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  1. Gene expression profiling of gastric cancer by microarray combined with laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Shiang Wu; Yi-Shing Lin; Yu-Ting Chang; Chia-Tung Shun; Ming-Tsan Lin; Jaw-Town Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the gene expression profile of gastric cancer (GC) by combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray and to correlate the profiling with histological subtypes. METHODS: Using LCM, pure cancer cells were procured from 45 cancerous tissues. After procurement of about 5 000 cells, total RNA was extracted and the quality of RNA was determined before further amplification and hybridization. One microgram of amplified RNA was converted to cDNA and hybridized to cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Among 45 cases, only 21 were qualified for their RNAs. A total of 62 arrays were performed. These included 42 arrays for cancer (21 cases with dyeswab duplication) and 20 arrays for non-tumorous cells (10 cases with dye-swab duplication) with universal reference. Analyzed data showed 504 genes were differentially expressed and could distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous groups with more than 99% accuracy. Of the 504 genes, trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3 were in the list and their expression patterns were consistent with previous reports. Immunohistochemical staining of trefoil factor 1 was also consistent with the array data. Analyses of the tumor group with these 504 genes showed that there were 3 subgroups of GC that did not correspond to any current classification system, including Lauren's classification. CONCLUSION: By using LCM, linear amplification of RNA, and cDNA microarray, we have identified a panel of genes that have the power to discriminate between GC and non-cancer groups. The new molecular classification and the identified novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis deserve further investigations to elucidate their dinicopathological significance.

  2. Study of differential proteins in lung adenocarcinoma using laser capture microdissection combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Li-na; LIN Xiu-li; LIU Yan-feng; LIN Yu-rong; RONG Biao-xue; YANG Shuan-ying; LI Feng-tao; SHANG Wen-li; ZHANG Wei; HUO Shu-fen; NAN Yan-dong; TIAN Ying-xuan; DU Jie

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years the proportion of lung adenocarcinoma (adCA) which occurs in lung cancer patients has increased. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology, we aimed to screen lung cancer biomarkers by studying the proteins in the tissues of adCA.Methods We used LCM and magnetic bead based weak cation exchange (MB-WCX) to separate and purify the homogeneous adCA cells and normal calls from six cases of fresh adCA and matched normal lung tissues. The proteins were analyzed and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-OF-MS). We screened for the best pattern using a radial basic function neural network algorithm.Results About 2.895x106 and 1.584x106 cells were satisfactorily obtained by LCM from six cases of fresh lung adCA and matched normal lung tissues, respectively. The homogeneities of cell population were estimated to be over 95% as determined by microscopic visualization. Comparing the differentially expressed proteins between the lung adCA and the matched normal lung group, 221 and 239 protein peaks, respectively, were found in the mass-to-charge ration (M/Z)between 800 Da and 10 000 Da. According to t test, the expression of two protein peaks at 7521.5 M/Z and 5079.3 M/Z had the largest difference between tissues. They were more weakly expressed in the lung adCA compared to the matched normal group. The two protein peaks could accurately separate the lung adCA from the matched normal lung group by the sample distribution chart. A discriminatory pattern which can separate the lung adCA from the matched normal lung tissue consisting of three proteins at 3358.1 M/Z, 5079.3 M/Z and 7521.5 M/Z was established by a radial basic function neural network algorithm with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%.Conclusions Differential proteins in lung adCA were screened using LCM combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology, and a

  3. Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

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    Chen Luping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas. Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis. Our newly developed immuno-laser capture microdissection (LCM method would permit rapid and reliable procurement of prolactin cells from this heterogeneous tissue. Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis. Results Proteins from immuno-LCM captured prolactin cells were digested; resulting peptides were separated by two dimensional-nanoscale liquid chromatography (2D-nanoLC/MS and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified. This collection of identified proteins by far represents the largest and the most comprehensive database of proteome for prolactinoma. Category analysis of the proteome revealed a widely unbiased access to various proteins with diverse functional characteristics. Conclusions This manuscript described a more comprehensive proteomic profile of prolactinomas compared to other previous published reports. Thanks to the application of immuno-LCM combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography here permitted identification of more proteins and, to our best knowledge, generated the largest prolactinoma proteome. This enlarged proteome would contribute significantly to further understanding of prolactinoma tumorigenesis which is crucial to the management of

  4. Comparison of RNA extraction kits and histological stains for laser capture microdissected prostate tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Laser capture microdissection offers unique possibilities for the isolation of specific cell populations or histological structures. However, isolation of RNA from microdissected tissue is challenging due to degradation and minimal yield of RNA during laser capture microdisse

  5. Laser Capture Microdissection Protocol for Xylem Tissues of Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Valerio, Concetta; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Zhao, Lei; Kärkönen, Anna; Niittylä, Totte; Fagerstedt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables precise dissection and collection of individual cell types from complex tissues. When applied to plant cells, and especially to woody tissues, LCM requires extensive optimization to overcome such factors as rigid cell walls, large central vacuoles, intercellular spaces, and technical issues with thickness and flatness of the sections. Here we present an optimized protocol for the laser-assisted microdissection of developing xylem from mature trees: a gymnosperm (Norway spruce, Picea abies) and an angiosperm (aspen, Populus tremula) tree. Different cell types of spruce and aspen wood (i.e., ray cells, tracheary elements, and fibers) were successfully microdissected from tangential, cross and radial cryosections of the current year’s growth ring. Two approaches were applied to achieve satisfactory flatness and anatomical integrity of the spruce and aspen specimens. The commonly used membrane slides were ineffective as a mounting surface for the wood cryosections. Instead, in the present protocol we use glass slides, and introduce a glass slide sandwich assembly for the preparation of aspen sections. To ascertain that not only the anatomical integrity of the plant tissue, but also the molecular features were not compromised during the whole LCM procedure, good quality total RNA could be extracted from the microdissected cells. This showed the efficiency of the protocol and established that our methodology can be integrated in transcriptome analyses to elucidate cell-specific molecular events regulating wood formation in trees. PMID:28101088

  6. Laser capture microdissection in Ectocarpus siliculosus: the pathway to cell-specific transcriptomics in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Denis eSaint-Marcoux; Bernard eBilloud; Jane Alison Langdale; Bénédicte eCharrier

    2015-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) facilitates the isolation of individual cells from tissue sections, and when combined with RNA amplification techniques, it is an extremely powerful tool for examining genome-wide expression profiles in specific cell-types. LCM has been widely used to address various biological questions in both animal and plant systems, however, no attempt has been made so far to transfer LCM technology to macroalgae. Macroalgae are a collection of widespread eukaryotes li...

  7. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  8. The cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia: a laser capture microdissection study.

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    Laura W Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of brain and peripheral tissues in schizophrenia patients have indicated impaired energy supply to the brain. A number of studies have also demonstrated dysfunction of the microvasculature in schizophrenia patients. Together these findings are consistent with a hypothesis of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, we have investigated the cerebral vascular endothelium of schizophrenia patients at the level of transcriptomics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used laser capture microdissection to isolate both microvascular endothelial cells and neurons from post mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. RNA was isolated from these cell populations, amplified, and analysed using two independent microarray platforms, Affymetrix HG133plus2.0 GeneChips and CodeLink Whole Human Genome arrays. In the first instance, we used the dataset to compare the neuronal and endothelial data, in order to demonstrate that the predicted differences between cell types could be detected using this methodology. We then compared neuronal and endothelial data separately between schizophrenic subjects and controls. Analysis of the endothelial samples showed differences in gene expression between schizophrenics and controls which were reproducible in a second microarray platform. Functional profiling revealed that these changes were primarily found in genes relating to inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides preliminary evidence of molecular alterations of the cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia patients, suggestive of a hypo-inflammatory state in this tissue type. Further investigation of the blood-brain barrier in schizophrenia is warranted.

  9. Laser Capture Microdissection of Archival Kidney Tissue for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Tim D; Christie, Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    Whole-organ molecular analysis of the kidney potentially misses important factors involved in the pathogenesis of disease in glomeruli and tubules. Organ wide analysis can however be augmented by using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate morphologically similar cells and nephron structures from a heterogeneous tissue section via direct visualization of the cells. The protocol here provides a practical approach utilizing LCM in combination with RNA isolation techniques for downstream analysis. This technique is readily applicable to study mRNA expression in isolated glomeruli and tubules in both experimental animal models and human kidney biopsy material.

  10. Laser capture microdissection in Ectocarpus siliculosus: the pathway to cell-specific transcriptomics in brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eSaint-Marcoux

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser capture microdissection (LCM facilitates the isolation of individual cells from tissue sections, and when combined with RNA amplification techniques, it is an extremely powerful tool for examining genome-wide expression profiles in specific cell-types. LCM has been widely used to address various biological questions in both animal and plant systems, however, no attempt has been made so far to transfer LCM technology to macroalgae. Macroalgae are a collection of widespread eukaryotes living in fresh and marine water. In line with the collective effort to promote molecular investigations of macroalgal biology, here we demonstrate the feasibility of using LCM and cell-specific transcriptomics to study development of the brown alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus. We describe a workflow comprising cultivation and fixation of algae on glass slides, laser microdissection, and RNA amplification. To illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure, we show qPCR data and metrics obtained from cell-specific transcriptomes generated from both upright and prostrate filaments of Ectocarpus.

  11. Fusobacterium necrophorum determined as abortifacient in sheep by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, Bent; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2006-01-01

    at late pregnancy by a technique that combines laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (LCM-FISH). Cultural bacteriological examination had failed to identify an infectious agent but by histological examination, large colonies of bacteria associated with tissue......Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been extensively used for identification of individual microbial cells within their natural environment. The present work describes the identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in formalin-fixed tissue samples from three sets of ovine twins aborted......RNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe specific for F. necrophorum was used in a FISH assay. In situ hybridization showed a high density of F. necrophorum in all examined tissue sections. Simultaneous probing with a general bacterial probe EUB338 and the specific probe for F. necrophorum showed that no other bacteria could...

  12. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Direct cultivation-independent sequence retrieval of unidentified bacteria from histological tissue sections has been limited by the difficulty of selectively isolating specific bacteria from a complex environment. Here, a new DNA isolation approach is presented for prokaryotic cells....... By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r......RNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected microcolonies, and the subsequent DNA sequence analysis identified the dissected bacterial cells as belonging to the Brachyspira aalborgi cluster 1. The advantage of this technique is the ability to combine the histological recognition of the specific bacteria...

  13. Research Techniques Made Simple: Laser Capture Microdissection in Cutaneous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Gonzalez, Estela; McGee, Jean Suh

    2016-10-01

    In cutaneous research, we aim to study the molecular signature of a diseased tissue. However, such a study is met with obstacles due to the inherent heterogeneous nature of tissues because multiple cell types reside within a tissue. Furthermore, there is cellular communication between the tissue and the neighboring extracellular matrix. Laser capture microdissection is a powerful technique that allows researchers to isolate cells of interest from any tissue using a laser source under microscopic visualization, thereby circumventing the issue of tissue heterogeneity. Target cells from fixed preparations can be extracted and examined without disturbing the tissue structure. In live cultures, a subpopulation of cells can be extracted in real time with minimal disturbance of cellular communication and molecular signatures. Here we describe the basic principles of the technique, the different types of laser capture microdissection, and the subsequent downstream analyses. This article will also discuss how the technique has been employed in cutaneous research, as well as future directions.

  14. Proteome analysis of human gastric cardia adenocarcinoma by laser capture microdissection

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    Wang Yan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA has been increasing in the past two decades in China, but the molecular changes relating to carcinogenesis have not been well characterised. Methods In this study, we used a comparative proteomic approach to analyse the malignant and nonmalignant gastric cardia epithelial cells isolated by navigated laser capture microdissection (LCM from paired surgical specimens of human GCA. Results Twenty-seven spots corresponding to 23 proteins were consistently differentially regulated. Fifteen proteins were shown to be up-regulated, while eight proteins were shown to be down-regulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant columnar epithelial cells. The identified proteins appeared to be involved in metabolism, chaperone, antioxidation, signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, expressions of HSP27, 60, and Prx-2 in GCA specimens were further confirmed by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Conclusion These data indicate that the combination of navigated LCM with 2-DE provides an effective strategy for discovering proteins that are differentially expressed in GCA. Such proteins may contribute in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of GCA carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the combination provides potential clinical biomarkers that aid in early detection and provide potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Laser capture microdissection and genetic analysis of carbon-labeled Kupffer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Gehring; Edmond Sabo; Maryann E San Martin; Elizabeth M Dickson; Chao-Wen Cheng; Stephen H Gregory

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a method of labeling and microdissecting mouse Kupffer cells within an extraordinarily short period of time using laser capture microdissection (LCM). METHODS: Tissues are complex structures comprised of a heterogeneous population of interconnected cells. LCM offers a method of isolating a single cell type from specific regions of a tissue section. LCM is an essential approach used in conjunction with molecular analysis to study the functional interaction of cells in their native tissue environment. The process of labeling and acquiring cells by LCM prior to mRNA isolation can be elaborate, thereby subjecting the RNA to considerable degradation. Kupffer cell labeling is achieved by injecting India ink intravenously, thus circumventing the need for in vitro staining. The significance of this novel approach was validated using a cholestatic liver injury model. RESULTS: mRNA extracted from the microdissected cell population displayed marked increases in colonystimulating factor-1 receptor and Kupffer cell receptor message expression, which demonstrated Kupffer cell enrichment. Gene expression by Kupffer cells derived from bile-duct-ligated, versus sham-operated, mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed a significant (2.5-fold, q value < 10) change in 493 genes. Based on this fold-change and a standardized PubMed search, 10 genes were identified that were relevant to the ability of Kupffer cells to suppress liver injury.CONCLUSION: The methodology outlined herein provides an approach to isolating high quality RNA from Kupffer cells, without altering the tissue integrity.

  16. Maintaining RNA integrity in a homogeneous population of mammary epithelial cells isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection

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    Helbling Jean-Christophe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser-capture microdissection (LCM that enables the isolation of specific cell populations from complex tissues under morphological control is increasingly used for subsequent gene expression studies in cell biology by methods such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, microarrays and most recently by RNA-sequencing. Challenges are i to select precisely and efficiently cells of interest and ii to maintain RNA integrity. The mammary gland which is a complex and heterogeneous tissue, consists of multiple cell types, changing in relative proportion during its development and thus hampering gene expression profiling comparison on whole tissue between physiological stages. During lactation, mammary epithelial cells (MEC are predominant. However several other cell types, including myoepithelial (MMC and immune cells are present, making it difficult to precisely determine the specificity of gene expression to the cell type of origin. In this work, an optimized reliable procedure for producing RNA from alveolar epithelial cells isolated from frozen histological sections of lactating goat, sheep and cow mammary glands using an infrared-laser based Arcturus Veritas LCM (Applied Biosystems® system has been developed. The following steps of the microdissection workflow: cryosectioning, staining, dehydration and harvesting of microdissected cells have been carefully considered and designed to ensure cell capture efficiency without compromising RNA integrity. Results The best results were obtained when staining 8 μm-thick sections with Cresyl violet® (Ambion, Applied Biosystems® and capturing microdissected cells during less than 2 hours before RNA extraction. In addition, particular attention was paid to animal preparation before biopsies or slaughtering (milking and freezing of tissue blocks which were embedded in a cryoprotective compound before being immersed in isopentane. The amount of RNA thus obtained from ca.150 to 250 acini

  17. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  18. Isolation of cardiac conduction system of rat heart by laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; NIU Xiao-lin; REN Fu-xian; HUANG Chen; LEI Cong; LI Zhe; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To isolate cells of cardiac conduction system (CCS) with laser capture microdissection (LCM) and extract and evaluate quality of small amount of RNA from cells of CCS. Methods: Cryostat sections were followed by H-E staining. 20 pieces of H-E stained cryostat sections were scraped and its RNA was assessed to insure that RNA didn't degrade in dyeing and dehydration process. Cells of CCS were captured with LCM and quality of small amount of RNA was verified with RT-PCR. Results: Cells of CCS isolated with LCM had clear morphology after staining. High quality RNA was extracted from LCM samples and scraped tissues; 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA were seen distinctly on gel electrophoresis. Low level of small amount of RNA extracted from LCM sample was below the limit of detection on gel electrophoresis or ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The housekeeping genes β-actin and GAPDH were successfully amplified with small amount of RNA. Conclusion :This study resolves the problem of acquiring material of CCS precisely that hinders gene research of CCS. It is found out that the method is easy and reliable to extract and assess the quality of small amount of RNA from microdissected cells of CCS.

  19. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

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    Ray Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  20. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kassianos, Andrew J; Zuryn, Steven; Roper, Kathrein E; Osborne, Andrew; Sampangi, Sandeep; Francis, Leo; Raghunath, Vishwas; Healy, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD) with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC) are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i) confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii) provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii) identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv) describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  1. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

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    Li Ming-Chung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Nissl Stain (NS, and for immunofluorescence (IF as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. Results The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. Conclusion RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  2. Pathway-focused PCR array profiling of enriched populations of laser capture microdissected hippocampal cells after traumatic brain injury.

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    Deborah R Boone

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI are associated with irreversible neurodegeneration in brain regions such as the hippocampus. Comparative gene expression analysis of dying and surviving neurons could provide insight into potential therapeutic targets. We used two pathway-specific PCR arrays (RT2 Profiler Apoptosis and Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR arrays to identify and validate TBI-induced gene expression in dying (Fluoro-Jade-positive or surviving (Fluoro-Jade-negative pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. In the Apoptosis PCR array, dying neurons showed significant increases in expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress compared with adjacent, surviving neurons. Pro-survival genes with pleiotropic functions were also significantly increased in dying neurons compared to surviving neurons, suggesting that even irreversibly injured neurons are able to mount a protective response. In the Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR array, which consists of genes that are normally expected to be expressed in both groups of hippocampal neurons, only a few genes were expressed at significantly different levels between dying and surviving neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis of selected, differentially expressed proteins supported the gene expression data. This is the first demonstration of pathway-focused PCR array profiling of identified populations of dying and surviving neurons in the brain after TBI. Combining precise laser microdissection of identifiable cells with pathway-focused PCR array analysis is a practical, low-cost alternative to microarrays that provided insight into neuroprotective signals that could be therapeutically targeted to ameliorate TBI-induced neurodegeneration.

  3. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

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    Vasmatzis George

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  4. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue.

  5. Laser capture microdissection of uredinia formed by Melampsora larici-populina revealed a transcriptional switch between biotrophy and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Delaruelle, Christine; Legué, Valérie; Tisserant, Emilie; Kohler, Annegret; Frey, Pascal; Martin, Francis; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2010-10-01

    The foliar rust caused by the basidiomycete Melampsora larici-populina is the main disease affecting poplar plantations in Europe. The biotrophic status of rust fungi is a major limitation to study gene expression of cell or tissue types during host infection. At the uredinial stage, infected poplar leaves contain distinct rust tissues such as haustoria, infection hyphae, and uredinia with sporogenous hyphae and newly formed asexual urediniospores. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate three areas corresponding to uredinia and subjacent zones in the host mesophyll for expression analysis with M. larici-populina whole-genome exon oligoarrays. Optimization of tissue preparation prior to LCM allowed isolation of RNA of good integrity for genome-wide expression profiling. Our results indicate that the poplar rust uredinial stage is marked by distinct genetic programs related to biotrophy in the host palisade mesophyll and to sporulation in the uredinium. A strong induction of transcripts encoding small secreted proteins, likely containing rust effectors, is observed in the mesophyll, suggesting a late maintenance of suppression of host defense in the tissue containing haustoria and infection hyphae. On the other hand, cell cycle and cell defense rescue transcripts are strongly accumulated in the sporulation area. This combined LCM-transcriptomic approach brings new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying urediniospore formation in rust fungi.

  6. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  7. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    -related behaviors. Based on such findings our aim was to investigate the molecular differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampal granular cell layer of the rat dentate gyrus. Homogeneous isolation of this specific area was performed by laser-capture microdissection and Illumina microarray chips......Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...... and ventral granular cell layer with a false discovery rate below 5% and with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. From this pool of genes 45 genes were more than two-fold regulated, 13 genes being dorsally enriched and 32 genes being ventrally enriched. Moreover, cluster analysis based...

  8. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  9. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation AnalysisPhouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.<...

  10. Combined fluorescent-chromogenic in situ hybridization for identification and laser microdissection of interphase chromosomes.

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    Nerea Paz

    Full Text Available Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis.

  11. Gene expression profiles of Beta-cell enriched tissue obtained by laser capture microdissection from subjects with type 2 diabetes.

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    Lorella Marselli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells from type 2 diabetes (T2D should provide insights into their abnormal insulin secretion and turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frozen sections were obtained from cadaver pancreases of 10 control and 10 T2D human subjects. Beta-cell enriched samples were obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. RNA was extracted, amplified and subjected to microarray analysis. Further analysis was performed with DNA-Chip Analyzer (dChip and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. There were changes in expression of genes linked to glucotoxicity. Evidence of oxidative stress was provided by upregulation of several metallothionein genes. There were few changes in the major genes associated with cell cycle, apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress. There was differential expression of genes associated with pancreatic regeneration, most notably upregulation of members of the regenerating islet gene (REG family and metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7. Some of the genes found in GWAS studies to be related to T2D were also found to be differentially expressed. IGF2BP2, TSPAN8, and HNF1B (TCF2 were upregulated while JAZF1 and SLC30A8 were downregulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study made possible by LCM has identified many novel changes in gene expression that enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes of primary spermatocyte against round spermatid isolated from human testis using the laser capture microdissection technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LIANG; Xiao Dong ZHANG; Lu Jing WANG; Yu Shen SHA; Jian Chao ZHANG; Shi Ying MIAO; Shu Dong ZONG; Lin Fang WANG; S.S. KOIDE

    2004-01-01

    The method of laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was developed to isolate specific germ cells from human testis sections and to identify the genes expressed during differentiation and development. In the present study, over 10,000 primary spermatocytes and round spermatid cells were successfully isolated by LCM. Using the cDNAs from primary spermatocytes and round spermatids, SSH cDNAs library of primary spermatocyte-specific was constructed. The average insert size of the cDNA isolated from 75randomly picked white clones was 500 bp, ranging from 250 bp to 1.7 kb. Using the dot-blot method, a total of 421clones were examined, resulting in the identification of 390 positive clones emitting strong signals. Partial sequence of cDNAs prepared from each clone was determined with an overall success rate of 84.4%. Genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase Ⅱ and the rescue factor-humanin were most frequently expressed in primary spermatocytes, suggesting their roles involved in meiosis.

  13. Laser capture microdissection followed by next-generation sequencing identifies disease-related microRNAs in psoriatic skin that reflect systemic microRNA changes in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Zibert, John R; Røpke, Mads A; Hafner, Markus; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Krueger, James G; Skov, Lone

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are differentially expressed in psoriatic skin; however, only few cell- and region-specific miRNAs have been identified in psoriatic lesions. We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to study the specific miRNA expression profiles in the epidermis (Epi) and dermal inflammatory infiltrates (RD) of psoriatic skin (N = 6). We identified 24 deregulated miRNAs in the Epi and 37 deregulated miRNAs in the RD of psoriatic plaque compared with normal psoriatic skin (FCH > 2, FDR < 0.05). Interestingly, 9 of the 37 miRNAs in RD, including miR-193b and miR-223, were recently described as deregulated in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, we found that miR-193b and miR-223 were expressed in Th17 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LCM combined with NGS provides a robust approach to explore the global miRNA expression in the epidermal and dermal compartments of psoriatic skin. Furthermore, our results indicate that the altered local miRNA changes seen in the RD are reflected in the circulating immune cells, suggesting that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  14. Western blot analysis of a limited number of cells: a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed tissue after laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Wim; Abbeloos, Vanessa; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Herman, Arnold G; Kockx, Mark M

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has been used successfully to obtain distinct populations of cells for subsequent molecular analysis. Because of the limited sample availability and the absence of in vitro amplification steps for proteins, the use of LCM for proteome analysis largely depends on highly sensitive protein detection methods. In this study, a western blot protocol was developed and validated for the detection of beta-actin and the moderately expressed cell death protein caspase-3 in small numbers of cells. Initially, cultured human U937 monocytes and whole sections of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils were used to optimize protein electrophoresis and western blotting conditions. High-performance NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels in combination with high-quality transfer membranes, optimized antibody concentrations, and a sensitive chemiluminescent substrate provided a strong signal for beta-actin with approximately 500 U937 cells. In the same way, procaspase-3 could be identified with approximately 1000 cells. Similar results were obtained with germinal centre cells that were procured from paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils by LCM. Treatment of U937 cells with etoposide rapidly induced cell death and allowed the detection of active caspase-3 with approximately 2500 cells (0.8 pg of protein). The findings of this study suggest that western blotting is a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of LCM procured cells.

  15. Laser Capture Microdissection of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections: Copy Number of the Virus in Cancerous and Normal Tissue and Heterogeneous DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mina; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Morales-Vazquez, Claudia Dalia; Zuna, Rosemary; Montiel, Delia Perez; Calleja-Macias, Itzel E.; Johansson, Bo; Andersson, Sonia; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Research on the pathogenicity of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) during cervical carcinogenesis often relies on the study of homogenized tissue or cultured cells. This approach does not detect molecular heterogeneities within the infected tissue. It is desirable to understand molecular properties in specific histological contexts. We asked whether Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) of archival cervical tumors in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing permits (i) sensitive DNA diagnosis of small clusters of formalin fixed cells, (ii) quantification of HPV DNA in neoplastic and normal cells, and (iii) analysis of HPV DNA methylation, a marker of tumor progression. We analyzed 26 tumors containing HPV-16 or 18. We prepared DNA from LCM dissected thin sections of 100 to 2000 cells, and analyzed aliquots corresponding to between nine and 70 cells. We detected nine to 630 HPV-16 genome copies and one to 111 HPV-18 genome copies per tumor cell, respectively. In 17 of the 26 samples, HPV DNA existed in histologically normal cells distant from the margins of the tumors, but at much lower concentrations than in the tumor, suggesting that HPVs can infect at low levels without pathogenic changes. Methylation of HPV DNA, a biomarker of integration of the virus into cellular DNA, could be measured only in few samples due to limited sensitivity, and indicated heterogeneous methylation patterns in small clusters of cancerous and normal cells. LCM is powerful to study molecular parameters of cervical HPV infections like copy number, latency and epigenetics. PMID:19497607

  16. Identification of pro-angiogenic markers in blood vessels from stroked-affected brain tissue using laser-capture microdissection

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    Baldellou Maribel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis correlates with patient survival following acute ischaemic stroke, and survival of neurons is greatest in tissue undergoing angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for the development of new microvessels and leads to re-formation of collateral circulation, reperfusion, enhanced neuronal survival and improved recovery. Results Here, we have isolated active (CD105/Flt-1 positive and inactive (CD105/Flt-1 minus (n=5 micro-vessel rich-regions from stroke-affected and contralateral tissue of patients using laser-capture micro-dissection. Areas were compared for pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression using targeted TaqMan microfluidity cards containing 46 genes and real-time PCR. Further analysis of key gene de-regulation was performed by immunohistochemistry to define localization and expression patterns of identified markers and de novo synthesis by human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC was examined following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Our data revealed that seven pro-angiogenic genes were notably up-regulated in CD105 positive microvessel rich regions. These were, beta-catenin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor-alpha (HGF-alpha, monocyte chemottractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and and Tie-2 as well as c-kit. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining of MMP-2, HGF-alpha, MCP-1 and Tie-2 in stroke-associated regions of active remodeling in association with CD105 positive staining. In vitro, OGD stimulated production of Tie-2, MCP-1 and MMP-2 in HBMEC, demonstrated a de novo response to hypoxia. Conclusion In this work we have identified concurrent activation of key angiogenic molecules associated with endothelial cell migration, differentiation and tube-formation, vessel stabilization and stem cell homing mechanisms in areas of revascularization. Therapeutic stimulation of these

  17. Gene expression Analysis of Neurons and Astrocytes Isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection from Frozen Human Brain Tissues.

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    Lidia Tagliafierro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different cell types and multiple cellular connections characterize the human brain. Gene expression analysis using a specific population of cells is more accurate than conducting analysis of the whole tissue homogenate, particularly in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, where a specific subset of cells is affected by the different pathology. Due to the difficulty to obtain homogenous cell populations, gene expression in specific cell-types (neurons, astrocytes, etc. has been understudied. To leverage the use of archive resources of frozen human brains in studies of neurodegenerative diseases, we developed and calibrated a method to quantify cell-type specific – neuronal, astrocytes – expression profiles of genes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Archive human frozen brain tissues were used to prepare slides for rapid immunostaining using cell-specific antibodies. The immunoreactive-cells were isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM. The enrichment for a particular cell-type of interest was validated in post-analysis stage by the expression of cell-specific markers. We optimized the technique to preserve the RNA integrity, so that the RNA was suitable for downstream expression analyses. Following RNA extraction, the expression levels were determined digitally using nCounter Single Cell Gene Expression assay (NanoString Technologies®. The results demonstrated that using our optimized technique we successfully isolated single neurons and astrocytes from human frozen brain tissues and obtained RNA of a good quality that was suitable for mRNA expression analysis. We present here new advancements compared to previous reported methods, which improve the method’s feasibility and its applicability for a variety of downstream molecular analyses. Our new developed method can be implemented in genetic and functional genomic research of neurodegenerative diseases and has the

  18. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Su, Hua; Long, Brian; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hetts, Steven W.; Higashida, Randall T.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Halbach, Van V.; Cooke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC) enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technique, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Methods Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 in. J-shape guide wires. Each of these samples was equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry-coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Conclusion Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection. PMID:25450638

  19. Fetal gut laser microdissection in combination with RNA preamplification enables epithelial-specific transcriptional profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerling, J.; Jansen, Jenny; Müller, M.; Haller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection (LMD) technology enables highly specific gene expression analyses of biologically relevant questions at cell- or tissue-specific resolution. Nevertheless, specific cell types are often limited in quantity (i.e. fetal tissue), making high quality RNA extraction and subsequent

  20. Phylogeny and distribution of an unknown Treponema sp. associated with porcine colitis by using in situ hybridization and laser capture microdissection (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    Helical-shaped bacteria resembling Spirochaetes commonly are present in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. Culturing of Spirochaetes is in general fastidious and not always successful. Here, a new DNA isolation approach for prokaryotic cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue...... species was recognized in pigs by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells from the colonic mucosa. Direct 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected micro-colonies. A phylogenetic analysis clustered the 16S rRNA gene...

  1. Laser capture microdissection-based in vivo genomic profiling of wound keratinocytes identifies similarities and differences to squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Leethanakul, Chidchanop; Patel, Vyomesh;

    2003-01-01

    keratinocytes from incisional mouse skin wounds and adjacent normal skin keratinocytes. Changes in gene expression were determined by comparative cDNA array analyses, and the approach was validated by in situ hybridization. The analyses identified 48 candidate genes not previously associated with wound...... microdissection and cDNA array analysis provides a powerful new tool to unravel the complex changes in gene expression that underlie physiological and pathological remodeling of keratinized epithelium....

  2. Unambiguous detection of multiple TP53 gene mutations in AAN-associated urothelial cancer in Belgium using laser capture microdissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Aydin

    Full Text Available In the Balkan and Taiwan, the relationship between exposure to aristolochic acid and risk of urothelial neoplasms was inferred from the A>T genetic hallmark in TP53 gene from malignant cells. This study aimed to characterize the TP53 mutational spectrum in urothelial cancers consecutive to Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy in Belgium. Serial frozen tumor sections from female patients (n=5 exposed to aristolochic acid during weight-loss regimen were alternatively used either for p53 immunostaining or laser microdissection. Tissue areas with at least 60% p53-positive nuclei were selected for microdissecting sections according to p53-positive matching areas. All areas appeared to be carcinoma in situ. After DNA extraction, mutations in the TP53 hot spot region (exons 5-8 were identified using nested-PCR and sequencing. False-negative controls consisted in microdissecting fresh-frozen tumor tissues both from a patient with a Li-Fraumeni syndrome who carried a p53 constitutional mutation, and from KRas mutated adenocarcinomas. To rule out false-positive results potentially generated by microdissection and nested-PCR, a phenacetin-associated urothelial carcinoma and normal fresh ureteral tissues (n=4 were processed with high laser power. No unexpected results being identified, molecular analysis was pursued on malignant tissues, showing at least one mutation in all (six different mutations in two patients, with 13/16 exonic (nonsense, 2; missense, 11 and 3/16 intronic (one splice site mutations. They were distributed as transitions (n=7 or transversions (n=9, with an equal prevalence of A>T and G>T (3/16 each. While current results are in line with A>T prevalence previously reported in Balkan and Taiwan studies, they also demonstrate that multiple mutations in the TP53 hot spot region and a high frequency of G>T transversion appear as a complementary signature reflecting the toxicity of a cumulative dose of aristolochic acid ingested over a short period

  3. A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

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    D'Antonio Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis. Patient and methods We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL, incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR after laser capture microdissection. The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter, composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL. Conclusion Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

  4. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  5. Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: Cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescent cells are well-recognized in the aging/degenerating human disc. Senescent cells are viable, cannot divide, remain metabolically active and accumulate within the disc over time. Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells. Methods We employed a novel laser capture microdissection (LCM design to selectively harvest senescent and non-senescent annulus cells in paraffin-embedded tissue, and compared their gene expression with microarray analysis. LCM was used to separately harvest senescent and non-senescent cells from 11 human annulus specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in expression levels in senescent cells vs non-senescent cells: 292 genes were upregulated, and 321 downregulated. Genes with established relationships to senescence were found to be significantly upregulated in senescent cells vs. non-senescent cells: p38 (MPAK14, RB-Associated KRAB zinc finger, Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible beta, p28ING5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 3; cyclin-dependent kinase 8 showed significant downregulation in senescent cells. Nitric oxidase synthase 1, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, both of which were significantly down-regulated in senescent cells, also showed significant changes. Additional genes related to cytokines, cell proliferation, and other processes were also identified. Conclusions Our LCM-microarray analyses identified a set of genes associated with senescence which were significantly upregulated in senescent vs non-senescent cells in the human annulus. These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. Other genes, including genes

  6. Short-term regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system under fasting and defined glucose-refeeding conditions in rats: a laser capture microdissection (LMD)-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Emelie M; Schellong, Karen; Melchior, Kerstin; Rodekamp, Elke; Ziska, Thomas; Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-04-25

    It is well established that under fasting conditions the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide (AGRP) is up-regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), while inconsistent data exist regarding fasting regulation of the anorexigenic neurohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Inconsistencies might have methodological reasons, especially concerning neuromorphological and/or experimental (nutritional) specificity. We analyzed the expression of both neuropeptides in ARC neurons, using lasercapture microdissection (LMD) and real-time PCR in 12h fasted vs. fed Wistar rats as well as after a standardized glucose load, i.e., under clinically relevant conditions in terms of diagnosing glucose intolerance in the human. Under fasting conditions, clear up-regulation of AGRP was observed, with increasing magnitude in ARC single neurons (SNP) as compared to ARC cell layers (+125% vs. +23%, resp.), closely correlated to hypoinsulinemia and hypoleptinemia. Surprisingly, in the fasting state POMC was not found to be down-regulated, neither in ARC cell layers nor in ARC single neurons (+9% vs. +6%). However, glucose-refeeding under diagnostically relevant conditions led to strong neuronal up-regulation of POMC expression in ARC SNP (+128%), and AGRP down-regulation (-50%). In conclusion, experimentally, topographically, and analytically specific and standardized conditions confirmed AGRP in ARC neurons as being neuronally up- and down-regulated, resp., depending on the general nutritional state, while POMC was found to be (up-) regulated only after peripheral glucose load. Findings suggest that POMC in ARC neurons acts glucose-mediated as an "anti-orexigenic" neurohormone, specifically responding to hyperglycemia.

