)waterair, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?)waterair can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy of

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Elisa M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Kueffer, Peter J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C. C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hughes, Andrea Monti [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Maitz, Charles A. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Jalisatgi, Satish S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). International Inst. of Nano and Molecular Medicine; Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Curotto, Paula [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, Verónica A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-11

    Unilamellar liposomes formulated with an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the lipid bilayer, and encapsulating Na3[1-(2’-B10-H9)-2-NH3B10H8] were prepared by probe sonication and investigated in vivo. Microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was utilized to determine the biodistribution of boron in various tissues following either a single tail vein injection or two identical injections (separated by 24 hours) of the liposomal suspension in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas in their right flank. Double-injection protocols resulted in a boron content in the tumor exceeding 50 µg of boron per gram of tissue for 48 to 72 hours subsequent to the initial injection while tumor:blood boron ratios were more ideal from 54 hours (1.9:1) to 96 hours (5.7:1) subsequent to the initial injection. Tumor bearing mice were given a double-injection of liposomes containing the 10B-enriched analogs of the aforementioned agents and subjected to a 30 minute irradiation by thermal neutrons with a flux of 8.8 x 108 (±7%) neutrons/cm2 s integrated over the energy range of 0.0 – 0.414 eV. Significant tumor response for a single BNCT treatment was demonstrated by growth curves versus a control group. Vastly diminished tumor growth was witnessed at 14 days (186% increase versus 1551% in controls) in mice that were given a second injection/radiation treatment 7 days after the first. Mice given a one hour neutron irradiation following the double-injection of liposomes had a similar response (169% increase at 14 days) suggesting that neutron fluence is the limiting factor towards BNCT efficacy in this study.

  4. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • We study the biodistribution of BPA+BSH for BNCT in experimental oral cancer. • The 3 BPA+BSH protocols assayed are potentially therapeutic. • Different proportions of B compounds with different CBE factors will affect response

  5. Design calculations of an epithermal neutron beam and development of a treatment planning system for the renovation of thor for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing Hua University was recently granted by National Science Council a five-year project to renovate its Open-Pool reactor (THOR) for boron neutron capture therapy. With this support, the whole graphite blocks in the original thermal column region can be removed for redesigning and constructing a better epithermal neutron beam. THOR is a 1 MW research reactor. The cross section area of the core facing the thermal column is 60 cm x 50 cm. By using 60 cm FLUENTAL plus 10 cm Pb, with cross section area of 70 cm x 60 cm and surrounded by 6 cm thick PbF2 reflector, the epithermal neutron flux at the filter/moderator exit can reach ∼8.5 x 109 n/cm2/s. When the collimator is added, the epithermal neutron beam intensity at the beam exit is reduced to 3 x 109 n/cm2/sec, but is still six times higher than the previous beam. Facing the clinical trials scheduled 3 and half years from now, a preliminary version of treatment planning system is developed. It includes a pre-processor to read CT scan and post-processors to display dose distributions. (author)

  6. Boron labeled rabbit anti-rat fibrin and goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin antibodies and their potential for slow neutron capture therapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic effectiveness of slow neutron capture therapy is currently dependent upon achieving a high concentration gradient of boron between tumor and normal tissue. Labeling of anti-tumor or anti-tumor site antibodies with boron containing compounds could provide this high therapeutic value. Anti-rat fibrin antibodies, which show considerable localization at the site of several transplantable rat tumors, were labeled with 4-boronophenylalanine (4-BPA) using the N-carboxy anhydride procedure. Activity of these labeled antibodies was studied by modifying the test for fibrinogen concentration of hemophiliac blood. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly using the fluorimetric test for phenylalanine concentration in serum. These tests showed that labeled antibodies retained their activity, and it was possible to add up to fifty 4-BPAs per active antibody. The indirect approach to achieving a high therapeutic value of boron was also investigated. This procedure involves labeling anti-immunoglobulin antibodies that bind to anti-tumor antibodies which are already bound to their respective antigens. Indirect labeling has the potential of increasing the therapeutic value by a factor of ten over the direct approach. Activity of labeled goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin (RGG) antibodies was studied by radial immunodiffusion and passive hemagglutination. The number of 4-BPAs bound to each active antibody was determined indirectly by fluorimetry. These labeled antibodies also retained their activity, and it was possible to add upwards of forty 4-BPAs per active antibody

  7. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  8. Near threshold ⁷Li(p,n) ⁷Be reaction as neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2015-12-01

    (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be is an endothermic reaction and working near its threshold (1.88 MeV) has the advantage of neutron spectra with maximum energies of about 100 keV, considerably lower than at higher beam energies, or than using other neutron-producing reactions or as for the uranium fission spectrum, relevant for BNCT based on nuclear reactors. With this primary energy it is much easier to obtain the energies needed for treating deep seated tumors by BNCT (about 10 keV). This work studies bombarding energies up to 2.05 MeV, different beam incidence angles and the effect of the undesirable gamma production via the (7)Li(p,γp') (7)Li reaction.

  9. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  10. The Argonne ACWL, a potential accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. Most of the hardware for the first 2 MeV was installed at Argonne and major subsystems had been commissioned when program funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization ended in October 1993. Renamed the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL), we are proposing to complete it to accelerate either deuterons to 2 MeV or protons to 3-3.5 MeV. Equipped with a beryllium or other light-element target, it would make a potent source of neutrons (on the order of 1013 n/s) for BNCT and/or neutron radiography. Project status and proposals for turning ACWL into a neutron source are reviewed, including the results of a computational study that was carried out to design a target/moderator to produce an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. (orig.)

  11. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  12. Prompt gamma and neutron detection in BNCT utilizing a CdTe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Koivunoro, Hanna; Reijonen, Vappu; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a novel sensor technology based on CdTe detectors was tested for prompt gamma and neutron detection using boronated targets in (epi)thermal neutron beam at FiR1 research reactor in Espoo, Finland. Dedicated neutron filter structures were omitted to enable simultaneous measurement of both gamma and neutron radiation at low reactor power (2.5 kW). Spectra were collected and analyzed in four different setups in order to study the feasibility of the detector to measure 478 keV prompt gamma photons released from the neutron capture reaction of boron-10. The detector proved to have the required sensitivity to detect and separate the signals from both boron neutron and cadmium neutron capture reactions, which makes it a promising candidate for monitoring the spatial and temporal development of in vivo boron distribution in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:26249745

  13. The epithermal neutron beam for BNCT under construction at TAPIRO: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, K W [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Casalini, L [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mondini, D [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP), Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Nava, E [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-ION, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    A column to provide an epithermal neutron beam suitable for experimental and clinical BNCT is nearing completion at the TAPIRO reactor (ENEA Casaccia, Rome). TAPIRO is a compact, low power (5 kW), helium-cooled, fast reactor. It has a hard neutron spectrum relative even to other fast reactors. In this paper some of the basic physics aspects of designing an epithermal neutron beam are considered, with reference to the TAPIRO beam.

  14. A feasibility design study on a neutron spectrometer for BNCT with liquid moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sato, F; Murata, I

    2015-12-01

    Neutrons generated by accelerators have various energy spectra. However, only limited methods are available to measure the whole neutron energy spectrum, especially when including the epithermal region that is normally used in BNCT. In the present study, we carried out the design study on a new neutron spectrometer that can measure such a neutron spectrum more accurately, precisely and with higher energy resolution, using an unfolding technique and a liquid moderator.

  15. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  16. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  17. Quality assurance for BNCT at nuclear facilities. A necessary burden or the unavoidable seal of approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT clinical trial at the HFR Petten is performed on a completely multi-national basis. The irradiation facility is located in one country (The Netherlands), is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a radiotherapist from another country (Germany) and treats patients coming from different European countries. In gaining the necessary approval, it became apparent, especially in the many discussions with the (Dutch) Health authorities that Quality Assurance (QA) would be and is a critical aspect. This is even more so, in the case of BNCT, where it was not only a (relatively) new experimental treatment (in 1996/97) about to be performed for the first time in Europe, but it was to be performed in a non-hospital environment and furthermore in a nuclear research reactor. It was necessary therefore to comply, as closely as possible, with similarly accepted practices in conventional radiotherapy. Despite QA being a sometimes burdensome task, this paper nevertheless raises the issue as to whether it is necessary or whether it is the seal of approval for BNCT as an acceptable mode of treatment in mainstream radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeng-Ning; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2-1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3-1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07Gy.

  19. Opening and construction of facilities in succession for particle beam therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feature article describes the current state of practical particle beam therapy of cancer, its future prospect, recent opening/construction of its facilities and manufacturers' view with following 9 topics presented by relevant experts. Gunma University (topic 1) started the carbon ion therapy from Mar., 2010, and has treated more than 100 cancer patients to aim the treatment of about 600 patients/year after several years. Fukui Prefectural Hospital Proton Therapy Center (topic 2) started from this March with proton beams for patients with its therapeutic standard, in cooperation with insurance companies and hotels for patients' convenience. Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center (Kagoshima Pref.) (topic 3) started this year with proton beams for 13 patients hitherto with reference protocol of Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. A new stereotactic irradiation system of proton beams for breast cancer has been developed. Construction of Saga Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu (Saga Pref.) (topic 4) began this year to be completed in 2013. Aizawa Hospital (Nagano Pref.) (topic 5) plans to introduce the small-sized proton accelerator-gantry system (Sumitomo Heavy Ind., Ltd.) aiming the practice in 2013. Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine (topic 6) reports the trends of current and future construction inside/outside Japan. Manufacturers comment their respective business: high-speed scanning irradiation system, next generation handling system of patient and particle beam therapy information system by Toshiba (topic 7); designation of the whole heavy ion beam therapy system (with NIRS), proton beam (as in topic 5) and system of BNCT (boron neutron-capture therapy) (Kyoto Univ.) by Sumitomo Heavy Ind., Ltd. (topic 8); and small-size proton therapeutic machine with 4D tracing capability for patient's movement (Hokkaido Univ.) and with spot-scanning irradiation technique by Hitachi (topic 9). (author)