  7. Laser capture microdissection followed by next-generation sequencing identifies disease-related microRNAs in psoriatic skin that reflect systemic microRNA changes in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    and miR-223 were expressed in Th17 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LCM combined with NGS provides a robust approach to explore the global miRNA expression in the epidermal and dermal compartments of psoriatic skin. Furthermore, our results indicate that the altered local miRNA changes seen...

  8. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions.

  9. 激光显微切割技术在肾脏学研究中的应用%The use of laser capture microdissection in the research of nephrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许辉; 唐荣; 陶立坚; Margetts J Peter

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨应甩激光显微切割技术(LCM)切割肾小球和肾小管.方法 应用LCM采集肾小球和肾小管,real-timePCR(实时PCR,real-time polymerase chain reaction)检测肾小球特异性基因nephrin在肾小球和肾小管的表达.并采用LCM技术采集肾小球,蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western-blotting)检测Actin基因在肾小球的表达.结果 Nephrin在肾小球的表达明显高于肾小管(P<0.05);Western-blotting能清晰地检测Actin基因在肾小球的表达.结论 应用LCM能快速、单一、完整地采集肾小球,其采集的样品质量符合real-time PCR和Western-blotting的要求.%Objective To explore how to use laser capture microdissection(LCM)to collect glomerulus.Methods LCM was used tocollect the normal glomerulus,renal mbes and glomerula.real-time PCR(real-time polymerase chain reaction)was used to detect the speeificity gene of glomerula nephrin expression at the glomerulus and renal tubes.Western-blotting was used to detect Actin expression at glomerulus.Results The results of LCM/real-time PCR revealed that the expression of nephrin gene in the glomerulus was higher than that in renal tubes (P<0.05).Actin expression at glomeruhs can be easily detected by LCM/Western-blotting.Conclusions Glomernlus can be rapidly,simply and fully collected by LCM.The quality of the collected glomerulus is suitable for real-time PCR and Western-blotting.

  10. Stage-specific gene expression during spermatogenesis in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a fish with semi-cystic type of spermatogenesis, as assessed by laser capture microdissection and absolute quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Viñas, Jordi; Mechaly, Alejandro S; Planas, Josep V; Piferrer, Francesc

    2013-07-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process where hormonal signals regulate the interaction of different cell types in a tight spatial and temporal fashion. The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a marine flatfish that, in contrast to many fish, exhibits a semi-cystic, asynchronous pattern of spermatogenesis progression. This pattern is characterized by the release of spermatids into the tubule lumen, where they transform into spermatozoa. In this study, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate cells from cysts containing spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids or spermatozoa in order to investigate developmental patterns of gene expression. Furthermore, we also analyzed the stage-specific expression of the same set of genes throughout spermatogenesis (early-mid, late and maturing spermatogenic stages) in tissue fragments of the Senegalese sole testis. Genes analyzed by absolute qPCR in cysts isolated by LCM and stage-specific testis samples included genes involved in steroid synthesis and action (3β-hsd, 17β-hsd, 20β-hsd, star, star-like, progesterone receptor), gonadotropin action (fshr, lhr), the kisspeptin system (kiss2, kiss2r) and other genes important for the production of mature gametes (zona pellucida 2.2, claudin and clusterin). Our results show that, in general, steroidogenesis-related genes tended to increase with spermatogenesis progression and that 3β-hsd and 20β-hsd were expressed in germ cells but 17β-hsd was not. Our results also show that fshr is expressed in most testicular cell types, including germ cells. In contrast, lhr is expressed only in late spermatogenesis and is not expressed in any of the germ cell types examined, indicating that, in contrast to fshr, lhr may be primarily expressed in non-germinal cells (e.g. Leydig cells). Furthermore, kisspeptin and its receptor were expressed in all germ cell types examined and, as expected, gamete maturation-related genes were more expressed in mature stages. These results

  11. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano, Monica; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Roberts, Jennifer M; Machalek, Dorothy A; Phillips, Samuel; Chandler, David; Hillman, Richard J; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Cornall, Alyssa M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.

  12. A combined beta-beam and electron capture neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Orme, C; Palomares-Ruiz, S; Pascoli, S

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of long baseline neutrino experiments will aim at determining the value of the unknown mixing angle, theta_{13}, the type of neutrino mass hierarchy and the presence of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Beta-beams and electron capture experiments have been studied as viable candidates for long baseline experiments. They use a very clean electron neutrino beam from the beta-decays or electron capture decays of boosted ions. In the present article we consider an hybrid setup which combines a beta-beam with an electron capture beam by using boosted Ytterbium ions. We study the sensitivity to the CP-violating phase delta and the theta_{13} angle, the CP-discovery potential and the reach to determine the type of neutrino mass hierarchy for this type of long baseline experiment. The analysis is performed for different neutrino beam energies and baselines. Finally, we also discuss how the results would change if a better knowledge of some of the assumed parameters was achieved by the time this e...

  13. Pre-Combustion Carbondioxide Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeki YILMAZOĞLU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants have a significant place big proportion in the production of electric energy. Thermal power plants are the systems which converts heat energy to mechanical energy and also mechanical energy to electrical energy. Heat energy is obtained from combustion process and as a result of this, some harmful emissions, like CO2, which are the reason for global warming, are released to atmosphere. The contribution of carbondioxide to global warming has been exposed by the previous researchs. Due to this fact, clean energy technologies are growing rapidly all around the world. Coal is generally used in power plants and when compared to other fossil energy sources unit electricity production cost is less than others. When reserve rate is taken into account, coal may be converted to energy in a more efficient and cleaner way. The aim for using the clean coal technologies are to eradicate the harmful emissions of coal and to store the carbondioxide, orginated from combustion, in different forms. In line with this aim, carbondioxide may be captured by either pre-combustion, by O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems or by post combustion. The integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC are available in pre-combustion capture systems, whereas in O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems there are ultrasuper critical boiler technologies and finally flue gas washing systems by amines exists in post combustion systems. In this study, a pre-combustion CO2 capture process via oxygen blown gasifiers is compared with a conventional power plant in terms of CO2 emissions. Captured carbondioxide quantity has been presented as a result of the calculations made throughout the study.

  14. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-01-30

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.

  15. Reproducibility of Protein Identification of Selected Cell Types in Barrett's Esophagus Analyzed by Combining Laser-Capture Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Stingl; F.G.I. van Vilsteren; C. Guzel; F.J.W. ten Kate; M. Visser; K.K. Krishnadath; J.J. Bergman; T.M. Luider

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and characterized by replacement of normal esophageal squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. These alterations are also reflected in changes in the protein-expression profiles of the cell types involve

  16. Molecular diagnosis in early mycosis fungoides using T-cell receptor gene rearrangement by laser capture microdissection and genescan%早期蕈样肉芽肿采用激光捕获显微切割及基因扫描分子诊断基因重排的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 涂平; 卜定方; 武玲慎

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究激光捕获显微切割及基因扫描定性检测T细胞受体(TCR)_γ基因重排在早期蕈样肉芽肿(MF)细胞中表达的可行性.方法:激光捕获显微切割(laser capture microdissection,LCM)分离早期MF中的肿瘤细胞,荧光标记引物双重聚合酶链反应(PCR)和基因扫描(GeneScan)分析TCR _γ基因重排.结果:9例早期MF的TCR_γ/基因重排检出率为66.7%(6/9).2例肿瘤期MF的检出率为100%.结论:激光捕获显微切割技术可用于诊断早期MF的TCR_γ基凶重排检测.

  17. Laser microdissection of sensory organ precursor cells of Drosophila microchaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalie Buffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Drosophila, each external sensory organ originates from the division of a unique precursor cell (the sensory organ precursor cell or SOP. Each SOP is specified from a cluster of equivalent cells, called a proneural cluster, all of them competent to become SOP. Although, it is well known how SOP cells are selected from proneural clusters, little is known about the downstream genes that are regulated during SOP fate specification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the mechanism involved in the specification of these precursor cells, we combined laser microdissection, toisolate SOP cells, with transcriptome analysis, to study their RNA profile. Using this procedure, we found that genes that exhibit a 2-fold or greater expression in SOPs versus epithelial cells were mainly associated with Gene Ontology (GO terms related with cell fate determination and sensory organ specification. Furthermore, we found that several genes such as pebbled/hindsight, scabrous, miranda, senseless, or cut, known to be expressed in SOP cells by independent procedures, are particularly detected in laser microdissected SOP cells rather than in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the feasibility and the specificity of our laser microdissection based procedure. We anticipate that this analysis will give new insight into the selection and specification of neural precursor cells.

  18. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena G Golubeva

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc. and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection and membrane (laser cutting microdissection slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction

  19. DNA from microdissected tissues may be extracted and stored on microscopic slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabecna, M; Steiner, P; Jirkovska, M

    2016-01-01

    With regard to complex structure of tissues, laser capture microdissection represents an important step in analytical workflow streaming to proper molecular characterization of different cell types in examined samples. Therefore the simple method for simultaneous processing of higher numbers of microdissected tissues leading not only to rapid and efficient DNA isolation but allowing also the repeated sampling and easy storage may be useful in the practice of histopathological laboratories. We elaborated such a methodology applicable downstream after the microdissection from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues.The tissues for examination are microdissected directly into the circular areas having the diameter 2 mm and marked on the microscopic slide. In this way, one slide is able to accommodate multiple samples. The DNA extraction is performed in low volume of buffer with Proteinase K in a droplet covered by mineral oil just on the slide. Mineral oil in the quality for molecular biology not only avoids evaporation during DNA extraction, but it helps to position the microdisssected tissue, to control the level of cell lysis microscopically and to protect the DNA sample during subsequent manipulations. We provided the evidence that DNA isolated by our methodology remains in the positions on microscopic slide for months without any changes in the lengths of available fragments and that it may be removed from each position repetitively for different kinds of analysis. The new methodological approach presented by us can be practically applied in broad spectrum of laboratories performing routinely genetic analysis on microdissected tissues.

  20. USING TAILORED TRANQUILIZER COMBINATIONS TO REDUCE STRESS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE UNGULATE CAPTURE AND TRANSLOCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Miller, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    Capture and translocation are important tools for managing and studying large ungulates. Although widely used, many established field practices cause fear and stress in subject animals that can hamper overall effectiveness and safety. Over the last 10 years we have been exploring uses of tranquilizer combinations as adjuncts to wild ungulate capture and translocation work in Colorado, USA. Our approaches have been tailored to various field applications to reduce fear and stress, facilitate handling, and improve the overall success of capture and translocation for research or management purposes. For physical capture (drop net or helicopter-net gunning) with local release, combinations of midazolam and azaperone administered immediately upon capture provide transient tranquilization and muscle relaxation during manual restraint and handling to prevent hyperthermia and capture myopathy. For extended tranquilization (during transport and overnight holding), adding a sustained-release haloperidol formulation provides calming effects for at least 24-48 h. In our assessment, appropriate and adaptive use of these tranquilizer combinations benefits captured animals without impeding management or research goals.

  1. Landmine detection method combined with backscattering neutrons and capture {gamma}-rays from hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: ytaka@rri.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokashou, Uji-shi, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    The usefulness of the measurements of the backscattering neutron and 2.22 MeV capture {gamma}-ray from hydrogen in the landmine detection method is described in this paper. When the soil moisture content is increased, the reaction rates of both the neutron scattering reaction and capture reaction are increased. However, the backscattering neutrons are more influenced than the capture {gamma}-rays by the soil moisture before the reaction with the detector. The facts that the backscattering neutron method is useful in the dry soil case and that the capture {gamma}-ray method is effective in well-wet soil case are confirmed by the experiments and the calculations. The landmine detection efficiency is improved in various soil moisture conditions by combining the backscattering neutron method together with the capture {gamma}-ray method. The effectiveness of the pulse mode operation was confirmed numerically.

  2. Landmine detection method combined with backscattering neutrons and capture γ-rays from hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Shiroya, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of the measurements of the backscattering neutron and 2.22MeV capture γ-ray from hydrogen in the landmine detection method is described in this paper. When the soil moisture content is increased, the reaction rates of both the neutron scattering reaction and capture reaction are increased. However, the backscattering neutrons are more influenced than the capture γ-rays by the soil moisture before the reaction with the detector. The facts that the backscattering neutron method is useful in the dry soil case and that the capture γ-ray method is effective in well-wet soil case are confirmed by the experiments and the calculations. The landmine detection efficiency is improved in various soil moisture conditions by combining the backscattering neutron method together with the capture γ-ray method. The effectiveness of the pulse mode operation was confirmed numerically.

  3. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  4. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM: Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandh Christer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Methods Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM. Results We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. Conclusion The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA instrument for automated screening processes.

  5. Isolation and Amplification Genomic DNA from Endometriotic Cells Obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection%激光显微切割技术用于子宫内膜异位组织DNA的提取及其完整性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵路阳; 李小雷; 张燕; 赵亚力; 韩为东; 孟元光

    2013-01-01

    目的::探索一套激光显微切割(LCM)分离子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞后提取微量DNA并进行完整性分析的操作流程。方法:分别对20例石蜡标本及20例冰冻标本进行LCM,收集切割后的腺体细胞;2组标本各取10例提取微量DNA,检测DNA浓度并通过PCR扩增进行验证;余20例标本分别进行全基因组扩增,检测产物浓度并利用8种常见管家基因作为引物通过PCR扩增进行验证,对比分析其结果。结果:石蜡标本与冰冻标本在LCM获取腺体细胞及提取微量DNA两个环节中均可获得满意效果;但经全基因组扩增后,石蜡标本无法保留完整DNA信息。结论:LCM获取子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞提取微量DNA是一种操作简单、结果稳定的方法,可作为日后子宫内膜异位症基因组研究的常规方法;冰冻切片相对石蜡切片,更能保留完整的DNA信息。%Objective: To detect a standard protocol for isolation of low amount DNA from the endometriotic cells obtained by laser capture microdissection(LCM). Methods: Using LCM to collect endometriotic cells from 20 paraffin specimens and 20 frozen specimens. 10 cases of each group were used to extract DNA. The others were used to do whole genome amplification. The production was validated by spectrophotometer and PCR was per-formed with housekeeping genes in different chromosomes. Results: Both the frozen samples and formalin-fixed par-affin embedded tissue can extract DNA production. However, after whole genome amplification, paraffin specimens can not remain intact DNA information. Conclusion: Isolation the genomic DNA from endometriotic cells obtained by LCM is a simple and stable method, which can be used as a routine approach for the future genome research of endometriosis.

  6. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  7. Microdissecção e captura a laser na investigação do gene TP53 em tecidos incluídos em parafina Laser-capture microdissection for TP53 gene analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Muhammad Ihlaseh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Microdissecção e captura a laser (MCL é uma técnica de desenvolvimento recente que permite a coleta de células individuais ou pequeno conjunto de células para análise molecular. Atualmente, no Brasil, há raros microscópios para MCL, de modo que a divulgação dos procedimentos inerentes a essa técnica é oportuna para destacar seu amplo potencial para diagnóstico e investigação. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho descreve a padronização dos procedimentos de MCL e de extração de DNA de material fixado em formalina e incluído em parafina. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e o gene da ciclofilina em amostras de tecido normal e de neoplasias de fígado e rim provenientes de modelo de carcinogênese química induzida em rato. A extração do DNA foi comprovada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (nested-PCR. RESULTADOS: Foram padronizados os procedimentos de preparo dos cortes histológicos, de microdissecção e captura a laser e de obtenção de seqüências gênicas pela reação de nested-PCR para tecidos incluídos em parafina. Obtivemos amplificação de 48,3% das amostras para o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e 51,7% para o gene da ciclofilina. Considerando pelo menos um dos dois segmentos gênicos, foram amplificadas 79,3% das amostras. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: A extração de DNA de tecidos fixados em formalina e incluídos em parafina e a técnica de nested-PCR foram adequadamente padronizadas para produtos gênicos de interesse, obtidos de material coletado por MCL. Esses procedimentos podem ser úteis para a obtenção de seqüências de DNA de arquivos para análise molecular.BACKGORUND: Laser-capture micro-dissection (LCM is a recently developed procedure that provides single cells or specific cell groups for molecular analysis. Currently, there are few LCM systems in Brazil, in such a way that it is necessary to disseminate the technical procedures inherent to the methodology, and also to

  8. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Brooks

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem (SAM maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1 or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1, a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  9. Purity and Enrichment of Laser-Microdissected Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2, average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65 expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells.

  10. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahui Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  11. Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture: Analysis of integrated reforming combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Lars Olof

    2010-06-15

    This thesis presents processes for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from natural gas (NG) power plants, which could help attenuate the rise in atmospheric temperature. Objectives for the thesis work were process design and integration of NG pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture plants, and evolution, through process simulation, of the concepts. An important aspect of the evaluation was investigation of plant flexibility, specifically off-design analysis. Contributions comprised detailed heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) design for NG pre-combustion cycles and off-design behavior of the integrated reforming combined cycle (IRCC). Additional contributions were quantification of the efficiency potential of a process, subsystem efficiency losses, and model uncertainties. The IRCC with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is a process for generating power with very low CO{sub 2} emissions, typically below 100 g CO{sub 2}/net kWh electricity. This should be compared to a state-of-the-art natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) with CO{sub 2} emissions around 365 g CO{sub 2}/net kWh electricity. The IRCC process reforms natural gas to a syngas, converts the CO to CO{sub 2} in the shift reactors, separates the CO{sub 2} in the capture subsystem, and the resulting hydrogen-rich fuel is used for the gas turbine (GT) in a combined cycle setup. For the reforming of natural gas, an air-blown auto thermal reformer was selected for the processes studied. Included in the study of the IRCC were process design and integration, reliability analysis, thermodynamic analyses through process simulation, analysis of efficiency losses and efficiency potential, and uncertainty analysis. As part of the design process, HRSG design proved important. The design of an HRSG for an IRCC plant requires the ability to operate on both a hydrogen-rich fuel and on NG. Also, since a significant amount of steam is produced from the heat generated in the auto reforming process, the HRSG design differs from a design in an

  12. Combining multistate capture-recapture data with tag recoveries to estimate demographic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Conn, P.B.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Matrix population models that allow an animal to occupy more than one state over time are important tools for population and evolutionary ecologists. Definition of state can vary, including location for metapopulation models and breeding state for life history models. For populations whose members can be marked and subsequently re-encountered, multistate mark-recapture models are available to estimate the survival and transition probabilities needed to construct population models. Multistate models have proved extremely useful in this context, but they often require a substantial amount of data and restrict estimation of transition probabilities to those areas or states subjected to formal sampling effort. At the same time, for many species, there are considerable tag recovery data provided by the public that could be modeled in order to increase precision and to extend inference to a greater number of areas or states. Here we present a statistical model for combining multistate capture-recapture data (e.g., from a breeding ground study) with multistate tag recovery data (e.g., from wintering grounds). We use this method to analyze data from a study of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Atlantic Flyway of North America. Our analysis produced marginal improvement in precision, due to relatively few recoveries, but we demonstrate how precision could be further improved with increases in the probability that a retrieved tag is reported.

  13. Gene-expression analysis of single cells-nested polymerase chain reaction afte laser microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Shi; Jorg Kleeff; Zhao-Wen Zhu; Bruno Schmied; Wen-Hao Tang; Arthur Zimmermann; Markus W. Bucher; Helmut Friess

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The structural and functional characteristics of cells are dependent on the specific gene expression profile. The ability to study and compare gene expression at the cellular level will therefore provide valuable insights into cell physiology and pathophysiology. METHODS: Individual cells were isolated from frozen colon tissue sections using laser microdissection. DNA as well as RNA were extracted, and total RNA was reversely transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA). Both DNA and cDNA were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The quality of isolated DNA and RNA was satisfactory. RESULTS: Single cells were successfully microdissected using an ultraviolet laser micromanipulator. Nested PCR amplification products of DNA and cDNA of single cells could clearly be visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: The combined use of laser microdissection and nested-PCR provides an opportunity to analyze geneexpression in single cells. This method allows the analysisand identification of specific genes which are involved inphysiological and pathophysiological processes in a complexof variable cell phenotypes.

  14. Sample preparation for laser-microdissection of soybean shoot apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui E. Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem houses stem cells responsible for the continuous formation of aerial plant organs including leaves and stems throughout the life of plants. Laser-microdissection in combination with high-throughput technology such as next generation sequencing permits an in-depth analysis of molecular events associated with specific cell type of interest. Sample preparation is the most critical step in ensuring good quality RNA to be extracted from samples following laser-microdissection. Here, we optimized the sample preparation for a major legume crop, soybean. We used Farmer’s solution as a fixative and paraffin as the embedding medium for soybean shoot apical meristem tissue without the use of any specialized equipment. Shorter time for tissue fixation (two days was found to be critical for the preservation of RNA in soybean shoot apical meristem. We further demonstrated the utility of this method for different tissues derived from soybean and rice. The method outlined here shall facilitate studies on crop plants involving laser-microdissection.

  15. Promoter methylation analysis on microdissected paraffin-embedded tissues using bisulfite treatment and PCR-SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y S; Yan, P; Osterheld, M C; Fontolliet, C; Benhattar, J

    2001-01-01

    Methylation-sensitive single-strand conformation analysis (MS-SSCA) is a new method of screening for DNA methylation changes. The combination of bisulfite modification and PCR results in the conversion of unmethylated cytosines to thymines, whereas methylated cytosines remain unchanged. This sequence conversion can lead to methylation-dependent alterations of single-strand conformation, which can be detected by SSCA. An analysis of mixtures of methylated and unmethylated DNA at known ratios revealed that the relative intensities of the corresponding bands following MS-SSCA were maintained. MS-SSCA was applied for methylation analysis of human p16 promoter region using genomic DNA obtained from either frozen, fixed, or microdissected fixed tissue sections. MS-SSCA is a rapid, specific, and semiquantitative approach that allows the detection of methylation of the p16 gene promoter. In reconstruction experiments, the method permits the detection of 10% or less of cells harboring a methylated p16 promoter. We have been successful in analyzing by MS-SSCA almost all (96%) tumor samples microdissected from archival paraffin-embedded fixed tissue sections and obtaining reproducible results. In addition, when microdissection was performed, the clonality of this genetic alteration could be identified.

  16. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  17. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  18. Predictive factors of successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Schlegel, Peter N

    2013-01-01

    Azoospermia in men requires microsurgical reconstruction or a procedure for sperm retrieval with assisted reproduction to allow fertility. While the chance of successful retrieval of sperm in men with obstructive azoospermia approaches >90%, the chances of sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are not as high. Conventional procedures such as fine needle aspiration of the testis, testicular biopsy and testicular sperm extraction are successful in 20-45% of men with NOA. With microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), the chance of successful retrieval can be up to 60%. Despite this increased success, the ability to counsel patients preoperatively on their probability of successful sperm retrieval has remained challenging. A combination of variables such as age, serum FSH and inhibin B levels, testicular size, genetic analysis, history of Klinefelter syndrome, history of cryptorchidism or varicocele and histopathology on diagnostic biopsy have provided some insight into the chance of successful sperm retrieval in men with NOA. The goal of this review was to evaluate the preoperative factors that are currently available to predict the outcome for success with micro-TESE.

  19. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  20. Combining different mRNA capture methods to analyze the transcriptome: analysis of the Xenopus laevis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Blower

    Full Text Available mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq is a commonly used technique to survey gene expression from organisms with fully sequenced genomes. Successful mRNA-seq requires purification of mRNA away from the much more abundant ribosomal RNA, which is typically accomplished by oligo-dT selection. However, mRNAs with short poly-A tails are captured poorly by oligo-dT based methods. We demonstrate that combining mRNA capture via oligo-dT with mRNA capture by the 5' 7-methyl guanosine cap provides a more complete view of the transcriptome and can be used to assay changes in mRNA poly-A tail length on a genome-wide scale. We also show that using mRNA-seq reads from both capture methods as input for de novo assemblers provides a more complete reconstruction of the transcriptome than either method used alone. We apply these methods of mRNA capture and de novo assembly to the transcriptome of Xenopus laevis, a well-studied frog that currently lacks a finished sequenced genome, to discover transcript sequences for thousands of mRNAs that are currently absent from public databases. The methods we describe here will be broadly applicable to many organisms and will provide insight into the transcriptomes of organisms with sequenced and unsequenced genomes.

  1. Microdissection of gonadal tissues for gene expression analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Sonne, Si Brask

    2011-01-01

    Laser microdissection permits isolation of specific cell types from tissue sections or cell cultures. This may be beneficial when investigating the role of specific cells in a complex tissue or organ. In tissues with easily distinguishable morphology, a simple hematoxylin staining is sufficient......, but in most cases a more specific staining is required to identify which cells to microdissect. We have established two staining protocols for frozen sections (1) Oil red O, which stains lipid droplet in fat cells and steroid-producing cells and (2) NBT BCIP, which stains cells expressing an alkaline...... protocols could also be used in other species and for other cell types containing lipid droplets or expressing alkaline phosphatase. Both protocols ensure a morphology that enables microdissection of single cells with RNA quality sufficient for subsequent gene expression analysis. However, RNA yields after...

  2. Solvents for CO2 capture. Structure-activity relationships combined with vapour-liquid-equilibrium measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, Y.L.; Rumley-Van Gurp, R.; Brasser, P.; Koning, M.C. de; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    In this study a systematic approach was chosen to test and characterize amine systems for CO2 capture. Vapour-liquid-equilibrium measurements were performed on a homologue series of amines, with ethylene amine as base structure. Various functional groups were used that ranged in chemical and physica

  3. Improved resolution by mounting of tissue sections for laser microdissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Rombout, P.D.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Ruiter, D.J.; Bernsen, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laser microbeam microdissection has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations from tissue sections. However, the fact that a coverslip is not used means that the morphology of the tissue sections is often poor. AIMS: To develop a mounting method that greatly improv

  4. No relationship between biopsy sites near the main testicular vessels or rete testis and successful sperm retrieval using conventional or microdissection biopsies in 220 non-obstructive azoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, J Ullrich; Steinfatt, Heiko; Schleyer, Manfred; Köhn, Frank M; Fiedler, Klaus; von Hertwig, Irene; Krüsmann, Gottfried; Würfel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In 220 consecutive patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval was attempted by a combination of conventional and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE). For sperm retrieval, 2-3 conventional biopsies were performed followed by a microdissection TESE in cases of negative conventional biopsies. During the surgery, the vasculature of the testis was assessed using the operative microscope, and the location of positive biopsies was registered in relation to the blood supply. The overall sperm retrieval rate was 58.2%. From the initial conventional biopsies, sperm could be retrieved in 46.8% of the patients. With microdissection TESE, sperm could be retrieved from an additional 11.4% of the patients. The further use of microdissection TESE improved the sperm retrieval rate significantly (P=0.017). No significant accumulation of positive biopsies was found towards the rete testis or the main testicular vessels.

  5. Steady-state simulation and optimization of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are a promising technology option for power generation with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in view of their efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional coal utilization technologies. This paper presents a three-phase, top-down, optimization-based approach for designing an IGCC plant with precombustion CO2 capture in a process simulator environment. In the first design phase, important global design decisions are made on the basis of plant-wide optimization studies with the aim of increasing IGCC thermal efficiency and thereby making better use of coal resources and reducing CO2 emissions. For the design of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture, the optimal combination of the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) conversion in the water-gas shift (WGS) reactors and the extent of CO2 capture in the SELEXOL process, using dimethylether of polyethylene glycol as the solvent, is determined in the first phase. In the second design phase, the impact of local design decisions is explored considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first phase as additional constraints. Two decisions are made focusing on the SELEXOL and Claus unit. In the third design phase, the operating conditions are optimized considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first and second phases as additional constraints. The operational flexibility of the plant must be taken into account before taking final design decisions. Two studies on the operational flexibility of the WGS reactors and one study focusing on the operational flexibility of the sour water stripper (SWS) are presented. At the end of the first iteration, after executing all the phases once, the net plant efficiency (HHV basis) increases to 34.1% compared to 32.5% in a previously published study (DOE/NETL-2007/1281; National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2007). The study shows that the three-phase, top-down design approach presented is very

  6. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the 'laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  7. Targeting pancreatic islets with phage display assisted by laser pressure catapult microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Virginia J; Ozawa, Michael G; Trepel, Martin; Arap, Wadih; McDonald, Donald M; Pasqualini, Renata

    2005-02-01

    Heterogeneity of the microvasculature in different organs has been well documented by multiple methods including in vivo phage display. However, less is known about the diversity of blood vessels within functionally distinct regions of organs. Here, we combined in vivo phage display with laser pressure catapult microdissection to identify peptide ligands for vascular receptors in the islets of Langerhans in the murine pancreas. Protein database analyses of the peptides, CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC, showed sequence identity to two ephrin A-type ligand homologues, A2 and A4. Confocal microscopy confirmed that most immunoreactivity of CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC phage was associated with blood vessels in pancreatic islets. Antibodies recognizing EphA4, a receptor for ephrin-A ligands, were similarly associated with islet blood vessels. Importantly, binding of both islet-homing phage and anti-EphA4 antibody was strikingly increased in blood vessels of pancreatic islet tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. These results indicate that endothelial cells of blood vessels in pancreatic islets preferentially express EphA4 receptors, and this expression is increased in tumors. Our findings show in vivo phage display and laser pressure catapult microdissection can be combined to reveal endothelial cell specialization within focal regions of the microvasculature.

  8. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Mumford, Kathryn Anne; Smith, Kathryn; Stevens, Geoff

    2014-12-16

    Energy and exergy analyses were studied for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent. The study focused on the combined impact of the CO conversion ratio in the water gas shift (WGS) unit and CO2 recovery rate on component exergy destruction, plant efficiency, and energy penalty for CO2 capture. A theoretical limit for the minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was also provided. It was found that total plant exergy destruction increased almost linearly with CO2 recovery rate and CO conversion ratio at low CO conversion ratios, but the exergy destruction from the WGS unit and the whole plant increased sharply when the CO conversion ratio was higher than 98.5% at the design WGS conditions, leading to a significant decrease in plant efficiency and increase in efficiency penalty for CO2 capture. When carbon capture rate was over around 70%, via a combination of around 100% CO2 recovery rate and lower CO conversion ratios, the efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was reduced. The minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was estimated to be around 5.0 percentage points at design conditions in an IGCC plant with 90% carbon capture. Unlike the traditional aim of 100% CO conversion, it was recommended that extremely high CO conversion ratios should not be considered in order to decrease the energy penalty for CO2 capture and increase plant efficiency.

  9. Use of chromosome microdissection in fish molecular cytogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome microdissection is a technique in which whole chromosomes or chromosomal segments are dissected under an inverted microscope yielding chromosome-specific sequences. Several protocol modifications introduced during the past 15 years reduced the number of chromosomes required for most applications. This is of particular interest to fish molecular cytogenetics, since most species present highly uniform karyotypes which make impossible the collection of multiple copies of the same chro...

  10. Murine Prostate Micro-dissection and Surgical Castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Amend, Sarah R; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-05-11

    Mouse models are used extensively to study prostate cancer and other diseases. The mouse is an excellent model with which to study the prostate and has been used as a surrogate for discoveries in human prostate development and disease. Prostate micro-dissection allows consistent study of lobe-specific prostate anatomy, histology, and cellular characteristics in the absence of contamination of other tissues. Testosterone affects prostate development and disease. Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for prostate cancer patients, but many prostate tumors become castration-resistant. Surgical castration of mouse models allows for the study of castration resistance and other facets of hormonal biology on the prostate. This procedure can be coupled with testosterone reintroduction, or hormonal regeneration of the prostate, a powerful method to study stem cell lineages in the prostate. Together, prostate micro-dissection and surgical castration opens up a multitude of opportunities for robust and consistent research of prostate development and disease. This manuscript describes the protocols for prostate micro-dissection and surgical castration in the laboratory mouse.

  11. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  12. 联合应用实时量RT-PCR和激光显微切割检测单个肝细胞RNA的表达%Quantitative analysis of RNA levels from single hepatocytes in vivo: combined use of real- time RT- PCR and laser microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The manner in which a cell responds to and influences its environment is ultimately determined by the genes that are expressed. To better understand cellular functions, the isolation of single cells and subsequent quantification of the expressed genes is essential. METHODS: Normal liver tissue was obtained from operation, snapfrozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned in crystat. Individual hepatocytes were microdissected. RNA was extracted, then reverse transcribed and amplified using real- time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Single hepatocytes were dissected by laser beam and catapulted to the microcentrifuge cap which was put above the slide. In this way,cells were collected, RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed to cDNA and used for analysis of RNA expression by realtime quantitative PCR. The amplification results showed that quantitation of the RNA inside the cell was compatible with the number of cells. CONCLUSION: The expression of RNA in single cells can be quantitated successfully by using laser microdissection and real -time PCR. These techniques provide an opportunity to monitor in vivo gene expression levels in single hepatocytes.

  13. Low-Energy Solvents For Carbon Dioxide Capture Enabled By A Combination Of Enzymes And Vacuum Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Sonja [Novozymes North America, Inc., Franklinton, NC (United States); House, Alan [Novozymes North America, Inc., Franklinton, NC (United States); Liu, Kun [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Frimpong, Reynolds [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Freeman, Charles [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Slater, Jonathan [Doosan Babcock, Renfew (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, David [Doosan Babcock, Renfew (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-31

    An integrated bench-scale system combining the attributes of the bio-renewable enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) with low-enthalpy CO2 absorption solvents and vacuum regeneration was designed, built and operated for 500 hours using simulated flue gas. The objective was to develop a CO2 capture process with improved efficiency and sustainability when compared to NETL Case 10 monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing technology. The use of CA accelerates inter-conversion between dissolved CO2 and bicarbonate ion to enhance CO2 absorption, and the use of low enthalpy CO2 absorption solvents makes it possible to regenerate the solvent at lower temperatures relative to the reference MEA-based solvent. The vacuum regeneration-based integrated bench-scale system operated successfully for an accumulated 500 hours using aqueous 23.5 wt% K2CO3-based solvent containing 2.5 g/L enzyme to deliver an average 84% CO2 capture when operated with a 20% enzyme replenishment rate per ~7 hour steady-state run period. The total inlet gas flow was 30 standard liters per minute with 15% CO2 and 85% N2. The absorber temperature was 40°C and the stripper operated under 35 kPa pressure with an approximate 77°C stripper bottom temperature. Tests with a 30°C absorber temperature delivered >90% capture. On- and off-line operational measurements provided a full process data set, with recirculating enzyme, that allowed for enzyme replenishment and absorption/desorption kinetic parameter calculations. Dissolved enzyme replenishment and conventional process controls were demonstrated as straightforward approaches to maintain system performance. Preliminary evaluation of a novel flow-through ultrasonically enhanced regeneration system was also conducted, yet resulted in CO2 release within the range of temperature-dependent release, and further work would be needed to validate the benefits of ultrasonic enhanced stripping. A full technology assessment was completed in which four techno-economic cases for

  14. Laser microdissection and microsatellite analysis of colorectal adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Cruger, Dorthe G; Lindebjerg, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important marker in colorectal cancer. The analysis may be difficult if the tumour is heterogeneous or only scarce material is available. The aim of this study was to apply laser microdissection (LMD) to MSI analysis in an attempt to allow...... the MSI status. RESULTS: The method proved efficient in as little as 4,000 microm3 formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. The result of microsatellite analysis was independent of sample location in the primary tumour and its metastasis. CONCLUSION: LMD followed by a multiplex PCR...

  15. Combined cell surface carbonic anhydrase 9 and CD147 antigens enable high-efficiency capture of circulating tumor cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Tian, Zuhong; Zhang, Lei; Hou, Shuang; Hu, Sijun; Wu, Junshen; Jing, Yuming; Sun, Huimin; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Libo; Wang, Ruoxiang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K; Wu, Kaichun; Wang, Hao; Wu, Jason Boyang; Nie, Yongzhan; Shao, Chen

    2016-09-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as promising tools for noninvasive cancer detection and prognosis. Most conventional approaches for capturing CTCs use an EpCAM-based enrichment strategy, which does not work well in cancers that show low or no expression of EpCAM, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we developed a new set of cell surface markers including CA9 and CD147 as alternative CTC-capture antigens specifically designed for RCC patients. We showed that the expression of both CA9 and CD147 was prevalent in a RCC patient cohort (n=70) by immunohistochemical analysis, with both molecules in combination covering 97.1% of cases. The NanoVelcro platform combined with CA9-/CD147-capture antibodies demonstrated significantly higher efficiency for capturing both CTC-mimicking renal cancer cells and RCC CTCs in peripheral blood, compared to the conventional EpCAM-based method. Using immunofluorescence cytological validation at the single-cell level, we were able to identify bona fide CTCs in RCC patient blood following the well-accepted criteria in our CTC-capture system. We further demonstrated a significant association of CTC numbers as well as the CTC expression status of Vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, with disease progression, including pathologic features and clinical staging. These results provide new insights into developing novel, effective targets/approaches for capturing CTCs, making CTCs a valuable tool for improved cancer detection, prognosis and treatment in RCC.

  16. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  17. Competitiveness of CO2 capture from an industrial solid oxide fuel cell combined heat and power system in the early stage of market introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, it was investigated whether potentially low-cost CO2 capture from SOFC systems could enhance the penetration of SOFC in the energy market in a highly carbon-constrained society in the mid-term future (up to year 2025). The application of 5 MWe SOFC systems for industrial combined he

  18. Thermodynamic System Studies for a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plant with CO2 Capture and Hydrogen Storage with Metal Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thallam Thattai, A.; Wittebrood, B.J.; Woudstra, T.; Geerlings, J.J.C.; Aravind, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility in natural gas combined cycle power plants (NGCC) with pre-combustion CO2 capture could be introduced with co-production of hydrogen and subsequent hydrogen storage with metal hydrides (MH). The current work presents a thermodynamic analysis and comparison between steady state ASPEN Plus

  19. Use of chromosome microdissection in fish molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome microdissection is a technique in which whole chromosomes or chromosomal segments are dissected under an inverted microscope yielding chromosome-specific sequences. Several protocol modifications introduced during the past 15 years reduced the number of chromosomes required for most applications. This is of particular interest to fish molecular cytogenetics, since most species present highly uniform karyotypes which make impossible the collection of multiple copies of the same chromosome. Probes developed in this manner can be used to investigate chromosome homologies in closely related species. Here we describe a protocol recently used in the gymnotiform species group Eigenmannia and review the major steps involved in the generation of these markers focusing on protocol modifications aiming to reduce the number of required chromosomes.

  20. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by laser capture micro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, H.; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, B.;

    2014-01-01

    were also able to localize individual transcripts as primarily epidermal (defensin, beta 4A [DEFB4A]) or dermal (IL22, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], and CCR7) and link their expressions to possible cellular sources. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes robust epidermal...

  1. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by means of laser capture microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, Hitokazu; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, Benjamin;

    2015-01-01

    transcriptome. We were also able to localize individual transcripts as primarily epidermal (defensin, beta 4A [DEFB4A]) or dermal (IL22, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], and CCR7) and link their expressions to possible cellular sources. Conclusions: This is the first report that establishes robust...

  2. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  3. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in microdissected clear cell ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Stany

    Full Text Available Clear cell ovarian cancer is an epithelial ovarian cancer histotype that is less responsive to chemotherapy and carries poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid histotypes. Despite this, patients with these tumors are treated in a similar fashion as all other ovarian cancers. Previous genomic analysis has suggested that clear cell cancers represent a unique tumor subtype. Here we generated the first whole genomic expression profiling using epithelial component of clear cell ovarian cancers and normal ovarian surface specimens isolated by laser capture microdissection. All the arrays were analyzed using BRB ArrayTools and PathwayStudio software to identify the signaling pathways. Identified pathways validated using serous, clear cell cancer cell lines and RNAi technology. In vivo validations carried out using an orthotopic mouse model and liposomal encapsulated siRNA. Patient-derived clear cell and serous ovarian tumors were grafted under the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the identified pathway. We identified major activated pathways in clear cells involving in hypoxic cell growth, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism not seen in other histotypes. Knockdown of key genes in these pathways sensitized clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines to hypoxia/glucose deprivation. In vivo experiments using patient derived tumors demonstrate that clear cell tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenesis therapy (i.e. sunitinib compared with serous tumors. We generated a histotype specific, gene signature associated with clear cell ovarian cancer which identifies important activated pathways critical for their clinicopathologic characteristics. These results provide a rational basis for a radically different treatment for ovarian clear cell patients.

  4. Application of laser microdissection to identify the mycorrhizal fungi that establish arbuscules inside root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, Andrea; Borriello, Roberto; Lumini, Erica; Scariot, Valentina; Bianciotto, Valeria; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Obligate symbiotic fungi that form arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF; belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum) are some of the most important soil microorganisms. AMFs facilitate mineral nutrient uptake from the soil, in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon, and promote water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. AMFs colonize the root by producing inter- and intra-cellular hyphae. When the fungus penetrates the inner cortical cells, it produces a complex ramified structure called arbuscule, which is considered the preferential site for nutrient exchange. Direct DNA extraction from the whole root and sequencing of ribosomal gene regions are commonly carried out to investigate intraradical AMF communities. Nevertheless, this protocol cannot discriminate between the AMFs that actively produce arbuscules and those that do not. To solve this issue, the authors have characterized the AMF community of arbusculated cells (AC) through a laser microdissection (LMD) approach, combined with sequencing-based taxa identification. The results were then compared with the AMF community that was found from whole root DNA extraction. The AMF communities originating from the LMD samples and the whole root samples differed remarkably. Five taxa were involved in the production of arbuscules, while two taxa were retrieved inside the root but not in the AC. Unexpectedly, one taxon was found in the AC, but its detection was not possible when extracting from the whole root. Thus, the LMD technique can be considered a powerful tool to obtain more precise knowledge on the symbiotically active intraradical AMF community.

  5. Application of laser microdissection to identify the mycorrhizal fungi that establish arbuscules inside root cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBerruti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obligate symbiotic fungi that form arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF; belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum are some of the most important soil microorganisms. AMFs facilitate mineral nutrient uptake from the soil, in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon, and promote water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. AMFs colonize the root by producing inter- and intracellular hyphae. When the fungus penetrates the inner cortical cells, it produces a complex ramified structure called arbuscule, which is considered the preferential site for nutrient exchange. Direct DNA extraction from the whole root and sequencing of ribosomal gene regions are commonly carried out to investigate intraradical AMF communities. Nevertheless, this protocol cannot discriminate between the AMFs that actively produce arbuscules and those that do not. To solve this issue, the authors have characterized the AMF community of arbusculated cells through a laser microdissection (LMD approach, combined with sequencing-based taxa identification. The results were then compared with the AMF community that was found from whole root DNA extraction. The AMF communities originating from the LMD samples and the whole root samples differed remarkably. Five taxa were involved in the production of arbuscules, while two taxa were retrieved inside the root but not in the arbusculated cells. Unexpectedly, one taxon was found in the arbusculated cells, but its detection was not possible when extracting from the whole root. Thus, the LMD technique can be considered a powerful tool to obtain more precise knowledge on the symbiotically active intraradical AMF community.

  6. Gene profiles between non-invasive and invasive colon cancer using laser microdissection and polypeptide analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Zhu; Hua Guo; Ming-Quan Song; Guo-Qiang Chen; Qun Sun; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of differential gene expression profiles of target cell between non-invasive submucosal and invasive advanced tumor in colon carcinoma using laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with polypeptide analysis.METHODS: Normal colon tissue samples from 20 healthy individuals and 30 cancer tissue samples from early non-invasive colon cancer cells were obtained. The cells from these samples were used LMD independently after P27-based amplification. aRNA from advanced colon cancer cells and metastatic cancer cells of 40 cases were applied to LMD and polypeptide analysis, semiquantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical assays were used to verify the results of microarray and further identify differentially expressed genes in non-invasive early stages of colon cancer.RESULTS: Five gene expressions were changed in colon carcinoma cells compared with that of controls. Of the five genes, three genes were downregulated and two were upregulated in invasive submucosal colon carcinoma compared with non-invasive cases. The results were confirmed at the level of aRNA and gene expression. Five genes were further identified as differentially expressed genes in the majority of cases (50%, 25/40) in progression of colon cancer, and their expression patterns of which were similar to tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes.CONCLUSION: This study suggested that combined use of polypeptide analysis might identify early expression profiles of five differential genes associated with the invasion of colon cancer. These results reveal that this gene may be a marker of submucosal invasion in early colon cancer.

  7. Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas

  8. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  9. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  10. 激光显微捕获口腔上皮细胞的DNA分型%DNA Genotyping of Oral Epithelial Cells by Laser Capure Microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽华; 张晨; 陈连康; 郑会芬; 程莉; 周怀谷

    2006-01-01

    目的探索激光显微技术(laser capture microdissection system,LCM)捕获口腔上皮细胞,并进行STR-DNA分型检测的方法.方法用VERITAS显微切割仪红外低能激光显微捕获一定数量口腔上皮细胞,进行Profiler Plus试剂盒STR复合扩增,检测DNA基因型.结果7~8个口腔上皮细胞能成功获得STR-DNA分型.3~4个口腔上皮细胞不能成功获得STR-DNA分型.结论激光显微捕获作为一种分离单个细胞的新技术,对于微量口腔上皮细胞的STR-DNA分型是可行的.

  11. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  12. Identification of Hypoxia-Regulated Proteins Using MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging Combined with Quantitative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer...... cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). MS analyses were performed on laser-capture microdissected samples isolated from normoxic and hypoxic regions from tumors derived from the same cells used in vitro. MALDI-MSI was used in combination to investigate hypoxia......-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC...

  13. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  14. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  15. Relationship between structures of sprite streamers and inhomogeneity of preceding halos captured by high-speed camera during a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Kudo, T.; Shima, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between diffuse glows such as elves and sprite halos and subsequent discrete structure of sprite streamers is considered to be one of the keys to solve the mechanism causing a large variation of sprite structures. However, it's not easy to image at high frame rate both the diffuse and discrete structures simultaneously, since it requires high sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. To capture the real spatial structure of TLEs without influence of atmospheric absorption, spacecraft would be the best solution. However, since the imaging observation from space is mostly made for TLEs appeared near the horizon, the range from spacecraft to TLEs becomes large, such as few thousand km, resulting in low spatial resolution. The aircraft can approach thunderstorm up to a few hundred km or less and can carry heavy high-speed cameras with huge size data memories. In the period of June 27 - July 10, 2011, a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign, in support of NHK Cosmic Shore project, was carried with two jet airplanes under collaboration between NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and universities. On 8 nights out of 16 standing-by, the jets took off from the airport near Denver, Colorado, and an airborne high speed camera captured over 40 TLE events at a frame rate of 8300 /sec. Here we introduce the time development of sprite streamers and the both large and fine structures of preceding halos showing inhomogeneity, suggesting a mechanism to cause the large variation of sprite types, such as crown like sprites.

  16. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  17. 78 FR 28229 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Device and System for Expression Microdissection (xMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... for Expression Microdissection (xMD) AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice... inspection and, to the extent permitted by law, will not be released under the Freedom of Information Act,...

  18. Real-time quantitative PCR of microdissected paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2004-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using real-time quantitative PCR to determine HER-2 DNA amplification and mRNA expression in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors and compared this with standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods....... Study cases (27 carcinomas and 3 ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases) showed varying Her-2 expression as determined by IHC (HercepTest). In carcinomas, there was a good correlation between HER-2 DNA amplification and strong HER-2 protein expression detected by FISH and IHC, respectively....... A single DCIS case was amplified in FISH, but not in IHC. Both HER-2 gene amplification and expression could be quantified in microdissected paraffin-embedded tumors using real-time PCR, DNA and RNA being successfully detected in 146 of 150 (97%) and 141 of 150 (94%) samples, respectively. PCR analysis...

  19. The development of chromosome microdissection and microcloning technique and its applications in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruo-Nan; Hu, Zan-Min

    2007-03-01

    The technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning has been developed for more than 20 years. As a bridge between cytogenetics and molecular genetics, it leads to a number of applications: chromosome painting probe isolation, genetic linkage map and physical map construction, and expressed sequence tags generation. During those 20 years, this technique has not only been benefited from other technological advances but also cross-fertilized with other techniques. Today, it becomes a practicality with extensive uses. The purpose of this article is to review the development of this technique and its application in the field of genomic research. Moreover, a new method of generating ESTs of specific chromosomes developed by our lab is introduced. By using this method, the technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning would be more valuable in the advancement of genomic research.

  20. A novel procedure for the quantitative analysis of metabolites, storage products and transcripts of laser microdissected seed tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchuk Ruslana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority in the context of seed biotechnology. Results We provide a guideline and detailed procedures towards the quantitative analysis of laser micro-dissected (LM tissues in oilseed rape (Brassica napus. This includes protocols for laser microdissection of the seed, and the subsequent extraction and quantitative analysis of lipids, starch and metabolites (sugars, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle. We have also developed a protocol allowing the parallel analysis of the transcriptome using Brassica-specific microarrays. Some data are presented regarding the compartmentation of metabolites within the oilseed rape embryo. Conclusion The described methodology allows for the rapid, combined analysis of metabolic intermediates, major storage products and transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The protocols are robust for oilseed rape, and should be readily adjustable for other crop species. The suite of methods applied to LM tissues represents an important step in the context of both the systems biology and the biotechnology of oilseeds.

  1. Mini-incision microdissection testicular sperm extraction: a useful technique for men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Witmer, J; Ruiz, S; AlMalki, A; Phillips, S; Zini, A

    2016-03-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was developed to minimize the testicular injury associated with multiple open TESEs. We sought to evaluate a mini-incision micro-TESE in men with cryptozoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We conducted a retrospective study of 26 consecutive men with NOA and cryptozoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2015 and August 2015. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a mini-incision micro-TESE (with limited unilateral micro-dissection) or standard/extensive (with unilateral or bilateral micro-dissection) was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 spermatozoa) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 77% (20/26) of the men. In 37% of the men (8/26), the mini-incision micro-TESE was successful (positive sperm recovery). The remaining 18 men required a standard (extensive) microdissection: 61% (11/18) underwent a unilateral and 39% (7/18) a bilateral micro-TESE. We found that 90% (9/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 63% (10/16) of the men with NOA underwent a unilateral (mini or standard micro-TESE). The mini-incision micro-TESE allowed for successful sperm recovery in 60% (6/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 13% (2/16) of the men with NOA. The data demonstrate that a mini-incision micro-TESE together with rapid intra-operative assessment and identification of spermatozoa recovery can be useful in men undergoing microTESE, particularly, men with cryptozoospermia.

  2. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, María; Cabrero, Josefa; Montiel, Eugenia E; Acosta, Manuel J; Sánchez, Antonio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of knowledge of the nature and DNA content of B chromosomes has been triggered by a collection of molecular techniques, one of which, microdissection, has provided interesting results in a number of B chromosome systems. Here we provide the first data on the molecular composition of B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria, after microdissection of the B and X chromosomes, DNA amplification by one (B) or two (X) different methods, and chromosome painting. The results showed that B chromosomes share at least two types of repetitive DNA sequences with the A chromosomes, suggesting that Bs in this species most likely arose intraspecifically. One of these repetitive DNAs is located on the heterochromatic distal half of the B chromosome and in the pericentromeric regions of about half of the A chromosomes, including the X. The other type of repetitive DNA is located interspersedly over the non-centromeric euchromatic regions of all A chromosomes and in an interstitial part of the proximal euchromatic half of the B chromosome. Chromosome painting, however, did not provide results sufficiently reliable to determine, in this species, which A chromosome gave rise to the B; this might be done by detailed analysis of the microdissected DNA sequences.

  3. Relative biological effectiveness and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin for a potential combination of neutron capture therapy and fast-neutron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito; Nishimura, Ryohei; Sasaki, Nobuo; Saito, Isao; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the potential efficacy of fission neutrons from a fast-neutron reactor for the treatment of radioresistant tumors, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin were determined. The forelimbs of 34 healthy mongrel dogs received a single dose of fission neutrons (5.6, 6.8, 8.2, 9.6 or 11 Gy) or 137Cs gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gy). Based on observations of radiodermatitis for each radiation, the single-fraction RBE of fission neutrons in the sixth month was calculated as approximately 3. The tolerance doses of fission neutrons and gamma rays, defined as the highest doses giving no moist desquamation on the irradiated skin in the recovery phase, were estimated as 7.6 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The tolerance dose of 7.6 Gy of fission neutrons included 5.0 Gy of fast neutrons possessing high anti-tumor effects and 1.4 x 10(12) n/cm2 of thermal neutrons, which could be applicable to neutron capture therapy (NCT). The combination of fast-neutron therapy and NCT using a fast-neutron reactor might be useful for the treatment of radioresistant tumors.

  4. Solid phase extraction with silicon dioxide microsphere adsorbents in combination with gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of DDT and its metabolites in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Wu, Wei; Xie, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) microspheres without special modification to enrich dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its main metabolites, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-2,2-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDD) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in combination with gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. The experimental results indicated that an excellent linear relationship between the recoveries and the concentrations of DDT and its main metabolites was obtained in the range of 0.2-30 ng mL(-1) and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 99.96-99.99%. The detection limits based on the ratio of signal to the baseline noise (S/N = 3) were 2.2, 2.9, 3.8 and 4.1 ng L(-1) for p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The precisions of the proposed method were all below 10% (n = 6). Four real water samples were utilized for validation of the proposed method, and satisfactory spiked recoveries in the range of 72.4-112.9% were achieved. These results demonstrated that the developed method was a simple, sensitive, and robust analytical method for the monitoring of pollutants in the environment.

  5. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  6. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  7. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  8. Laser microdissection and microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Ras-GRF1 knockout mice reveals gene expression changes affecting signal transduction pathways related to memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Medarde, A; Porteros, A; de las Rivas, J; Núñez, A; Fuster, J J; Santos, E

    2007-04-25

    We used manual macrodissection or laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate tissue sections of the hippocampus area of Ras-GRF1 wild type and knockout mice brains, and analyzed their transcriptional patterns using commercial oligonucleotide microarrays. Comparison between the transcriptomes of macrodissected and microdissected samples showed that the LCM samples allowed detection of significantly higher numbers of differentially expressed genes, with higher statistical rates of significance. These results validate LCM as a reliable technique for in vivo genomic studies in the brain hippocampus, where contamination by surrounding areas (not expressing Ras-GRF1) increases background noise and impairs identification of differentially expressed genes. Comparison between wild type and knockout LCM hippocampus samples revealed that Ras-GRF1 elimination caused significant gene expression changes, mostly affecting signal transduction and related neural processes. The list of 36 most differentially expressed genes included loci concerned mainly with Ras/G protein signaling and cytoskeletal organization (i.e. 14-3-3gamma/zeta, Kcnj6, Clasp2) or related, cross-talking pathways (i.e. jag2, decorin, strap). Consistent with the phenotypes shown by Ras-GRF1 knockout mice, many of these differentially expressed genes play functional roles in processes such as sensory development and function (i.e. Sptlc1, antiquitin, jag2) and/or neurological development/neurodegeneration processes affecting memory and learning. Indeed, potential links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Creutzfeldt-Jacobs disease (CJD), have been reported for a number of differentially expressed genes identified in this study (Ptma, Aebp2, Clasp2, Hebp1, 14-3-3gamma/zeta, Csnk1delta, etc.). These data, together with the previously described role of IRS and insulin (known Ras-GRF1 activators) in AD, warrant further investigation of a potential functional link of Ras-GRF1 to

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Jia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Fu Lingyan; Zhao Xinna; Liu Xiujuan [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang Huili; Wang Xuedong [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dai Liyan, E-mail: dailiyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2009-04-27

    In this article, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) were presented for the extraction and determination of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples. Acetone was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of PCBs from soil samples. In DLLME, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the acetone extract to chlorobenzene when the extraction process began. The main advantages of this method are quick speed, high enrichment factor, high recovery and good repeatability. Under the optimum conditions, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 2 to 2000 {mu}g kg{sup -1}for PCB 52, and 0.4 to 400 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for other target analytes. Coefficients of correlation (r{sup 2}) ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9999. The repeatability was tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for PCBs. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 11) varied between 2.2% and 6.4%. The limits of detection (LODs), based on signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3, were between 0.20 and 0.50 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. The relative recoveries of the five PCBs from soil S1, S2 and S3 at spiking levels of 10, 20 and 50 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 88.70-103.8%, 82.50-106.3% and 82.30-113.6%, respectively. Therefore, DLLME combined with GC-ECD can be successfully applied for the determination of trace PCB residues in real soil samples.

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Mei-I; Huang, Shang-Da

    2008-11-21

    A simple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method based on solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) technique combined with gas chromatography/electron-capture detection (GC/ECD) or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed. The proposed method is simple, low in cost, and of high precision. It overcomes the most important problem in DLLME, the high-toxic solvent used. Halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in water samples were determined as the model compounds. The parameters optimized for the DLLME-SFO technique were as follows: A mixture of 0.5 mL acetone, containing 10 microL 2-dodecanol (2-DD-OH), was rapidly injected by syringe into the 5 mL water sample. After centrifugation, the fine 2-DD-OH droplets (8+/-0.5 microL) were floated at the top of the screwcap test tube. The test tube was then cooled in an ice bath. After 5 min the 2-DD-OH solvent had solidified and was then transferred into a conical vial; it melted quickly at room temperature and 3 microL (for GC/ECD) or 2 microL (for GC/MS) of it was injected into a gas chromatograph for analysis. The limit of detection (LOD) for this technique was 0.005-0.05microgL(-1) for GC/ECD and was 0.005-0.047 microgL(-1) for GC/MS, respectively. The linear range of the calibration curve of DLLME-SFO was from 0.01 to 500 microgL(-1) with a coefficient of estimation (r2)>0.996 for GC/ECD and was from 0.02 to 500 microgL(-1) with a coefficient of estimation (r2)>0.996 for GC/MS.

  11. Molecular markers of extracellular matrix remodeling in glioblastoma vessels: microarray study of laser-captured glioblastoma vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ally; Moreno, Maria J; Martin, Joel; Stanimirovic, Danica B

    2007-04-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most malignant and vascularized brain tumors. The aberrant vascular phenotype of GBM could be exploited for diagnosis or therapeutic targeting. This study identified new molecular markers of GBM vessels, using a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) microscopy, RNA amplification, and microarray analyses to compare vessels from nonmalignant human brain and GBM tumors. Forty-two genes were differentially expressed in GBM vessels compared to nonmalignant brain vessels. Validation of differentially expressed genes was performed by literature mining, Q-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Among the differentially expressed genes, only 64% were previously associated with vessels, angiogenesis, gliomas, and/or cancer. The upregulation of genes encoding secreted extracellular proteins IGFBP7 and SPARC was confirmed by Q-PCR in LCM-captured vessels. Whereas SPARC and IGFBP7 protein were absent in nonmalignant brain vessels, a distinct immunoreactivity patterns were observed in GBM sections whereby SPARC was strongly expressed in perivascular cells adjacent to GBM vessels while GBM endothelial cells were immunostained for IGFBP7. IGFBP7 immunoreactivity was also detected on the abluminal side of GBM vessels deposited between strands of vascular basal lamina. The study discerns unique molecular characteristics of GBM vessels compared with nonmalignant brain vessels that could potentially be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  12. Combined Fluorescent-Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Identification and Laser Microdissection of Interphase Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nerea Paz; Amaia Zabala; Félix Royo; África García-Orad; Zugaza, José L.; Parada, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting ...

  13. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing. Cell 129:1401-14, 2007 13. Sica A, Mantovani A: Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas. J Clin Invest 122:787-95, 2012 18

  14. Measurement of bacterial gene expression in vivo by laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Angen, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    Due to the relative small number of bacterial pathogens present in an infected host, exploration of pathogen gene expression in vivo is challenging. This study reports the development of a protocol for quantifying bacterial gene expression in vivo in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using laser ca...

  15. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Yields wi tive to hemato s fiber (GF) an mns (A), and w mns for both  ns with their s sy when 40 quantitati ith 250 ng xpressed i While an in tal area...using the global loess regression method with a ’span’ value of 1/3 [22]. Microarray signal values were then identified as summarized Hy3™ values which

  16. The influence of immunohistochemistry on mRNA recovery from microdissected frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Abrahamsen, Helene N; Villegas, Berta; Sorensen, Boe S; Schmidt, Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2004-12-01

    Laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) is now widely used to obtain specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissues. A major disadvantage of LAM is poor tissue morphology during microscopy, in part because coverslips are not used. Immunohistochemical labeling can improve identification of target cells but may affect the subsequent analysis of the microdissected tissue. We studied the effect of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on mRNA recovery from labeled cells after microdissection from both frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections, using Melan-A and Ki-67 staining in lymph nodes with metastatic melanoma as a model. We developed rapid protocols for immunostaining in an attempt to limit loss of mRNA during procedures. A sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to measure mRNA. We found a marked decrease in the mRNA yield from 500 microdissected cells from frozen and paraffin sections after immunostaining for both markers. Recovery of mRNA decreased by up to 89%, comparing the immunostained with the routinely stained sections. Interestingly, the ratio between mRNA for the two markers was similar in all stains, indicating that immunostained sections may be used for mRNA analysis. We also investigated the effect of storing membrane-mounted sections for microdissection under different conditions. Slides mounted with paraffin sections could be stored at room temperature for up to 90 days with no significant decrease in mRNA recovery.

  17. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  18. Principles of laser microdissection and catapulting of histologic specimens and live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alfred; Horneffer, Verena; Lorenz, Kathrin; Linz, Norbert; Hüttmann, Gereon; Gebert, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Rapid contact- and contamination-free procurement of specific samples of histologic material for proteomic and genomic analysis as well as separation and transport of living cells can be achieved by laser microdissection (LMD) of the sample of interest followed by a laser-induced forward transport process [laser pressure "catapulting," (LPC)] of the dissected material. We investigated the dynamics of LMD and LPC with focused and defocused laser pulses by means of time-resolved photography. The working mechanism of microdissection was found to be plasma-mediated ablation. Catapulting is driven by plasma formation, when tightly focused pulses are used, and by ablation at the bottom of the sample for moderate and strong defocusing. Driving pressures of several hundred megapascals accelerate the specimen to initial velocities of 100-300 m/s before it is rapidly slowed down by air friction. With strong defocusing, driving pressure and initial flight velocity decrease considerably. On the basis of a characterization of the thermal and optical properties of the histologic specimens and supporting materials used, we calculated the temporal evolution of the heat distribution in the sample. After laser microdissection and laser pressure catapulting (LMPC), the samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Catapulting with tightly focused or strongly defocused pulses results in very little collateral damage, while slight defocusing involves significant heat and UV exposure of up to about 10% of the specimen volume, especially if samples are catapulted directly from a glass slide. Time-resolved photography of live-cell catapulting revealed that in defocused catapulting strong shear forces originate from the flow of the thin layer of culture medium covering the cells. By contrast, pulses focused at the periphery of the specimen cause a fast rotational movement that makes the specimen wind its way out of the culture medium, thereby undergoing much less shear stresses

  19. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerle Martine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+ translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5 were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2 from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases.

  20. Application of chromosomal microdissection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse chromosome painting in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Xu, J.; Cedrone, E. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes have been found in about 0.04% of amniotic fluid cultures. The origin of these marker chromosomes is difficult to identify by routine chromosome banding analysis. In the present study, we applied microdissection, PCR, and reverse chromosome painting to two amniotic fluid cases with a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar, and 47,XX,+?i(9p), respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the biotin-labeled DNA probe generated from 5 copies of the dissected marker chromosomes was applied to the normal metaphase spreads and revealed that the marker originated from the p arm of chromosomes 14 and 22, while the ?i(9p) was actually i(4p). Reverse painting of the same probe to the metaphase spreads of the patients completely painted the marker chromosomes in question, which confirms the accuracy of the analysis. Our study provides an example of the application of chromosome microdissection and molecular cytogenetics in prenatal diagnosis for the identification of marker chromosomes unidentifiable by routine analysis.

  1. Molecular analysis of cell type-specific gene expression profile during mouse spermatogenesis by laser microdissection and qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-03-01

    Laser microdissection (LMD) is a selective cell isolation technique that enables the separation of desired homogenous cell subpopulations from complex tissues such as the testes under direct microscopic visualization. The LMD accompanied by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) represents an indispensable tool in quantifying messenger RNA (mRNA) expression among defined cell populations. Gene expression is temporally and spatially regulated at 3 sequential phases of mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. The present study demonstrates a short modified LMD protocol based upon hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Stage-specific LMD success was validated by the use of mRNA profiling of "marker genes" which are conserved across species and are known to be differentially expressed during spermatogenesis. Magea4, Hspa2, Cox6b2, Tnp1, Prm1, and Prm2 are used to differentiate among the microdissected cell populations, namely spermatogonia (group I), spermatocytes (group II), round and condensing spermatids (group III), and elongated and condensed spermatids (group IV), respectively. The LMD combined with qRT-PCR is further extended to assess the cell stage-specific distribution of selected stress response genes such as Hsp90aa1, Gpx4, Ucp2, Sod1, and Sod2. The germ cell-specific mRNA profiles are suitably complemented by Western blot of the LMD samples, immunohistochemistry, and confocal localization of the corresponding proteins. The current study suggests that LMD can successfully isolate cell subpopulations from the complex tissues of the testes; and establish cell stage-specific basal expression patterns of selected stress response genes and proteins. It is our hypothesis that the baseline expression of stress response genes will differ by cell stage to create discrete stage-specific vulnerabilities to reproductive toxicants.

  2. Phase II clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray radiotherapy/temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme-Study design and current status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shinji, E-mail: neu046@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Hirota, Yuki; Miyata, Shiro; Takekita, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-Machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686 (Japan); Kirihata, Mitsunori [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8931 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, we reported our clinical experiences of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The major differences of our protocol from the other past studies were simultaneous use of both sodium borocapate and boronophenylalanine, and combination with fractionated X-ray irradiation. These results showed the efficacy of combination therapy with external beam X-ray irradiation and BNCT. For our future study, we planned the multi-centric phase II clinical study for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients in Japan (OSAKA-TRIBRAIN0902, NCT00974987).

  3. A powerful method for transcriptional profiling of specific cell types in eukaryotes: laser-assisted microdissection and RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W Schmid

    Full Text Available The acquisition of distinct cell fates is central to the development of multicellular organisms and is largely mediated by gene expression patterns specific to individual cells and tissues. A spatially and temporally resolved analysis of gene expression facilitates the elucidation of transcriptional networks linked to cellular identity and function. We present an approach that allows cell type-specific transcriptional profiling of distinct target cells, which are rare and difficult to access, with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. We combined laser-assisted microdissection (LAM, linear amplification starting from <1 ng of total RNA, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. As a model we used the central cell of the Arabidopsis thaliana female gametophyte, one of the female gametes harbored in the reproductive organs of the flower. We estimated the number of expressed genes to be more than twice the number reported previously in a study using LAM and ATH1 microarrays, and identified several classes of genes that were systematically underrepresented in the transcriptome measured with the ATH1 microarray. Among them are many genes that are likely to be important for developmental processes and specific cellular functions. In addition, we identified several intergenic regions, which are likely to be transcribed, and describe a considerable fraction of reads mapping to introns and regions flanking annotated loci, which may represent alternative transcript isoforms. Finally, we performed a de novo assembly of the transcriptome and show that the method is suitable for studying individual cell types of organisms lacking reference sequence information, demonstrating that this approach can be applied to most eukaryotic organisms.

  4. Comparative genomic hybridization of microdissected samples from different stages in the development of a seminoma and a non-seminoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, LHJ; Rosenberg, C; van Gurp, RJHLM; Geelen, E; van Echten-Arends, J; de Jong, B; Mostert, M

    2000-01-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults, both seminomas and non-seminomas, originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN). Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was applied to microdissected samples from different stages of the development of a seminoma and a m

  5. Construction of a DNA library from chromosome 4 of rice (Oryza sativa) by microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOYINGWEI; SIYUANLIANG; 等

    1998-01-01

    A simple method to create a chromosome-specific DNA librqary of rice,including microdissection,amplification,charterization and cloning,is described.Rice chromosome 4 from a metaphase cell has been isolated and amplified by the Linker Adapter PCR (LA-PCR).The PCR products were labeled as probes with DIG-11-dUTP using the random priming method.Southern blot analysis with rice genomic DNA and specific RFLP markers demonstrated that the PCR products were derived from rice chromosome 4.A large library comprising over 100,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from rice chromosome 4 was constructed.Colony hybridization showed that 58% of the clones contained single or low-copy sequences and 42% contained repetitive sequences.The size of inserts generated by PCR ranged from 140bp to 500bp.This method will facilitate cloning of the specific chromosome DNA markers and important genes of rice.

  6. Comparison in gene expression of secretory human endometrium using laser microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tadateru

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium prepares for implantation under the control of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that there are complicated interactions between the epithelium and stroma in the endometrium during menstrual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate a difference in gene expression between the epithelial and stromal areas of the secretory human endometrium using microdissection and macroarray technique. Methods The epithelial and stromal areas were microdissected from the human endometrium during the secretory phase. RNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. Macroarray analysis of nearly 1000 human genes was carried out in this study. Some genes identified by macroarray analysis were verified using real-time PCR. Results In this study, changes in expression 5-fold were WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (44.1 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (40.1 fold, homeo box B5 (19.8 fold, msh homeo box homolog (18.8 fold, homeo box B7 (12.7 fold and protein kinase C, theta (6.4 fold. On the other hand, decorin (55.6 fold, discoidin domain receptor member 2 (17.3 fold, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (9 fold, ribosomal protein S3A (6.3 fold, and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains (5.2 fold were strongly expressed in the stromal areas. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (19.4 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (9.7-fold, decorin (16.3-fold and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (7.2-fold were verified by real-time PCR. Conclusions Some of the genes we identified with differential expression are related to the immune system. These results are telling us the new information for understanding the secretory human endometrium.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

    2014-12-01

    A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples.

  8. Plasminogen-based capture combined with amplification technology for the detection of PrP(TSE in the pre-clinical phase of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Segarra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD is a neurodegenerative infectious disorder, characterized by a prominent accumulation of pathological isoforms of the prion protein (PrP(TSE in the brain and lymphoid tissues. Since the publication in the United Kingdom of four apparent vCJD cases following transfusion of red blood cells and one apparent case following treatment with factor VIII, the presence of vCJD infectivity in the blood seems highly probable. For effective blood testing of vCJD individuals in the preclinical or clinical phase of infection, it is considered necessary that assays detect PrP(TSE concentrations in the femtomolar range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a three-step assay that firstly captures PrP(TSE from infected blood using a plasminogen-coated magnetic-nanobead method prior to its serial amplification via protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and specific PrP(TSE detection by western blot. We achieved a PrP(TSE capture yield of 95% from scrapie-infected material. We demonstrated the possibility of detecting PrP(TSE in white blood cells, in buffy coat and in plasma isolated from the blood of scrapie-infected sheep collected at the pre-clinical stage of the disease. The test also allowed the detection of PrP(TSE in human plasma spiked with a 10(-8 dilution of vCJD-infected brain homogenate corresponding to the level of sensitivity (femtogram required for the detection of the PrP(TSE in asymptomatic carriers. The 100% specificity of the test was revealed using a blinded panel comprising 96 human plasma samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a sensitive and specific amplification assay allowing the detection of PrP(TSE in the plasma and buffy coat fractions of blood collected at the pre-clinical phase of the disease. This assay represents a good candidate as a confirmatory assay for the presence of PrP(TSE in blood of patients displaying positivity in large scale screening

  9. PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND ULTRASONICS WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Saravanan; Kuczynska, Agnieszka; Hume, Scott; Mulgundmath, Vinay; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Remias, Joe; Ambedkar, Balraj; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan

    2012-11-01

    The results of the preliminary techno-economic assessment for integrating a process utilizing low-energy solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture enabled by a combination of enzymes and ultrasonics with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant are presented. Four cases utilizing the enzyme-activated solvent are compared using different methodologies of regeneration against the DOE/NETL reference MEA case. The results are shown comparing the energy demand for post-combustion CO2 capture and the net higher heating value (HHV) efficiency of the power plant integrated with the post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. A levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment was performed showing the costs of the options presented in the study. The key factors contributing to the reduction of LCOE were identified as enzyme make-up rate and the capability of the ultrasonic regeneration process. The net efficiency of the integrated PC power plant with CO2 capture changes from 24.9% with the reference Case 10 plant to between 24.34% and 29.97% for the vacuum regeneration options considered, and to between 26.63% and 31.41% for the ultrasonic regeneration options. The evaluation also shows the effect of the critical parameters on the LCOE, with the main variable being the initial estimation of enzyme dosing rate. The LCOE ($/MWh) values range from 112.92 to 125.23 for the vacuum regeneration options and from 108.9 to 117.50 for the ultrasonic regeneration cases considered in comparison to 119.6 for the reference Case 10. A sensitivity analysis of the effect of critical parameters on the LCOE was also performed. The results from the preliminary techno-economic assessment show that the proposed technology can be investigated further with a view to being a viable alternative to conventional CO2 scrubbing technologies.

  10. Comparison of sample preparation methods combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for the analysis of multipesticide residues in lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is always the major bottleneck in analytical chemistry for the determination of pesticide residues. Different sample preparation methods have been proposed due to the wide variety of pesticides used and the inherent complexity of the matrices. In this study, different sample preparation methods including SPE, matrix solid-phase dispersion, the quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe method, and a one-step completion method were compared and evaluated for extracting pesticides from lotus seeds. Analysis was carried out using GC with electron-capture detection. The results showed that good recoveries for tested pesticides were obtained by using Florisil in the four methods, and the extraction efficiency of the one-step completion method was superior to the other three methods. The one-step completion method was confirmed to have good linearity, reproducibility, stability, and recovery for the detection of 36 pesticides in lotus seed samples. The data collected from this study are expected to prove useful in regulating the concentration of the residues in lotus seeds, as well as in protecting human health from the hazards posed by these residues.

  11. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Microdissected Cell Populations Indicates that Testicular Carcinoma In situ Is an Arrested Gonocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, S. B.; Almstrup, K.; Dalgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    performed laser microdissection of CIS cells. Highly enriched cell populations were obtained and subjected to gene expression analysis. The expression profile of CIS cells was compared with microdissected gonocytes, oogonia, and cultured embryonic stem cells with and without genomic aberrations. Three...... a meiotic cell, and the similarity to embryonic stem cells was modest compared with gonocytes. Thus, we provide new evidence that the molecular phenotype of CIS cells is similar to that of gonocytes. Our data are in line with the idea that CIS cells may be gonocytes that survived in the postnatal testis....... speculate that disturbed development of somatic cells in the fetal testis may play a role in allowing undifferentiated cells to survive in the postnatal testes. The further development of CIS into invasive germ cell tumors may depend on signals from their postpubertal niche of somatic cells, including...

  12. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuedong [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: zjuwxd@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao Xinna; Liu Xiujuan; Li Yanyan; Fu Lingyan; Hu Jia [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Huang Changjiang [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2008-07-14

    In this study, a new method was developed for analyzing malathion, cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin from soil samples by using homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Acetone was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of target pesticides from soil samples. When the extraction process was finished, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the acetone extract to carbon tetrachloride, using HLLE. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.05-40 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion, 0.04-10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.05-50 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for cypermethrin, respectively. Coefficients of correlation (r{sup 2}) ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9998. The repeatability was carried out by spiking soil samples at concentration levels of 2.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin, and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion and cypermethrin, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied between 2.3 and 9.6% (n = 3). The limits of detection (LODs), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, varied between 0.01 and 0.04 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. The relative recoveries of three pesticides from soil A1, A2 and A3 at spiking levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 82.20-91.60%, 88.90-110.5% and 77.10-98.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of target pesticide residues in real soil samples.

  13. Identification of the origin of chromosomal aberrations by laser microdissection: Double minutes observed in two cases derive from different chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajcan-Separovic, E. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Wang, H.S.; Janes, L. [Children`s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Single copies of tiny chromosome fragments appearing as double minutes were observed in high frequency in amniotic fluid cultures of two mothers who underwent prenatal testing because of advanced age. In case 1, the minutes were C band and NOR negative, while in case 2 they were C band positive, NOR negative. In both cases centromeric DNA sequences were detected on double minutes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using all human centromeric probe (ONCOR). We applied the laser microdissection method to diagnose the origin of double minutes. The diagnostic procedures consisted of microdissection of double minutes from single cells, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the dissected DNA and subsequent FISH using PCR products as a probe pool on metaphase chromosomes from the patient`s amniocytes and fibroblasts from a karyotypically normal newborn. Using this strategy we observed strong FISH signals on double minutes and centromeres of a D and G group chromosome in case 1 amniocyytes, while in case 2 the signal was present on double minutes and a C group chromosome centromere. Hybridization of amniocyte chromosome spreads with centromeric {alpha}-satellite probes for the candidate chromosomes 13/21 and 14/22 (ONCOR) in case 1 revealed FISH signals on double minutes only with the 13/21 probe. In case 2, {alpha}-satellite probes for candidate chromosomes 10 and 12 (ONCOR) were used, and only the probe for chromosome 12 hybridized to double minutes. With the laser microdissection method we were thus able to diagnose and confirm that the double minutes observed in human amniocytes derived from centromeres of chromosomes 13/21 in case 1, and from centomeres of chromosome 12 in case 2. This demonstrates the utility of laser microdissection for identification of chromosomal abnormalities of unknown origin.

  14. Rapid generation of region-specific probes by chromosome microdissection: Application to the identification of chromosomal rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.M.; Guan, X.Y.; Zang, J.; Meltzer, P.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors present results using a novel strategy for chromosome microdissection and direct in vitro amplification of specific chromosomal regions, to identify cryptic chromosome alterations, and to rapidly generate region-specific genomic probes. First, banded chromosomes are microdissected and directly PCR amplified by a procedure which eliminates microchemistry (Meltzer, et al., Nature Genetics, 1:24, 1992). The resulting PCR product can be used for several applications including direct labeling for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to normal metaphase chromosomes. A second application of this procedure is the extremely rapid generation of chromosome region-specific probes. This approach has been successfully used to determine the derivation of chromosome segments unidentifiable by standard chromosome banding analysis. In selected instances these probes have also been used on interphase nuclei and provides the potential for assessing chromosome abnormalities in a variety of cell lineages. The microdissection probes (which can be generated in <24 hours) have also been utilized in direct library screening and provide the possibility of acquiring a significant number of region-specific probes for any chromosome band. This procedure extends the limits of conventional cytogenetic analysis by providing an extremely rapid source of numerous band-specific probes, and by enabling the direct analysis of essentially any unknown chromosome region.

  15. Directed isolation and mapping of microsatellites from swine Chromosome 1q telomeric region through microdissection and RH mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, N; Hawken, R J; Takahashi, S; Alexander, L J; Awata, T; Schook, L B; Yasue, H

    2001-07-01

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (vertebrate number, birth weight, age at puberty, growth rate, gestation length, and backfat depth) have been independently mapped to the distal region of swine Chromosome (SSC) 1q in several resource populations. In order to improve the map resolution and refine these QTLs more precisely on SSC1q, we have isolated and mapped additional microsatellites (ms), using chromosome microdissection and radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. Five copies of the telomeric region of SSC1q were microdissected from metaphase spreads and pooled. The chromosomal fragment DNA was randomly amplified by using degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR), enriched for ms, and subcloned into a PCR vector. Screening of subsequent clones with ms probes identified 23 unique ms sequences. Fifteen of these (65%) were subjected to radiation hybrid (RH) mapping by using the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine RH panel (IMpRH); and the remaining eight were not suited for the RH mapping. Twelve microsatellites were assigned to SSC1q telomeric region of IMpRH map (LOD >6), and three remain unlinked (LOD pig. In summary, we have used microdissection and radiation hybrid mapping to clone and map 12 new microsatellites to the swine gene map to increase the resolution of SSC1q in the region of known QTLs.

  16. A modeling software linking approach for the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle with hot potassium carbonate CO[subscript 2] capture

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars Olof; Kothandaraman, Anusha; BOLLAND, Olav; Herzog, Howard J.; McRae, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle (IRCC) with natural gas as fuel input. This IRCC consisted of a hydrogen-fired gas turbine (GT) with a single-pressure steam bottoming cycle for power production. The reforming process section consisted of a pre-reformer and an air-blown auto thermal reformer (ATR) followed by water-gas shift reactors. The air to the ATR was discharged from the GT compressor and boosted up to system pressure by an air booster co...

  17. Cupula-receptor cell relationships with evidence provided by SEM microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, V C; Emerson, C J

    1979-01-01

    Ampullae from the inner ear of the skate, Raja ocellata, were examined by SEM to further elucidate the relationships of the sensory hairs of the receptor cells to the overlying cupula. Specimens were prepared by a variety of methods and were fractured to visualize these relationships. Critical point drying resulted in good cellular and sensory hair preservation, but the cupulae were grossly shrunken. Freeze-dried cupulae, in contrast, more closely approximated the in vivo condition. Although tissues suffered freezing damage, sensory hair bundles were readily discerned. In both critical point dried and freeze-dried ampullae, the peripheral hair cell bundles and the kinocilia of most of the central hair cells, extended across the subcupular space and contacted the cupular material. Some of the specimens were further investigated by dissection in the SEM, the process being viewed in real time stereo. Microdissection confirmed that most kinocilia were attached to the cupula. When the cupula was displaced, sensory hair bundles remained attached to it and broke preferentially at their base from the receptor cells.

  18. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, M; Cabrero, J; Perfectti, F; Acosta, M J; Sánchez, A; Camacho, J P M

    2009-01-01

    The relative location of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal (rDNA) and a tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNA), with respect to the centromere, suggested that B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans derived intraspecifically from the X chromosome. To test this hypothesis, we microdissected X and B chromosomes and amplified the obtained DNA by 2 different procedures, the conventional DOP-PCR method and the single-cell whole-genome amplification GenomePlex method. We then generated DNA probes to perform chromosome painting. Our results have confirmed that X and B chromosomes share many DNA sequences between them and with most of the autosomes, especially at locations where the satDNA and rDNA reside, in consistency with previous information. This supports the hypothesis of an intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in E. plorans. Nevertheless, the present results did not help to clarify whether Bs were derived from the X chromosome or else from 1 or more autosomes.

  19. Selective Gene Expression Analysis of Muscular and Vascular Components in Hearts Using Laser Microdissection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The heart consists of various kinds of cell components. However, it has not been feasible to separately analyze the gene expression of individual components. The laser microdissection (LMD method, a new technology to collect target cells from the microscopic regions, has been used for malignancies. We sought to establish a method to selectively collect the muscular and vascular regions from the heart sections and to compare the marker gene expressions with this method. Methods and Results. Frozen left ventricle sections were obtained from Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP at 24 weeks of age. Using the LMD method, the muscular and vascular regions were selectively collected under microscopic guidance. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, a marker of cardiac myocytes, was expressed in the muscular samples, but not in the vascular samples, whereas α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of smooth muscle cells, was detected only in the vascular samples. Moreover, SHR-SP had significantly greater BNP upregulation than WKY (<0.05 in the muscular samples. Conclusions. The LMD method enabled us to separately collect the muscular and vascular samples from myocardial sections and to selectively evaluate mRNA expressions of the individual tissue component.

  20. ERα and ERK1/2 MAP kinase expression in microdissected stromal and epithelial endometrial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Abu Alkhair Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Total and phosphorylated levels for ERK1/2 and ERα were measured by quantitation of signals from Western blots using specific antibodies against the active and total forms of ERK1/2 and against ERα. When the level of the proteins was quantitated and normalized to β actin from microdissected stroma and epithelium, no significant difference was detected in the levels of these proteins between the two tissue compartments. There was a trend toward higher expression in the stroma vs. epithelium, respectively (active ERK1/2 0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.2 ± 0.65; total ERK1/2 0.54 ± 0.35 vs. 0.28 ± 0.23; ERα 0.82 ± 0.28 vs. 0.54 ± 0.18; n = 6. These data demonstrate that there are comparable levels of ERα (P = 0.41, total ERK1/2 (P = 0.18 and active ERK1/2 (P = 0.13 in the stroma and epithelium of proliferative phase endometrium with a trend toward higher expression of these proteins in the stromal compartment.

  1. Sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Wachter, A; Phillips, S; Cohen, B; Al-Hathal, N; Zini, A

    2015-05-01

    Several studies support of the use of testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in couples with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia, although this approach remains controversial. We sought to evaluate sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia. We conducted a retrospective study of 24 consecutive micro-TESEs in men with cryptozoospermia. We also evaluated the outcomes of seven consecutive TESAs (testicular sperm aspiration) in cryptozoospermic men during the same time period (January 2007 and September 2014). Micro-TESE and TESA were performed on the day prior to ICSI. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of ICSI) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a unilateral or bilateral micro-TESE was guided by the intra-operative evaluation of sperm recovery from the first testicle. A unilateral procedure was performed in 87.5% (21/24) and 57% (4/7) of the micro-TESE and TESA cohorts, respectively. Sperm recovery was successful in 96% (23/24) of the men who underwent micro-TESE and 43% (3/7) of the men who underwent TESA (p cryptozoospermia and few of these men will require a bilateral procedure. Moreover, sperm retrieval rates are higher with micro-TESE than TESA in this group of men.

  2. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  3. Microarray analysis of gene expression by microdissected epidermis and dermis in mycosis fungoides and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Keiko; Yasumoto, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Kazutaka; Arakawa, Fumiko; Kiyasu, Junichi; Kimura, Yoshizo; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasuda, Kaori; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ohshima, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    The characteristic histopathological feature of mycosis fungoides (MF) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is epidermotropism. To identify the mechanism for epidermotropism of lymphoma cells, total RNAs were obtained from skin biopsies of epidermis and dermis of MF and ATLL patients by means of laser capture microdissection, and used for subsequent complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray experiments. This procedure has made it possible for us to observe and evaluate the regional environment of MF and ATLL. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the cDNAs could be clearly differentiated into MF and ATLL. CCL27 was expressed in the dermis generated from keratinocytes, CCR4/CCR6/CCR7/CCR10/cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) lymphoma cells in the dermis, and CCL21 in the extracellular matrix (stroma). Lymphotoxin (LT) β and CCL21 expression was significantly higher and that of CCR10 relatively for MF, while CCR4 and CLA expression was relatively higher for ATLL. In the epithelium, keratinocytes expressed CCL20/CCL27, and lymphoma cells CCR4/CCR6/CCR10, while CCR4, CCR6, CCL20 and CCL27 expression was relatively higher for ATLL than MF. The dermis of MF, but not that of ATLL, showed correlation between CCR7 and CCL21. These findings support the suggestion that chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of MF and ATLL, indicate that cutaneous homing seems to be different for MF and ATLL, and point to the possibility that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas originate in regulatory T cells, especially in the case of ATLL.

  4. Three-dimensional model to capture the fate and transport of combined sewer overflow discharges: A case study in the Chicago Area Waterway System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Zhu, Zhenduo; Morales, Viviana; Landry, Blake J; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2017-01-15

    We used a numerical model to analyze the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in the hydrodynamics and water quality of the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS). We coupled the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) with the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) to perform three-dimensional simulations of the hydrodynamics and water quality in CAWS. The analysis was performed for two different storms: (i) May 6, 2009 representing a 6-hour duration 4-month return period, and (ii) September 12, 2008 representing a 48-hour duration 100-year return period. Results from the simulations show distinct differences between the two storms. During the May 2009 storm there was only one major CSO pumping event with negligible impact on the water quality of CAWS. During the September 2008 storm there were several CSOs that impacted the hydrodynamics and water quality of CAWS. In particular, CSOs during the September 2008 event induced a reversal flow in CAWS, with a plume of constituents that traveled in the opposite direction as water does under normal conditions. However, the simulation results show that CSOs events in CAWS take place during periods of high rainfall, thus the discharge of CSOs is significantly diluted along the CAWS. As a result, the concentrations of organic matter and inorganic nutrients observed at the downstream boundary in CAWS were significantly lower than those recorded at the CSOs outfalls and are within the limits established in the regulation for regular effluents. These results suggest that even during storms events with significant CSOs into the CAWS there is a significant dilution that reduce the impact in the water quality at the system boundaries.

  5. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  6. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  7. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining...

  8. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  9. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  10. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  11. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome in programme in vitro fertilization: literature review and cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vityazeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes modern methods of examination, preoperative preparation and surgical treatment of infertility in men with non-mosaic form of Klinefelter syndrome (SK by microdissection method of testicular sperm retrieval. Men with SK responsive to hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors and human chorionic gonadotropin (НCG, have a greater chance of a favourable outcome of infertility treatment. Testicular volume, testosterone levels and test results with НCG are important prognostic factors in this group of patients. We present a clinical case of treatment of infertility in men with SK by microTESE (microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

  12. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome in programme in vitro fertilization: literature review and cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vityazeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes modern methods of examination, preoperative preparation and surgical treatment of infertility in men with non-mosaic form of Klinefelter syndrome (SK by microdissection method of testicular sperm retrieval. Men with SK responsive to hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors and human chorionic gonadotropin (НCG, have a greater chance of a favourable outcome of infertility treatment. Testicular volume, testosterone levels and test results with НCG are important prognostic factors in this group of patients. We present a clinical case of treatment of infertility in men with SK by microTESE (microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

  13. High quality RNA isolation from Aedes aegypti midguts using laser microdissection microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Geoffrey N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti. Results Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 106 μm2 in the LMM procedure. Conclusions Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while

  14. The controversial existence of the human superior fronto-occipital fasciculus: Connectome-based tractographic study with microdissection validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    The superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), a long association bundle that connects frontal and occipital lobes, is well-documented in monkeys but is controversial in human brain. Its assumed role is in visual processing and spatial awareness. To date, anatomical and neuroimaging studies on human and animal brains are not in agreement about the existence, course, and terminations of SFOF. To clarify the existence of the SFOF in human brains, we applied deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 healthy subjects and to 80 individual subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and validated the results with white matter microdissection of post-mortem human brains. The imaging results showed that previous reconstructions of the SFOF were generated by two false continuations, namely between superior thalamic peduncle (STP) and stria terminalis (ST), and ST and posterior thalamic peduncle. The anatomical microdissection confirmed this finding. No other fiber tracts in the previously described location of the SFOF were identified. Hence, our data suggest that the SFOF does not exist in the human brain.

  15. Identification of chromosome abnormalities in the horse using a panel of chromosome-specific painting probes generated by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno, Monika; Słota, Ewa; Pieńkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Schelling, Claude

    2009-09-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of molecular probes for all chromosome pairs obtained by chromosome microdissection of the domestic horse ( Equus caballus ) was used to diagnose karyotype abnormalities in 35 horses (32 mares, 2 stallions and 1 intersex), which were selected for the study due to infertility (23 horses), reduced fertility (10 horses) and developmental anomalies (2 horses). The use of the FISH technique with probes for each horse chromosome pair enabled the diagnosis of many different chromosome aberrations in this population. Among the horses analysed, 21 animals had normal karyotype - 64,XX (19 mares) and 64,XY (2 stallions). Fourteen animals, constituting 40% of the population studied, showed the following chromosome abnormalities: 63,X (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX (6 mares); 63,X/64,XX/65,XXX (3 mares); 63,X/65,XXX (1 mare); 64,XX/65,XX+Xp (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+Xq (1 mare), and 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+delY (1 intersex). When only the mares studied because of complete infertility were taken into consideration, this proportion exceeded 56%. Due to the increased frequency of the above-mentioned aberrations in the mosaic form of two or more lines, it was necessary to analyse a large number (100-300) of metaphase spreads. The use of specific molecular probes obtained by chromosome microdissection made these diagnoses much easier.

  16. Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging combined with quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Schmich, Fabian; Sinclair, John; Mršnik, Martina; Schoof, Erwin M; Barker, Holly E; Linding, Rune; Jørgensen, Claus; Erler, Janine T

    2014-05-02

    Hypoxia is present in most solid tumors and is clinically correlated with increased metastasis and poor patient survival. While studies have demonstrated the role of hypoxia and hypoxia-regulated proteins in cancer progression, no attempts have been made to identify hypoxia-regulated proteins using quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). MS analyses were performed on laser-capture microdissected samples isolated from normoxic and hypoxic regions from tumors derived from the same cells used in vitro. MALDI-MSI was used in combination to investigate hypoxia-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC data were also developed, and computational mapping of MALDI-MSI data to IHC results was applied for data validation. The results and limitations of the methodologies described are discussed.

  17. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    for the pre-combustion capture of CO2 is the use of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle ( IGCC ) technology to generate electricity.14 There are...currently four commercial IGCC plants worldwide (two in the United States) each with a capacity of about 250 MW. The technology has yet to make a major... IGCC is an electric generating technology in which pulverized coal is not burned directly but mixed with oxygen and water in a high-pressure gasifier

  18. 皮革中短链氯化石蜡的GC—ECD测定方法探讨%Determination of Short Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Leather by Gas Chromatography Combined Electron Capture Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贺伟

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of short - chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in leather was studied using gas chromatography combined electron capture detector (GC -ECD). The results show the wide co -eluting chromatogram of SCCPs, and the response factors are dependent on the degree of chlorination. Significant interference problems from medium - chain chlorinated paraffins ( MC- CPs) are expected due to the difficult chromatographic separation. GC - ECD could not provide satisfactory results for scanning SCCPs in leather because of the low selectivity and the complex matrix influences.%采用气相色谱-电子捕获检测器(GC—ECD)对皮革中的短链氯化石蜡(SCCPs)进行测定。结果表明:SCCPs的GC—ECD共流出色谱峰保留时间跨度大,仪器响应值表现出对氯含量的依赖;中链氯化石蜡(MCCPs)的存在对SCCPs的分析过程干扰严重;实际皮革基质非常复杂,导致样品中SCCPs的定性困难。

  19. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  20. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  1. Direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue after automated sequential laser microdissection and pressure catapulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, S L; Garimella, V; Sivarajasingham, N; Drew, P J; Cawkwell, L

    2007-02-01

    A robust method to facilitate rapid laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) coupled with direct polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) to eliminate the need for extraction of DNA before a PCR-based assay is described. This sequential LMPC-dPCR method is rapid and decreases the number of processing steps, reducing the chance of tissue loss and contamination.

  2. Optic capture pars plana lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joo Eun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South KoreaObjective: To describe an optic capture pars plana lensectomy technique.Methods: After core vitrectomy, pars plana lensectomy is performed with preservation of the anterior capsule. Capsulorhexis is performed on the preserved anterior capsule through a 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. An intraocular lens (IOL is placed in the ciliary sulcus, and then the optic of the IOL is pushed back to the vitreous cavity so that the optic is captured by the surrounding capsulorhexis margin.Results: The captured IOL-capsule diaphragm remained stable during air–fluid exchange and prevented air prolapse to the anterior chamber. IOL stability and a clear visual axis were preserved during the follow-up period.Conclusion: With this modified pars plana lensectomy technique, stable IOL position and clear visual axis can be maintained when a pars plana approach is needed during combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery.Keywords: lensectomy, optic capture, pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy

  3. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  4. Comparative transcriptional survey between laser-microdissected cells from laminar abscission zone and petiolar cortical tissue during ethylene-promoted abscission in citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Francisco R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abscission is the cell separation process by which plants are able to shed organs. It has a great impact on the yield of most crop plants. At the same time, the process itself also constitutes an excellent model to study cell separation processes, since it occurs in concrete areas known as abscission zones (AZs which are composed of a specific cell type. However, molecular approaches are generally hampered by the limited area and cell number constituting the AZ. Therefore, detailed studies at the resolution of cell type are of great relevance in order to accurately describe the process and to identify potential candidate genes for biotechnological applications. Results Efficient protocols for the isolation of specific citrus cell types, namely laminar abscission zone (LAZ and petiolar cortical (Pet cells based on laser capture microdissection (LCM and for RNA microextraction and amplification have been developed. A comparative transcriptome analysis between LAZ and Pet from citrus leaf explants subjected to an in-vitro 24 h ethylene treatment was performed utilising microarray hybridization and analysis. Our analyses of gene functional classes differentially represented in ethylene-treated LAZ revealed an activation program dominated by the expression of genes associated with protein synthesis, protein fate, cell type differentiation, development and transcription. The extensive repertoire of genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism strongly suggests that LAZ layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the abscission program. In addition, over-representation of particular members of different transcription factor families suggests important roles for these genes in the differentiation of the effective cell separation layer within the many layers contained in the citrus LAZ. Preferential expression of stress-related and defensive genes in Pet reveals that this tissue is

  5. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  7. Combined Vacuum and Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas%真空变压变温耦合吸附过程捕集烟道气中CO2的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振; 王璐; 李平; 于建国

    2012-01-01

    研究了用六步真空变温变压耦合吸附工艺(VTSA)捕集烟道气中CO2的过程。考察了不同再生温度和压力下用VTSA工艺分离CO2的效果。在压力为10kPa和温度为423K的再生条件下,烟道气中CO2的纯度由15.0%增至93.4%,同时具有95.4%的回收率。对六步VTSA工艺过程进行了模拟,并通过实验结果对模型进行验证。最后模拟了一个不包含降温过程的五步VTSA工艺,以提高吸附剂的产率。%A six-step combined vacuum and temperature swing adsorption process(VTSA)was studied for CO2 capture from flue gas. Experiments under different regeneration conditions were investigated and the VTSA performance for CO2 separation was evaluated. Purity of CO2 from flue gas can be concentrated from 15.0% to 93.4% with a recovery of 95.4% under desorption at 10 kPa and 423 K. Simulations were also performed and the model was verified by the experimental results. Finally, a modified five-step VTSA cycle without cooling step was also proposed to enhance the unit productivity.

  8. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th.intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th.intermedium in common wheat-Th.intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization.Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes.This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line,but also a replacing line.The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed.A special probe of Th.intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library.The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data.This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance,adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  9. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik;

    2009-01-01

    protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining...

  10. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th. intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靫; 卢一凡; 邓继先; 李滨; 张学勇; 刘广田

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th, intermedium in common wheat-Th. intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization. Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes. This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line, but also a replacing line. The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed. A special probe of Th. intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library. The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data. This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance, adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  11. MicroRNA Profiling of Laser-Microdissected Hepatocellular Carcinoma Reveals an Oncogenic Phenotype of the Tumor Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peveling-Oberhag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microRNAs (miRNAs are associated with the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, previous studies analyzing the dysregulation of miRNAs in HCC show heterogeneous results. We hypothesized that part of this heterogeneity might be attributable to variations of miRNA expression deriving from the HCC capsule or the fibrotic septa within the peritumoral tissue used as controls. Tissue from surgically resected hepatitis C–associated HCC from six well-matched patients was microdissected using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique. Four distinct histologic compartments were isolated: tumor parenchyma (TP, fibrous capsule of the tumor (TC, tumor-adjacent liver parenchyma (LP, and cirrhotic septa of the tumor-adjacent liver (LC. MiRNA expression profiling analysis of 1105 mature miRNAs and precursors was performed using miRNA microarray. Principal component analysis and consecutive pairwise supervised comparisons demonstrated distinct patterns of expressed miRNAs not only for TP versus LP (e.g., intratumoral down-regulation of miR-214, miR-199a, miR-146a, and miR-125a; P< .05 but also for TC versus LC (including down-regulation within TC of miR-126, miR-99a/100, miR-26a, and miR-125b; P< .05. The tumor capsule therefore demonstrates a tumor-like phenotype with down-regulation of well-known tumor-suppressive miRNAs. Variations of co-analyzed fibrotic tissue within the tumor or in controls may have profound influence on miRNA expression analyses in HCC. Several miRNAs, which are proposed to be HCC specific, may indeed be rather associated to the tumor capsule. As miRNAs evolve to be important biomarkers in liver tumors, the presented data have important translational implications on diagnostics and treatment in patients with HCC.

  12. MicroRNA Profiling of Laser-Microdissected Hepatocellular Carcinoma Reveals an Oncogenic Phenotype of the Tumor Capsule123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Seiz, Anna; Döring, Claudia; Hartmann, Sylvia; Köberle, Verena; Liese, Juliane; Zeuzem, Stefan; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Piiper, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, previous studies analyzing the dysregulation of miRNAs in HCC show heterogeneous results. We hypothesized that part of this heterogeneity might be attributable to variations of miRNA expression deriving from the HCC capsule or the fibrotic septa within the peritumoral tissue used as controls. Tissue from surgically resected hepatitis C–associated HCC from six well-matched patients was microdissected using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique. Four distinct histologic compartments were isolated: tumor parenchyma (TP), fibrous capsule of the tumor (TC), tumor-adjacent liver parenchyma (LP), and cirrhotic septa of the tumor-adjacent liver (LC). MiRNA expression profiling analysis of 1105 mature miRNAs and precursors was performed using miRNA microarray. Principal component analysis and consecutive pairwise supervised comparisons demonstrated distinct patterns of expressed miRNAs not only for TP versus LP (e.g., intratumoral down-regulation of miR-214, miR-199a, miR-146a, and miR-125a; P< .05) but also for TC versus LC (including down-regulation within TC of miR-126, miR-99a/100, miR-26a, and miR-125b; P< .05). The tumor capsule therefore demonstrates a tumor-like phenotype with down-regulation of well-known tumor-suppressive miRNAs. Variations of co-analyzed fibrotic tissue within the tumor or in controls may have profound influence on miRNA expression analyses in HCC. Several miRNAs, which are proposed to be HCC specific, may indeed be rather associated to the tumor capsule. As miRNAs evolve to be important biomarkers in liver tumors, the presented data have important translational implications on diagnostics and treatment in patients with HCC. PMID:25500075

  13. Etude de la capture du CO2 par absorption physique dans les systèmes de production d'électricité basés sur la gazéification du charbon intégrée à un cycle combiné

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions call for new strategies toward the use of fossil fuels. The study is aimed to assess the possibility of reducing CO2 emission from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. A comparative study of the CO2 capture processes retained in literature (MEA-MDEA, AMP, N-Methyl-Pyrrolidone and methanol) led to the choice of the physical absorption by methanol. The simulation of the IGCC with CO2 capture was carried out with the Aspen Plus; La volonté de...

  14. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  15. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  16. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  17. A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Bryan T

    2010-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). METHODS: Herein, 82 antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling proteins and effectors were validated for RPPA. Intraslide and interslide coefficients of variability were <15%. Multiple sites in non-microdissected breast tumors were analyzed using RPPA after intervals of up to 24 h on the benchtop at room temperature following surgical resection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability at room temperature with most variability occurring at later time points between 6 and 24 h. However, the 82-protein functional proteomic "fingerprint" was robust in most tumors even when maintained at room temperature for 24 h before freezing. In repeat samples from each tumor, intratumoral protein levels were markedly less variable than intertumoral levels. Indeed, an independent analysis of prognostic biomarkers in tissue from multiple tumor sites accurately and reproducibly predicted patient outcomes. Significant correlations were observed between RPPA and immunohistochemistry. However, RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range. Classification of 128 breast cancers using RPPA identified six subgroups with markedly different patient outcomes that demonstrated a significant correlation with breast cancer subtypes identified by transcriptional profiling. CONCLUSION: Thus, the robustness of RPPA and stability of the functional proteomic "fingerprint" facilitate the study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected breast tumors.

  18. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  19. Differential gene expression profiling in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma compared to the adjacent microscopically normal urothelium by microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Ma, F L; Ma, X B; Han, R F; Zhang, Y B; Chang, J W

    2006-01-01

    Identifying novel and known genes that are differentially expressed in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) has important implications in understanding the biology of bladder tumorigenesis and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this study we identified the differential gene expression profiles comparing tumor to the adjacent microscopically normal mucosa by manual microdissection on frozen sections. The RNAs extracted from microdissected tissues were amplified by SMART cDNA PCR technology to generate forward subtractive cDNA library by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). We obtained 376 positive clones, one hundred clones of aggressive BTCC subtracted cDNA library were selected at random and inserts were reamplified by PCR. After differential screening by reverse dot blotting, 73 positive clones, that contend inserts putatively upregulated in aggressive BTCC, were further analysed by DNA sequencing, GenBank and EST database searching. Sequencing results showed that 66 clones stand for 23 known genes and 7 clones for three new EST (Genbank number: DN236875, DN236874 and DN236873). In conclusion, microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH allowed for an efficient way to identify aggressive BTCC-specific differential expressed genes that may potentially be involved in the carcinogenesis and/or progression of aggressive BTCC. These differentially expressed genes may be of potential utility as therapeutic and diagnostic targets for aggressive BTCC.

  20. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  1. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  2. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  3. Analysis of steroidogenic pathway key transcripts in interrenal cells isolated by laser microdissection (LMD) in stressed rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Castro, Camino; Santa-Cruz, María Carmen; Hernández-Sánchez, Marta; Teles, Mariana; Tort, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    An assessment of the key transcripts expression of the steroidogenesis-related genes in rainbow trout subjected to either acute or chronic stress was performed in both interrenal cells and whole head kidney tissue. The analysis of interrenal cells was possible thanks to the use, for the first time in this specific type of cells, of the technique of laser microdissection (LMD) which allows to isolate specific cells and process them independently of other surrounding cells in the tissue. The results indicated that both acute and chronic stressors induced a significant up-regulation of the steroidogenesis-related genes with a higher but expected degree in the isolated cells. In addition, under acute stress a delay between cortisol levels and transcript expression was found. Under chronic stress a clear relation between plasma cortisol levels, mRNA transcription and interrenal tissue area was observed, since all parameters were concomitantly increased at day 5 after stress. Moreover results indicated that the LMD technique allowed ascertaining with more precision and accuracy whether and when the steroidogenesis-related genes were significantly expressed, disregarding the noise produced by other cells present in the head kidney. Results also showed a typical physiological response in plasma parameters and a positive relationship between plasma cortisol data and transcript abundance in isolated cells. The present results may help to better understand the mechanisms behind the interrenal response to stress challenges in fish.

  4. Isolation of expressed sequences encoded by the human Xq terminal portion using microclone probes generated by laser microdissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Kang, X. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada)); Hadano, Shinji; Kogi, Mieko; Wakasa, Kyo (Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)); Ikeda, J.E. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada) Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan) National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The genes that cause a variety of neurologic and neuromuscular disorders have been mapped to the distal region of Xq. In an effort to isolate genes from this area, a regional genomic library of the distal 30% of Xq was constructed from a single metaphase spread by means of laser microdissection and single unique primer-polymerase chain reaction. Using pooled probes of 1000 clones from the genomic library, human brain cDNA libraries were screened for expressed sequences encoded by this region. From the 250,000 cDNA clones screened so far, 10 nonoverlapping sequences that mapped back to the target portion were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones have been determined. Analysis of the sequences indicates that none has significant similarity to previously characterized primate genes. One sequence mapping to Xq27.3-qter contained an open reading frame of 281 amino acids and was expressed in every tissue tested. This gene, as well as others isolated in this manner, may prove to be a candidate gene for heritable disorders mapping to this region. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  6. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    changing the affinity ligand, we can use capture matrices to detect other chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, nerve and blister agents, pesticides...require significant chemical additives and complex equipment, generate a large secondary waste stream, and are difficult to automate. Magnetically...secondary wastes . 2 Other advantages are a large active surface area for a given mass of particles; the ability to process a solution that

  7. Laser microdissection and genetic manipulation technologies to probe lignin heterogeneity and configuration in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-01-01

    Single and multiple T-DNA knockouts of genes encoding arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) in Arabidopsis were obtained in homozygous form. These were analyzed for potential differences in lignin contents and compositions, as well as for distinct phenotypes over growth and development. Of these different lines, distinct reductions in lignin contents were obtained, with those having different G:S ratios depending upon the combination of ADT genes being knocked out. Results from pyrolysis GC/MS analyses indicated that differential carbon flux occurred into the vascular bundles (vb) and interfascicular fibers (if). These results provide additional new insight into factors controlling lignin heterogeneity and configuration.

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  9. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  10. Outcomes of Micro-Dissection TESE in Patients with Non-Mosaic Klinefelter’s Syndrome without Hormonal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozveri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klinefelter syndrome (KS is the most common sex chromosomal disorder in males and historically patients have been labeled as sterile. After the introduction of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE, successful sperm retrievals for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI have been reported. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken on ten patients with non-mosaic KS undergoing micro-TESE for ICSI. The testicular volume and FSH and LH levels of each patient were measured. Karyotypes were confirmed by analyzing peripheral lymphocyte metaphases. Physical examination of the external genitalia was performed in all patients to rule out any co-existing anomaly. Micro-TESE was performed in order to investigate the presence of seminiferous tubules which may contain spermatozoa. When testicular spermatozoa were found in micro-TESE, ICSI was performed. Embryos were evaluated for further development. Fertilization was considered to have occurred after the visualization of the two pro-nuclei stage of the oocyte 24 hours after the intracytoplasmic injection of the motile spermatozoa. Pregnancy was confirmed by visualization of an intrauterine gestational sac under ultrasonographic examination. Results: Testicular biopsy revealed motile spermatozoa in 6 of 9 patients (66.6 %. Fertilization rate per embryo-transfer was 40%. One patient was able to conceive and fathered a healthy boy weights 3410 g at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusion: Retrieval of testicular spermatozoa by micro-TESE is possible for azoospermic men with KS when assisted reproductive techniques are applied. For patients with KS who want to conceive, assisted reproductive techniques (ART should be recommended.

  11. Generation of chicken Z-chromosome painting probes by microdissection for screening large-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, R; King, W A; Verrinder Gibbins, A M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for rapid generation of chicken sex chromosome-Z painting probes has been developed using microdissection. Whole chromosome painting probes (WCPs) were prepared from 10-15 copies of mitotic metaphase chicken Z chromosomes. The microisolated chromosomes were subjected to PEG/proteinase K treatment in a collection drop to release DNA, which was then amplified using a degenerate oligonucleotide-primed shuttle PCR (DOP-Shuttle-PCR) strategy. Size distributions of the PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and smears of DNA were revealed that ranged in size from 200-800 bp, without any evidence of preferential amplification. Both specificity and complexity of the probes have been analyzed by Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Non-specific hybridization was efficiently blocked by using chicken competitor DNA. Analysis of the WCPs produced shows that collectively they provide uniform hybridization signals along the entire length of the chicken Z chromosome. To demonstrate one possible application of these complex probes, we screened a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) chicken genomic library to select Z chromosome-specific clones. To address specificity of the selected clones and to physically map them to the Z chromosome, FISH analysis was used. Of the 3 clones initially tested, one clone (C3) carrying a 250-kb insert mapped to the distal portion of the short arm of the chicken Z chromosome. Therefore, this technique has provided appropriate probes for screening large-insert genomic libraries. Further application of these probes includes the analysis of chromosome rearrangements, studies of cases of heteroploidy involving the Z chromosome, positional cloning of Z-linked genes and studies on mechanisms of sex-chromosome evolution in birds.

  12. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit.

  13. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  14. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  15. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiteye Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18, Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha, ACT 2 (Actin2, UBQ (polyubiquitin, PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5. Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEfα1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEfα1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEfα1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed

  17. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  18. Detection of clonal B cells in microdissected reactive lymphoproliferations: possible diagnostic pitfalls in PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, X.G.; Sandvej, K.; Gregersen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    rearrangement analysis is a sensitive and specific method for demonstrating B cell clonality in whole paraffin wax embedded sections. However, oligoclonal and monoclonal rearrangement patterns are regularly encountered in small tissue fragments from otherwise unremarkable reactive lymphoproliferations, possibly...... because of preferential priming or detection of local B cell clones. Data from clonal analysis of small, microdissected or lymphocyte poor samples must be evaluated critically. It is recommended that analyses should be run in parallel on at least two tissue specimens. Only reproducible bands present...

  19. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  20. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  1. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  2. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  3. Novel markers for differentiation of lobular and ductal invasive breast carcinomas by laser microdissection and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srovnal Josef

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas (IDC and ILC are the most common histological types of breast cancer. Clinical follow-up data and metastatic patterns suggest that the development and progression of these tumors are different. The aim of our study was to identify gene expression profiles of IDC and ILC in relation to normal breast epithelial cells. Methods We examined 30 samples (normal ductal and lobular cells from 10 patients, IDC cells from 5 patients, ILC cells from 5 patients microdissected from cryosections of ten mastectomy specimens from postmenopausal patients. Fifty nanograms of total RNA were amplified and labeled by PCR and in vitro transcription. Samples were analysed upon Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. The expression of seven differentially expressed genes (CDH1, EMP1, DDR1, DVL1, KRT5, KRT6, KRT17 was verified by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Expression of ASPN mRNA was validated by in situ hybridization on frozen sections, and CTHRC1, ASPN and COL3A1 were tested by PCR. Results Using GCOS pairwise comparison algorithm and rank products we have identified 84 named genes common to ILC versus normal cell types, 74 named genes common to IDC versus normal cell types, 78 named genes differentially expressed between normal ductal and lobular cells, and 28 named genes between IDC and ILC. Genes distinguishing between IDC and ILC are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, TGF-beta and Wnt signaling. These changes were present in both tumor types but appeared to be more prominent in ILC. Immunohistochemistry for several novel markers (EMP1, DVL1, DDR1 distinguished large sets of IDC from ILC. Conclusion IDC and ILC can be differentiated both at the gene and protein levels. In this study we report two candidate genes, asporin (ASPN and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1 which might be significant in breast carcinogenesis. Besides E-cadherin, the proteins validated on tissue

  4. Outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome and other sex-chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Chiba, Koji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-08-01

    It has been indicated that approximately 20% of azoospermic patients have chromosomal anomalies, 90% of which are sex-chromosome abnormalities. Even azoospermic patients with sex-chromosomal anomalies might be able to father children using an advanced assisted reproductive technique such as microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). To evaluate the effect of micro-TESE in azoospermic patients with various sex-chromosomal anomalies, we reviewed their clinical results. A chromosomal survey using the G-banding technique was performed on males whose semen analysis demonstrated azoospermia at the Division of Male Infertilities at our institution between January 2004 and December 2009. Forty-two of these subjects demonstrated sex-chromosomal anomalies. The mean patient age was 34.4 ± 4.3 years. We classified them into two groups: Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Thirty-five patients showed Klinefelter syndrome and seven patients showed other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels were 36.3 ± 14.0 IU/L, 15.8 ± 6.7 IU/L, and 3.2 ± 2.0 ng/ml in Klinefelter syndrome, and 20.8 ± 10.4 IU/L, 8.2 ± 5.2 IU/L and 4.1 ± 1.5 ng/ml in other sex-chromosome abnormalities, respectively. The mean testicular volume was 4.0 ± 2.1 ml in Klinefelter syndrome and 9.9 ± 4.6 ml in other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Serum FSH and LH in Klinefelter syndrome were significantly higher than those in other sex-chromosome abnormalities, and the mean testicular volume in Klinefelter syndrome was significantly smaller than that in other sex-chromosome abnormalities. The sperm retrieval rate (SRR) for micro-TESE showed no significant difference between the two groups (42.4% vs. 42.9%). In this study, the outcome of micro-TESE appeared not to differ between Klinefelter syndrome and other sex

  5. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  6. Cytogenetic Characterization of the TM4 Mouse Sertoli Cell Line. II. Chromosome Microdissection, FISH, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Guttenbach, Martina; Steinlein, Claus; Wanner, Gerhard; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomes and interphase cell nuclei of the permanent mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 were examined by chromosome microdissection, FISH, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The already known marker chromosomes m1-m5 were confirmed, and 2 new large marker chromosomes m6 and m7 were characterized. The minute heterochromatic marker chromosomes m4 and m5 were microdissected and their DNA amplified by DOP-PCR. FISH of this DNA probe on TM4 metaphase chromosomes demonstrated that the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes have derived from the centromeric regions of normal telocentric mouse chromosomes. Ectopic pairing of the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes with the centromeric region of any of the other chromosomes (centromeric associations) was apparent in ∼60% of the metaphases. Scanning electron microscopy revealed DNA-protein bridges connecting the centromeric regions of normal chromosomes and the associated m4 and m5 marker chromosomes. Interphase cell nuclei of TM4 Sertoli cells did not exhibit the characteristic morphology of Sertoli cells in the testes of adult mice as shown by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  7. Redistribution of ionotropic glutamate receptors detected by laser microdissection of the rat dentate gyrus 48 h following LTP induction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T T Kennard

    Full Text Available The persistence and input specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP make it attractive as a mechanism of information storage. In its initial phase, both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that LTP is associated with increased membrane localization of AMPA receptor subunits, but the molecular basis of LTP maintenance over the long-term is still unclear. We have previously shown that expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits is elevated in whole homogenates prepared from dentate gyrus 48 h after LTP induction in vivo. In the present study, we utilized laser microdissection (LMD techniques to determine whether AMPA and NMDA receptor upregulation occurs specifically in the stimulated regions of the dentate gyrus dendritic arbor. Receptor proteins GluN1, GluA1 and GluA2, as well as postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa and tubulin were detected by Western blot analysis in microdissected samples. Gradients of expression were observed for GluN1 and GluA2, decreasing from the inner to the outer zones of the molecular layer, and were independent of LTP. When induced at medial perforant path synapses, LTP was associated with an apparent specific redistribution of GluA1 and GluN1 to the middle molecular layer that contains these synapses. These data indicate that glutamate receptor proteins are delivered specifically to dendritic regions possessing LTP-expressing synapses, and that these changes are preserved for at least 48 h.

  8. Trojan capture by terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigate the capture of asteroids by Venus, Earth and Mars into the 1:1 mean motion resonance especially into Trojan orbits. Current theoretical studies predict that Trojan asteroids are a frequent by-product of the planet formation. This is not only the case for the outer giant planets, but also for the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System. By using numerical integrations, we investigated the capture efficiency and the stability of the captured objects. We found out that the capture efficiency is larger for the planets in the inner Solar System compared to the outer ones, but most of the captured Trojan asteroids are not long term stable. This temporary captures caused by chaotic behaviour of the objects were investigated without any dissipative forces. They show an interesting dynamical behaviour of mixing like jumping from one Lagrange point to the other one.

  9. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Ren Yiping [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhao Hangmei [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang Ying [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China)]. E-mail: y_zhang@zju.edu.cn

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  10. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Hangmei; Zhang, Ying

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 microg kg(-1) for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 microg kg(-1) in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 microg kg(-1) detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  11. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  12. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  13. Capture-recapture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  14. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  15. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  17. Capturing the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1, as seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft on June 21, 2005. It was taken using the clear filter of the spacecraft's medium resolution imager camera. The spacecraft was 11,564,081.7 kilometers (7,185,920 miles) away from the comet. Twelve images were combined together, and a logarithmic stretch was applied to enhance the coma of the comet.

  18. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia ; pre- combustion capture (also via chemical solvents) from the synthesis gas produced in an integrated coal gasification...71 D. Heaven et al., “ Synthesis Gas Purification in Gasification to Ammonia /Urea Plants,” Gasification Technologies...32 Ammonia -Based Capture Processes

  19. Muon capture on Chlorine-35

    CERN Document Server

    Arole, S; Gorringe, T P; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Kuzmin, V; Moftah, B A; Sedlar, R; Stocki, T J; Tetereva, T

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of $\\gamma$--ray spectra from muon capture on $^{35}$Cl. For the allowed Gamow--Teller transitions to the $^{35}$S$(2939, 3/2^+)$ state and the $^{35}$S$(3421, 5/2^+)$ state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences and $\\gamma$--$\

  20. On neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, E G

    2016-01-01

    We found the probability for the neutrinoless double electron capture in the case of $KK$ capture. We clarified the mechanism of the energy transfer from the nucleus to the bound electrons. This enabled us to obtain the equations for the probability of the $2EC0\

  1. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  2. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance.

  3. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  4. Laser-based microdissection of single cells from tissue sections and PCR analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin genes from isolated normal and malignant human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, Ralf; Schneider, Markus; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2013-01-01

    Normal and malignant B cells carry rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes, which due to their practically limitless diversity represent ideal clonal markers for these cells. We describe here an approach to isolate single cells from frozen tissue sections by microdissection using a laser-based method. From the isolated cells rearranged IgH and Igκ genes are amplified in a semi-nested PCR approach, using a collection of V gene family-specific primers recognizing nearly all V gene segments together with primers for the J gene segments. By sequence analysis of V genes from distinct cells, the clonal relationship of the B lineage cells can unequivocally be determined and related to the histological distribution of the cells. The approach is also useful to determine V, D, and J gene usage. Moreover, the presence and pattern of somatic Ig V gene mutations give valuable insight into the stage of differentiation of the B cells.

  5. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Web pages of the universities and institutes.1 Notes are made and links pasted in a variety of formats. Files are saved on a shared drive. When...institutions/ 3. Capture Methods There are several capture methods that are available for use [4]: • Manual capture. • Scraping of logs or...the high-level user desktop. Save links App: Word, SharePoint User: Alice Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Notes.txt Create

  6. Predictive value of FSH, testicular volume, and histopathological findings for the sperm retrieval rate of microdissection TESE in nonobstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Yang, Jun; Li, Ming-Chao; Chen, Rui-Bao; Lan, Ru-Zhu; Wang, Shao-Gang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-24

    We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of different parameters in the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). All relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO. We chose three parameters to perform the meta-analysis: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular volume, and testicular histopathological findings which included three patterns: hypospermatogenesis (HS), maturation arrest (MA), and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS). If there was a threshold effect, only the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) was calculated. Otherwise, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were also calculated. Twenty-one articles were included in our study finally. There was a threshold effect among studies investigating FSH and SCOS. The AUSROCs of FSH, testicular volume, HS, MA, and SCOS were 0.6119, 0.6389, 0.6758, 0.5535, and 0.2763, respectively. The DORs of testicular volume, HS, and MA were 1.98, 16.49, and 1.26, respectively. The sensitivities of them were 0.80, 0.30, and 0.27, while the specificities of them were 0.35, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively. The PLRs of them were 1.49, 10.63, and 1.15, respectively. And NLRs were 0.73, 0.72, and 0.95, respectively. All the investigated factors in our study had limited predictive value. However, the histopathological findings were helpful to some extent. Most patients with HS could get sperm by microdissection TESE.

  7. Use of laser microdissection for the construction of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae sex chromosome-specific DNA library and cytogenetics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Yakovin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioecy is relatively rare among plant species, and distinguishable sex chromosomes have been reported in few dioecious species. The multiple sex chromosome system (XX/XY1Y2 of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 differs from that of other members of the family Cannabaceae, in which the XX/XY chromosome system is present. Sex chromosomes of H. japonicus were isolated from meiotic chromosome spreads of males by laser microdissection with the P.A.L.M. MicroLaser system. The chromosomal DNA was directly amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR. Fast fluorescence in situ hybridization (FAST-FISH using a labeled, chromosome-specific DOP-PCR product as a probe showed preferential hybridization to sex chromosomes. In addition, the DOP-PCR product was used to construct a short-insert, H. japonicus sex chromosomes-specific DNA library. The randomly sequenced clones showed that about 12% of them have significant homology to H. lupulus and 88% to Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, 1753 sequences from GenBank database. Forty-four percent of the sequences show homology to plant retroelements. It was concluded that laser microdissection is a useful tool for isolating the DNA of sex chromosomes of H. japonicus and for the construction of chromosome-specific DNA libraries for the study of the structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The results provide the potential for identifying unique or sex chromosome-specific sequence elements in H. japonicus and could aid in the identification of sex chromosome-specific repeat and coding regions through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction.

  8. Effective Fingerprint Quality Estimation for Diverse Capture Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sun Park; Sook Yoon; Shan Juan Xie; Jinwook Shin

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality an...

  9. Technology qualification for IGCC power plant with CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Yasir

    2011-01-01

    Summary:This thesis presents the technology qualification plan for the integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture based on DNV recommendations. Objectives of the thesis work were development of a qualification plan, heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics for IGCC with CO2 capture. GT PRO software by thermoflow was used for the development of heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics of power plant.IGCC wit...

  10. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim......The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  11. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  12. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  13. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Gorringe, T.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Henderson, R. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility); McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.D. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.).

  14. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  15. The Capture of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The origin of Jupiter Trojans remained mysterious for decades. Particularly, it was difficult to explain the excitation of the inclinations of the Trojan population [1]. In 2005, Morbidelli et al. [2] proposed a scenario of capture from the trans-Neptunian disk, in the framework of the so-called "Nice model" [3,4]. This scenario explained in a natural way the observed orbital distribution of Trojans. The Nice model, however, evolved in the years, in order to satisfy an increasingly large number of constraints. It now appears that the dynamical evolution of the giant planets was different from that envisioned in [2]. Here, we assess again the process of capture of Trojans within this new evolution. We show that (6-8)×10 - 7 of the original trans-Neptunian planetesimals are captured in the Trojan region, with an orbital distribution consistent with the one observed. Relative to [2], the new capture mechanism has the potential of explaining the asymmetry between the L4 and L5 populations. Moreover, the resulting population of Trojans is consistent with that of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter, which are captured in the same process; a few bodies from the main asteroid belt could also be captured in the Trojan cloud.

  16. CO2 capture RD & D proceedings in China Huaneng Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyi Wang; Shisen Xu

    2014-01-01

    CO2 capture is an important carbon management route to mitigate the greenhouse gas emission in power sector. In recent years, China Huaneng Group (CHNG) has paid more attention on CO2 capture technology development and launched a series of R&D and demonstration projects. In the area of pre-combustion CO2 capture technology, GreenGen project initiated by CHNG is the first integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant in China. Located in Tianjin, GreenGen aims at the development, demonstration and promotion of a near-zero emissions power plant. An IGCC plant of 250 MW has successfully passed full-scale trial operation. In the next phase, a pre-combustion CO2 capture unit will be integrated into the system. Pre-combustion process based on coal chemical process has been developed with lower costs successfully. Regarding to post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC), in 2008, CHNG built a 3,000 tpa CO2 capture plant, which was the first CO2 capture demonstration plant in China. In 2009, CHNG launched a PCC project in Shanghai with a capture capacity of 120,000 tpa CO2. Recently, Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute (CERI) and Powerspan formed a joint venture, Huaneng-CERI-Powerspan (HCP). HCP has completed the technology qualification program to supply carbon capture technology for the CO2 capture Mongstad project. Besides these activities mentioned above, feasibility studies and system design for large scale PCC system, have been undertaken by CERI and its partners from Australia, US and Europe.

  17. Combined Linear and Nonlinear Radar: Waveform Generation and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    P owder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-6427 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Adelphi, MD, Nov. 2008. 15. Brazee, R. D., et al. A Transponder for Harmonic Radar Tracking of the Black Vine ...FORT BELVOIR VA 22060-6218 1 DIRECTOR (HC) US ARMY RESEARCH LAB IMAL HRA 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 DIRECTOR

  18. Animation control of surface motion capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Margara; Casas, Dan; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Surface motion capture (SurfCap) of actor performance from multiple view video provides reconstruction of the natural nonrigid deformation of skin and clothing. This paper introduces techniques for interactive animation control of SurfCap sequences which allow the flexibility in editing and interactive manipulation associated with existing tools for animation from skeletal motion capture (MoCap). Laplacian mesh editing is extended using a basis model learned from SurfCap sequences to constrain the surface shape to reproduce natural deformation. Three novel approaches for animation control of SurfCap sequences, which exploit the constrained Laplacian mesh editing, are introduced: 1) space–time editing for interactive sequence manipulation; 2) skeleton-driven animation to achieve natural nonrigid surface deformation; and 3) hybrid combination of skeletal MoCap driven and SurfCap sequence to extend the range of movement. These approaches are combined with high-level parametric control of SurfCap sequences in a hybrid surface and skeleton-driven animation control framework to achieve natural surface deformation with an extended range of movement by exploiting existing MoCap archives. Evaluation of each approach and the integrated animation framework are presented on real SurfCap sequences for actors performing multiple motions with a variety of clothing styles. Results demonstrate that these techniques enable flexible control for interactive animation with the natural nonrigid surface dynamics of the captured performance and provide a powerful tool to extend current SurfCap databases by incorporating new motions from MoCap sequences.

  19. Body and Face Animation Based on Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the motion capture technology and its use in computer animation. Motion capture is a powerful aid in computer animation and a supplement to the traditional key-frame animation. We use professional cameras to record the body motion and facial expression of the actor and then manipulate the data in software to eliminate some occlusion and confusion errors. As to data that is still not satisfying, we use data filter to smooth the motion by cutting some awry frames. Then we import the captured data into Motionbuilder to adjust the motion and preview the real-time animation. At last in Maya we combine the motion data and character model, let the captured data drive the character and add the scene model and music to export the whole animation. In the course of computer animation, we use this method to design the animation of military boxing, basketball playing, folk dancing and facial expression.

  20. Parametric control of collision rates and capture rates in geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture (GEDI) microfluidic devices for rare cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Lannin, Timothy B; Syed, Yusef; Santana, Steven M; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-02-01

    The enrichment and isolation of rare cells from complex samples, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood, is an important engineering problem with widespread clinical applications. One approach uses a microfluidic obstacle array with an antibody surface functionalization to both guide cells into contact with the capture surface and to facilitate adhesion; geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture is a design strategy in which the array is designed to promote target cell–obstacle contact and minimize other interactions (Gleghorn et al. 2010; Kirby et al. 2012). We present a simulation that uses capture experiments in a simple Hele-Shaw geometry (Santana et al. 2012) to inform a target-cell-specific capture model that can predict capture probability in immunocapture microdevices of any arbitrary complex geometry. We show that capture performance is strongly dependent on the array geometry, and that it is possible to select an obstacle array geometry that maximizes capture efficiency (by creating combinations of frequent target cell–obstacle collisions and shear stress low enough to support capture), while simultaneously enhancing purity by minimizing nonspecific adhesion of both smaller contaminant cells (with infrequent cell–obstacle collisions) and larger contaminant cells (by focusing those collisions into regions of high shear stress).

  1. 49 CFR 563.9 - Data capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... frontal or side air bag deployment crash, capture and record the current deployment data, up to two events... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data capture. 563.9 Section 563.9 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.9 Data capture. The EDR must capture and record...

  2. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  3. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  4. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. • Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10–20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut. • Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position. • The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium. PMID:26150965

  5. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. •Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10-20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut.•Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position.•The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium.

  6. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  7. WEIGHTED COMPACT SCHEME FOR SHOCK CAPTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of finite difference schemes--the weighted compact schemes are proposed. According to the idea of the WENO schemes, the weighted compact scheme is constructed by a combination of the approximations of derivatives on candidate stencils with properly assigned weights so that the non-oscillatory property is achieved when discontinuities appear. The primitive function reconstruction method of ENO schemes is applied to obtain the conservative form of the weighted compact scheme. This new scheme not only preserves the characteristic of standard compact schemes and achieves high order accuracy and high resolution using a compact stencil,but also can accurately capture shock waves and discontinuities without oscillation, Numerical examples show that the new scheme is very promising and successful.``

  8. Coal fired unit CO{sub 2} capture and storage feasibility study: an Italian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodero, G.; Girardi, G.

    2008-07-01

    The paper discusses what criteria must be adopted by electric utilities in selecting the CO{sub 2} capture process, before covering post combustion capture, integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), oxy-fuel combustion, advanced carbon capture technologies, CO{sub 2} treatment, purification and compression, transportation of recovered CO{sub 2} to disposal sites, and CO{sub 2} storage. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  10. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  11. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  12. Unravelling uncertainty and variability in early stage techno-economic assessments of carbon capture technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Sanchez Fernandez, Eva; Eldrup, Nils Henrik; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the uncertainty and variability in techno-economic studies of carbon capture technologies, based on a detailed comparison of the results of different studies on postcombustion CO2 capture with advanced amines, and on an in-depth uncertainty analysis using a combination of sensit

  13. Integrated Device for Circulating Tumor Cell Capture, Characterization and Lens-Free Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    microfilter platform captures CTC from the cancer patients’ blood cost effectively, where the larger CTC are preferentially retained on the membrane ...capture through parylene-based microfiltration technology for breast cancer with high sensitivity (Aim 1), defining imaging parameters for CTC analysis...finally, we have combined the microfiltration and WFOV microscopy components to create an integrated CTC analysis system (Aim 4). 15

  14. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    in the near future due to the complexity of crafting new treaties across countries. We discuss how multinational firms are dealing with the challenges of capturing value from their know-how and reputation in the existing global IP system, and review mechanisms, both market and non-market, that have been...... is clear is that the challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation using an array of IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for organizations that depend on global IP. This has important implications for management practice in this area, as we discuss in our concluding...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region....

  15. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  16. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  17. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  18. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Halo Effect on Direct Neutron Capture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 周宏余

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ) 11 Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11 Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray,respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

  20. WRANGLER: Capture and De-Spin of Asteroids and Space Debris Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WRANGLER will accomplish these functions by combining two innovative technologies that have been developed by TUI: the GRASP deployable net capture device, and the...

  1. Indications of 2ν2K capture in 78Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.

    2013-03-01

    Results from searches of double K capture in 78Kr in an experiment with the large-volume copper proportional counter, using data samples corresponding of two independent series of measurements with different intrinsic radioactivity background are presented. The total exposure of the low-background measurements is 0.343 kg×y. A combination of methods of selection of useful events with a unique set of characteristics and wavelet analysis of events allowed a reduction of the background by ˜2000 times in the energy region of interest. The statistical significance of combined data from two stages of operation equals 2.5σ. Corresponding to such effect, the half-life of 78Kr relative to 2ν2K capture equals T1/2=[9.2-2.6+5.5(stat)±1.3(syst)]×1021 y. Half-life limits for other 2K transitions to the excited states in 78Se are obtained at the level of 1021 y in the first time. In particular, limits on 2ν2K capture to the excited level 01+ (1499 keV) and resonant neutrinoless double K capture to the level 2+ (2838 keV) have been defined on the level of T1/2≥5.4×1021 y at 90% C.L.

  2. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  3. Genome-Wide analysis of allelic imbalance in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue using the Affymetrix 50K Mapping array identifies genomic patterns associated with metastasis and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina;

    2007-01-01

    to be developed for patient stratification based on risk of progression. We analysed laser-microdissected prostate tumour tissue from 43 patients with histologically verified PCa, using the new high-resolution Affymetrix Mapping 50K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The results showed six major loss......, tumour progression towards a metastatic stage, as well as poor differentiation, was identified by specific patterns of copy number gains of genomic regions located at chromosomes 8q, 1q, 3q and 7q. Androgen ablation therapy was further characterised by copy gain at chromosomes 2p and 10q. In conclusion...

  4. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  5. Muon capture by silicon 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bauer, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Evans, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gorringe, T.P. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Johnson, B.L. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kalvoda, S. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Porter, R. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Siebels, B. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gete, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Measday, D.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Moftah, B.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Stanislaus, S. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the angular correlation of the neutrino with the 1229 keV {gamma}-ray from the de-excitation of the 2201 keV 1{sup +} level in aluminum-28, following muon capture in silicon-28. To suppress the neutron-induced background in the HPGe detector, a coincidence in a NaI array is required with the 942 keV {gamma}-ray in the de-excitation cascade. The lifetime of the 2201 keV level is found to be 61{+-}4{+-}9 fs. The correlation coefficient {alpha} is found to be 0.36{+-}0.06 implying g{sub P}/g{sub A}=0{sup +3.5}{sub -3}. (orig.).

  6. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  7. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  8. Paired arrangement of kinetochores together with microtubule pivoting and dynamics drive kinetochore capture in meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Gheorghe; Florescu, Ana-Maria; Krull, Alexander; Klemm, Anna H; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank; Tolić, Iva M

    2016-01-01

    Kinetochores are protein complexes on the chromosomes, whose function as linkers between spindle microtubules and chromosomes is crucial for proper cell division. The mechanisms that facilitate kinetochore capture by microtubules are still unclear. In the present study, we combine experiments and theory to explore the mechanisms of kinetochore capture at the onset of meiosis I in fission yeast. We show that kinetochores on homologous chromosomes move together, microtubules are dynamic and pivot around the spindle pole, and the average capture time is 3-4 minutes. Our theory describes paired kinetochores on homologous chromosomes as a single object, as well as angular movement of microtubules and their dynamics. For the experimentally measured parameters, the model reproduces the measured capture kinetics and shows that the paired configuration of kinetochores accelerates capture, whereas microtubule pivoting and dynamics have a smaller contribution. Kinetochore pairing may be a general feature that increases capture efficiency in meiotic cells.

  9. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  10. Radioactive proton capture on {sup 6}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvan, E.; Marques, F.M. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysich Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) at 40 MeV. Capture into {sup 7}Li is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded that may be described by quasi-free capture on halo neutron, the {alpha} core and {sup 5}He. The possibility of describing such events by capture into the continuum of {sup 7}Li is also discussed. (authors)

  11. Capture and decay of electroweak WIMPonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Pouya; Baumgart, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Krupczak, Emmett; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2017-02-01

    The spectrum of Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle (WIMP) dark matter generically possesses bound states when the WIMP mass becomes sufficiently large relative to the mass of the electroweak gauge bosons. The presence of these bound states enhances the annihilation rate via resonances in the Sommerfeld enhancement, but they can also be produced directly with the emission of a low-energy photon. In this work we compute the rate for SU(2) triplet dark matter (the wino) to bind into WIMPonium—which is possible via single-photon emission for wino masses above 5 TeV for relative velocity v negative-energy eigenstates of a Hamiltonian containing interactions with both massive and massless force carriers, and a study of the scaling of bound state formation in the short-range Hulth&apos{e}n potential. In the specific case of the wino, we find that the rate for bound state formation is suppressed relative to direct annihilation, and so provides only a small correction to the overall annihilation rate. The soft photons radiated by the capture process and by bound state transitions could permit measurement of the dark matter's quantum numbers; for wino-like dark matter, such photons are rare, but might be observable by a future ground-based gamma-ray telescope combining large effective area and a low energy threshold.

  12. More Energy-Efficient CO2 Capture from IGCC GE Flue Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakpong Peampermpool

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale, such as for fossil energy utilization systems. In this paper, the feasibility of capturing CO2 using cryogenic liquefaction and improving the capture rate by expansion will be discussed. The main aim was to design an energy-saving scheme for an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 cryogenic liquefaction capture. The experimental results provided by the authors, using the feed gas specification of a 740 MW IGCC General Electric (GE combustion power plant, demonstrated that using an orifice for further expanding the vent gas after cryogenic capture from 57 bar to 24 bar gave an experimentally observed capture rate up to 65%. The energy-saving scheme can improve the overall CO2 capture rate, and hence save energy. The capture process has also been simulated using Aspen HYSYS simulation software to evaluate its energy penalty. The results show that a 92% overall capture rate can be achieved by using an orifice.

  13. Experience machines : Capturing and retrieving personal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental to human existence is the ability to capture, memorise and retrieve personal experiences and to share them with others. Can systems help us to capture and retrieve experiences? After motors have supplemented our muscles and sensors have supplemented our senses, emerging computer systems

  14. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  15. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E; Marques, FM; Wilschut, HW; Orr, NA; Angelique, JC; Borcea, C; Catford, WN; Clarke, NM; Descouvemont, P; Diaz, J; Grevy, S; Kugler, A; Kravchuk, [No Value; Labiche, M; Le Brun, C; Lienard, E; Lohner, H; Mittig, W; Ostendorf, RW; Pietri, S; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Saint Laurent, MG; Savajols, H; Wagner, [No Value; Yahlali, N

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  16. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  17. Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, David M.; Cooper, Matthew; Denoue, Laurent; Adcock, John; Billsus, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.

  18. Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the ...

  19. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  20. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  1. Independent Measurement of Theta13 via Neutron Capture on Hydrogen at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, X; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Draeger, E; Du, X F; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fu, J Y; Ge, L Q; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Gornushkin, Y A; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, G H; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E; Huang, H; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiang, H J; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, W C; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, A; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, K -B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Kebwaro, J Monari; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Nemchenok, I; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Y,; Tam, H; Tang, X; Themann, H; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, H Y; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C C; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, J Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, B; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2014-01-01

    A new measurement of the $\\theta_{13}$ mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GW$_{th}$ reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.083\\pm0.018$ in the three-flavor oscillation model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.089\\pm0.008$ as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.

  2. Neutron capture measurements on unstable nuclei at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.L.; Haight, R.C. [LANSCE-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fowler, M.M.; Miller, G.G.; Rundberg, R.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [CST-11, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Although neutron capture by stable isotopes has been extensively measured, there are very few measurements on unstable isotopes. The intense neutron flux at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE enables us to measure capture on targets with masses of about 1 mg over the energy range from 1 eV to 100 keV. These measurements are important not only for understanding the basic physics, but also for calculations of stellar nucleosynthesis and Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship. Preliminary measurements on {sup 169}Tm and {sup 171}Tm have been made with deuterated benzene detectors. A new detector array at the Lujan center and a new radioactive isotope separator will combine to give Los Alamos a unique capability for making these measurements. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Neutron Capture Measurements on Unstable Nuclei at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.; Haight, R.; Wilhelmy, J.; Fowler, M.; Rundberg, R.; Miller, G.

    1998-11-04

    Although neutron capture by stable isotopes has been extensively measured, there are very few measurements on unstable isotopes. The intense neutron flux at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE enables us to measure capture on targets with masses of about 1 mg over the energy range from 1 eV to 100 keV. These measurements are important not only for understanding the basic physics, but also for calculations of stellar nucleosynthesis and Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship. Preliminary measurements on {sup 169}Tm and {sup 171}Tm have been made with deuterated benzene detectors. A new detector array at the Lujan center and a new radioactive isotope separator will combine to give Los Alamos a unique capability for making these measurements.

  4. Capturing RNA-dependent pathways for cryo-EM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah F Kelly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM is a powerful technique to visualize biological processes at nanometer resolution. Structural studies of macromolecular assemblies are typically performed on individual complexes that are biochemically isolated from their cellular context. Here we present a molecular imaging platform to capture and view multiple components of cellular pathways within a functionally relevant framework. We utilized the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as a model system to develop our approach. By using modified Affinity Grid surfaces, we were able to recruit multiple protein assemblies bound to nascent strands of mRNA. The combined use of Affinity Capture technology and single particle electron microscopy provide the basis for visualizing RNA-dependent pathways in a remarkable new way.

  5. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  6. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-20

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed.

  7. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia%显微切割睾丸活检在非梗阻性无精子症中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨竣

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-obstnietive azoospeimia was once considered to be infertile due to impaired testieidar spermatogene-sis and consequent absence of sperm in the ejaculate. With the advent of intracytoplasraic sperm injection (ICSI) , various testicular sperm retrieval techniques have been introduced recently, including line needle aspiration, testicular sperm extraction, microdissection testicular sperm extraction, and so on. A large number of studies show that sperm can be retrieved in non-obstructive azoospermia patients, even in those with Klinefelter syndrome, because of the existence of isolated regions of spermatogenie tissue within the testis. 2010 EAU guidelines on male infertility recommend testicular sperm extraction or microdissection testicular sperm extraction for sperm retrieval from non-obstructive azoospermia. However, compared with testicular sperm extraction, the latter has a higher sperm retrieval rate with minimal postoperative complications. This article presents an overview on the prediction, operative procedure, sperm retrieval rate and postoperative complications of microdissection testicular sperm extraction.%一直以来,学者们认为非梗阻性无精子症因睾丸生精功能受损,导致精液中无精子,而无法生育自己的后代.但随着卵胞质内单精于注射技术的问世,近十几年来涌现出多种睾丸取精术(包括开放性睾丸活检、细针穿刺抽吸、显微切割睾丸活检等).之后,大量研究表明非梗阻性无精子症患者睾丸中仍存有局部的生精灶,即使是Klinefelter综合征,也可成功取出精子.2010年欧洲泌尿外科学会(EAU)指南明确推荐非梗阻性无精子症采用开放性睾丸活检或显微切割睾丸活检取精.与开放性睾丸活检相比,显微切割睾丸活检的取精成功率高且并发症少,本文就其取精前预测指标、手术操作方法、取精成功率及术后并发症进行综述.

  8. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  9. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  10. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  11. Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 3. Status of Global IGCC Projects... IGCC is an electric generating technology in which pulverized coal is not burned directly but mixed with oxygen and water in a high-pressure gasifier to...combustion capture of CO2 is the use of Integrated Gasification Combined-cycle ( IGCC ) technology to generate electricity.19 There are currently four

  12. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  14. Capture effeciency of a vegetative environmental buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  15. Efficient, quality-assured data capture in operational research through innovative use of open-access technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, A M V; Naik, B; Guddemane, D K

    2013-01-01

    to these issues can pose a significant bottleneck for operational research in resource-limited settings. In this article, we describe an innovative and efficient way of coordinating data capture in multicentre operational research using a combination of three open access technologies-EpiData for data capture...

  16. Data capture and processing. [for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John; Smith, Gene; Carper, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A systems concept developed in response to the specific requirements imposed by the Space Station and affiliated instrumentation is described. Particular attention is given to those subsystems associated with initial data capture, handling, routing, and distribution control for return link data via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The conceived approach, designated the Customer Data and Operations System, includes a data interface facility and a data handling center whose functions are data capture, demultiplexing and routing, early preprocessing, and ancillary data handling.

  17. Gate manipulation of DNA capture into nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2011-10-25

    Understanding biophysics governing DNA capture into a nanopore and establishing a manipulation system for the capture process are essential for nanopore-based genome sequencing. In this work, the functionality of extended electric field and electroosmotic flow (EOF) during the capture stage and their dependence on gate voltage, U(G), are investigated. We demonstrate that while both the electric field and EOF within a cis chamber make long-distance contributions to DNA capture around the pore mouth, the former effect is always capturing, while the latter causes trapping or blocking of the molecule depending on the magnitude of the gate voltage, U(G): an anionic EOF induced by high U(G) is capable of doubling the DNA trapping speed and thus the absorption radius in the cis chamber, whereas a cationic EOF by low U(G) would substantially offset the trapping effort by the electric field and even totally block DNA entrance into the pore. Based on the analysis, a gate regulation is proposed with the objective of achieving a high DNA capture rate while maintaining a low error rate.

  18. Telescoping Sample Canister Capture Mechanism (TSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Gorevan, Stephen; Mukherjee, Suparna; Wilson, Jack

    2003-11-01

    Sample return from solar system bodies including planets, moons, comets and asteroids is of high importance within the space science community. A returned sample will allow much more elaborate and detailed analysis not feasible through remote robotic analysis. For this reason, Honeybee Robotics has developed a low-cost reusable, automated on-orbit sample canister capture mechanism. The purpose of the mechanism is to capture a full sample canister and transfer it to a storage cache, sample return spacecraft, or on-orbit laboratory for further scientific study. The current design allows for reliable misalignment-compensated capture for various sample container geometries in any initial orientation. After capture, the sample canister is aligned and presented for transfer. Honeybee has demonstrated the concept through tests of two- and three-dimensional telescopic capture mechanism breadboards. The telescopic capture mechanism design is scalable, minimizes volume and can be made of lightweight material to minmize mass, all of which are critical aspects of spacecraft design.

  19. Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon M. Schwantes; Ralf Sudowe; Heino Nitsche; Darleane C. Hoffman

    2003-12-16

    A primary objective of this project is to study neutron capture cross sections for various stable and unstable isotopes that will contribute to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program by providing improved data for modeling and interpretation of nuclear device performance. The information obtained will also be important in astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis. During this reporting period, the emphasis has been on preparing a radioactive target of {sup 155}Eu (half-life = 4.7 years), and several stable targets, including isotopically separated {sup 154}Sm, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 153}Eu. Measurements of their neutron capture cross sections will be conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). A suitable backing material (beryllium) for the targets has been selected after careful calculations of its contribution to the background of the measurements. In addition, a high voltage plating procedure has been developed and optimized. Stable targets of {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu and a target of natural Eu ({approx}50% {sup 151}Eu and {approx}50% {sup 153}Eu) have each been plated to a mass thickness of >1 mg/cm{sup 2} and delivered to the DANCE collaboration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Natural Eu targets will be tested first to confirm that the target dimensions and backing are appropriate prior to performing measurements on the extremely valuable targets of separated isotopes. In order to prepare a target of the radioactive {sup 155}Eu, it must first be separated from the {sup 154}Sm target material that was irradiated in a very high neutron flux of 1.5x1015 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s for 50 days. The reaction is {sup 154}Sm (n,f){sup 155}Sm (half-life = 22 minutes) {sup 155}Eu. Considerable progress has been made in developing a suitable high-yield and high-purity separation method for separating Eu from targets

  20. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  1. Electron capture dissociation of singly and multiply phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Olsen, J V

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine containing peptides by nano-electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry established electron capture dissociation (ECD) as a viable method for phosphopeptide sequencing. In general, ECD spectra of synthetic...... and native phosphopeptides appeared less complex than conventional collision activated dissociation (CAD) mass spectra of these species. ECD of multiply protonated phosphopeptide ions generated mainly c- and z(.)-type peptide fragment ion series. No loss of water, phosphate groups or phosphoric acid from......(III)-affinity chromatography combined with nano-electrospray FTMS/ECD facilitated phosphopeptide analysis and amino acid sequencing from crude proteolytic peptide mixtures....

  2. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  3. Effective fingerprint quality estimation for diverse capture sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Shin, Jinwook; Park, Dong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  4. Effective Fingerprint Quality Estimation for Diverse Capture Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  5. Neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectra of 89Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katabuchi Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron capture cross section of 89Y was measured by the time-of-flight method in an energy range from 15 to 100 keV. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive the capture yield. The absolute cross section was determined based on the standard reaciotn 197 Au(n, γ198 Au reaction. The neutron capture γ-ray spectrum was derived by unfolding the pulse-height spectrum with detector response functions.

  6. Flexible Electrostatic Technology for Capture and Handling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew; Bryan, Tom; Horwitz, Chris; Rakoczy, John; Waggoner, Jason

    2015-01-01

    To NASA unfunded & planned missions: This new capability to sense proximity, flexibly align to, and attractively grip and capture practically any object in space without any pre-designed physical features or added sensors or actuators will enable or enhance many of MSFC's strategic emphasis areas in space transportation, and space systems such as: 1. A Flexible Electrostatic gripper can enable the capture, gripping and releasing of an extraterrestrial sample of different minerals or a sample canister (metallic or composite) without requiring a handle or grapple fixture.(B) 2. Flexible self-aligning in-space capture/soft docking or berthing of ISS resupply vehicles, pressurized modules, or nodes for in-space assembly and shielding, radiator, and solar Array deployment for space habitats (C) 3. The flexible electrostatic gripper when combined with a simple steerable extendible boom can grip, position, and release objects of various shapes and materials with low mass and power without any prior handles or physical accommodations or surface contamination for ISS experiment experiments and in-situ repair.(F)(G) 4. The Dexterous Docking concept previously proposed to allow simple commercial resupply ships to station-keep and capture either ISS or an Exploration vehicle for supply or fluid transfer lacked a self-sensing, compliant, soft capture gripper like FETCH that could retract and attach to a CBM. (I) 5. To enable a soft capture and de-orbit of a piece of orbital debris will require self-aligning gripping and holding an object wherever possible (thermal coverings or shields of various materials, radiators, solar arrays, antenna dishes) with little or no residual power while adding either drag or active low level thrust.(K) 6. With the scalability of the FETCH technology, small satellites can be captured and handled or can incorporate FETCH gripper to dock to and handle other small vehicles and larger objects for de-orbiting or mitigating Orbital debris (L) 7. Many of

  7. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications.

  8. Candidate exome capture identifies mutation of SDCCAG8 as the cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Edgar A.; Hurd, Toby W.; Airik, Rannar; Chaki, Moumita; Zhou, Weibin; Stoetzel, Corinne; Patil, Suresh B.; Levy, Shawn; Ghosh, Amiya K.; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos A.; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Sang, Liyun; Giles, Rachel H.; Liu, Qin; Coene, Karlien L. M.; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Collin, Rob W. J.; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Held, Susanne; Kasanuki, Jennifer M.; Ramaswami, Gokul; Conte, Jinny; Lopez, Irma; Washburn, Joseph; MacDonald, James; Hu, Jinghua; Yamashita, Yukiko; Maher, Eamonn R.; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M.; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.; Obermueller, Nicholas; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Bergmann, Carsten; Bei, Xiaoshu; Lewis, Richard A.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lopes, Vanda; Williams, David S.; Lyons, Robert H.; Dang, Chi V.; Brito, Daniela A.; Dias, Monica Bettencourt; Zhang, Xinmin; Cavalcoli, James D.; Nuernberg, Gudrun; Nuernberg, Peter; Pierce, Eric A.; Jackson, Peter K.; Antignac, Corinne; Saunier, Sophie; Roepman, Ronald; Dollfus, Helene; Khanna, Hemant; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are recessive disorders that feature dysplasia or degeneration occurring preferentially in the kidney, retina and cerebellum. Here we combined homozygosity mapping with candidate gene analysis by performing 'ciliopathy candidate exome capture' followed

  9. Dynamics of Tidally Captured Planets in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Alessandro A.; Mapelli, Michela; Spera, Mario; Bressan, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations suggest ongoing planet formation in the innermost parsec of the Galactic center. The supermassive black hole (SMBH) might strip planets or planetary embryos from their parent star, bringing them close enough to be tidally disrupted. Photoevaporation by the ultraviolet field of young stars, combined with ongoing tidal disruption, could enhance the near-infrared luminosity of such starless planets, making their detection possible even with current facilities. In this paper, we investigate the chance of planet tidal captures by means of high-accuracy N-body simulations exploiting Mikkola's algorithmic regularization. We consider both planets lying in the clockwise (CW) disk and planets initially bound to the S-stars. We show that tidally captured planets remain on orbits close to those of their parent star. Moreover, the semimajor axis of the planetary orbit can be predicted by simple analytic assumptions in the case of prograde orbits. We find that starless planets that were initially bound to CW disk stars have mild eccentricities and tend to remain in the CW disk. However, we speculate that angular momentum diffusion and scattering by other young stars in the CW disk might bring starless planets into orbits with low angular momentum. In contrast, planets initially bound to S-stars are captured by the SMBH on highly eccentric orbits, matching the orbital properties of the clouds G1 and G2. Our predictions apply not only to planets but also to low-mass stars initially bound to the S-stars and tidally captured by the SMBH.

  10. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (Pcrocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  11. Integrated gasification combined cycle and the capture of CO{sub 2}: a solution for the mitigation of the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal fired power plants at large scale in the short term?; O ciclo combinado com gaseificacao integrada e a captura de CO{sub 2}: uma solucao para mitigar as emissoes de CO{sub 2} em termeletricas a carvao em larga escala no curto prazo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2010-03-15

    The power sector of many big economies still relies heavily on coal fired plants and emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology which holds advantages over current conventional coal technologies, including higher efficiency, pathway to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and higher product and fuel flexibility. The most critical obstacles for commercialization of IGCC technology are higher costs, lower reliability, and little operating experiences. The present work aims to analyze the maturity and the costs of the IGCC technology, with and without CCS, in order to evaluate its potential to be introduced in the generation fleet at big scale in the short term and, hence, its potential to guarantee the possibility to use coal in the power sector without compromising the effort to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The focus of the analysis of the technical viability concentrates strongly on the gasification process, since it the most critical process for the operation of the plant. The cost analysis contains three steps: a revision of cost estimates in scientific literature, a revision of reported cost for actually planned projects and a cost simulation that aims to analyze the influences of assumptions regarding the additional technology risk of IGCC plants. (author)

  12. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  13. Active suppression after involuntary capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.

  14. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  15. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view.

  16. Electron capture from coherent elliptic Rydberg states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.C.; DePaola, B.D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Hansen, S.B.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Leontiev, Y.; Mogensen, K.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    Experimental relative cross sections for electron capture by singly charged ions (Na{sup +}) from coherent elliptic states of principal quantum number n=25 are presented. An interval of reduced impact velocities from about 1{endash}2 is covered. Absolute reaction cross sections could not be determined precisely, but the eccentricity of the coherent elliptic states and their orientation relative to the ion-impact velocity were varied to expose the dependence of the electron-capture process on the initial motion of the electron. The dependencies on eccentricity and orientation are generally strong and they vary sharply with impact velocity. Qualitatively, the observations agree fairly well with classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations, as expected for the large quantum numbers involved, but significant deviations of a systematic nature do remain, showing that some aspects of the capture reactions studied are described poorly by classical physics as represented by the CTMC model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Muon capture rates within the projected QRPA

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Danilo Sande; Krmpotić, Francisco; Dimarco, Alejandro J

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of the number of particles within the QRPA plays an important role in the evaluation muon capture rates in all light nuclei with A \\precsim 30 . The violation of the CVC by the Coulomb field in this mass region is of minor importance, but this effect could be quite relevant for medium and heavy nuclei studied previously. The extreme sensitivity of the muon capture rates on the 'pp' coupling strength in nuclei with large neutron excess when described within the QRPA is pointed out. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are much more robust for such a purpose.

  18. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  19. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  20. Selective gas capture via kinetic trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Joyjit; Prendergast, David; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Conventional approaches to the capture of CO_2 by metal-organic frameworks focus on equilibrium conditions, and frameworks that contain little CO_2 in equilibrium are often rejected as carbon-capture materials. Here we use a statistical mechanical model, parameterized by quantum mechanical data, to suggest that metal-organic frameworks can be used to separate CO_2 from a typical flue gas mixture when used under {\\em nonequilibrium} conditions. The origin of this selectivity is an emergent gas-separation mechanism that results from the acquisition by different gas types of different mobilities within a crowded framework. The resulting distribution of gas types within the framework is in general spatially and dynamically heterogeneous. Our results suggest that relaxing the requirement of equilibrium can substantially increase the parameter space of conditions and materials for which selective gas capture can be effected.

  1. Inertial capture in flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Araújo, A. D.; Vasconcelos, T. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate through numerical calculation of non-Brownian particles transported by a fluid in a porous medium, the influence of geometry and inertial effects on the capture efficiency of the solid matrix. In the case of a periodic array of cylinders and under the action of gravity, our results reveal that δ ˜ St, where δ is the particle capture efficiency, and St is the Stokes number. In the absence of gravity, we observe a typical second order transition between non-trapping and trapping of particles that can be expressed as δ ˜ ( St - St c ) α , with an exponent α ≈ 0.5, where St c is the critical Stokes number. We also perform simulations for flow through a random porous structure and confirm that its capture behavior is consistent with the simple periodic model.

  2. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  3. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... processes of the solitary individual. A new framework for studying and capturing creativity, which goes beyond individual cognitive processes by examining the applied creative process of individuals in context, is proposed. We apply a context sensitive framework that embraces the creative collaborative...... process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  4. Quality and noise measurements in mobile phone video capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Doina; Pincenti, John

    2011-02-01

    The quality of videos captured with mobile phones has become increasingly important particularly since resolutions and formats have reached a level that rivals the capabilities available in the digital camcorder market, and since many mobile phones now allow direct playback on large HDTVs. The video quality is determined by the combined quality of the individual parts of the imaging system including the image sensor, the digital color processing, and the video compression, each of which has been studied independently. In this work, we study the combined effect of these elements on the overall video quality. We do this by evaluating the capture under various lighting, color processing, and video compression conditions. First, we measure full reference quality metrics between encoder input and the reconstructed sequence, where the encoder input changes with light and color processing modifications. Second, we introduce a system model which includes all elements that affect video quality, including a low light additive noise model, ISP color processing, as well as the video encoder. Our experiments show that in low light conditions and for certain choices of color processing the system level visual quality may not improve when the encoder becomes more capable or the compression ratio is reduced.

  5. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  6. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  7. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: Opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Van der Ham, L.; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  8. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  9. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samana, A. R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, UESC-Br (Brazil); Sande, D. [Instituto de Geociências, UFBA-Br (Brazil); Krmpotić, F. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET-Ar and Fac. de Cs. Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP-Ar (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  10. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems

  12. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  13. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  14. Particle capture into the lung made simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Talita Felipe; Sapoval, Bernard; Andrade, José S; Grotberg, James B; Hu, Yingying; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the impact distribution of particles entering the human respiratory system is of primary importance as it concerns not only atmospheric pollutants or dusts of various kinds but also the efficiency of aerosol therapy and drug delivery. To model this process, current approaches consist of increasingly complex computations of the aerodynamics and particle capture phenomena, performed in geometries trying to mimic lungs in a more and more realistic manner for as many airway generations as possible. Their capture results from the complex interplay between the details of the aerodynamic streamlines and the particle drag mechanics in the resulting flow. In contrast, the present work proposes a major simplification valid for most airway generations at quiet breathing. Within this context, focusing on particle escape rather than capture reveals a simpler structure in the entire process. When gravity can be neglected, we show by computing the escape rates in various model geometries that, although still complicated, the escape process can be depicted as a multiplicative escape cascade in which each elementary step is associated with a single bifurcation. As a net result, understanding of the particle capture may not require computing particle deposition in the entire lung structure but can be abbreviated in some regions using our simpler approach of successive computations in single realistic bifurcations. Introducing gravity back into our model, we show that this multiplicative model can still be successfully applied on up to nine generations, depending on particle type and breathing conditions.

  15. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  16. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  17. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  18. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.

  19. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  20. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S; Armstrong, D.S.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Burnham, R.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Depommier, P.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Larabee, A.J.; Macdonald, J.A.; Mes, H.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Robertson, B.C.; Serna-Angel, A.; Summhammer, J.; Taylor, G.N.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Zhang, N.S.; MacDonald, S.C. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver,

    1989-06-01

    Radiative muon capture rates have been measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g{sub p} when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurement on hydrogen is also given. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The radiative muon capture program at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, T. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); RMC Collaboration

    1998-11-01

    We describe recent measurements of radiative muon capture on hydrogen, [sup 3]He and [sup 58,60,62]Ni using the RMC pair spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron laboratory. Our determinations of the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon's weak current are discussed. (author) 5 refs, 1 fig

  2. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  3. Capture technologies: Improvements and promising developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomen, E.; Hendriks, C.; Neele, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this status report we want to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status and promising technologies of CO2 capture by means of a literature review, in-house knowledge and interviews. We describe the technology, bottlenecks towards implementation and potential use. The results will be

  4. Nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Bahk, S. Y.; Chung, S. H.; Funahashi, H.; Hahn, C. H.; Hanabata, M.; Hara, T.; Hirata, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieiri, M.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Jin-ya, T.; Kazuno, M.; Kim, C. O.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kodama, K.; Kuze, T.; Maeda, Y.; Masaike, A.; Masuoka, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsui, A.; Nagase, Y.; Nagoshi, C.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Nakano, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Niwa, K.; Oda, H.; Okabe, H.; Ono, S.; Ozaki, R.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, Y.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H. M.; Song, J. S.; Sugimoto, M.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, K. H.; Teranaka, M.; Tezuka, I.; Togawa, H.; Tsunemi, T.; Ukai, M.; Ushida, N.; Watanabe, T.; Yasuda, N.; Yokota, J.; Yoon, C. S.; KEK E176 Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    An emulsion-counter hybrid experiment (KEK E176) was carried out to search for double strangeness systems such as double- Λ hypernuclei and H-dibaryons. More than 10% of Ξ hyperons produced in the (K -, K +) reaction were brought to rest in the nuclear emulsion. We have obtained 98 candidate events of nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons which are described in this report. Among those, four events were identified as sequential weak decay of double- Λ hypernuclei. The binding energies of Ξ-( 12C, 14N and 16O) states have been estimated for two events which emit twin single- Λ hypernuclei back to back from the capture point. The Σp decay vertex of an H-dibaryon was searched for near the capture point and no evidence was observed. Upper limits for the branching ratio of H emission are 5-10% for a lifetime less than 0.1 ns at the 90% confidence level. The trapping probabilities of single and double strangeness to a nuclear fragment following Ξ capture at rest have been studied.

  5. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  6. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, P.J.P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or chromo

  7. Capture-Gated Fast Neutron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, H. P.; Abdurashitov, J. N.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Gavrin, V. N.; Heimbach, C. R.; Langford, T. J.; Mendenhall, M.; Nico, J. S.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    We present recent developments in fast neutron detection using segmented spectrometers based on the principle of capture-gating. Our approach employs an organic scintillator to detect fast neutrons through their recoil interaction with protons in the scintillator. The neutrons that thermalize and are captured produce a signal indicating that the event was due to a neutron recoil and that the full energy of the neutron was deposited. The delayed neutron capture also serves to discriminate against uncorrelated background events. The segmentation permits reconstruction of the initial neutron energy despite the nonlinear response of the scintillator. We have constructed spectrometers using both He-3 proportional counters and Li-6 doping as capture agents in plastic and liquid organic scintillators. We discuss the operation of the spectrometers for the measurement of low levels of fast neutrons for several applications, including the detection of very low-activity neutron sources and the characterization of the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons at the Earth's surface and in the underground environment.

  8. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  9. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  10. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  11. Statistical inference for capture-recapture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kenneth H.; Nichols, James D.; Brownie, Cavell; Hines, James E.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph presents a detailed, practical exposition on the design, analysis, and interpretation of capture-recapture studies. The Lincoln-Petersen model (Chapter 2) and the closed population models (Chapter 3) are presented only briefly because these models have been covered in detail elsewhere. The Jolly- Seber open population model, which is central to the monograph, is covered in detail in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5 we consider the "enumeration" or "calendar of captures" approach, which is widely used by mammalogists and other vertebrate ecologists. We strongly recommend that it be abandoned in favor of analyses based on the Jolly-Seber model. We consider 2 restricted versions of the Jolly-Seber model. We believe the first of these, which allows losses (mortality or emigration) but not additions (births or immigration), is likely to be useful in practice. Another series of restrictive models requires the assumptions of a constant survival rate or a constant survival rate and a constant capture rate for the duration of the study. Detailed examples are given that illustrate the usefulness of these restrictions. There often can be a substantial gain in precision over Jolly-Seber estimates. In Chapter 5 we also consider 2 generalizations of the Jolly-Seber model. The temporary trap response model allows newly marked animals to have different survival and capture rates for 1 period. The other generalization is the cohort Jolly-Seber model. Ideally all animals would be marked as young, and age effects considered by using the Jolly-Seber model on each cohort separately. In Chapter 6 we present a detailed description of an age-dependent Jolly-Seber model, which can be used when 2 or more identifiable age classes are marked. In Chapter 7 we present a detailed description of the "robust" design. Under this design each primary period contains several secondary sampling periods. We propose an estimation procedure based on closed and open population models that allows for

  12. Evaluation of a target region capture sequencing platform using monogenic diabetes as a study-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Yanxia; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior;

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a genetic disease often caused by mutations in genes involved in beta-cell function. Correct sub-categorization of the disease is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling. Target-region capture sequencing is a combination of genomic region enrichment...

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  14. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experimen...

  15. Ab initio Thermodynamic Approach to Identify Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua eDuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt of the reaction of an individual solid that can capture CO2 is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo for a practical capture technology. To adjust Tt to fit the practical ΔTo, in this study, three scenarios of mixing schemes are explored by combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids, it’s possible to shift Tt to the range of practical operating temperature conditions. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the mixed solids of interest, we were able to identify the mixing ratios of two or more solids to form new sorbent materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions.

  16. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect.

  17. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  18. Book review: Spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals use space is a vital aspect of conservation planning and wildlife management. Technological developments (e.g., increased computer power and desktop geographic information system [GIS] applications) are bringing the ability to analyze spatial data sets to the individual biologist. Therefore, it is not surprising that methodologies have been developed to incorporate space into capture-recapture models, which are some of the most fundamental models in the field of wildlife ecology. Spatial Capture-Recapture (hereafter SCR) is a timely and informative contribution that summarizes the history and motivation behind SCR models, in addition to providing details of the methodological framework that allows the reader to develop and customize SCR models to address their own ecological questions.

  19. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  20. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...... the carbonate looping process to the cement industry. In order to study the application of thecarbonate looping process to cement industry, the project work is divided into three scales: 1) atparticle scale (TGA), 2) at reactor scale (Fluid-bed) and 3) at process scale (process modeling Pro/II).The results from...

  1. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  2. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  3. Muon Capture on the Proton and Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    By measuring the lifetime of the negative muon in pure protium (hydrogen-1), the MuCap experiment determines the rate of muon capture on the proton, from which the proton's pseudoscalar coupling g_p may be inferred. A precision of 15% for g_p has been published; this is a step along the way to a goal of 7%. This coupling can be calculated precisely from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and therefore permits a test of QCD's chiral symmetry. Meanwhile, the MuSun experiment is in its final design stage; it will measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron using a similar technique. This process can be related through pionless effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory to other two-nucleon reactions of astrophysical interest, including proton-proton fusion and deuteron breakup.

  4. Head-Up Displays and Attention Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Risser, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The primary role of head-up displays (HUDs) is to provide primary flight, navigation, and guidance information to the pilot in a forward field-of-view on a head-up transparent screen. Therefore, this theoretically allows for optimal control of an aircraft through the simultaneous scanning of both instrument data and the out-the-window scene. However, despite significant aviation safety benefits afforded by HUDs, a number of accidents have shown that their use does not come without costs. The human factors community has identified significant issues related to the pilot distribution of near and far domain attentional resources because of the compellingness of symbology elements on the HUD; a concern termed, attention or cognitive capture. The paper describes the phenomena of attention capture and presents a selected survey of the literature on the etiology and potential prescriptions.

  5. Cutting the cost of carbon capture: a case for carbon capture and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Lennart; Huck, Johanna M; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Smit, Berend

    2016-10-20

    A significant part of the cost for carbon capture and storage (CCS) is related to the compression of captured CO2 to its supercritical state, at 150 bar and typically 99% purity. These stringent conditions may however not always be necessary for specific cases of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). In this manuscript, we investigate how much the parasitic energy of an adsorbent-based carbon capture process may be lowered by utilizing CO2 at 1 bar and adapting the final purity requirement for CO2 from 99% to 70% or 50%. We compare different CO2 sources: the flue gases of coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plants and ambient air. We evaluate the carbon capture performance of over 60 nanoporous materials and determine the influence of the initial and final CO2 purity on the parasitic energy of the carbon capture process. Moreover, we demonstrate the underlying principles of the parasitic energy minimization in more detail using the commercially available NaX zeolite. Finally, the calculated utilization cost of CO2 is compared with the reported prices for CO2 and published costs for CCS.

  6. Rendezvous missions to temporarily captured near Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, S.; Chyba, M.; Haberkorn, T.; Patterson, G.

    2016-04-01

    Missions to rendezvous with or capture an asteroid present significant interest both from a geophysical and safety point of view. They are key to the understanding of our solar system and are stepping stones for interplanetary human flight. In this paper, we focus on a rendezvous mission with 2006 RH120, an asteroid classified as a Temporarily Captured Orbiter (TCO). TCOs form a new population of near Earth objects presenting many advantages toward that goal. Prior to the mission, we consider the spacecraft hibernating on a Halo orbit around the Earth-Moon's L2 libration point. The objective is to design a transfer for the spacecraft from the parking orbit to rendezvous with 2006 RH120 while minimizing the fuel consumption. Our transfers use indirect methods, based on the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, combined with continuation techniques and a direct method to address the sensitivity of the initialization. We demonstrate that a rendezvous mission with 2006 RH120 can be accomplished with low delta-v. This exploratory work can be seen as a first step to identify good candidates for a rendezvous on a given TCO trajectory.

  7. Dynamics of tidally captured planets in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Trani, Alessandro; Spera, Mario; Bressan, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations suggest ongoing planet formation in the innermost parsec of the Galactic center (GC). The super-massive black hole (SMBH) might strip planets or planetary embryos from their parent star, bringing them close enough to be tidally disrupted. Photoevaporation by the ultraviolet field of young stars, combined with ongoing tidal disruption, could enhance the near-infrared luminosity of such starless planets, making their detection possible even with current facilities. In this paper, we investigate the chance of planet tidal captures by means of high-accuracy N-body simulations exploiting Mikkola's algorithmic regularization. We consider both planets lying in the clockwise (CW) disk and planets initially bound to the S-stars. We show that tidally captured planets remain on orbits close to those of their parent star. Moreover, the semi-major axis of the planet orbit can be predicted by simple analytic assumptions in the case of prograde orbits. We find that starless planets that were initially bo...

  8. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  9. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  10. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  11. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  12. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  13. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter G.; Borovicha, Jiri; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbeny, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ~5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km/s. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back-integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92 - 98% probability of TCO behaviour, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 having an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km/s. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  14. Double electron capture searches in $^{74}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Lehnert, B; Degering, D; Sommer, D; Wagner, L; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    A search for various double electron capture modes of $^{74}$Se has been performed using an ultralow background Ge-detector in the Felsenkeller laboratory, Germany. Especially for the potentially resonant transition into the 1204.2 keV excited state of $^{74}$Ge a lower half-life limit of $0.70\\cdot 10^{19}$ yr (90% credibility) has been obtained. Serious concerns are raised about the validity of obtained $^{74}$Se limits in some recent publications.

  15. Exact capture probability analysis of GSC receivers over Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-01-01

    For third generation systems and ultrawideband systems, RAKE receivers have been introduced due to the advantage of RAKE receivers which is their ability to combine different replicas of the transmitted signal arriving at different delays in a rich multipath environment. In principle, RAKE receivers combine all resolvable paths which gives the best performance in a rich diversity environment. However, this is usually costly in terms of hardware required as the number of RAKE fingers increases. Therefore, generalized selection combining (GSC) RAKE reception was proposed and has been studied by many researcher as an alternative to the classical two fundamental diversity schemes: maximal ratio combining and selection combining. Previous work on performance analyses of GSC RAKE receivers based on the signal to noise ratio focused on the development of methodologies to derive exact closedform expressions for various performance measures. However, the remaining set of uncombined paths affect the overall performance both in terms of loss in power. Therefore, to have a full understanding of the performance of GSC RAKE receivers, we introduce in this paper the notion of capture probability, which is defined as the ratio of the captured power (essentially combined paths power) to that of the total available power. The major difficulty in these problems is to derive some joint statistics of ordered exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed-form expressions for the capture probability over independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    At the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi, April 2011 (CEM 2), the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers on concrete, near-term actions to accelerate global carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment. Twelve CCUS AG governments agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third Clean Energy Ministerial (London, 25-26 April 2012) (CEM 3). Following CEM 2, the CCUS AG requested the IEA and the Global CCS Institute to report on progress made against the 2011 recommendations at CEM 3. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial responds to that request. The report considers a number of key questions. Taken as a whole, what advancements have committed CCUS AG governments made against the 2011 recommendations since CEM 2? How can Energy Ministers continue to drive progress to enable CCS to fully contribute to climate change mitigation? While urgent further action is required in all areas, are there particular areas that are currently receiving less policy attention than others, where efforts could be redoubled? The report concludes that, despite developments in some areas, significant further work is required. CCS financing and industrial applications continue to represent a particularly serious challenge.

  17. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David L; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an...

  18. Developing shock-capturing difference methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Guo-hua; YUAN Xiang-jiang; LU Li-peng

    2007-01-01

    A new shock-capturing method is proposed which is based on upwind schemes and flux-vector splittings. Firstly, original upwind schemes are projected along characteristic directions. Secondly, the amplitudes of the characteristic decompositions are carefully controlled by limiters to prevent non-physical oscillations. Lastly, the schemes are converted into conservative forms, and the oscillation-free shock-capturing schemes are acquired. Two explicit upwind schemes (2nd-order and 3rd-order) and three compact upwind schemes (3rd-order, 5th-order and 7th-order) are modified by the method for hyperbolic systems and the modified schemes are checked on several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test cases. Some numerical solutions of the schemes are compared with those of a WENO scheme and a MP scheme as well as a compact-WENO scheme. The results show that the method with high order accuracy and high resolutions can capture shock waves smoothly.

  19. Orbit and size distributions for asteroids temporarily captured by the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-03-01

    As a continuation of the work by Granvik et al. (2012), we expand the statistical treatment of Earth's temporarily-captured natural satellites from temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, i.e., objects which make at least one orbit around the Earth) to the newly redefined subpopulation of temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs). TCFs are objects that while being gravitationally bound fail to make a complete orbit around the Earth while on a geocentric orbit, but nevertheless approach the Earth within its Hill radius. We follow the trajectories of massless test asteroids through the Earth-Moon system and record the orbital characteristics of those that are temporarily captured. We then carry out a steady-state analysis utilizing the novel NEO population model by Granvik et al. (2016). We also investigate how an quadratic distribution at very small values of e⊙ and i⊙ affects the predicted population statistics of Earth's temporarily-captured natural satellites. The steady-state population in both cases (constant and quadratic number distributions inside the e and i bins) is predicted to contain a slightly reduced number of meter-sized asteroids compared to the values of the previous paper. For the combined TCO/TCF population, we find the largest body constantly present on a geocentric orbit to be on the order of 80 cm in diameter. In the phase space, where the capture is possible, the capture efficiency of TCOs and TCFs is O(10-6 -10-4) . We also find that kilometer-scale asteroids are captured once every 10 Myr.

  20. Longitudinal RF capture simulation and BPM signal estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Chen, Yu-Cong; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Ruan, Shuang; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Kang, Xin-Cai; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Li, Peng; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical aspects behind longitudinal RF capture are reviewed and the capture process is simulated via a program based on this theory. Four kinds of cases with different initial distribution and capture curve are considered, i.e. uniform distribution with adiabatic capture, uniform distribution with non-adiabatic capture, Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture and Gaussian distribution with non-adiabatic capture. The simulation results are compared each other and discussed, and Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture is demonstrated having a higher capture efficiency and leading to a shorter bunch length. In addition, the BPM induced signal is simulated with high input impendence, i.e. $1M\\Omega$, and low input impendence, i.e. $50\\Omega$, respectively. Finally, the BPM signal of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) is estimated and compared with measured one, and a good agreement is achieved.

  1. Identification of a novel, invasive, not-yet-cultivated Treponema sp in the large intestine of pigs by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2006-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to identify an unknown species of spirochetes from the pig colonic mucosa. The 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified, and the closest related type strain was Treponema bryantii(T) (90.1%). The spirochete, here...

  2. Resource Complementarity and Value Capture in Firm Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    exclusion and freedom to operate in R&D. We argue that such property rights hold preemptive power allowing firms to capture the value from combining complementary technologies and to realize gains from trade in strategic factor markets. Our results for a sample of 1,428 acquisitions indicate that......Extant literature holds that firm acquisitions create value through innovation if the knowledge bases of the acquirer and the target complement each other. Little is known about the value that patents associated with a target's knowledge convey to the acquirer, i.e., their value in securing market......—controlling for technological value—acquired preemptive power is an important determinant of the acquisition price, particularly when the acquirer is technology intensive and acquired patents are highly related to the acquirer's knowledge base....

  3. Diamino protic ionic liquids for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayraghavan, R; Pas, Steven J; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-12-14

    A series of multifunctional protic ionic liquids (PILs), some of which are based on a combination of primary and tertiary amines in the same moiety coupled with a carboxylic acid, have been synthesised and employed for CO2 capture, yielding absorption capacities comparable to standard absorbents. In contrast to traditional amine absorbers, CO2 was found to desorb at lower temperatures and hence could result in a significant reduction in both the energy required to strip the absorber of CO2 and the thermally activated degradation mechanisms, which in traditional absorbers result in the loss of absorber and the production of toxic compounds. The lower basicity of the amine sites resultant from PIL formation decreases the binding energy of the CO2 to the absorber. The weaker basicity is also evidenced by lower pH of the PIL CO2 absorbers, which reduces common corrosion problems associated with traditional amine absorbers.

  4. Conspecific scent improves capture rates for nine-banded armadillos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcintus are considered a nuisance species throughout its U.S. range. They are often the target of wildlife mitigation techniques to reduce its ill-effects on property, biodiversity, and other resources; however, efficient techniques for humane removal evade managers. Most trapping techniques tested to date have used a food-based lure with minimal success. We tested the effects of adding a conspecific attractant—armadillo scent—to wooden traps to improve capture rates. Compared to the reference trap type, the conspecific attractant trap was 8.3 times more effective (Odds Ratio = 8.30, CL= 2.38, 25.00. Our findings suggest that the addition of armadillo scent to traps will improve trapping efficiency. We encourage additional researchers to test additional trap and scent combinations to further improve efficiency.

  5. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    of patenting globally. For trademarks and industrial designs, globalization has created more potential infringers and an increase in piracy, as evidenced by a significant increase in customs seizures. The problems with IP even go beyond individual firms, as when governments use IP policies to favor local firms...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...

  6. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  7. Gadolinium as an element for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, R.M.; Liu, H.B.; Laster, B.H.; Gordon, C.R.; Greenberg, D.D.; Warkentien, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    At BNL, preparations are being made to test in vitro compounds containing Gd and compare their response to the response of GD-DTPA to determine if one or several compounds can be located that enter the cells and enhance the Auger effect. Two similar rotators with positions for cell vials that have been constructed for these tests. The first rotator is made of only paraffin which simulates healthy tissue and provides control curves. The second rotator has 135 ppM of Gd-157 in the paraffin to simulate a Gd loaded tumor. Cells are irradiated in vials in the paraffin rotator and in the Gd-paraffin rotator at the epithermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This produces an irradiation similar to what a patient would receive In an actual treatment. A combination of irradiations are made with both rotators; with no Gd compound or IdUrd In the cell media, with only Gd compound in the cell media and with both Gd compound and IdUrd in the cell media. The first set shows the effects of gamma rays from the H(n,gamma) reaction and the prompt gamma rays from capture of neutrons by Gd. The second set shows if there is any effect of Gd being in the cell media or inside the cells, i.e., an Auger effect. The third set shows the effect of enhancement by the IdUrd produced by the gamma rays from neutrons captured by either H or Gd. The fourth set combines all of the reactions and enhancements. Preliminary calculations and physical measurements of the doses that the cells will receive In these rotators have been made.

  8. Porous multi-component material for the capture and separation of species of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Li, Xiaohong S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2016-06-21

    A method and porous multi-component material for the capture, separation or chemical reaction of a species of interest is disclosed. The porous multi-component material includes a substrate and a composite thin film. The composite thin film is formed by combining a porous polymer with a nanostructured material. The nanostructured material may include a surface chemistry for the capture of chemicals or particles. The composite thin film is coupled to the support or device surface. The method and material provides a simple, fast, and chemically and physically benign way to integrate nanostructured materials into devices while preserving their chemical activity.

  9. Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electricity Generation Inclusive of CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Manfrida

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Three basic options for advanced power plants, allowing energy conversion inclusive of CO2 capture, are discussed: the semi-closed gas turbine cycle with atmospheric base pressure, the integrated gassifier/combined cycle with pressurised absorption of CO2, and the supercritical semi-closed CO2/H2O cycle with liquid CO2 capture. The merits of the different options are discussed and compared, and improvements to the basic layouts are proposed. The results show that all three solutions have a good potential for application, depending on the size of the plant and on the near or medium-term future perspective.

  10. Targeted Capture and High-Throughput Sequencing Using Molecular Inversion Probes (MIPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantsilieris, Stuart; Stessman, Holly A; Shendure, Jay; Eichler, Evan E

    2017-01-01

    Molecular inversion probes (MIPs) in combination with massively parallel DNA sequencing represent a versatile, yet economical tool for targeted sequencing of genomic DNA. Several thousand genomic targets can be selectively captured using long oligonucleotides containing unique targeting arms and universal linkers. The ability to append sequencing adaptors and sample-specific barcodes allows large-scale pooling and subsequent high-throughput sequencing at relatively low cost per sample. Here, we describe a "wet bench" protocol detailing the capture and subsequent sequencing of >2000 genomic targets from 192 samples, representative of a single lane on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform.

  11. Adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) toward various surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus possess a unique adhesive prey-capture apparatus that enables them to catch elusive prey such as springtails over a distance of several millimeters. The prey-capture device combines the hierarchically organized morphology of dry adhesive systems with the properties of wet ones, since an adhesive secretion is released into the contact zone. We hypothesize that this combination enables Stenus species successfully to capture prey possessing a wide range of surface structures and chemistries. We have investigated the influence of both surface energy and roughness of the substrate on the adhesive performance of the prey-capture apparatus in two Stenus species. Force transducers have been used to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces generated during the predatory strike of the beetles on (1) epoxy resin surfaces with defined roughness values (smooth versus rough with asperity diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 μm) and (2) hydrophobic versus hydrophilic glass surfaces. Our experiments show that neither the surface roughness nor the surface energy significantly influences the attachment ability of the prey-capture apparatus. Thus, in contrast to the performance of locomotory adhesive systems in geckos, beetles, and flies, no critical surface roughness exists that might impede adhesion of the prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles. The prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles is therefore well adapted to adhere to the various unpredictable surfaces with diverse roughness and surface energy occurring in a wide range of potential prey.

  12. Efficient, quality-assured data capture in operational research through innovative use of open-access technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A M V; Naik, B; Guddemane, D K; Bhat, P; Wilson, N; Sreenivas, A N; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2013-03-21

    Ensuring quality of data during electronic data capture has been one of the most neglected components of operational research. Multicentre studies are also challenged with issues about logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. Allocating resources to these issues can pose a significant bottleneck for operational research in resource-limited settings. In this article, we describe an innovative and efficient way of coordinating data capture in multicentre operational research using a combination of three open access technologies-EpiData for data capture, Dropbox for sharing files and TeamViewer for providing remote support.

  13. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  14. David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šedo, Onřej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

  15. Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, & H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture

  16. 大体积采样结合高分辨气相色谱-电子捕获负化学源-低分辨质谱法测定空气中的短链氯化石蜡%Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史蕾蒙; 高媛; 侯晓虹; 张海军; 张亦弛; 陈吉平

    2016-01-01

    建立了大体积采样结合高分辨气相色谱-电子捕获负化学源-低分辨质谱( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS)测定空气中短链氯化石蜡( SCCPs)的定量分析方法.联合使用酸化硅胶复合层析柱和碱性氧化铝层析柱净化处理空气样品中的 SCCPs,并对净化条件进行优化.使用该方法计算得到氯含量为58. 1%~63. 3%的 SCCPs系列标准储备溶液的总响应因子与氯含量线性相关,相关系数(R2)大于 0. 99.该方法的仪器检出限(S/N≥3)为 4. 2 pg,定量限(S/N≥10)为12 pg.SCCPs的方法检出限(MDL)为0. 34 ng/m3(n=7),实际样品加标回收率均达 80%以上.该方法灵敏度高、选择性好,能满足空气样品中 SCCPs的监测和分析需求.%An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins( SCCPs)in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS ) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity(R2>0. 99)between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The lim-its of detection( S/N≥3 ) and the limits of quantification( S/N≥10 ) were 4. 2 and 12 pg, respectively. The method detection limit( MDL)for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m 3( n=7). The recov-eries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  17. Fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani Lake Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIRULWAN UMAR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentani lake is known as lake in Papua where biodiversity of fish is high and captured fisheries activities is dominantly found. The aim of this research was to know the fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani lake. This research was done in 2005 by using stratified sampling method which covered 7 (seven research stations. Data of fishes’ composition and captured yield were obtain from fishers’ captured and from experimental captured. The captured fish and relative abundance are 16 species. Captured yield in period of Mei – December 2005 was fluctuative (130.860 – 182.144 kg. The average was 151.960 kg. Total production a year was around 1.823, 52 ton/year in which fishers’ captured yield was around 4.2 – 5.6 kg/day with the average 4.7 kg/day.

  18. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  19. Neutron capture measurements on {sup 171}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, R. E-mail: www.reifarth@lanl.gov; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Fowler, M.M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Miller, G.G.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ullmann, J.L.; Wilhelmy, J.B

    2003-05-05

    A first proof of principal experiment of measuring neutron capture cross sections of radioactive isotopes was performed on {sup 171}Tm which has a half life of 1.92 years. This isotope was chosen for its ease of production and its radiation properties. The experiment was done at an 8 meter irradiation station at LANSCE using the pulse height weighting technique. A complemental activation measurement at FZK as well as a theoretical estimation indicated a significant background component above 1 keV neutron energy during the experiment at LANSCE.

  20. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  1. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  2. Testing Lorentz invariance in orbital electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    Searches for Lorentz violation were recently extended to the weak sector, in particular neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay [1]. From experiments on forbidden $\\beta$-decay transitions strong limits in the range of $10^{-6}$-$10^{-8}$ were obtained on Lorentz-violating components of the $W$-boson propagator [2]. In order to improve on these limits strong sources have to be considered. In this Brief Report we study isotopes that undergo orbital electron capture and allow experiments at high decay rates and low dose. We derive the expressions for the Lorentz-violating differential decay rate and discuss the options for competitive experiments and their required precision.

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage in the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication assesses the policy questions as highlighted in the relevant COP/MOP 2 decision, particularly leaks (or seepage) and permanence for geological storage, project boundaries and liability issues, and leakage, as well as a few others raised by some Parties. Since any emissions or leaks during the separation, capture and transport phases would occur during the crediting period of the project (and would therefore be accounted for as project emissions), the paper focuses its analyses for leaks and liability on storage, as it is in this part of the CCS process that long-term leaks could occur.

  4. Hyperspectral photometric stereo for a single capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Keisuke; Sato, Imari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    We present a single-capture photometric stereo method using a hyperspectral camera. A spectrally and spatially designed illumination enables a point-wise estimation of reflectance spectra and surface normals from a single hyperspectral image. The illumination works as a reflectance probe in wide spectral regions where reflectance spectra are measured, and the full spectra are estimated by interpolation. It also works as the resource for shadings in other spectral regions. The accuracy of estimation is evaluated in a simulation. Also, we prepare an experimental setup and demonstrate a surface reconstruction against a real scene.

  5. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  6. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  7. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  8. Diffusive capture processes for information search

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S; Kim, Y; Lee, Sungmin; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2007-01-01

    We show how effectively the diffusive capture processes (DCP) on complex networks can be applied to information search in the networks. Numerical simulations show that our method generates only 2% of traffic compared with the most popular flooding-based query-packet-forwarding (FB) algorithm. We find that the average searching time, $$, of the our model is more scalable than another well known $n$-random walker model and comparable to the FB algorithm both on real Gnutella network and scale-free networks with $\\gamma =2.4$. We also discuss the possible relationship between $$ and $$, the second moment of the degree distribution of the networks.

  9. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  10. Simteche Hydrate CO2 Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2006-09-30

    As a result of an August 4, 2005 project review meeting held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to assess the project's technical progress, Nexant/Simteche/LANL project team was asked to meet four targets related to the existing project efforts. The four targets were to be accomplished by the September 30, 2006. These four targets were: (1) The CO{sub 2} hydrate process needs to show, through engineering and sensitivity analysis, that it can achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture from the treated syngas stream, operating at 1000 psia. The cost should indicate the potential of achieving the Sequestration Program's cost target of less than 10% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of the non-CO{sub 2} removal IGCC plant or demonstrate a significant cost reduction from the Selexol process cost developed in the Phase II engineering analysis. (2) The ability to meet the 20% cost share requirement for research level efforts. (3) LANL identifies through equilibrium and bench scale testing a once-through 90% CO{sub 2} capture promoter that supports the potential to achieve the Sequestration Program's cost target. Nexant is to perform an engineering analysis case to verify any economic benefits, as needed; no ETM validation is required, however, for this promoter for FY06. (4) The CO{sub 2} hydrate once-through process is to be validated at 1000 psia with the ETM at a CO{sub 2} capture rate of 60% without H{sub 2}S. The performance of 68% rate of capture is based on a batch, equilibrium data with H{sub 2}S. Validation of the test results is required through multiple runs and engineering calculations. Operational issues will be solved that will specifically effect the validation of the technology. Nexant was given the primary responsibility for Target No.1, while Simteche was mainly responsible for Target No.2; with LANL having the responsibility of Targets No.3 and No.4.

  11. Advances in Model-Based Design of Flexible and Prompt Energy Systems -- The CO2 Capture Plant at the Buggenum IGCC Power Station as a Test Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-combustion CO2 capture applied to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants is a promising technical solution to reduce CO2 emissions due to fossil-fuelled electricity generation in order to meet environmental targets in a carbon-constrained future. The pre-combustion capture pr

  12. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Steven Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  13. Loss Analysis of the Software-based Packet Capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Skopko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigabit per second and higher bandwidths imply greater challenge to perform lossless packet capturing on generic PC architectures. This is because of software based capture solutions, which did not improve as fast as network bandwidth and they still heavily rely on the OS's packet processing mechanism. There are hardware and operating system factors that primarily affect capture performance. This paper summarizes these parameters and shows how to predict packet loss ratio during the capture process.

  14. An air-liquid contactor for large-scale capture of CO2 from air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Keith, David W

    2012-09-13

    We present a conceptually simple method for optimizing the design of a gas-liquid contactor for capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air, or 'air capture'. We apply the method to a slab geometry contactor that uses components, design and fabrication methods derived from cooling towers. We use mass transfer data appropriate for capture using a strong NaOH solution, combined with engineering and cost data derived from engineering studies performed by Carbon Engineering Ltd, and find that the total costs for air contacting alone-no regeneration-can be of the order of $60 per tonne CO(2). We analyse the reasons why our cost estimate diverges from that of other recent reports and conclude that the divergence arises from fundamental design choices rather than from differences in costing methodology. Finally, we review the technology risks and conclude that they can be readily addressed by prototype testing.

  15. Gold nanomaterials for the selective capturing and SERS diagnosis of toxins in aqueous and biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassanain, Waleed A.; Izake, Emad L.; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive nanosensing method for the combined selective capture and SERS detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in blood plasma has been developed. The new method utilizes gold coated magnetic nanoparticles that are functionalized with anti MC-LR antibody Fab' fragments for the selective...... the extractor nanoparticles within 5min by manipulating the pH environment of the nanoparticles. The regenerated extractor nanoparticles maintained their capture efficiency and, therefore, were re-used to capture of MC-LR from successive samples. The released purified toxin was screened within 10min on gold...... was 10fM (R2=0.9975) which is well below the clinically required detection limit of the toxin. The SERS determination of MC-LR was cross validated against ELISA. By using antibody fragments that are specific to the target biomolecule, the new methodology can be extended to the rapid extraction...

  16. Monte Carlo based dosimetry for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Lilia; Belgaid, Mohamed; Khelifi, Rachid

    2016-11-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted, radiation therapy for cancer which combines neutron irradiation with a tumor targeting agent labeled with a boron10 having a high thermal neutron capture cross section. The tumor area is subjected to the neutron irradiation. After a thermal neutron capture, the excited 11B nucleus fissions into an alpha particle and lithium recoil nucleus. The high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) emitted particles deposit their energy in a range of about 10μm, which is of the same order of cell diameter [1], at the same time other reactions due to neutron activation with body component are produced. In-phantom measurement of physical dose distribution is very important for BNCT planning validation. Determination of total absorbed dose requires complex calculations which were carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNP code [2].

  17. New measurement of $\\theta_{13}$ via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J -H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, R P; Guo, X H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y -C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, J J; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Lv, Z; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Mooney, M; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H -R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Konstantin, T; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C -H; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an improved independent measurement of neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. Electron antineutrinos were identified by inverse $\\beta$-decays with the emitted neutron captured by hydrogen, yielding a data-set with principally distinct uncertainties from that with neutrons captured by gadolinium. With the final two of eight antineutrino detectors installed, this study used 621 days of data including the previously reported 217-day data set with six detectors. The dominant statistical uncertainty was reduced by 49%. Intensive studies of the cosmogenic muon-induced $^9$Li and fast neutron backgrounds and the neutron-capture energy selection efficiency, resulted in a reduction of the systematic uncertainty by 26%. The deficit in the detected number of antineutrinos at the far detectors relative to the expected number based on the near detectors yielded $\\sin^22\\theta_{13} = 0.071 \\pm 0.011$ in the three-neutrino-oscillation framework. The combination...

  18. DISCONTINUITY-CAPTURING FINITE ELEMENT COMPUTATION OF UNSTEADY FLOW WITH ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED MESH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Genjin; LU Xiyun; ZHUANG Lixian

    2004-01-01

    A discontinuity-capturing scheme of finite element method (FEM) is proposed. The unstructured-grid technique combined with a new type of adaptive mesh approach is developed for both compressible and incompressible unsteady flows, which exhibits the capability of capturing the shock waves and/or thin shear layers accurately in an unsteady viscous flow at high Reynolds number.In particular, a new testing variable, i.e., the disturbed kinetic energy E, is suggested and used in the adaptive mesh computation, which is universally applicable to the capturing of both shock waves and shear layers in the inviscid flow and viscous flow at high Reynolds number. Based on several calculated examples, this approach has been proved to be effective and efficient for the calculations of compressible and incompressible flows.

  19. Unusual ultra-hydrophilic, porous carbon cuboids for atmospheric-water capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guang-Ping; Mondin, Giovanni; Zheng, Zhikun; Biemelt, Tim; Klosz, Stefan; Schubel, René; Eychmüller, Alexander; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-02-02

    There is significant interest in high-performance materials that can directly and efficiently capture water vapor, particularly from air. Herein, we report a class of novel porous carbon cuboids with unusual ultra-hydrophilic properties, over which the synergistic effects between surface heterogeneity and micropore architecture is maximized, leading to the best atmospheric water-capture performance among porous carbons to date, with a water capacity of up to 9.82 mmol g(-1) at P/P0 =0.2 and 25 °C (20% relative humidity or 6000 ppm). Benefiting from properties, such as defined morphology, narrow pore size distribution, and high heterogeneity, this series of functional carbons may serve as model materials for fundamental research on carbon chemistry and the advance of new types of materials for water-vapor capture as well as other applications requiring combined highly hydrophilic surface chemistry, developed hierarchical porosity, and excellent stability.

  20. Neutrinoless double positron decay and positron emitting electron capture in the interacting boson model

    CERN Document Server

    Barea, J; Iachello, F

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay is of fundamental importance for determining the neutrino mass. Although double electron ($\\beta^-\\beta^-$) decay is the most promising mode, in very recent years interest in double positron ($\\beta^+\\beta^+$) decay, positron emitting electron capture ($EC\\beta^+$), and double electron capture ($ECEC$) has been renewed. We present here results of a calculation of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double-$\\beta^+$ decay and positron emitting electron capture within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) for $^{58}$Ni, $^{64}$Zn, $^{78}$Kr, $^{96}$Ru, $^{106}$Cd, $^{124}$Xe, $^{130}$Ba, and $^{136}$Ce decay. By combining these with a calculation of phase space factors we calculate expected half-lives.

  1. Design of manikin for testing of residual-limb shape-capture method: Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McGarry, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Consensus is still lacking on how best to capture the shape of a residual limb. Computer-aided design systems have not proven more accurate, repeatable, or reliable than traditional plaster of paris methods. Research is limited in design, relates to clinical trials, and is based on opinions and clinical experience. Many outcome measurements are based on qualitative estimations of prosthetic fit or patient feedback rather than quantitative measurements. Research must identify the most accurate, repeatable, and reliable methods for residual-limb shape capture under conditions most likely to enhance socket fit. Measurement is difficult because a reference grid is required for identifying the residual limb's axis for ensuring direct comparison. This article describes a manikin production method for testing the shape capture of the residual limb. Diameters and volume were measured at specific levels with a programmable computer numerical control milling machine and a displacement tool, with a combined accuracy of 5 micrometers.

  2. Radio frequency plasma polymer coatings for affinity capture MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Timmons, Richard B; Kinsel, Gary R

    2005-01-01

    Surface modification of MALDI probes is an attractive approach for combining bioaffinity isolation of targeted biomolecules with mass spectrometric analysis of the captured species. In this work, we demonstrate that a polymer thin film, produced by pulsed rf plasma polymerization of allylamine and deposited directly on a MALDI probe, can be subsequently biotinylated to develop a bioaffinity capture MALDI probe. The synthesis and characterization of the probe by XPS, FT-IR, and AFM is described, and the selective isolation of avidin from a three-component mixture of avidin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c is presented. These initial results offer encouragement for the further exploration of rf plasma polymer deposition as a novel approach for the development of on-probe affinity capture MALDI probes.

  3. Search for new candidates for the neutrino-oriented mass determination by electron-capture

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Boehm, C; Blaum, K; Beck, D

    2008-01-01

    This proposal is part of an extended program dedicated to the neutrino-mass determination in the electron-capture sector, which aims at ultra-precise mass measurements by Penning traps in combination with cryogenic micro-calorimetry for atomic de-excitation measurements. Here, precise mass measurements with ISOLTRAP are proposed for the orbital electron-capture nuclides $^{194}$Hg and $^{202}$Pb, as well as their daughters, with the goal to determine accurately their Q-values. These values are expected to be the smallest ones among a great variety of known electron-capture precursors. Therefore, these nuclides are strong candidates for an improved electron-neutrino mass determination. We ask for 8 shifts of on-line beam at ISOLDE for mass measurements of $^{194}$Hg, $^{194}$ Au, $^{202}$Pb, and $^{202}$Tl at ISOLTRAP.

  4. Urban Pulse: Capturing the Rhythm of Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Fabio; Doraiswamy, Harish; Lage, Marcos; Zhao, Kai; Goncalves, Bruno; Wilson, Luc; Hsieh, Mondrian; Silva, Claudio T

    2017-01-01

    Cities are inherently dynamic. Interesting patterns of behavior typically manifest at several key areas of a city over multiple temporal resolutions. Studying these patterns can greatly help a variety of experts ranging from city planners and architects to human behavioral experts. Recent technological innovations have enabled the collection of enormous amounts of data that can help in these studies. However, techniques using these data sets typically focus on understanding the data in the context of the city, thus failing to capture the dynamic aspects of the city. The goal of this work is to instead understand the city in the context of multiple urban data sets. To do so, we define the concept of an "urban pulse" which captures the spatio-temporal activity in a city across multiple temporal resolutions. The prominent pulses in a city are obtained using the topology of the data sets, and are characterized as a set of beats. The beats are then used to analyze and compare different pulses. We also design a visual exploration framework that allows users to explore the pulses within and across multiple cities under different conditions. Finally, we present three case studies carried out by experts from two different domains that demonstrate the utility of our framework.

  5. Urban Pulse: Capturing the Rhythm of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Fabio; Lage, Marcos; Zhao, Kai; Gonçalves, Bruno; Wilson, Luc; Hsieh, Mondrian; Silva, Cláudio T

    2016-01-01

    Cities are inherently dynamic. Interesting patterns of behavior typically manifest at several key areas of a city over multiple temporal resolutions. Studying these patterns can greatly help a variety of experts ranging from city planners and architects to human behavioral experts. Recent technological innovations have enabled the collection of enormous amounts of data that can help in these studies. However, techniques using these data sets typically focus on understanding the data in the context of the city, thus failing to capture the dynamic aspects of the city. The goal of this work is to instead understand the city in the context of multiple urban data sets. To do so, we define the concept of an "urban pulse" which captures the spatio-temporal activity in a city across multiple temporal resolutions. The prominent pulses in a city are obtained using the topology of the data sets, and are characterized as a set of beats. The beats are then used to analyze and compare different pulses. We also design a vis...

  6. Calculation of fractional electron capture probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenfeld, E

    1998-01-01

    A 'Table of Radionuclides' is being prepared which will supersede the 'Table de Radionucleides' formerly issued by the LMRI/LPRI (France). In this effort it is desirable to have a uniform basis for calculating theoretical values of fractional electron capture probabilities. A table has been compiled which allows one to calculate conveniently and quickly the fractional probabilities P sub K , P sub L , P sub M , P sub N and P sub O , their ratios and the assigned uncertainties for allowed and non-unique first forbidden electron capture transitions of known transition energy for radionuclides with atomic numbers from Z=3 to 102. These results have been applied to a total of 28 transitions of 14 radionuclides ( sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 2 Na, sup 5 sup 1 Cr, sup 5 sup 4 Mn, sup 5 sup 5 Fe, sup 6 sup 8 Ge , sup 6 sup 8 Ga, sup 7 sup 5 Se, sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Yb, sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Hg, sup 2 sup 0 sup 2 Tl). The values are in reasonable agreement with measure...

  7. Capturing the semiotic relationship between terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Weal, Mark J.

    2010-04-01

    Tags describing objects on the web are often treated as facts about a resource, whereas it is quite possible that they represent more subjective observations. Existing methods of term expansion expand terms based on dictionary definitions or statistical information on term occurrence. Here we propose the use of a thematic model for term expansion based on semiotic relationships between terms; this has been shown to improve a system's thematic understanding of content and tags and to tease out the more subjective implications of those tags. Such a system relies on a thematic model that must be made by hand. In this article, we explore a method to capture a semiotic understanding of particular terms using a rule-based guide to authoring a thematic model. Experimentation shows that it is possible to capture valid definitions that can be used for semiotic term expansion but that the guide itself may not be sufficient to support this on a large scale. We argue that whilst the formation of super definitions will mitigate some of these problems, the development of an authoring support tool may be necessary to solve others.

  8. Featured Image: Fireball After a Temporary Capture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    This image of a fireball was captured in the Czech Republic by cameras at a digital autonomous observatory in the village of Kunak. This observatory is part of a network of stations known as the European Fireball Network, and this particular meteoroid detection, labeled EN130114, is notable because it has the lowest initial velocity of any natural object ever observed by the network. Led by David Clark (University of Western Ontario), the authors of a recent study speculate that before this meteoroid impacted Earth, it may have been a Temporarily Captured Orbiter (TCO). TCOs are near-Earth objects that make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one has ever been observed to date, and though they are thought to make up 0.1% of all meteoroids, EN130114 is the first event ever detected that exhibits conclusive behavior of a TCO. For more information on EN130114 and why TCOs are important to study, check out the paper below!CitationDavid L. Clark et al 2016 AJ 151 135. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/6/135

  9. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team members expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  10. Surface Detail Capturing for Realistic Facial Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Hsuan Tu; I-Chen Lin; Jeng-Sheng Yeh; Rung-Huei Liang; Ming Ouhyoung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a facial animation system is proposed for capturing both geometrical information and illumination changes of surface details, called expression details, from video clips simultaneously, and the captured data can be widely applied to different 2D face images and 3D face models. While tracking the geometric data,we record the expression details by ratio images. For 2D facial animation synthesis, these ratio images are used to generate dynamic textures. Because a ratio image is obtained via dividing colors of an expressive face by those of a neutral face, pixels with ratio value smaller than one are where a wrinkle or crease appears. Therefore, the gradients of the ratio value at each pixel in ratio images are regarded as changes of a face surface, and original normals on the surface can be adjusted according to these gradients. Based on this idea, we can convert the ratio images into a sequence of normal maps and then apply them to animated 3D model rendering. With the expression detail mapping, the resulted facial animations are more life-like and more expressive.

  11. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  12. Atmospheric Capture On Mars (and Processing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to enable such missions, as first proposed by Prof. Robert Ash in 1976. This presentation will review progress in the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. For many years, NASA, commercial companies, and academia have been developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Other gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 for processing elements. Significant progress has been demonstrated in CO2 collection via adsorption by molecular sieves, freezing, and direct compression. Early stage work in adsorption in Ionic Liquids followed by electrolysis to oxygen is also underway. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and could be captured as well. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (CO2-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, and (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction.

  13. Computational Modeling of Mixed Solids for CO2 CaptureSorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  14. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2012-11-02

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method

  15. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  16. Importance of Primary Capture and L-Selectin–Dependent Secondary Capture in Leukocyte Accumulation in Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In the multistep process of leukocyte extravasation, the mechanisms by which leukocytes establish the initial contact with the endothelium are unclear. In parallel, there is a controversy regarding the role for L-selectin in leukocyte recruitment. Here, using intravital microscopy in the mouse, we investigated leukocyte capture from the free flow directly to the endothelium (primary capture), and capture mediated through interactions with rolling leukocytes (secondary capture) in venules, in ...

  17. Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a win-win option? (the economic case)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G. [Future Energy Solutions, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The UK currently derived 90% of its primary energy and generates over 70% of its electricity from fossil fuels. Moreover, it has access to substantial carbon dioxide storage capacity. In particular there is potential for storage combined with Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) in the oil fields of the central and northern North Sea areas, while the gas fields of the southern North Sea offer a large near shore resource for storage. In the longer term saline aquifers offer an even large storage capacity. Consequently carbon dioxide capture and storage needs to be assessed as an important potential option for greenhouse gas abatement for the UK. This scoping study has examined the implementation, operation, economics and barriers to undertaking carbon dioxide capture and storage in the UK. It has concentrated on carbon dioxide capture from fossil fuel power stations; large 'point sources' of the gas that would need to be tackled in order to deliver significant levels of greenhouse gas abatement. Options for gas capture considered are retrofitting equipment to existing coal and natural gas fired plant as well as the construction of new coal (IGCC) and gas (GTCC) technology. Economic assessments have been made with 'present day' costs, and do not consider future improvements through technical innovation and; learning by doing', the potential of which is considerable for the mature carbon capture technologies.

  18. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Berthoumieux, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cano-Ott, D.; Mendoza, E.; Becares, V.; Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain); Andriamonje, S.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Lebbos, E.; Losito, R.; Rubbia, C.; Vlachoudis, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J. [Uniwersytet Lodzki, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IPN, Orsay (France); Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Meaze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Variale, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Becvar, F.; Kroll, J.; Krticka, M. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Billowes, J.; Ware, T.; Wright, T. [Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Sarmento, R.; Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal); Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Lozano, M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Univ. de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Dillmann, I. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Physik Dept. E12 and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others

    2012-03-15

    The measurement of the capture cross-section of fissile elements, of utmost importance for the design of innovative nuclear reactors and the management of nuclear waste, faces particular difficulties related to the {gamma} -ray background generated in the competing fission reactions. At the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n{sub T}OF we have combined the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) capture detector with a set of three {sup 235}U loaded MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors for measuring simultaneously two reactions: capture and fission. The results presented here include the determination of the three detection efficiencies involved in the process: {epsilon}{sub TAC}(n,f), {epsilon}{sub TAC}(n,{gamma}) and {epsilon}{sub MGAS}(n,f). In the test measurement we have succeeded in measuring simultaneously with a high total efficiency the {sup 235}U capture and fission cross-sections, disentangling accurately the two types of reactions. The work presented here proves that accurate capture cross-section measurements of fissile isotopes are feasible at n{sub T}OF. (orig.)

  20. Capturing sediment and nutrients in irrigated terraced landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaets, Johanna; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, Thomas; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Dercon, Gerd; Cadisch, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Terraces are often promoted as green filters in landscapes, buffering discharge and constituent peaks. For irrigated rice terraces, however, this mitigating potential has not been assessed at the landscape level. Additionally, sediment and nutrient inputs potentially affect soil fertility in agricultural terraces and therefore yield - the extent of the impact depending on the quality and quantity of the captured material. Quantifying such upland-lowland linkages is particularly important in intensely cultivated landscapes, as declining upland soil fertility could alter beneficial hydrological connectivity between terraces and surrounding landscapes. In this study, we therefore quantified the sediment, sediment-associated organic carbon and nitrogen inputs and losses for a 13 ha paddy rice area, surrounded by upland maize cultivation in Northwest Vietnam in 2010 and 2011. Turbidity sensors were used in combination with a linear mixed model in order to obtain continuous predictions of the constituent concentrations. Sediment texture was determined using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Uncertainty on annual load estimates was quantified by calculating 95% confidence intervals with a bootstrap approach. Sediment inputs from irrigation water to the rice area amounted to 48 Mg ha-1 a-1 and runoff during rainfall events contributed an additional 16 Mg ha-1 a-1. Export from the rice terraces equalled 63 Mg ha-1 a-1 of sediments, resulting in a net balance of 28 Mg ha-1 a-1 or a trapping of almost half of the annual sediment inputs. Runoff contributed one third of the sand inputs, while irrigated sediments were predominantly silty. As paddy outflow contained almost exclusively silt- and clay-sized material, 24 Mg ha-1 a-1 of captured sediments consisted of sand. The sediment-associated organic carbon resulted in a deposit of 1.09 Mg ha-1 a-1. For sediment-associated nitrogen, 0.68 Mg ha-1 a-1 was trapped in the terraces. Combining both sediment-associated and dissolved nitrogen

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  2. Combination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes quantitative methodology that is directed toward assessing interactions between a combination of agonist drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects. Drugs administered in combination may show exaggerated, reduced or predictable effects that are dependent on the specific drug pair and the doses of t h e constituents. The basisfor quantitating these unusual interactions is the concept of dose equivalence which, in turn, is determined from the individual drug dose-effect relations. A common analytical procedure that follows from dose equivalence uses a graph termed an isobologram. We present here an overview of the isobologram, its use and certain related methods that apply to classifying various drug interactions.

  3. Regulation of the spatial code for BDNF mRNA isoforms in the rat hippocampus following pilocarpine-treatment: a systematic analysis using laser microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Gabriele; Del Turco, Domenico; Schlaudraff, Jessica; Torelli, Lucio; Deller, Thomas; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity and is one of those genes that generate multiple mRNAs with different alternatively spliced 5'UTRs. The functional significance of many BDNF transcripts, each producing the same protein, is emerging. On the basis of the analysis of the four most abundant brain BDNF transcripts, we recently proposed the "spatial code hypothesis of BDNF splice variants" according to which the BDNF transcripts, through their differential subcellular localization in soma or dendrites, represent a mechanism to synthesize the protein at distinct locations and produce local effects. In this study, using laser microdissection of hippocampal laminae and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), we analyzed all known BDNF mRNA variants at resting conditions or following 3 h pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In untreated rats, we found dendritic enrichment of BDNF transcripts encoding exons 6 and 7 in CA1; exons 1, 6, and 9a in CA3; and exons 5, 6, 7, and 8 in DG. Considering the low abundance of the other transcripts, exon 6 was the main transcript in dendrites under resting conditions. Pilocarpine treatment induced an increase of BDNF transcripts encoding exons 4 and 6 in all dendritic laminae and, additionally, of exon 2 in CA1 stratum radiatum and exons 2, 3, 9a in DG molecular layer while the other transcripts were decreased in dendrites, suggesting restriction to the soma. These results support the hypothesis of a spatial code to differentially regulate BDNF in the somatic or dendritic compartment under conditions of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and, furthermore, highlight the existence of subfield-specific differences.

  4. Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase-A as a potent prognostic marker in invasive pancreatic ductal carcinoma identified by proteomic analysis of laser micro-dissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takadate Tatsuyuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies worldwide. This study aimed to identify a novel prognostic biomarker, facilitating treatment selection, using mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomic analysis with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results The two groups with poor prognosis (n = 4 and with better prognosis (n = 4 had been carefully chosen among 96 resected cases of pancreatic cancer during 1998 to 2007 in Tohoku University Hospital. Although those 2 groups had adjusted background (UICC-Stage IIB, Grade2, R0, gemcitabine adjuvant, there was a significant difference in postoperative mean survival time (poor 21.0 months, better 58.1 months, P = 0.0067. Cancerous epithelial cells collected from FFPE tissue sections by laser micro-dissection (LMD were processed for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. In total, 1099 unique proteins were identified and 6 proteins showed different expressions in the 2 groups by semi-quantitative comparison. Among these 6 proteins, we focused on Nm23/Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase A (NDPK-A and immunohistochemically confirmed its expression in the cohort of 96 cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed high Nm23/NDPK-A expression to correlate with significantly worse overall survival (P = 0.0103. Moreover, in the multivariate Cox regression model, Nm23/NDPK-A over-expression remained an independent predictor of poor survival with a hazard ratio of 1.97 (95% CI 1.16-3.56, P = 0.0110. Conclusions We identified 6 candidate prognostic markers for postoperative pancreatic cancer using FFPE tissues and immunohistochemically demonstrated high Nm23/NDPK-A expression to be a useful prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Calculation of Doublet Capture Rate for Muon Capture in Deuterium within Chiral Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Tater, M; Truhlik, E; Epelbaum, E; Machleidt, R; Ricci, P

    2011-01-01

    The doublet capture rate of the negative muon capture in deuterium is calculated employing the nuclear wave functions generated from accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials constructed at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory and the weak meson exchange current operator derived within the same formalism. All but one of the low-energy constants that enter the calculation were fixed from pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The low-energy constant d^R (c_D), which cannot be determined from the purely two-nucleon data, was extracted recently from the triton beta-decay and the binding energies of the three-nucleon systems. The calculated values of the doublet capture rates show a rather large spread for the used values of the d^R. Precise measurement of the doublet capture rate in the future will not only help to constrain the value of d^R, but also provide a highly nontrivial test of the nuclear chiral EFT framework. Besides, the precise knowledge of the consta...

  6. Client/server approach to image capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris; Stokes, Earle

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of the digital image capturing devices on the market today is quite astonishing and ranges from low-cost CCD scanners to digital cameras (for both action and stand-still scenes), mid-end CCD scanners for desktop publishing and pre- press applications and high-end CCD flatbed scanners and drum- scanners with photo multiplier technology. Each device and market segment has its own specific needs which explains the diversity of the associated scanner applications. What all those applications have in common is the need to communicate with a particular device to import the digital images; after the import, additional image processing might be needed as well as color management operations. Although the specific requirements for all of these applications might differ considerably, a number of image capturing and color management facilities as well as other services are needed which can be shared. In this paper, we propose a client/server architecture for scanning and image editing applications which can be used as a common component for all these applications. One of the principal components of the scan server is the input capturing module. The specification of the input jobs is based on a generic input device model. Through this model we make abstraction of the specific scanner parameters and define the scan job definitions by a number of absolute parameters. As a result, scan job definitions will be less dependent on a particular scanner and have a more universal meaning. In this context, we also elaborate on the interaction of the generic parameters and the color characterization (i.e., the ICC profile). Other topics that are covered are the scheduling and parallel processing capabilities of the server, the image processing facilities, the interaction with the ICC engine, the communication facilities (both in-memory and over the network) and the different client architectures (stand-alone applications, TWAIN servers, plug-ins, OLE or Apple-event driven

  7. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind

    2005-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a new concept for fuel energy conversion with CO2 capture. In CLC, fuel combustion is split into separate reduction and oxidation processes, in which a solid carrier is reduced and oxidized, respectively. The carrier is continuously recirculated between the two vessels, and hence direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. As a result, a stoichiometric amount of oxygen is transferred to the fuel by a regenerable solid intermediate, and CLC is thus a variant of oxy-fuel combustion. In principle, pure CO2 can be obtained from the reduction exhaust by condensation of the produced water vapour. The thermodynamic potential and feasibility of CLC has been studied by means of process simulations and experimental studies of oxygen carriers. Process simulations have focused on parameter sensitivity studies of CLC implemented in 3 power cycles; CLC-Combined Cycle, CLC-Humid Air Turbine and CLC-Integrated Steam Generation. Simulations indicate that overall fuel conversion ratio, oxidation temperature and operating pressure are among the most important process parameters in CLC. A promising thermodynamic potential of CLC has been found, with efficiencies comparable to, - or better than existing technologies for CO2 capture. The proposed oxygen carrier nickel oxide on nickel spinel (NiONiAl) has been studied in reduction with hydrogen, methane and methane/steam as well as oxidation with dry air. It has been found that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures above 600 deg C, solid reduction with dry methane occurs with overall fuel conversion of 92%. Steam methane reforming is observed along with methane cracking as side reactions, yielding an overall selectivity of 90% with regard to solid reduction. If steam is added to the reactant fuel, coking can be avoided. A methodology for long-term investigation of solid chemical activity in a batch reactor is proposed. The method is based on time variables for oxidation. The results for Ni

  8. Solar Eclipse Video Captured by STEREO-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    No human has ever witnessed a solar eclipse quite like the one captured on this video. The NASA STEREO-B spacecraft, managed by the Goddard Space Center, was about a million miles from Earth , February 25, 2007, when it photographed the Moon passing in front of the sun. The resulting movie looks like it came from an alien solar system. The fantastically-colored star is our own sun as STEREO sees it in four wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light. The black disk is the Moon. When we observe a lunar transit from Earth, the Moon appears to be the same size as the sun, a coincidence that produces intoxicatingly beautiful solar eclipses. The silhouette STEREO-B saw, on the other hand, was only a fraction of the Sun. The Moon seems small because of the STEREO-B location. The spacecraft circles the sun in an Earth-like orbit, but it lags behind Earth by one million miles. This means STEREO-B is 4.4 times further from the Moon than we are, and so the Moon looks 4.4 times smaller. This version of the STEREO-B eclipse movie is a composite of data from the coronagraph and extreme ultraviolet imager of the spacecraft. STEREO-B has a sister ship named STEREO-A. Both are on a mission to study the sun. While STEREO-B lags behind Earth, STEREO-A orbits one million miles ahead ('B' for behind, 'A' for ahead). The gap is deliberate as it allows the two spacecraft to capture offset views of the sun. Researchers can then combine the images to produce 3D stereo movies of solar storms. The two spacecraft were launched in Oct. 2006 and reached their stations on either side of Earth in January 2007.

  9. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  10. Combination rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holicky, M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Load combinations specified in EN 1990 for verification of ultimate limit and serviceability limit states in conjunction with the partial factor method are discussed and illustrated by practical examples of typical civil structures. Alternative procedures to identify critical load cases are reviewed

  11. The TRIUMF radiative muon capture facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.H.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A. (Virginia Poly. Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Universite de Montreal, PQ (Canada)); Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)); Henderson, R.S. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada) University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.C. (Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada)); Taylor, G. (University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

    1992-08-15

    Radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen produces photons with a yield of {approx equal} 10{sup -8} per stopped muon. To measure RMC at TRIUMF we have constructed a lage-solid-angle photon pair-spectrometer which surrounds the liquid hydrogen target. The spectrometer consists of a cylindrical photon converter and a larget-volume cylindrical drift chamber to track the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. It is enclosed in a spectrometer magnet which produces a highly uniform axial magnetic field. The detector subsystems, the hardware trigger and the data acquisition system are described, chamber calibration and tracking techniques are presented, and the spectrometer performance and its Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. (orig.).

  12. Radiative muon capture with the TRIUMF TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Azuelos, G.; Blecher, M.; Burnham, R.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Depommier, P.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiative muon capture (RMC), ..mu../sup /minus//Z ..-->.. ..nu..(Z/minus/1)..gamma.., is a weak semileptonic process which is particularly sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g/sub p/, of the weak hadronic current. A program is underway at TRIUMF to measure the energy spectrum and branching ratio for RMC on hydrogen, to determine g/sub p/ for a free nucleon. As a precursor to the hydrogen measurement, and also to investigate possible renormalization of g/sub p/ in nuclei, RMC rates on /sup 40/Ca, /sup 16/O and /sup 12/C were measured and are reported in this paper. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Research in boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, E.; Shortkroff, S.; Jones, A.; Viveiros, C.; Ly, A.; Sledge, C. B.; Davison, A.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1997-02-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS) is a novel application of the 10B(n, (alpha) )7Li reaction for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. This potential treatment modality is in its developmental stages; in this paper results of research in two aspects of BNCS are presented. First, quantification of 10B-uptake in samples of human arthritic tissue by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis is presented. 10B concentrations from 1625 to 2726 ppm are readily achieved. Second, ideal neutron beam studies have been undertaken and indicate that neutrons from thermal energies to 1 keV are useful for BNCS. This information is of use in designing practical therapy beams should this treatment modality be realized.

  14. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  15. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X–N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  16. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  17. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  18. 3D Capturing with Monoscopic Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galabov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new concept of using the auto-focus function of the monoscopic camera sensor to estimate depth map information, which avoids not only using auxiliary equipment or human interaction, but also the introduced computational complexity of SfM or depth analysis. The system architecture that supports both stereo image and video data capturing, processing and display is discussed. A novel stereo image pair generation algorithm by using Z-buffer-based 3D surface recovery is proposed. Based on the depth map, we are able to calculate the disparity map (the distance in pixels between the image points in both views for the image. The presented algorithm uses a single image with depth information (e.g. z-buffer as an input and produces two images for left and right eye.

  19. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  20. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiao Long; LuHanLin; Yu Wei Xiang; Zhao Wen Rong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of sup 7 sup 1 Ga(n, gamma) sup 7 sup 2 Ga, sup 9 sup 4 Zr(n, gamma) sup 9 sup 5 Zr and sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Ir(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sup m sup 1 sup + sup g sup , sup m sup 2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of sup 7 sup 2 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  1. Electron Capture in a Fully Ionized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2014-01-01

    Properties of fully ionized water plasmas are discussed including plasma charge density oscillations and the screening of the Coulomb law especially in the dilute classical Debye regime. A kinetic model with two charged particle scattering events determines the transition rate per unit time for electron capture by a nucleus with the resulting nuclear transmutations. Two corrections to the recent Maiani et al. calculations are made: (i) The Debye screening length is only employed within its proper domain of validity. (ii) The WKB approximation employed by Maiani in the long De Broglie wave length limit is evidently invalid. We replace this incorrect approximation with mathematically rigorous Calogero inequalities in order to discuss the scattering wave functions. Having made these corrections, we find a verification for our previous results based on condensed matter electro-weak quantum field theory for nuclear transmutations in chemical batteries.

  2. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA and di-ethylamine (DEA, are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  3. Non-Statistical Effects in Neutron Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P. E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Guber, K. H.; Harvey, J. A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wiarda, D.; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of non-statistical effects in neutron-capture measurements. However, reports of deviations of reduced-neutron-width (Γn0) distributions from the expected Porter-Thomas (PT) shape largely have been ignored. Most of these deviations have been reported for odd-A nuclides. Because reliable spin (J) assignments have been absent for most resonances for such nuclides, it is possible that reported deviations from PT might be due to incorrect J assignments. We recently developed a new method for measuring spins of neutron resonances by using the DANCE detector at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measurements made with a 147Sm sample allowed us to determine spins of almost all known resonances below 1 keV. Furthermore, analysis of these data revealed that the Γn0 distribution was in good agreement with PT for resonances below 350 eV, but in disagreement with PT for resonances between 350 and 700 eV. Our previous (n,α) measurements had revealed that the α strength function also changes abruptly at this energy. There currently is no known explanation for these two non-statistical effects. Recently, we have developed another new method for determining the spins of neutron resonances. To implement this technique required a small change (to record pulse-height information for coincidence events) to a much simpler apparatus: A pair of C6D6 γ-ray detectors which we have employed for many years to measure neutron-capture cross sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Measurements with a 95Mo sample revealed that not only does the method work very well for determining spins, but it also makes possible parity assignments. Taken together, these new techniques at LANSCE and ORELA could be very useful for further elucidation of non-statistical effects.

  4. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  5. Capture, transport and husbandry of Naucrates ductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco De Vaissier Ferro Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the capture, transport, and husbandry of Naucrates ductor, also known as pilot fish. Approximately 100 individuals were collected by Flying Sharks in the sequence of an order from multiple public aquaria. Because there is vely limited knowledge about the capture, husbandry and transport of this species, it became necessary to investigate how to achieve this while causing minimum mortality and ensuring animal welfare. Collection was done in the Azores Islands, approximately 20 nautical miles from Horta, using a standard fishing rod and hook, after attracting blue sharks with bait. The animals were transported to shore inside plastic vats and introduced to large 2,0 m wide holding tanks at the Porto Pim Aquarium, where they were held for 2 months. Multiple treatments for wounds, and parasite control, were used and are reported. Transport to mainland Portugal was done aboard a commercial vessel, inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats with mechanical and chemical filtration consisting of cartridge filters and protein skimmers, respectively. Once docked on shore the 40 ft. container was then moved to a truck, where it traveled to Spain and France over 6 days. The total transport time of those animals delivered last was therefore 11 days and no mortalities were sustained in transit. The remaining animals were kept in Peniche for 2 more months inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats, with filtration consisting of cartridge and protein skimmers, as well as daily water changes. Multiple challenges faced during the collection, holding and transport processes are presented in this presentation.

  6. Capturing the musical brain with Lasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Petri; Alluri, Vinoo; Brattico, Elvira;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of musical feature processing with a decoding approach. To this end, we used a method that combines computational extraction of musical features with regularized multiple regression (LASSO). Optimal model parameters were determined by maximizing the decoding...

  7. 海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤%TThe Therapy of Cavernous Sinus Parietal Microdissection and Expand Sphenoid Sinus Approach in Invasion Cavernous Sinus Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恩

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤方法。方法随机选取2013年1月~2015年12月我院收治的22例垂体腺瘤患者临床资料,应用海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的手术方法。结果22例垂体腺瘤患者均顺利完成手术,19例垂体腺瘤全部切除,3例垂体腺瘤次全切除,未发生感染、昏迷和死亡病例。结论海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤手术效果理想。%Objective To study the therapy of cavernous sinus parietal microdissection and expand sphenoid sinus approach in invasion cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma.Methods Randomly selected 22 patients with pituitary adenoma clinical data from January 2013 to December 2015 in our hospital, which were application therapy of cavernous sinus parietal microdissection and expand sphenoid sinus approach.Results 22 patients with pituitary adenoma patients were successfully operated, 19 patients total removal of pituitary adenoma, 3 patients subtotal resection of pituitary adenoma, infection did not occur, coma and death.Conclusion Expansion of the cavernous sinus microdissection transsphenoidal approach over the side wall of the treatment of pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous effect.

  8. Thermodynamic simulation of CO{sub 2} capture for an IGCC power plant using the calcium looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. [National Engineering Laboratory for Coal-Burning Pollutant Emission Reduction, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhao, C.; Ren, Q. [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2011-06-15

    A CO{sub 2} capture process for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using the calcium looping cycle was proposed. The CO{sub 2} capture process using natural and modified limestone was simulated and investigated with the software package Aspen Plus. It incorporated a fresh feed of sorbent to compensate for the decay in CO{sub 2} capture activity during long-term cycles. The sorbent flow ratios have significant effect on the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and net efficiency of the CO{sub 2} capture system. The IGCC power plant, using the modified limestone, exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency than that using the natural limestone at the same sorbent flow ratios. The system net efficiency using the natural and modified limestones achieves 41.7% and 43.1%, respectively, at the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency of 90% without the effect of sulfation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Leinweber; J.A. Burke; H.D. Knox; N.J. Drindak; D.W. Mesh; W.T. Haines; R.V. Ballad; R.C. Block; R.E. Slovacek; C.J. Werner; M.J. Trbovich; D.P. Barry; T. Sato

    2001-07-16

    The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is {sup 149}Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a {sup 235}U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in {sup 149}Sm, present measurements agree within estimated

  10. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  11. Combining haplotypers

    CERN Document Server

    Kääriäinen, Matti; Lappalainen, Sampsa; Mielikäinen, Taneli

    2007-01-01

    Statistically resolving the underlying haplotype pair for a genotype measurement is an important intermediate step in gene mapping studies, and has received much attention recently. Consequently, a variety of methods for this problem have been developed. Different methods employ different statistical models, and thus implicitly encode different assumptions about the nature of the underlying haplotype structure. Depending on the population sample in question, their relative performance can vary greatly, and it is unclear which method to choose for a particular sample. Instead of choosing a single method, we explore combining predictions returned by different methods in a principled way, and thereby circumvent the problem of method selection. We propose several techniques for combining haplotype reconstructions and analyze their computational properties. In an experimental study on real-world haplotype data we show that such techniques can provide more accurate and robust reconstructions, and are useful for out...

  12. Search Combinators

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijvers, Tom; Wuille, Pieter; Samulowitz, Horst; Stuckey, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to model search in a constraint solver can be an essential asset for solving combinatorial problems. However, existing infrastructure for defining search heuristics is often inadequate. Either modeling capabilities are extremely limited or users are faced with a general-purpose programming language whose features are not tailored towards writing search heuristics. As a result, major improvements in performance may remain unexplored. This article introduces search combinators, a lightweight and solver-independent method that bridges the gap between a conceptually simple modeling language for search (high-level, functional and naturally compositional) and an efficient implementation (low-level, imperative and highly non-modular). By allowing the user to define application-tailored search strategies from a small set of primitives, search combinators effectively provide a rich domain-specific language (DSL) for modeling search to the user. Remarkably, this DSL comes at a low implementation cost to the...

  13. Co-location of air capture, subseafloor CO2 sequestration, and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Han, Patrick; Slagle, Angela L; Wang, Tao

    2013-07-02

    Reducing atmospheric CO2 using a combination of air capture and offshore geological storage can address technical and policy concerns with climate mitigation. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture could operate anywhere and in principle reduce CO2 to preindustrial levels. We investigate the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian Ocean, which offers steady wind resources, vast subseafloor storage capacities, and minimal risk of economic damages or human inconvenience and harm. The efficiency of humidity swing driven air capture under humid and windy conditions is tested in the laboratory. Powered by wind, we estimate ∼75 Mt CO2/yr could be collected using air capture and sequestered below seafloor or partially used for synfuel. Our analysis suggests that Kerguelen offers a remote and environmentally secure location for CO2 sequestration using renewable energy. Regional reservoirs could hold over 1500 Gt CO2, sequestering a large fraction of 21st century emissions.

  14. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  15. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  16. Trap height and orientation of yellow sticky traps affect capture of Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esker, P D; Obrycki, J; Nutter, F W

    2004-02-01

    Field studies were conducted in Iowa during 2001 and 2002 to determine the optimal sampling height and orientation for using yellow sticky cards to monitor populations of Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer, the vector of the bacterial pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp, stewartii, the causal organism of Stewart's disease of corn, Zea mays L.. Sticky cards were placed at five different heights (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.90 m) and three orientations (horizontal, vertical, and 30 degree angle) at three locations (Ames, Crawfordsville, and Sutherland) in 2001 and two locations (Crawfordsville and Johnston) in 2002. No statistical differences were observed among the placement combinations for individual sampling periods or for the total number of C. pulicaria captured in 2001. In 2002, the 0.30 m and vertical cards captured significantly (1.1-35 times) more C. pulicaria than any other placement combination during sampling throughout August at both Crawfordsville and Johnston. Also, the cumulative number of C. pulicaria captured by the 0.30 m and vertical cards was significantly higher than all other placement combinations. This information is important in the development of sampling protocols to aid growers in making management decisions. These management decisions include where and when to apply foliar insecticides during the corn growing season to control C. pulicaria populations, thereby reducing the risk for Stewart's disease of corn.

  17. Pilot testing of a membrane system for postcombustion CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Wei, Xiaotong [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Carlisle, Trevor [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); White, Steve [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Pande, Saurabh [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Watson, Robert [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Hoffman, Thomas [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This final report summarizes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) to scale up an efficient post-combustion CO2 capture membrane process to the small pilot test stage (award number DE-FE0005795). The primary goal of this research program was to design, fabricate, and operate a membrane CO2 capture system to treat coal-derived flue gas containing 20 tonnes CO2/day (20 TPD). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Babcock and Wilcox (B&W), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), WorleyParsons (WP), the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC), Enerkem (EK), and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). In addition to the small pilot design, build and slipstream testing at NCCC, other project efforts included laboratory membrane and module development at MTR, validation field testing on a 1 TPD membrane system at NCCC, boiler modeling and testing at B&W, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) by EPRI/WP, a case study of the membrane technology applied to a ~20 MWe power plant by ISTC, and an industrial CO2 capture test at an Enerkem waste-to-biofuel facility. The 20 TPD small pilot membrane system built in this project successfully completed over 1,000 hours of operation treating flue gas at NCCC. The Polaris™ membranes used on this system demonstrated stable performance, and when combined with over 10,000 hours of operation at NCCC on a 1 TPD system, the risk associated with uncertainty in the durability of postcombustion capture membranes has been greatly reduced. Moreover, next-generation Polaris membranes with higher performance and lower cost were validation tested on the 1 TPD system. The 20 TPD system also demonstrated successful operation of a new low-pressure-drop sweep module that will reduce parasitic energy losses at full scale by as much as 10 MWe. In modeling and pilot boiler testing, B&W confirmed the

  18. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  19. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    want a range hood to use little energy and have high capture efficiency to minimize the required air flow to capture the cooking pollutants. Currently there are no standards for rating range hoods for capture efficiency In this study, measurements of range hood capture efficiency were made a tight......A major source of pollutants in homes is cooking and as homes get tighter in the pursuit of lower energy use (particularly near zero energy), the concentration of cooking pollutants increases. The best way to remove cooking pollutants is to use a range hood above the cooking surface. Ideally, we...... kitchen-room built in a laboratory chamber, and a methodology for standardizing measurement of capture efficiency was developed. The results for a wall mounted range hood, showed that up to half of the cooking pollutants were not captured at a flow rate of 230 m3/h. A more detailed set of measurements...

  20. Review of techniques for motion capture data processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiaopeng; Liu Rul; and Zhang Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to high reality and efficiency, the technique computer animation. With the development of motion capture, a of motion capture (MoCap) has been widely used in the field of large amount of motion capture databases are available and this is significant for the reuse of motion data. But due to the high degree of freedoms and high capture frequency, the dimension of the mo- tion capture data is usually very high and this will lead to a low efficiency in data processing. So how to process the high dimension data and design an efficient and effective retrieval approach has become a challenge which we can't ignore. In this paper, first we lay out some problems about the key techniques in motion capture data processing. Then the existing approaches are analyzed and sum- marized. At last, some future work is proposed.