  20. SU-E-J-104: Single Photon Image From PET with Insertable SPECT Collimator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Suh, T [The catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine/Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, K [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. Methods: Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX) source code. The coincidence events were first compiled on the PET detector, and then, the events of the prompt gamma ray were collected after neutron emission by using a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) collimator on the PET. The obtaining of full width at half maximum (FWHM) values from the energy spectrum was performed to collect effective events for reconstructed image. In order to evaluate the images easily, five boron regions in a brain phantom were used. The image profiles were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of a phantom. The image was reconstructed using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm. The image profiles and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were compiled for quantitative analysis from the two kinds of reconstructed image. Results: The prompt gamma ray energy peak of 478 keV appeared in the energy spectrum with a FWHM of 41 keV (6.4%). On the basis of the ROC curve in Region A to Region E, the differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of the PET and SPECT images were found to be 10.2%, 11.7%, 8.2% (center, Region C), 12.6%, and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Future Planning (MSIP)(Grant No

  1. SU-E-J-104: Single Photon Image From PET with Insertable SPECT Collimator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. Methods: Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX) source code. The coincidence events were first compiled on the PET detector, and then, the events of the prompt gamma ray were collected after neutron emission by using a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) collimator on the PET. The obtaining of full width at half maximum (FWHM) values from the energy spectrum was performed to collect effective events for reconstructed image. In order to evaluate the images easily, five boron regions in a brain phantom were used. The image profiles were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of a phantom. The image was reconstructed using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm. The image profiles and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were compiled for quantitative analysis from the two kinds of reconstructed image. Results: The prompt gamma ray energy peak of 478 keV appeared in the energy spectrum with a FWHM of 41 keV (6.4%). On the basis of the ROC curve in Region A to Region E, the differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of the PET and SPECT images were found to be 10.2%, 11.7%, 8.2% (center, Region C), 12.6%, and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Future Planning (MSIP)(Grant No

  2. Laser capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  3. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  4. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  5. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  6. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented. PMID:25746919

  7. The optimization study of Bonner sphere in the epi-thermal neutron irradiation field for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K; Sakurai, Y

    2011-12-01

    The optimization study on the Bonner sphere in the epi-thermal neutron irradiation field for BNCT was done for the moderator material, moderator size, and activation foils as a neutron detector in the sphere. The saturated activity for the activation foil was obtained from the calculated response, and the effective energy range for each Bonner sphere was determined from the saturated activity. We can see that boric acid solution moderator is suitable for the spectrum measurement of a epi-thermal neutron irradiation field.

  8. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed.

  9. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  10. Non-invasive imaging of human telomerase activity-targeting enzyme in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tujino, H.; Imahori, Y.; Mineura, K. [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Ono, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Fujii, R. [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Ueda, S. [Maizuru National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    In the present study, we achieved non-invasive imaging of gene expression of human telomerase (hTRT) in brain tumors by systemic administration of antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorothioate-derivative (S-oligomer) labeled with {sup 11}C as a positron emitter. The difference in the rate of incorporation of antisense between the tumor and the surrounding normal brain tissue is large enough to apply this technique practically to non-invasive imaging of gene expression in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). We also expected that this technique can be used in developing the peculiar boron carrier in the neutron capture therapy. (author)

  11. Non-invasive imaging of human telomerase activity-targeting enzyme in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we achieved non-invasive imaging of gene expression of human telomerase (hTRT) in brain tumors by systemic administration of antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorothioate-derivative (S-oligomer) labeled with 11C as a positron emitter. The difference in the rate of incorporation of antisense between the tumor and the surrounding normal brain tissue is large enough to apply this technique practically to non-invasive imaging of gene expression in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). We also expected that this technique can be used in developing the peculiar boron carrier in the neutron capture therapy. (author)

  12. Azaboranes (RNH2)B8H11NHR. A new type of boron cluster for possible use in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interesting group of novel, water-soluble (RNH2)B8H11NHR species can be regarded as new boron carriers with potential use in the synthesis of boron-rich compounds for application in BNCT. These azaboranes are synthesized by the reaction of B9H13(SMe2) with primary amines NH2R. (author)

  13. Conceptual design of a clinical BNCT beam in an adjacent dry cell of the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M

    2000-01-01

    The MCNP4B Monte Carlo transport code is used in a feasibility study of the epithermal neutron boron neutron capture therapy facility in the thermalizing column of the 250-kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI). To boost the epithermal neutron flux at the reference irradiation

  14. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  15. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs

  16. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au–Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented. - Highlights: • Using MCNP5, radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor is modified. • Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators are used to modify the beam port. • Results of two-group neutron/photon flux are presented. • Monte Carlo results are compared with experimental results

  17. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively. PMID:27423022

  18. Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,α) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

  19. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA