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Sample records for capture microdissection application

  1. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  2. Comparison of RNA extraction kits and histological stains for laser capture microdissected prostate tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Laser capture microdissection offers unique possibilities for the isolation of specific cell populations or histological structures. However, isolation of RNA from microdissected tissue is challenging due to degradation and minimal yield of RNA during laser capture microdisse

  3. Laser Capture Microdissection Protocol for Xylem Tissues of Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Valerio, Concetta; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Zhao, Lei; Kärkönen, Anna; Niittylä, Totte; Fagerstedt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables precise dissection and collection of individual cell types from complex tissues. When applied to plant cells, and especially to woody tissues, LCM requires extensive optimization to overcome such factors as rigid cell walls, large central vacuoles, intercellular spaces, and technical issues with thickness and flatness of the sections. Here we present an optimized protocol for the laser-assisted microdissection of developing xylem from mature trees: a gymnosperm (Norway spruce, Picea abies) and an angiosperm (aspen, Populus tremula) tree. Different cell types of spruce and aspen wood (i.e., ray cells, tracheary elements, and fibers) were successfully microdissected from tangential, cross and radial cryosections of the current year’s growth ring. Two approaches were applied to achieve satisfactory flatness and anatomical integrity of the spruce and aspen specimens. The commonly used membrane slides were ineffective as a mounting surface for the wood cryosections. Instead, in the present protocol we use glass slides, and introduce a glass slide sandwich assembly for the preparation of aspen sections. To ascertain that not only the anatomical integrity of the plant tissue, but also the molecular features were not compromised during the whole LCM procedure, good quality total RNA could be extracted from the microdissected cells. This showed the efficiency of the protocol and established that our methodology can be integrated in transcriptome analyses to elucidate cell-specific molecular events regulating wood formation in trees. PMID:28101088

  4. The cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia: a laser capture microdissection study.

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    Laura W Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of brain and peripheral tissues in schizophrenia patients have indicated impaired energy supply to the brain. A number of studies have also demonstrated dysfunction of the microvasculature in schizophrenia patients. Together these findings are consistent with a hypothesis of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, we have investigated the cerebral vascular endothelium of schizophrenia patients at the level of transcriptomics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used laser capture microdissection to isolate both microvascular endothelial cells and neurons from post mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. RNA was isolated from these cell populations, amplified, and analysed using two independent microarray platforms, Affymetrix HG133plus2.0 GeneChips and CodeLink Whole Human Genome arrays. In the first instance, we used the dataset to compare the neuronal and endothelial data, in order to demonstrate that the predicted differences between cell types could be detected using this methodology. We then compared neuronal and endothelial data separately between schizophrenic subjects and controls. Analysis of the endothelial samples showed differences in gene expression between schizophrenics and controls which were reproducible in a second microarray platform. Functional profiling revealed that these changes were primarily found in genes relating to inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides preliminary evidence of molecular alterations of the cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia patients, suggestive of a hypo-inflammatory state in this tissue type. Further investigation of the blood-brain barrier in schizophrenia is warranted.

  5. Laser Capture Microdissection of Archival Kidney Tissue for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Tim D; Christie, Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    Whole-organ molecular analysis of the kidney potentially misses important factors involved in the pathogenesis of disease in glomeruli and tubules. Organ wide analysis can however be augmented by using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate morphologically similar cells and nephron structures from a heterogeneous tissue section via direct visualization of the cells. The protocol here provides a practical approach utilizing LCM in combination with RNA isolation techniques for downstream analysis. This technique is readily applicable to study mRNA expression in isolated glomeruli and tubules in both experimental animal models and human kidney biopsy material.

  6. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  7. Research Techniques Made Simple: Laser Capture Microdissection in Cutaneous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Gonzalez, Estela; McGee, Jean Suh

    2016-10-01

    In cutaneous research, we aim to study the molecular signature of a diseased tissue. However, such a study is met with obstacles due to the inherent heterogeneous nature of tissues because multiple cell types reside within a tissue. Furthermore, there is cellular communication between the tissue and the neighboring extracellular matrix. Laser capture microdissection is a powerful technique that allows researchers to isolate cells of interest from any tissue using a laser source under microscopic visualization, thereby circumventing the issue of tissue heterogeneity. Target cells from fixed preparations can be extracted and examined without disturbing the tissue structure. In live cultures, a subpopulation of cells can be extracted in real time with minimal disturbance of cellular communication and molecular signatures. Here we describe the basic principles of the technique, the different types of laser capture microdissection, and the subsequent downstream analyses. This article will also discuss how the technique has been employed in cutaneous research, as well as future directions.

  8. Laser capture microdissection in Ectocarpus siliculosus: the pathway to cell-specific transcriptomics in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Denis eSaint-Marcoux; Bernard eBilloud; Jane Alison Langdale; Bénédicte eCharrier

    2015-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) facilitates the isolation of individual cells from tissue sections, and when combined with RNA amplification techniques, it is an extremely powerful tool for examining genome-wide expression profiles in specific cell-types. LCM has been widely used to address various biological questions in both animal and plant systems, however, no attempt has been made so far to transfer LCM technology to macroalgae. Macroalgae are a collection of widespread eukaryotes li...

  9. Laser capture microdissection and genetic analysis of carbon-labeled Kupffer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Gehring; Edmond Sabo; Maryann E San Martin; Elizabeth M Dickson; Chao-Wen Cheng; Stephen H Gregory

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a method of labeling and microdissecting mouse Kupffer cells within an extraordinarily short period of time using laser capture microdissection (LCM). METHODS: Tissues are complex structures comprised of a heterogeneous population of interconnected cells. LCM offers a method of isolating a single cell type from specific regions of a tissue section. LCM is an essential approach used in conjunction with molecular analysis to study the functional interaction of cells in their native tissue environment. The process of labeling and acquiring cells by LCM prior to mRNA isolation can be elaborate, thereby subjecting the RNA to considerable degradation. Kupffer cell labeling is achieved by injecting India ink intravenously, thus circumventing the need for in vitro staining. The significance of this novel approach was validated using a cholestatic liver injury model. RESULTS: mRNA extracted from the microdissected cell population displayed marked increases in colonystimulating factor-1 receptor and Kupffer cell receptor message expression, which demonstrated Kupffer cell enrichment. Gene expression by Kupffer cells derived from bile-duct-ligated, versus sham-operated, mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed a significant (2.5-fold, q value < 10) change in 493 genes. Based on this fold-change and a standardized PubMed search, 10 genes were identified that were relevant to the ability of Kupffer cells to suppress liver injury.CONCLUSION: The methodology outlined herein provides an approach to isolating high quality RNA from Kupffer cells, without altering the tissue integrity.

  10. Maintaining RNA integrity in a homogeneous population of mammary epithelial cells isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection

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    Helbling Jean-Christophe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser-capture microdissection (LCM that enables the isolation of specific cell populations from complex tissues under morphological control is increasingly used for subsequent gene expression studies in cell biology by methods such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, microarrays and most recently by RNA-sequencing. Challenges are i to select precisely and efficiently cells of interest and ii to maintain RNA integrity. The mammary gland which is a complex and heterogeneous tissue, consists of multiple cell types, changing in relative proportion during its development and thus hampering gene expression profiling comparison on whole tissue between physiological stages. During lactation, mammary epithelial cells (MEC are predominant. However several other cell types, including myoepithelial (MMC and immune cells are present, making it difficult to precisely determine the specificity of gene expression to the cell type of origin. In this work, an optimized reliable procedure for producing RNA from alveolar epithelial cells isolated from frozen histological sections of lactating goat, sheep and cow mammary glands using an infrared-laser based Arcturus Veritas LCM (Applied Biosystems® system has been developed. The following steps of the microdissection workflow: cryosectioning, staining, dehydration and harvesting of microdissected cells have been carefully considered and designed to ensure cell capture efficiency without compromising RNA integrity. Results The best results were obtained when staining 8 μm-thick sections with Cresyl violet® (Ambion, Applied Biosystems® and capturing microdissected cells during less than 2 hours before RNA extraction. In addition, particular attention was paid to animal preparation before biopsies or slaughtering (milking and freezing of tissue blocks which were embedded in a cryoprotective compound before being immersed in isopentane. The amount of RNA thus obtained from ca.150 to 250 acini

  11. Isolation of cardiac conduction system of rat heart by laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; NIU Xiao-lin; REN Fu-xian; HUANG Chen; LEI Cong; LI Zhe; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To isolate cells of cardiac conduction system (CCS) with laser capture microdissection (LCM) and extract and evaluate quality of small amount of RNA from cells of CCS. Methods: Cryostat sections were followed by H-E staining. 20 pieces of H-E stained cryostat sections were scraped and its RNA was assessed to insure that RNA didn't degrade in dyeing and dehydration process. Cells of CCS were captured with LCM and quality of small amount of RNA was verified with RT-PCR. Results: Cells of CCS isolated with LCM had clear morphology after staining. High quality RNA was extracted from LCM samples and scraped tissues; 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA were seen distinctly on gel electrophoresis. Low level of small amount of RNA extracted from LCM sample was below the limit of detection on gel electrophoresis or ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The housekeeping genes β-actin and GAPDH were successfully amplified with small amount of RNA. Conclusion :This study resolves the problem of acquiring material of CCS precisely that hinders gene research of CCS. It is found out that the method is easy and reliable to extract and assess the quality of small amount of RNA from microdissected cells of CCS.

  12. Laser capture microdissection in Ectocarpus siliculosus: the pathway to cell-specific transcriptomics in brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eSaint-Marcoux

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser capture microdissection (LCM facilitates the isolation of individual cells from tissue sections, and when combined with RNA amplification techniques, it is an extremely powerful tool for examining genome-wide expression profiles in specific cell-types. LCM has been widely used to address various biological questions in both animal and plant systems, however, no attempt has been made so far to transfer LCM technology to macroalgae. Macroalgae are a collection of widespread eukaryotes living in fresh and marine water. In line with the collective effort to promote molecular investigations of macroalgal biology, here we demonstrate the feasibility of using LCM and cell-specific transcriptomics to study development of the brown alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus. We describe a workflow comprising cultivation and fixation of algae on glass slides, laser microdissection, and RNA amplification. To illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure, we show qPCR data and metrics obtained from cell-specific transcriptomes generated from both upright and prostrate filaments of Ectocarpus.

  13. Fusobacterium necrophorum determined as abortifacient in sheep by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, Bent; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2006-01-01

    at late pregnancy by a technique that combines laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (LCM-FISH). Cultural bacteriological examination had failed to identify an infectious agent but by histological examination, large colonies of bacteria associated with tissue......Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been extensively used for identification of individual microbial cells within their natural environment. The present work describes the identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in formalin-fixed tissue samples from three sets of ovine twins aborted......RNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe specific for F. necrophorum was used in a FISH assay. In situ hybridization showed a high density of F. necrophorum in all examined tissue sections. Simultaneous probing with a general bacterial probe EUB338 and the specific probe for F. necrophorum showed that no other bacteria could...

  14. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Direct cultivation-independent sequence retrieval of unidentified bacteria from histological tissue sections has been limited by the difficulty of selectively isolating specific bacteria from a complex environment. Here, a new DNA isolation approach is presented for prokaryotic cells....... By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r......RNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected microcolonies, and the subsequent DNA sequence analysis identified the dissected bacterial cells as belonging to the Brachyspira aalborgi cluster 1. The advantage of this technique is the ability to combine the histological recognition of the specific bacteria...

  15. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

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    Li Ming-Chung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Nissl Stain (NS, and for immunofluorescence (IF as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. Results The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. Conclusion RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  16. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

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    Vasmatzis George

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  17. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue.

  18. Proteome analysis of human gastric cardia adenocarcinoma by laser capture microdissection

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    Wang Yan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA has been increasing in the past two decades in China, but the molecular changes relating to carcinogenesis have not been well characterised. Methods In this study, we used a comparative proteomic approach to analyse the malignant and nonmalignant gastric cardia epithelial cells isolated by navigated laser capture microdissection (LCM from paired surgical specimens of human GCA. Results Twenty-seven spots corresponding to 23 proteins were consistently differentially regulated. Fifteen proteins were shown to be up-regulated, while eight proteins were shown to be down-regulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant columnar epithelial cells. The identified proteins appeared to be involved in metabolism, chaperone, antioxidation, signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, expressions of HSP27, 60, and Prx-2 in GCA specimens were further confirmed by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Conclusion These data indicate that the combination of navigated LCM with 2-DE provides an effective strategy for discovering proteins that are differentially expressed in GCA. Such proteins may contribute in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of GCA carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the combination provides potential clinical biomarkers that aid in early detection and provide potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Gene expression profiling of gastric cancer by microarray combined with laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Shiang Wu; Yi-Shing Lin; Yu-Ting Chang; Chia-Tung Shun; Ming-Tsan Lin; Jaw-Town Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the gene expression profile of gastric cancer (GC) by combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray and to correlate the profiling with histological subtypes. METHODS: Using LCM, pure cancer cells were procured from 45 cancerous tissues. After procurement of about 5 000 cells, total RNA was extracted and the quality of RNA was determined before further amplification and hybridization. One microgram of amplified RNA was converted to cDNA and hybridized to cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Among 45 cases, only 21 were qualified for their RNAs. A total of 62 arrays were performed. These included 42 arrays for cancer (21 cases with dyeswab duplication) and 20 arrays for non-tumorous cells (10 cases with dye-swab duplication) with universal reference. Analyzed data showed 504 genes were differentially expressed and could distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous groups with more than 99% accuracy. Of the 504 genes, trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3 were in the list and their expression patterns were consistent with previous reports. Immunohistochemical staining of trefoil factor 1 was also consistent with the array data. Analyses of the tumor group with these 504 genes showed that there were 3 subgroups of GC that did not correspond to any current classification system, including Lauren's classification. CONCLUSION: By using LCM, linear amplification of RNA, and cDNA microarray, we have identified a panel of genes that have the power to discriminate between GC and non-cancer groups. The new molecular classification and the identified novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis deserve further investigations to elucidate their dinicopathological significance.

  20. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

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    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  1. Gene expression Analysis of Neurons and Astrocytes Isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection from Frozen Human Brain Tissues.

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    Lidia Tagliafierro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different cell types and multiple cellular connections characterize the human brain. Gene expression analysis using a specific population of cells is more accurate than conducting analysis of the whole tissue homogenate, particularly in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, where a specific subset of cells is affected by the different pathology. Due to the difficulty to obtain homogenous cell populations, gene expression in specific cell-types (neurons, astrocytes, etc. has been understudied. To leverage the use of archive resources of frozen human brains in studies of neurodegenerative diseases, we developed and calibrated a method to quantify cell-type specific – neuronal, astrocytes – expression profiles of genes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Archive human frozen brain tissues were used to prepare slides for rapid immunostaining using cell-specific antibodies. The immunoreactive-cells were isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM. The enrichment for a particular cell-type of interest was validated in post-analysis stage by the expression of cell-specific markers. We optimized the technique to preserve the RNA integrity, so that the RNA was suitable for downstream expression analyses. Following RNA extraction, the expression levels were determined digitally using nCounter Single Cell Gene Expression assay (NanoString Technologies®. The results demonstrated that using our optimized technique we successfully isolated single neurons and astrocytes from human frozen brain tissues and obtained RNA of a good quality that was suitable for mRNA expression analysis. We present here new advancements compared to previous reported methods, which improve the method’s feasibility and its applicability for a variety of downstream molecular analyses. Our new developed method can be implemented in genetic and functional genomic research of neurodegenerative diseases and has the

  2. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    -related behaviors. Based on such findings our aim was to investigate the molecular differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampal granular cell layer of the rat dentate gyrus. Homogeneous isolation of this specific area was performed by laser-capture microdissection and Illumina microarray chips......Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...... and ventral granular cell layer with a false discovery rate below 5% and with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. From this pool of genes 45 genes were more than two-fold regulated, 13 genes being dorsally enriched and 32 genes being ventrally enriched. Moreover, cluster analysis based...

  3. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  4. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation AnalysisPhouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.<...

  5. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

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    Ray Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  6. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kassianos, Andrew J; Zuryn, Steven; Roper, Kathrein E; Osborne, Andrew; Sampangi, Sandeep; Francis, Leo; Raghunath, Vishwas; Healy, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD) with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC) are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i) confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii) provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii) identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv) describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  7. Pathway-focused PCR array profiling of enriched populations of laser capture microdissected hippocampal cells after traumatic brain injury.

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    Deborah R Boone

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI are associated with irreversible neurodegeneration in brain regions such as the hippocampus. Comparative gene expression analysis of dying and surviving neurons could provide insight into potential therapeutic targets. We used two pathway-specific PCR arrays (RT2 Profiler Apoptosis and Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR arrays to identify and validate TBI-induced gene expression in dying (Fluoro-Jade-positive or surviving (Fluoro-Jade-negative pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. In the Apoptosis PCR array, dying neurons showed significant increases in expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress compared with adjacent, surviving neurons. Pro-survival genes with pleiotropic functions were also significantly increased in dying neurons compared to surviving neurons, suggesting that even irreversibly injured neurons are able to mount a protective response. In the Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR array, which consists of genes that are normally expected to be expressed in both groups of hippocampal neurons, only a few genes were expressed at significantly different levels between dying and surviving neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis of selected, differentially expressed proteins supported the gene expression data. This is the first demonstration of pathway-focused PCR array profiling of identified populations of dying and surviving neurons in the brain after TBI. Combining precise laser microdissection of identifiable cells with pathway-focused PCR array analysis is a practical, low-cost alternative to microarrays that provided insight into neuroprotective signals that could be therapeutically targeted to ameliorate TBI-induced neurodegeneration.

  8. The development of chromosome microdissection and microcloning technique and its applications in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruo-Nan; Hu, Zan-Min

    2007-03-01

    The technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning has been developed for more than 20 years. As a bridge between cytogenetics and molecular genetics, it leads to a number of applications: chromosome painting probe isolation, genetic linkage map and physical map construction, and expressed sequence tags generation. During those 20 years, this technique has not only been benefited from other technological advances but also cross-fertilized with other techniques. Today, it becomes a practicality with extensive uses. The purpose of this article is to review the development of this technique and its application in the field of genomic research. Moreover, a new method of generating ESTs of specific chromosomes developed by our lab is introduced. By using this method, the technique of chromosome microdissection and microcloning would be more valuable in the advancement of genomic research.

  9. Gene expression profiles of Beta-cell enriched tissue obtained by laser capture microdissection from subjects with type 2 diabetes.

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    Lorella Marselli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells from type 2 diabetes (T2D should provide insights into their abnormal insulin secretion and turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frozen sections were obtained from cadaver pancreases of 10 control and 10 T2D human subjects. Beta-cell enriched samples were obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. RNA was extracted, amplified and subjected to microarray analysis. Further analysis was performed with DNA-Chip Analyzer (dChip and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. There were changes in expression of genes linked to glucotoxicity. Evidence of oxidative stress was provided by upregulation of several metallothionein genes. There were few changes in the major genes associated with cell cycle, apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress. There was differential expression of genes associated with pancreatic regeneration, most notably upregulation of members of the regenerating islet gene (REG family and metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7. Some of the genes found in GWAS studies to be related to T2D were also found to be differentially expressed. IGF2BP2, TSPAN8, and HNF1B (TCF2 were upregulated while JAZF1 and SLC30A8 were downregulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study made possible by LCM has identified many novel changes in gene expression that enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D.

  10. Laser capture microdissection of uredinia formed by Melampsora larici-populina revealed a transcriptional switch between biotrophy and sporulation.

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    Hacquard, Stéphane; Delaruelle, Christine; Legué, Valérie; Tisserant, Emilie; Kohler, Annegret; Frey, Pascal; Martin, Francis; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2010-10-01

    The foliar rust caused by the basidiomycete Melampsora larici-populina is the main disease affecting poplar plantations in Europe. The biotrophic status of rust fungi is a major limitation to study gene expression of cell or tissue types during host infection. At the uredinial stage, infected poplar leaves contain distinct rust tissues such as haustoria, infection hyphae, and uredinia with sporogenous hyphae and newly formed asexual urediniospores. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate three areas corresponding to uredinia and subjacent zones in the host mesophyll for expression analysis with M. larici-populina whole-genome exon oligoarrays. Optimization of tissue preparation prior to LCM allowed isolation of RNA of good integrity for genome-wide expression profiling. Our results indicate that the poplar rust uredinial stage is marked by distinct genetic programs related to biotrophy in the host palisade mesophyll and to sporulation in the uredinium. A strong induction of transcripts encoding small secreted proteins, likely containing rust effectors, is observed in the mesophyll, suggesting a late maintenance of suppression of host defense in the tissue containing haustoria and infection hyphae. On the other hand, cell cycle and cell defense rescue transcripts are strongly accumulated in the sporulation area. This combined LCM-transcriptomic approach brings new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying urediniospore formation in rust fungi.

  11. Identification of pro-angiogenic markers in blood vessels from stroked-affected brain tissue using laser-capture microdissection

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    Baldellou Maribel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis correlates with patient survival following acute ischaemic stroke, and survival of neurons is greatest in tissue undergoing angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for the development of new microvessels and leads to re-formation of collateral circulation, reperfusion, enhanced neuronal survival and improved recovery. Results Here, we have isolated active (CD105/Flt-1 positive and inactive (CD105/Flt-1 minus (n=5 micro-vessel rich-regions from stroke-affected and contralateral tissue of patients using laser-capture micro-dissection. Areas were compared for pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression using targeted TaqMan microfluidity cards containing 46 genes and real-time PCR. Further analysis of key gene de-regulation was performed by immunohistochemistry to define localization and expression patterns of identified markers and de novo synthesis by human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC was examined following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Our data revealed that seven pro-angiogenic genes were notably up-regulated in CD105 positive microvessel rich regions. These were, beta-catenin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor-alpha (HGF-alpha, monocyte chemottractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and and Tie-2 as well as c-kit. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining of MMP-2, HGF-alpha, MCP-1 and Tie-2 in stroke-associated regions of active remodeling in association with CD105 positive staining. In vitro, OGD stimulated production of Tie-2, MCP-1 and MMP-2 in HBMEC, demonstrated a de novo response to hypoxia. Conclusion In this work we have identified concurrent activation of key angiogenic molecules associated with endothelial cell migration, differentiation and tube-formation, vessel stabilization and stem cell homing mechanisms in areas of revascularization. Therapeutic stimulation of these

  12. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Su, Hua; Long, Brian; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hetts, Steven W.; Higashida, Randall T.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Halbach, Van V.; Cooke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC) enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technique, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Methods Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 in. J-shape guide wires. Each of these samples was equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry-coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Conclusion Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection. PMID:25450638

  13. Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

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    Chen Luping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas. Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis. Our newly developed immuno-laser capture microdissection (LCM method would permit rapid and reliable procurement of prolactin cells from this heterogeneous tissue. Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis. Results Proteins from immuno-LCM captured prolactin cells were digested; resulting peptides were separated by two dimensional-nanoscale liquid chromatography (2D-nanoLC/MS and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified. This collection of identified proteins by far represents the largest and the most comprehensive database of proteome for prolactinoma. Category analysis of the proteome revealed a widely unbiased access to various proteins with diverse functional characteristics. Conclusions This manuscript described a more comprehensive proteomic profile of prolactinomas compared to other previous published reports. Thanks to the application of immuno-LCM combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography here permitted identification of more proteins and, to our best knowledge, generated the largest prolactinoma proteome. This enlarged proteome would contribute significantly to further understanding of prolactinoma tumorigenesis which is crucial to the management of

  14. Study of differential proteins in lung adenocarcinoma using laser capture microdissection combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Li-na; LIN Xiu-li; LIU Yan-feng; LIN Yu-rong; RONG Biao-xue; YANG Shuan-ying; LI Feng-tao; SHANG Wen-li; ZHANG Wei; HUO Shu-fen; NAN Yan-dong; TIAN Ying-xuan; DU Jie

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years the proportion of lung adenocarcinoma (adCA) which occurs in lung cancer patients has increased. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology, we aimed to screen lung cancer biomarkers by studying the proteins in the tissues of adCA.Methods We used LCM and magnetic bead based weak cation exchange (MB-WCX) to separate and purify the homogeneous adCA cells and normal calls from six cases of fresh adCA and matched normal lung tissues. The proteins were analyzed and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-OF-MS). We screened for the best pattern using a radial basic function neural network algorithm.Results About 2.895x106 and 1.584x106 cells were satisfactorily obtained by LCM from six cases of fresh lung adCA and matched normal lung tissues, respectively. The homogeneities of cell population were estimated to be over 95% as determined by microscopic visualization. Comparing the differentially expressed proteins between the lung adCA and the matched normal lung group, 221 and 239 protein peaks, respectively, were found in the mass-to-charge ration (M/Z)between 800 Da and 10 000 Da. According to t test, the expression of two protein peaks at 7521.5 M/Z and 5079.3 M/Z had the largest difference between tissues. They were more weakly expressed in the lung adCA compared to the matched normal group. The two protein peaks could accurately separate the lung adCA from the matched normal lung group by the sample distribution chart. A discriminatory pattern which can separate the lung adCA from the matched normal lung tissue consisting of three proteins at 3358.1 M/Z, 5079.3 M/Z and 7521.5 M/Z was established by a radial basic function neural network algorithm with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%.Conclusions Differential proteins in lung adCA were screened using LCM combined with liquid chip-mass spectrometry technology, and a

  15. Phylogeny and distribution of an unknown Treponema sp. associated with porcine colitis by using in situ hybridization and laser capture microdissection (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    Helical-shaped bacteria resembling Spirochaetes commonly are present in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. Culturing of Spirochaetes is in general fastidious and not always successful. Here, a new DNA isolation approach for prokaryotic cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue...... species was recognized in pigs by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells from the colonic mucosa. Direct 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected micro-colonies. A phylogenetic analysis clustered the 16S rRNA gene...

  16. Application of chromosomal microdissection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse chromosome painting in prenatal diagnosis

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    Wang, N.; Xu, J.; Cedrone, E. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes have been found in about 0.04% of amniotic fluid cultures. The origin of these marker chromosomes is difficult to identify by routine chromosome banding analysis. In the present study, we applied microdissection, PCR, and reverse chromosome painting to two amniotic fluid cases with a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar, and 47,XX,+?i(9p), respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the biotin-labeled DNA probe generated from 5 copies of the dissected marker chromosomes was applied to the normal metaphase spreads and revealed that the marker originated from the p arm of chromosomes 14 and 22, while the ?i(9p) was actually i(4p). Reverse painting of the same probe to the metaphase spreads of the patients completely painted the marker chromosomes in question, which confirms the accuracy of the analysis. Our study provides an example of the application of chromosome microdissection and molecular cytogenetics in prenatal diagnosis for the identification of marker chromosomes unidentifiable by routine analysis.

  17. Laser capture microdissection-based in vivo genomic profiling of wound keratinocytes identifies similarities and differences to squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Leethanakul, Chidchanop; Patel, Vyomesh;

    2003-01-01

    keratinocytes from incisional mouse skin wounds and adjacent normal skin keratinocytes. Changes in gene expression were determined by comparative cDNA array analyses, and the approach was validated by in situ hybridization. The analyses identified 48 candidate genes not previously associated with wound...... microdissection and cDNA array analysis provides a powerful new tool to unravel the complex changes in gene expression that underlie physiological and pathological remodeling of keratinized epithelium....

  18. Unambiguous detection of multiple TP53 gene mutations in AAN-associated urothelial cancer in Belgium using laser capture microdissection.

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    Selda Aydin

    Full Text Available In the Balkan and Taiwan, the relationship between exposure to aristolochic acid and risk of urothelial neoplasms was inferred from the A>T genetic hallmark in TP53 gene from malignant cells. This study aimed to characterize the TP53 mutational spectrum in urothelial cancers consecutive to Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy in Belgium. Serial frozen tumor sections from female patients (n=5 exposed to aristolochic acid during weight-loss regimen were alternatively used either for p53 immunostaining or laser microdissection. Tissue areas with at least 60% p53-positive nuclei were selected for microdissecting sections according to p53-positive matching areas. All areas appeared to be carcinoma in situ. After DNA extraction, mutations in the TP53 hot spot region (exons 5-8 were identified using nested-PCR and sequencing. False-negative controls consisted in microdissecting fresh-frozen tumor tissues both from a patient with a Li-Fraumeni syndrome who carried a p53 constitutional mutation, and from KRas mutated adenocarcinomas. To rule out false-positive results potentially generated by microdissection and nested-PCR, a phenacetin-associated urothelial carcinoma and normal fresh ureteral tissues (n=4 were processed with high laser power. No unexpected results being identified, molecular analysis was pursued on malignant tissues, showing at least one mutation in all (six different mutations in two patients, with 13/16 exonic (nonsense, 2; missense, 11 and 3/16 intronic (one splice site mutations. They were distributed as transitions (n=7 or transversions (n=9, with an equal prevalence of A>T and G>T (3/16 each. While current results are in line with A>T prevalence previously reported in Balkan and Taiwan studies, they also demonstrate that multiple mutations in the TP53 hot spot region and a high frequency of G>T transversion appear as a complementary signature reflecting the toxicity of a cumulative dose of aristolochic acid ingested over a short period

  19. A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

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    D'Antonio Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis. Patient and methods We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL, incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR after laser capture microdissection. The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter, composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL. Conclusion Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

  20. Rapid generation of region-specific probes by chromosome microdissection: Application to the identification of chromosomal rearrangements

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    Trent, J.M.; Guan, X.Y.; Zang, J.; Meltzer, P.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors present results using a novel strategy for chromosome microdissection and direct in vitro amplification of specific chromosomal regions, to identify cryptic chromosome alterations, and to rapidly generate region-specific genomic probes. First, banded chromosomes are microdissected and directly PCR amplified by a procedure which eliminates microchemistry (Meltzer, et al., Nature Genetics, 1:24, 1992). The resulting PCR product can be used for several applications including direct labeling for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to normal metaphase chromosomes. A second application of this procedure is the extremely rapid generation of chromosome region-specific probes. This approach has been successfully used to determine the derivation of chromosome segments unidentifiable by standard chromosome banding analysis. In selected instances these probes have also been used on interphase nuclei and provides the potential for assessing chromosome abnormalities in a variety of cell lineages. The microdissection probes (which can be generated in <24 hours) have also been utilized in direct library screening and provide the possibility of acquiring a significant number of region-specific probes for any chromosome band. This procedure extends the limits of conventional cytogenetic analysis by providing an extremely rapid source of numerous band-specific probes, and by enabling the direct analysis of essentially any unknown chromosome region.

  1. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

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    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes of primary spermatocyte against round spermatid isolated from human testis using the laser capture microdissection technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LIANG; Xiao Dong ZHANG; Lu Jing WANG; Yu Shen SHA; Jian Chao ZHANG; Shi Ying MIAO; Shu Dong ZONG; Lin Fang WANG; S.S. KOIDE

    2004-01-01

    The method of laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was developed to isolate specific germ cells from human testis sections and to identify the genes expressed during differentiation and development. In the present study, over 10,000 primary spermatocytes and round spermatid cells were successfully isolated by LCM. Using the cDNAs from primary spermatocytes and round spermatids, SSH cDNAs library of primary spermatocyte-specific was constructed. The average insert size of the cDNA isolated from 75randomly picked white clones was 500 bp, ranging from 250 bp to 1.7 kb. Using the dot-blot method, a total of 421clones were examined, resulting in the identification of 390 positive clones emitting strong signals. Partial sequence of cDNAs prepared from each clone was determined with an overall success rate of 84.4%. Genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase Ⅱ and the rescue factor-humanin were most frequently expressed in primary spermatocytes, suggesting their roles involved in meiosis.

  3. Laser capture microdissection followed by next-generation sequencing identifies disease-related microRNAs in psoriatic skin that reflect systemic microRNA changes in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Zibert, John R; Røpke, Mads A; Hafner, Markus; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Krueger, James G; Skov, Lone

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are differentially expressed in psoriatic skin; however, only few cell- and region-specific miRNAs have been identified in psoriatic lesions. We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to study the specific miRNA expression profiles in the epidermis (Epi) and dermal inflammatory infiltrates (RD) of psoriatic skin (N = 6). We identified 24 deregulated miRNAs in the Epi and 37 deregulated miRNAs in the RD of psoriatic plaque compared with normal psoriatic skin (FCH > 2, FDR < 0.05). Interestingly, 9 of the 37 miRNAs in RD, including miR-193b and miR-223, were recently described as deregulated in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, we found that miR-193b and miR-223 were expressed in Th17 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LCM combined with NGS provides a robust approach to explore the global miRNA expression in the epidermal and dermal compartments of psoriatic skin. Furthermore, our results indicate that the altered local miRNA changes seen in the RD are reflected in the circulating immune cells, suggesting that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  4. Western blot analysis of a limited number of cells: a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed tissue after laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Wim; Abbeloos, Vanessa; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Herman, Arnold G; Kockx, Mark M

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has been used successfully to obtain distinct populations of cells for subsequent molecular analysis. Because of the limited sample availability and the absence of in vitro amplification steps for proteins, the use of LCM for proteome analysis largely depends on highly sensitive protein detection methods. In this study, a western blot protocol was developed and validated for the detection of beta-actin and the moderately expressed cell death protein caspase-3 in small numbers of cells. Initially, cultured human U937 monocytes and whole sections of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils were used to optimize protein electrophoresis and western blotting conditions. High-performance NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels in combination with high-quality transfer membranes, optimized antibody concentrations, and a sensitive chemiluminescent substrate provided a strong signal for beta-actin with approximately 500 U937 cells. In the same way, procaspase-3 could be identified with approximately 1000 cells. Similar results were obtained with germinal centre cells that were procured from paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils by LCM. Treatment of U937 cells with etoposide rapidly induced cell death and allowed the detection of active caspase-3 with approximately 2500 cells (0.8 pg of protein). The findings of this study suggest that western blotting is a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of LCM procured cells.

  5. Laser Capture Microdissection of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections: Copy Number of the Virus in Cancerous and Normal Tissue and Heterogeneous DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mina; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Morales-Vazquez, Claudia Dalia; Zuna, Rosemary; Montiel, Delia Perez; Calleja-Macias, Itzel E.; Johansson, Bo; Andersson, Sonia; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Research on the pathogenicity of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) during cervical carcinogenesis often relies on the study of homogenized tissue or cultured cells. This approach does not detect molecular heterogeneities within the infected tissue. It is desirable to understand molecular properties in specific histological contexts. We asked whether Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) of archival cervical tumors in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing permits (i) sensitive DNA diagnosis of small clusters of formalin fixed cells, (ii) quantification of HPV DNA in neoplastic and normal cells, and (iii) analysis of HPV DNA methylation, a marker of tumor progression. We analyzed 26 tumors containing HPV-16 or 18. We prepared DNA from LCM dissected thin sections of 100 to 2000 cells, and analyzed aliquots corresponding to between nine and 70 cells. We detected nine to 630 HPV-16 genome copies and one to 111 HPV-18 genome copies per tumor cell, respectively. In 17 of the 26 samples, HPV DNA existed in histologically normal cells distant from the margins of the tumors, but at much lower concentrations than in the tumor, suggesting that HPVs can infect at low levels without pathogenic changes. Methylation of HPV DNA, a biomarker of integration of the virus into cellular DNA, could be measured only in few samples due to limited sensitivity, and indicated heterogeneous methylation patterns in small clusters of cancerous and normal cells. LCM is powerful to study molecular parameters of cervical HPV infections like copy number, latency and epigenetics. PMID:19497607

  6. Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: Cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis

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    Ingram Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescent cells are well-recognized in the aging/degenerating human disc. Senescent cells are viable, cannot divide, remain metabolically active and accumulate within the disc over time. Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells. Methods We employed a novel laser capture microdissection (LCM design to selectively harvest senescent and non-senescent annulus cells in paraffin-embedded tissue, and compared their gene expression with microarray analysis. LCM was used to separately harvest senescent and non-senescent cells from 11 human annulus specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in expression levels in senescent cells vs non-senescent cells: 292 genes were upregulated, and 321 downregulated. Genes with established relationships to senescence were found to be significantly upregulated in senescent cells vs. non-senescent cells: p38 (MPAK14, RB-Associated KRAB zinc finger, Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible beta, p28ING5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 3; cyclin-dependent kinase 8 showed significant downregulation in senescent cells. Nitric oxidase synthase 1, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, both of which were significantly down-regulated in senescent cells, also showed significant changes. Additional genes related to cytokines, cell proliferation, and other processes were also identified. Conclusions Our LCM-microarray analyses identified a set of genes associated with senescence which were significantly upregulated in senescent vs non-senescent cells in the human annulus. These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. Other genes, including genes

  7. Application of laser microdissection to identify the mycorrhizal fungi that establish arbuscules inside root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, Andrea; Borriello, Roberto; Lumini, Erica; Scariot, Valentina; Bianciotto, Valeria; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Obligate symbiotic fungi that form arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF; belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum) are some of the most important soil microorganisms. AMFs facilitate mineral nutrient uptake from the soil, in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon, and promote water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. AMFs colonize the root by producing inter- and intra-cellular hyphae. When the fungus penetrates the inner cortical cells, it produces a complex ramified structure called arbuscule, which is considered the preferential site for nutrient exchange. Direct DNA extraction from the whole root and sequencing of ribosomal gene regions are commonly carried out to investigate intraradical AMF communities. Nevertheless, this protocol cannot discriminate between the AMFs that actively produce arbuscules and those that do not. To solve this issue, the authors have characterized the AMF community of arbusculated cells (AC) through a laser microdissection (LMD) approach, combined with sequencing-based taxa identification. The results were then compared with the AMF community that was found from whole root DNA extraction. The AMF communities originating from the LMD samples and the whole root samples differed remarkably. Five taxa were involved in the production of arbuscules, while two taxa were retrieved inside the root but not in the AC. Unexpectedly, one taxon was found in the AC, but its detection was not possible when extracting from the whole root. Thus, the LMD technique can be considered a powerful tool to obtain more precise knowledge on the symbiotically active intraradical AMF community.

  8. Application of laser microdissection to identify the mycorrhizal fungi that establish arbuscules inside root cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBerruti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obligate symbiotic fungi that form arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMF; belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum are some of the most important soil microorganisms. AMFs facilitate mineral nutrient uptake from the soil, in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon, and promote water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. AMFs colonize the root by producing inter- and intracellular hyphae. When the fungus penetrates the inner cortical cells, it produces a complex ramified structure called arbuscule, which is considered the preferential site for nutrient exchange. Direct DNA extraction from the whole root and sequencing of ribosomal gene regions are commonly carried out to investigate intraradical AMF communities. Nevertheless, this protocol cannot discriminate between the AMFs that actively produce arbuscules and those that do not. To solve this issue, the authors have characterized the AMF community of arbusculated cells through a laser microdissection (LMD approach, combined with sequencing-based taxa identification. The results were then compared with the AMF community that was found from whole root DNA extraction. The AMF communities originating from the LMD samples and the whole root samples differed remarkably. Five taxa were involved in the production of arbuscules, while two taxa were retrieved inside the root but not in the arbusculated cells. Unexpectedly, one taxon was found in the arbusculated cells, but its detection was not possible when extracting from the whole root. Thus, the LMD technique can be considered a powerful tool to obtain more precise knowledge on the symbiotically active intraradical AMF community.

  9. DNA from microdissected tissues may be extracted and stored on microscopic slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabecna, M; Steiner, P; Jirkovska, M

    2016-01-01

    With regard to complex structure of tissues, laser capture microdissection represents an important step in analytical workflow streaming to proper molecular characterization of different cell types in examined samples. Therefore the simple method for simultaneous processing of higher numbers of microdissected tissues leading not only to rapid and efficient DNA isolation but allowing also the repeated sampling and easy storage may be useful in the practice of histopathological laboratories. We elaborated such a methodology applicable downstream after the microdissection from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues.The tissues for examination are microdissected directly into the circular areas having the diameter 2 mm and marked on the microscopic slide. In this way, one slide is able to accommodate multiple samples. The DNA extraction is performed in low volume of buffer with Proteinase K in a droplet covered by mineral oil just on the slide. Mineral oil in the quality for molecular biology not only avoids evaporation during DNA extraction, but it helps to position the microdisssected tissue, to control the level of cell lysis microscopically and to protect the DNA sample during subsequent manipulations. We provided the evidence that DNA isolated by our methodology remains in the positions on microscopic slide for months without any changes in the lengths of available fragments and that it may be removed from each position repetitively for different kinds of analysis. The new methodological approach presented by us can be practically applied in broad spectrum of laboratories performing routinely genetic analysis on microdissected tissues.

  10. Short-term regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system under fasting and defined glucose-refeeding conditions in rats: a laser capture microdissection (LMD)-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Emelie M; Schellong, Karen; Melchior, Kerstin; Rodekamp, Elke; Ziska, Thomas; Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-04-25

    It is well established that under fasting conditions the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide (AGRP) is up-regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), while inconsistent data exist regarding fasting regulation of the anorexigenic neurohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Inconsistencies might have methodological reasons, especially concerning neuromorphological and/or experimental (nutritional) specificity. We analyzed the expression of both neuropeptides in ARC neurons, using lasercapture microdissection (LMD) and real-time PCR in 12h fasted vs. fed Wistar rats as well as after a standardized glucose load, i.e., under clinically relevant conditions in terms of diagnosing glucose intolerance in the human. Under fasting conditions, clear up-regulation of AGRP was observed, with increasing magnitude in ARC single neurons (SNP) as compared to ARC cell layers (+125% vs. +23%, resp.), closely correlated to hypoinsulinemia and hypoleptinemia. Surprisingly, in the fasting state POMC was not found to be down-regulated, neither in ARC cell layers nor in ARC single neurons (+9% vs. +6%). However, glucose-refeeding under diagnostically relevant conditions led to strong neuronal up-regulation of POMC expression in ARC SNP (+128%), and AGRP down-regulation (-50%). In conclusion, experimentally, topographically, and analytically specific and standardized conditions confirmed AGRP in ARC neurons as being neuronally up- and down-regulated, resp., depending on the general nutritional state, while POMC was found to be (up-) regulated only after peripheral glucose load. Findings suggest that POMC in ARC neurons acts glucose-mediated as an "anti-orexigenic" neurohormone, specifically responding to hyperglycemia.

  11. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions.

  12. 激光显微切割技术在肾脏学研究中的应用%The use of laser capture microdissection in the research of nephrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许辉; 唐荣; 陶立坚; Margetts J Peter

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨应甩激光显微切割技术(LCM)切割肾小球和肾小管.方法 应用LCM采集肾小球和肾小管,real-timePCR(实时PCR,real-time polymerase chain reaction)检测肾小球特异性基因nephrin在肾小球和肾小管的表达.并采用LCM技术采集肾小球,蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western-blotting)检测Actin基因在肾小球的表达.结果 Nephrin在肾小球的表达明显高于肾小管(P<0.05);Western-blotting能清晰地检测Actin基因在肾小球的表达.结论 应用LCM能快速、单一、完整地采集肾小球,其采集的样品质量符合real-time PCR和Western-blotting的要求.%Objective To explore how to use laser capture microdissection(LCM)to collect glomerulus.Methods LCM was used tocollect the normal glomerulus,renal mbes and glomerula.real-time PCR(real-time polymerase chain reaction)was used to detect the speeificity gene of glomerula nephrin expression at the glomerulus and renal tubes.Western-blotting was used to detect Actin expression at glomerulus.Results The results of LCM/real-time PCR revealed that the expression of nephrin gene in the glomerulus was higher than that in renal tubes (P<0.05).Actin expression at glomeruhs can be easily detected by LCM/Western-blotting.Conclusions Glomernlus can be rapidly,simply and fully collected by LCM.The quality of the collected glomerulus is suitable for real-time PCR and Western-blotting.

  13. Stage-specific gene expression during spermatogenesis in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a fish with semi-cystic type of spermatogenesis, as assessed by laser capture microdissection and absolute quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Viñas, Jordi; Mechaly, Alejandro S; Planas, Josep V; Piferrer, Francesc

    2013-07-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process where hormonal signals regulate the interaction of different cell types in a tight spatial and temporal fashion. The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a marine flatfish that, in contrast to many fish, exhibits a semi-cystic, asynchronous pattern of spermatogenesis progression. This pattern is characterized by the release of spermatids into the tubule lumen, where they transform into spermatozoa. In this study, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate cells from cysts containing spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids or spermatozoa in order to investigate developmental patterns of gene expression. Furthermore, we also analyzed the stage-specific expression of the same set of genes throughout spermatogenesis (early-mid, late and maturing spermatogenic stages) in tissue fragments of the Senegalese sole testis. Genes analyzed by absolute qPCR in cysts isolated by LCM and stage-specific testis samples included genes involved in steroid synthesis and action (3β-hsd, 17β-hsd, 20β-hsd, star, star-like, progesterone receptor), gonadotropin action (fshr, lhr), the kisspeptin system (kiss2, kiss2r) and other genes important for the production of mature gametes (zona pellucida 2.2, claudin and clusterin). Our results show that, in general, steroidogenesis-related genes tended to increase with spermatogenesis progression and that 3β-hsd and 20β-hsd were expressed in germ cells but 17β-hsd was not. Our results also show that fshr is expressed in most testicular cell types, including germ cells. In contrast, lhr is expressed only in late spermatogenesis and is not expressed in any of the germ cell types examined, indicating that, in contrast to fshr, lhr may be primarily expressed in non-germinal cells (e.g. Leydig cells). Furthermore, kisspeptin and its receptor were expressed in all germ cell types examined and, as expected, gamete maturation-related genes were more expressed in mature stages. These results

  14. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano, Monica; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Roberts, Jennifer M; Machalek, Dorothy A; Phillips, Samuel; Chandler, David; Hillman, Richard J; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Cornall, Alyssa M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.

  15. Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, John

    The Social Web constitutes a shift in information flow from the traditional Web. Previously, content was provided by the owners of a website, for consumption by the end-user. Nowadays, these websites are being replaced by Social Web applications which are frameworks for the publication of user-provided content. Traditionally, Web content could be `trusted' to some extent based on the site it originated from. Algorithms such as Google's PageRank were (and still are) used to compute the importance of a website, based on analysis of underlying link topology. In the Social Web, analysis of link topology merely tells us about the importance of the information framework which hosts the content. Consumers of information still need to know about the importance/reliability of the content they are reading, and therefore about the reliability of the producers of that content. Research into trust and reputation of the producers of information in the Social Web is still very much in its infancy. Every day, people are forced to make trusting decisions about strangers on the Web based on a very limited amount of information. For example, purchasing a product from an eBay seller with a `reputation' of 99%, downloading a file from a peer-to-peer application such as Bit-Torrent, or allowing Amazon.com tell you what products you will like. Even something as simple as reading comments on a Web-blog requires the consumer to make a trusting decision about the quality of that information. In all of these example cases, and indeed throughout the Social Web, there is a pressing demand for increased information upon which we can make trusting decisions. This chapter examines the diversity of sources from which trust information can be harnessed within Social Web applications and discusses a high level classification of those sources. Three different techniques for harnessing and using trust from a range of sources are presented. These techniques are deployed in two sample Social Web

  16. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  17. Use of chromosome microdissection in fish molecular cytogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome microdissection is a technique in which whole chromosomes or chromosomal segments are dissected under an inverted microscope yielding chromosome-specific sequences. Several protocol modifications introduced during the past 15 years reduced the number of chromosomes required for most applications. This is of particular interest to fish molecular cytogenetics, since most species present highly uniform karyotypes which make impossible the collection of multiple copies of the same chro...

  18. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  19. Molecular diagnosis in early mycosis fungoides using T-cell receptor gene rearrangement by laser capture microdissection and genescan%早期蕈样肉芽肿采用激光捕获显微切割及基因扫描分子诊断基因重排的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 涂平; 卜定方; 武玲慎

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究激光捕获显微切割及基因扫描定性检测T细胞受体(TCR)_γ基因重排在早期蕈样肉芽肿(MF)细胞中表达的可行性.方法:激光捕获显微切割(laser capture microdissection,LCM)分离早期MF中的肿瘤细胞,荧光标记引物双重聚合酶链反应(PCR)和基因扫描(GeneScan)分析TCR _γ基因重排.结果:9例早期MF的TCR_γ/基因重排检出率为66.7%(6/9).2例肿瘤期MF的检出率为100%.结论:激光捕获显微切割技术可用于诊断早期MF的TCR_γ基凶重排检测.

  20. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena G Golubeva

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc. and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection and membrane (laser cutting microdissection slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction

  1. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  3. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  4. Application of halloysite nanotubes for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Joo-Youp; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-04-01

    Halloysite is a naturally occurring clay, with physical structure represented by halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). We investigated the potential applicability of HNTs for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, using two amine-functionalized HNTs: (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-grafted HNTs and polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated HNTs. APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs resulted in 5.6 and 30 wt. % (in sorbent) in functionalization onto HNTs, respectively. Capture efficiency was higher in APTES-HNTs at lower temperatures, while it was maximum in PEI-HNTs at 70°C-75 °C. At 75 °C, adsorption/desorption tests showed that 95% of the two reactions occurred within 30 min, and exhibited 0.15 and 0.21 millimole of CO2 adsorption capacity per millimole of amine group for APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs, respectively. During 10 cycles of CO2 adsorption/desorption, there was no significant decrease in sorbent weight and adsorption capacity in both HNTs. These results show that inherent structural features of HNTs can be easily tailored for the development of operational condition-specific CO2 capture system.

  5. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  6. Theory and Application of Dissociative Electron Capture in Molecular Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Havey, C D; Jones, T; Voorhees, K J; Laramee, J A; Cody, R B; Clougherty, D P; Eberhart, Mark; Voorhees, Kent J.; Laramee, James A.; Cody, Robert B.; Clougherty, Dennis P.

    2006-01-01

    The coupling of an electron monochromator (EM) to a mass spectrometer (MS) has created a new analytical technique, EM-MS, for the investigation of electrophilic compounds. This method provides a powerful tool for molecular identification of compounds contained in complex matrices, such as environmental samples. EM-MS expands the application and selectivity of traditional MS through the inclusion of a new dimension in the space of molecular characteristics--the electron resonance energy spectrum. However, before this tool can realize its full potential, it will be necessary to create a library of resonance energy scans from standards of the molecules for which EM-MS offers a practical means of detection. Here, an approach supplementing direct measurement with chemical inference and quantum scattering theory is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of directly calculating resonance energy spectra. This approach makes use of the symmetry of the transition-matrix element of the captured electron to discriminat...

  7. Isolation and Amplification Genomic DNA from Endometriotic Cells Obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection%激光显微切割技术用于子宫内膜异位组织DNA的提取及其完整性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵路阳; 李小雷; 张燕; 赵亚力; 韩为东; 孟元光

    2013-01-01

    目的::探索一套激光显微切割(LCM)分离子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞后提取微量DNA并进行完整性分析的操作流程。方法:分别对20例石蜡标本及20例冰冻标本进行LCM,收集切割后的腺体细胞;2组标本各取10例提取微量DNA,检测DNA浓度并通过PCR扩增进行验证;余20例标本分别进行全基因组扩增,检测产物浓度并利用8种常见管家基因作为引物通过PCR扩增进行验证,对比分析其结果。结果:石蜡标本与冰冻标本在LCM获取腺体细胞及提取微量DNA两个环节中均可获得满意效果;但经全基因组扩增后,石蜡标本无法保留完整DNA信息。结论:LCM获取子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞提取微量DNA是一种操作简单、结果稳定的方法,可作为日后子宫内膜异位症基因组研究的常规方法;冰冻切片相对石蜡切片,更能保留完整的DNA信息。%Objective: To detect a standard protocol for isolation of low amount DNA from the endometriotic cells obtained by laser capture microdissection(LCM). Methods: Using LCM to collect endometriotic cells from 20 paraffin specimens and 20 frozen specimens. 10 cases of each group were used to extract DNA. The others were used to do whole genome amplification. The production was validated by spectrophotometer and PCR was per-formed with housekeeping genes in different chromosomes. Results: Both the frozen samples and formalin-fixed par-affin embedded tissue can extract DNA production. However, after whole genome amplification, paraffin specimens can not remain intact DNA information. Conclusion: Isolation the genomic DNA from endometriotic cells obtained by LCM is a simple and stable method, which can be used as a routine approach for the future genome research of endometriosis.

  8. APPLICATION OF MICROPHONE ARRAYS FOR DISTANT SPEECH CAPTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Stolbov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of microphone arrays and beamforming techniques for speech information collection has significant advantages compared to systems operating with a single microphone. This paper presents a brief overview of microphone array systems for collecting distant speech information. The paper is based on an analysis of publications on the use of microphone arrays for speech information collection tasks, as well as on the author’s experience in the development and practical application of planar microphone arrays. The paper describes the main stages of the development of systems for remote capture of audio information. It provides a review of the main applications of microphone arrays, the basic types of microphone arrays and their features. The bulk of the paper deals with planar microphone arrays. We analyze the work of microphone arrays in different acoustic environments. The paper contains the basic equations for calculating the parameters of equidistant planar microphone arrays. Some methods of designing non-equidistant arrays are also mentioned (a list of references is included. We also provide a list of basic digital signal processing algorithms for planar microphone arrays, as well as a list of references on processing algorithms in the frequency domain. The paper includes a list of foreign companies offering systems based on microphone arrays for a wide range of tasks associated with the processing of speech and audio signals. We describe some state-of-the-art speech information collection systems based on microphone arrays. Some promising directions for the development of speech information collection systems using microphone arrays are described in conclusion. The material of the review is usable in designing of microphone arrays for specific practical applications.

  9. Microdissecção e captura a laser na investigação do gene TP53 em tecidos incluídos em parafina Laser-capture microdissection for TP53 gene analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Muhammad Ihlaseh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Microdissecção e captura a laser (MCL é uma técnica de desenvolvimento recente que permite a coleta de células individuais ou pequeno conjunto de células para análise molecular. Atualmente, no Brasil, há raros microscópios para MCL, de modo que a divulgação dos procedimentos inerentes a essa técnica é oportuna para destacar seu amplo potencial para diagnóstico e investigação. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho descreve a padronização dos procedimentos de MCL e de extração de DNA de material fixado em formalina e incluído em parafina. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e o gene da ciclofilina em amostras de tecido normal e de neoplasias de fígado e rim provenientes de modelo de carcinogênese química induzida em rato. A extração do DNA foi comprovada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (nested-PCR. RESULTADOS: Foram padronizados os procedimentos de preparo dos cortes histológicos, de microdissecção e captura a laser e de obtenção de seqüências gênicas pela reação de nested-PCR para tecidos incluídos em parafina. Obtivemos amplificação de 48,3% das amostras para o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e 51,7% para o gene da ciclofilina. Considerando pelo menos um dos dois segmentos gênicos, foram amplificadas 79,3% das amostras. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: A extração de DNA de tecidos fixados em formalina e incluídos em parafina e a técnica de nested-PCR foram adequadamente padronizadas para produtos gênicos de interesse, obtidos de material coletado por MCL. Esses procedimentos podem ser úteis para a obtenção de seqüências de DNA de arquivos para análise molecular.BACKGORUND: Laser-capture micro-dissection (LCM is a recently developed procedure that provides single cells or specific cell groups for molecular analysis. Currently, there are few LCM systems in Brazil, in such a way that it is necessary to disseminate the technical procedures inherent to the methodology, and also to

  10. Use of chromosome microdissection in fish molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome microdissection is a technique in which whole chromosomes or chromosomal segments are dissected under an inverted microscope yielding chromosome-specific sequences. Several protocol modifications introduced during the past 15 years reduced the number of chromosomes required for most applications. This is of particular interest to fish molecular cytogenetics, since most species present highly uniform karyotypes which make impossible the collection of multiple copies of the same chromosome. Probes developed in this manner can be used to investigate chromosome homologies in closely related species. Here we describe a protocol recently used in the gymnotiform species group Eigenmannia and review the major steps involved in the generation of these markers focusing on protocol modifications aiming to reduce the number of required chromosomes.

  11. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Brooks

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem (SAM maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1 or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1, a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  12. Purity and Enrichment of Laser-Microdissected Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2, average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65 expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells.

  13. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahui Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  14. Applications of markerless motion capture in gait recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Martin

    2016-03-01

    This thesis is based on four manuscripts where two of them were accepted and two were submitted to peer-reviewed journals. The experimental work behind the thesis was conducted at the Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen. The purpose of the studies was to explore the variability of human gait and to conduct new methods for precise estimation of the kinematic parameters applied in forensic gait analysis. The gait studies were conducted in a custom built gait laboratory designed to obtain optimal conditions for markerless motion analysis. The set-up consisted of eight synchronised cameras located in the corners of the laboratory, which were connected to a single computer. The captured images were processed with stereovision-based algorithms to provide accurate 3D reconstructions of the participants. The 3D reconstructions of the participants were obtained during normal walking and the kinematics were extracted with manual and automatic methods. The kinematic results from the automatic approach were compared to marker-based motion capture to validate the precision. The results showed that the proposed markerless motion capture method had a precision comparable to marker-based methods in the frontal plane and the sagittal plane. Similar markerless motion capture methods could therefore provide the basis for reliable gait recognition based on kinematic parameters. The manual annotations were compared to the actual anthropometric measurements obtained from MRI scans and the intra- and inter-observer variability was also quantified to observe the associated effect on recognition. The results showed not only that the kinematics in the lower extremities were important but also that the kinematics in the shoulders had a high discriminatory power. Likewise, the shank length was also highly discriminatory, which has not been previously reported. However, it is important that the same expert performs all annotations, as the inter

  15. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  16. Improving Capture-gamma Libraries for Nonproliferation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleaford, Brad W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurst, Aaron M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the measurement, evaluation and incorporation of new -ray spectroscopic data into the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) for nonproliferation applications. Analysis and processing techniques are described along with key deliverables that have been met over the course of this project. A total of nine new ENDF libraries have been submitted to the National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and are now available in the ENDF/B-VIII.beta2 release. Furthermore, this project has led to more than ten peer-reviewed publications and provided theses for ve graduate students. This project is a component of the NA-22 venture collaboration on \\Correlated Nuclear Data in Fission Events" (LA14-V-CorrData-PD2Jb).

  17. Application of advanced technologies for CO2 capture from industrial sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, M.C. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Anantharaman, R. [SINTEF Energy Research, Sem Saelands vei 11, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Arasto, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ozcan, D.C.; Ahnd, Hyungwoong [IMP-SEE, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Dijkstra, J.W.; Carbo, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Boavida, D. [LNEG - Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22 Edif J, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    The great majority of the research on CO2 capture worldwide is today devoted to the integration of new technologies in power plants, which are responsible for about 80% of the worldwide CO2 emission from large stationary sources. The remaining 20% are emitted from industrial sources, mainly cement production plants ({approx}7% of the total emission), refineries ({approx}6%) and iron and steel industry ({approx}5%). Despite their lower overall contribution, the CO2 concentration in flue gas and the average emission per source can be higher than in power plants. Therefore, application of CO2 capture processes on these sources can be more effective and can lead to competitive cost of the CO2 avoided with respect to power plants. Furthermore, industrial CO2 capture could be an important early-opportunity application, or a facilitate demonstration of capture technology at a relative small scale or in a side stream. This paper results from a collaborative activity carried out within the Joint Programme on Carbon Capture and Storage of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA CCS-JP) and aims at investigating the potentiality of new CO2 technologies in the application on the major industrial emitters.

  18. Microdissection of gonadal tissues for gene expression analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Sonne, Si Brask

    2011-01-01

    Laser microdissection permits isolation of specific cell types from tissue sections or cell cultures. This may be beneficial when investigating the role of specific cells in a complex tissue or organ. In tissues with easily distinguishable morphology, a simple hematoxylin staining is sufficient......, but in most cases a more specific staining is required to identify which cells to microdissect. We have established two staining protocols for frozen sections (1) Oil red O, which stains lipid droplet in fat cells and steroid-producing cells and (2) NBT BCIP, which stains cells expressing an alkaline...... protocols could also be used in other species and for other cell types containing lipid droplets or expressing alkaline phosphatase. Both protocols ensure a morphology that enables microdissection of single cells with RNA quality sufficient for subsequent gene expression analysis. However, RNA yields after...

  19. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-01-30

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.

  20. SCALABLE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MOTION CAPTURE SYSTEM “MOSCA”: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  1. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  2. A Self-Assessment Stereo Capture Model Applicable to the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yancong; Yang, Jiachen; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    The realization of the Internet of Things greatly depends on the information communication among physical terminal devices and informationalized platforms, such as smart sensors, embedded systems and intelligent networks. Playing an important role in information acquisition, sensors for stereo capture have gained extensive attention in various fields. In this paper, we concentrate on promoting such sensors in an intelligent system with self-assessment capability to deal with the distortion and impairment in long-distance shooting applications. The core design is the establishment of the objective evaluation criteria that can reliably predict shooting quality with different camera configurations. Two types of stereo capture systems-toed-in camera configuration and parallel camera configuration-are taken into consideration respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can effectively predict the visual perception of stereo capture quality for long-distance shooting.

  3. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2012-11-02

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method

  4. Improved resolution by mounting of tissue sections for laser microdissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Rombout, P.D.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Ruiter, D.J.; Bernsen, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laser microbeam microdissection has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations from tissue sections. However, the fact that a coverslip is not used means that the morphology of the tissue sections is often poor. AIMS: To develop a mounting method that greatly improv

  5. Human health risk assessment of nitrosamines and nitramines for potential application in CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnum, S; Rundén-Pran, E; Fjellsbø, L M; Dusinska, M

    2014-07-01

    Emission and accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere exert an environmental and climate change challenge. An attempt to deal with this challenge is made at Mongstad by application of amines for CO2 capture and storage (CO2 capture Mongstad (CCM) project). As part of the CO2 capture process, nitrosamines and nitramines may be emitted. Toxicological testing of nitrosamines and nitramines indicate a genotoxic potential of these substances. Here we present a risk characterization and assessment for five nitrosamines (N-Nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) N-Nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), N-Nitroso-morpholine (NNM), N-Nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and Dinitroso-piperazine (DNP)) and two nitramines (N-Methyl-nitramine (NTMA), Dimethyl-nitramine (NDTMA)), which are potentially emitted from the CO2 capture plant (CCP). Human health risk assessment of genotoxic non-threshold substances is a heavily debated topic, and no consensus methodology exists internationally. Extrapolation modeling from high-dose animal exposures to low-dose human exposures can be crucial for the final risk calculation. In the work presented here, different extrapolation models are discussed, and suggestions on applications are given. Then, preferred methods for calculating derived minimal effect level (DMEL) are presented with the selected nitrosamines and nitramines.

  6. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the 'laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  7. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L., E-mail: linda.veldhuizen@wur.nl [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands); Berentsen, P.B.M. [Business Economics group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, I.J.M. de [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  8. Study of Design Knowledge Capture (DKC) schemes implemented in magnetic bearing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A design knowledge capture (DKC) scheme was implemented using frame-based techniques. The objective of such a system is to capture not only the knowledge which describes a design, but also that which explains how the design decisions were reached. These knowledge types were labelled definitive and explanatory, respectively. Examination of the design process helped determine what knowledge to retain and at what stage that knowledge is used. A discussion of frames resulted in the recognition of their value to knowledge representation and organization. The FORMS frame system was used as a basis for further development, and for examples using magnetic bearing design. The specific contributions made by this research include: determination that frame-based systems provide a useful methodology for management and application of design knowledge; definition of specific user interface requirements, (this consists of a window-based browser); specification of syntax for DKC commands; and demonstration of the feasibility of DKC by applications to existing designs. It was determined that design knowledge capture could become an extremely valuable engineering tool for complicated, long-life systems, but that further work was needed, particularly the development of a graphic, window-based interface.

  9. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  10. Laser microdissection of sensory organ precursor cells of Drosophila microchaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalie Buffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Drosophila, each external sensory organ originates from the division of a unique precursor cell (the sensory organ precursor cell or SOP. Each SOP is specified from a cluster of equivalent cells, called a proneural cluster, all of them competent to become SOP. Although, it is well known how SOP cells are selected from proneural clusters, little is known about the downstream genes that are regulated during SOP fate specification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the mechanism involved in the specification of these precursor cells, we combined laser microdissection, toisolate SOP cells, with transcriptome analysis, to study their RNA profile. Using this procedure, we found that genes that exhibit a 2-fold or greater expression in SOPs versus epithelial cells were mainly associated with Gene Ontology (GO terms related with cell fate determination and sensory organ specification. Furthermore, we found that several genes such as pebbled/hindsight, scabrous, miranda, senseless, or cut, known to be expressed in SOP cells by independent procedures, are particularly detected in laser microdissected SOP cells rather than in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the feasibility and the specificity of our laser microdissection based procedure. We anticipate that this analysis will give new insight into the selection and specification of neural precursor cells.

  11. Murine Prostate Micro-dissection and Surgical Castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Amend, Sarah R; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-05-11

    Mouse models are used extensively to study prostate cancer and other diseases. The mouse is an excellent model with which to study the prostate and has been used as a surrogate for discoveries in human prostate development and disease. Prostate micro-dissection allows consistent study of lobe-specific prostate anatomy, histology, and cellular characteristics in the absence of contamination of other tissues. Testosterone affects prostate development and disease. Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for prostate cancer patients, but many prostate tumors become castration-resistant. Surgical castration of mouse models allows for the study of castration resistance and other facets of hormonal biology on the prostate. This procedure can be coupled with testosterone reintroduction, or hormonal regeneration of the prostate, a powerful method to study stem cell lineages in the prostate. Together, prostate micro-dissection and surgical castration opens up a multitude of opportunities for robust and consistent research of prostate development and disease. This manuscript describes the protocols for prostate micro-dissection and surgical castration in the laboratory mouse.

  12. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  13. Determination of desmethyldiazepam in plasma by electron-capture GLC: application to pharmacokinetic studies of clorazepate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, D J

    1978-03-01

    Plasma desmethyldiazepam concentrations were quantitated by a rapid and sensitive technique using electron-capture GLC. Following addition of diazepam as the internal standard, plasma is extracted at physiological pH into benzene-isoamyl alcohol. The extract is evaporated to dryness and reconstituted with toluene-isoamyl alcohol prior to chromatography. Both diazepam and desmethyldiazepam are quantitatively extracted. The variation of identical samples is 5%, and the sensitivity is 5 ng of desmethyldiazepam/ml of original sample. The method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies of clorazepate, a benzodiazepine derivative transformed to desmethyldiazepam prior to absorption.

  14. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-03-31

    By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of allowing identification of thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. For a given solid, the first step is to attempt to extract thermodynamic properties from thermodynamic databases and the available literatures. If the thermodynamic properties of the compound of interest are unknown, an ab initio thermodynamic approach is used to calculate them. These properties expressed conveniently as chemical potentials and heat of reactions, which obtained either from databases or from calculations, are further used for computing the thermodynamic reaction equilibrium properties of the CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are predicted at the desired process conditions are selected as CO2 sorbent candidates and are further considered for experimental validations. Solid sorbents containing alkali and alkaline earth metals have been reported in several previous studies to be good candidates for CO2 sorbent applications due to their high CO2 absorption capacity at moderate working temperatures. In addition to introducing our computational screening procedure, in this presentation we will summarize our results for solid systems composed by alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides, and carbon- ates/bicarbonates to validate our methodology. Additionally, applications of our computational method to mixed solid systems of Li2O with SiO2/ZrO2 with different mixing ratios, our preliminary results showed that increasing the Li2O/SiO2 ratio in

  15. Rational design of gold nanoparticles functionalized with carboranes for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Laura; Bortolussi, Silva; Postuma, Ian; Cansolino, Laura; Ferrari, Cinzia; Panza, Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Ristori, Sandra

    2013-12-31

    In this paper we propose a bottom-up approach to obtain new boron carriers built with ortho-carborane functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for applications in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The interaction between carboranes and the gold surface was assured by one or two SH-groups directly linked to the boron atoms of the B10C2 cage. This allowed obtaining stable, nontoxic systems, though optimal biological performance was hampered by low solubility in aqueous media. To improve cell uptake, the hydrophilic character of carborane functionalized GNPs was enhanced by further coverage with an appropriately tailored diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PCL). This polymer also contained pendant carboranes to provide anchoring to the pre-functionalized GNPs. In vitro tests, carried out on osteosarcoma cells, showed that the final vectors possessed excellent biocompatibility joint to the capacity of concentrating boron atoms in the target, which is encouraging evidenced to pursue applications in vivo.

  16. Microscopic investigations of site and functional selectivity of triazole for CO2 capture and catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulmène, Reda; Prakash, Muthuramalingam; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-11-02

    Ab initio and DFT studies on CO2 interacting with different tautomers and isomers of triazole (TZ) are carried out to understand the adsorption mechanism and their mutual preferential sites. We used post Hartree-Fock methods (MP2, CCSD(T), and CCSD(T)-F12) and various DFTs (PBE, PBE0, M05-2X, and M11) with and without considering the dispersion correction for comparison. We determined hence the equilibrium structures, vibrational frequencies and binding energies of TZ-CO2 clusters and mapped their potential energy surfaces along the intermonomer coordinates. We find that the most stable TZ-CO2 clusters, some of them are already known, are not relevant for CO2 capture in porous materials. In addition, we show that the bonding between TZ and CO2 is due to various kinds of noncovalent interactions such as π-stacking, acid-base pair electron donor-electron acceptor (EDA) interactions along with N-HO and C-HO H-bonds with CO2. Our analysis reveals the existence of site selectivity effects when CO2 binds to TZ. These effects are related to the magnitude of the interaction potentials, in the order EDA (+N-HO) > EDA (+C-HO) > C(δ+)N[double bond, length as m-dash]N > π-stacking > σ type N-HO > C-HO H-bonds. This is the first report on the importance of competition between EDA, π-stacking and σ-bonds for CO2 capture and catalytic applications. Findings from this work may be used to give insights into the site specific CO2 capture ability of porous materials such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs), zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) or functionalized polymers. Finally, we show that IR spectroscopy of CO2 within the pores is neither a specific nor an efficient marker in probe-molecule experiments.

  17. Laser microdissection and microsatellite analysis of colorectal adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Cruger, Dorthe G; Lindebjerg, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important marker in colorectal cancer. The analysis may be difficult if the tumour is heterogeneous or only scarce material is available. The aim of this study was to apply laser microdissection (LMD) to MSI analysis in an attempt to allow...... the MSI status. RESULTS: The method proved efficient in as little as 4,000 microm3 formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. The result of microsatellite analysis was independent of sample location in the primary tumour and its metastasis. CONCLUSION: LMD followed by a multiplex PCR...

  18. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  19. Adlayer-mediated antibody immobilization to stainless steel for potential application to endothelial progenitor cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, Pasquale; Neves, Miguel A D; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Romaschin, Alexander; Chung, Timothy; Kim, Sa Rang; Thompson, Michael

    2015-05-19

    This work describes the straightforward surface modification of 316L stainless steel with BTS, S-(11-trichlorosilylundecanyl)-benzenethiosulfonate, a thiol-reactive trichlorosilane cross-linker molecule designed to form intermediary coatings with subsequent biofunctionalization capability. The strategy is more specifically exemplified with the immobilization of intact antibodies and their Fab' fragments. Both surface derivatization steps are thoroughly characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antigen binding capability of both types of biofunctionalized surfaces is subsequently assessed by fluorescence microscopy. It was determined that BTS adlayers achieve robust immobilization of both intact and fragmented antibodies, while preserving antigen binding activity. Another key finding was the observation that the Fab' fragment immobilization strategy would constitute a preferential option over that involving intact antibodies in the context of in vivo capture of endothelial progenitor cells in stent applications.

  20. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell performance analysis varying cathode operating conditions for carbon capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audasso, Emilio; Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Bosio, Barbara; Discepoli, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The results of a systematic experimental campaign to verify the impact of real operating conditions on the performance of a complete Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) are presented. In particular, the effects of ageing and composition of water, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the cathodic feeding stream are studied through the analysis of current-voltage curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Based on a proposed equivalent electrical circuit model and a fitting procedure, a correlation is found among specific operating parameters and single EIS coefficients. The obtained results suggest a new performance monitoring approach to be applied to MCFC for diagnostic purpose. Particular attention is devoted to operating conditions characteristic of MCFC application as CO2 concentrators, which, by feeding the cathode with exhaust gases, is a promising route for efficient and cheap carbon capture.

  1. Application of the GEM Inventory Data Capture Tools for Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Recovery Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrucci, Enrica; Bevington, John; Vicini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    A set of open-source tools to create building exposure datasets for seismic risk assessment was developed from 2010-13 by the Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Risk Global Component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The tools were designed to integrate data derived from remotely-sensed imagery, statistically-sampled in-situ field data of buildings to generate per-building and regional exposure data. A number of software tools were created to aid the development of these data, including mobile data capture tools for in-field structural assessment, and the Spatial Inventory Data Developer (SIDD) for creating "mapping schemes" - statistically-inferred distributions of building stock applied to areas of homogeneous urban land use. These tools were made publically available in January 2014. Exemplar implementations in Europe and Central Asia during the IDCT project highlighted several potential application areas beyond the original scope of the project. These are investigated here. We describe and demonstrate how the GEM-IDCT suite can be used extensively within the framework proposed by the EC-FP7 project SENSUM (Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recovery Monitoring). Specifically, applications in the areas of 1) dynamic vulnerability assessment (pre-event), and 2) recovery monitoring and evaluation (post-event) are discussed. Strategies for using the IDC Tools for these purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the benefits of using advanced technology tools for data capture, especially in a systematic fashion using the taxonomic standards set by GEM. Originally designed for seismic risk assessment, it is clear the IDCT tools have relevance for multi-hazard risk assessment. When combined with a suitable sampling framework and applied to multi-temporal recovery monitoring, data generated from the tools can reveal spatio-temporal patterns in the quality of recovery activities and resilience trends can be

  2. D Capturing Performances of Low-Cost Range Sensors for Mass-Market Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Gonizzi, S.; Micoli, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010), several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i) Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii) F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  3. [The capture-recapture applied to epidemiology: principles, limits and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Nardone, A; Vaillant, V; Desenclos, J C

    2002-04-01

    By matching several sources of information coming from the same population, the capture-recapture method allows, if matches between sources can be identified, to estimate the number of cases not identified by any of the sources, the total number (N) of cases in the population and the sensitivity of each source. Used first in zoology and demography, this technique has been increasingly applied to epidemiology in the last two decades. However, six conditions need to be satisfied: all cases identified by each source are true cases; occurred during the time and the geographical area studied; the study population is closed; all matches are true matches; sources are independent and there is no heterogeneous catchability within sources. It is possible to assess and take into account dependence between sources when 3 or more sources are used, in particular by log linear modelling. However interactions of maximal order cannot be adjusted for. In case of a biased estimation because of the non respect of the conditions, it is recommended to apply a method of correction. The complete application of the methods is illustrated in the study of estimating the number of Salmonella infectious foodborne outbreak. As capture-recapture studies often use data collected for other purposes, this technique should be regarded as exploratory or be used to validate an estimate of a number of cases obtained by another method. It should not replace population sampling methods only because of its low cost. Otherwise it is a very informative approach to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of surveillance systems and registries.

  4. Behavioral data management using Visual Basics for Applications to automate data capture and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maurice L; Sweeney, Richard E

    2003-09-30

    Many researchers are familiar with the spreadsheet capabilities of Microsoft Excel, but have never explored using customized VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS (VBA) macros embedded in the program. At the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD), the implementation of VBA program code to carry out repetitive operations has resulted in a tremendous savings in both the time and manpower required to reliably capture, analyze, and plot data from research protocols. A set of "template" workbooks was developed and is used to organize data from different types of studies. At the heart of the concept is a "setup information" worksheet onto which the user enters information about the study (i.e. the number of subjects, groups, graphs). Clicking a control button on this worksheet launches the VBA code that creates worksheets for each subject, group and chart specified. A "pairmatch" function allows the user to create groups either randomly or by pair matching based on user-specified variables. Controls are provided that run VBA program code to parse subject data files into the proper worksheets and perform group averages. Charts are updated automatically whenever group averages change so that the researcher always has an up-to-date plot available. The ability to reformat the captured data onto a "statistical output" worksheet allows data to be imported easily to statistical software packages. The concept is being used for several different types of studies at USAMRICD and has significantly reduced not only amount of time spent on data management, but also the number of data entry errors. Readers interested in acquiring an electronic copy of the startle workbook example, which contains the complete VBA code, should send the request to the authors at reseco@erols.com or maurice.sipos@us.army.mil.

  5. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  6. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Morten; Fordyce, Sarah L.; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples. We tested the performance of Agilent's SureSelect and Mycroarray's MySelect in-solution capture systems on Illumina sequencing libraries built from ancient maize to identify key factors influencing aDNA capture experiments. High levels of clonality as well as the presence of multiple-copy sequences in the capture targets led to biases in the data regardless of the capture method. Neither method consistently outperformed the other in terms of average target enrichment, and no obvious difference was observed either when two tiling designs were compared. In addition to demonstrating the plausibility of capturing aDNA from ancient plant material, our results also enable us to provide useful recommendations for those planning targeted-sequencing on aDNA. PMID:22355593

  7. Application and comparison of large-scale solution-based DNA capture-enrichment methods on ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The development of second-generation sequencing technologies has greatly benefitted the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). Its application can be further exploited by the use of targeted capture-enrichment methods to overcome restrictions posed by low endogenous and contaminating DNA in ancient samples...

  8. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by laser capture micro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, H.; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, B.;

    2014-01-01

    were also able to localize individual transcripts as primarily epidermal (defensin, beta 4A [DEFB4A]) or dermal (IL22, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], and CCR7) and link their expressions to possible cellular sources. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes robust epidermal...

  9. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by means of laser capture microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, Hitokazu; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, Benjamin;

    2015-01-01

    transcriptome. We were also able to localize individual transcripts as primarily epidermal (defensin, beta 4A [DEFB4A]) or dermal (IL22, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], and CCR7) and link their expressions to possible cellular sources. Conclusions: This is the first report that establishes robust...

  10. Tetrakis(p-Carboranylthio-Tetrafluorophenyl)Chlorin (TPFC): Application for Photodynamic Therapy and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMATSU, RYO; KAWABATA, SHINJI; TANAKA, HIROKI; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; SUZUKI, MINORU; ONO, KOJI; MIYATAKE, SHIN-ICHI; KUROIWA, TOSHIHIKO; HAO, ERHONG; VICENTE, M. GRAÇA H.

    2015-01-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC’s applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm2) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 1012 n/cm2) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37–43 days). PMID:25546823

  11. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC): application for photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days).

  12. Highly controllable near-surface swimming of magnetic Janus nanorods: application to payload capture and manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, Lamar O; Carpenter, Jerome [Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Evans, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Hall, Adam R [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC 27401 (United States); Shields, Adam; Superfine, Richard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Ford, Kris; Millard, Michael, E-mail: rsuper@physics.unc.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Directed manipulation of nanomaterials has significant implications in the field of nanorobotics, nanobiotechnology, microfluidics and directed assembly. With the goal of highly controllable nanomaterial manipulation in mind, we present a technique for the near-surface manoeuvering of magnetic nanorod swimmers and its application to controlled micromanipulation. We fabricate magnetic Janus nanorods and show that the magnetic rotation of these nanorods near a floor results in predictable translational motion. The nanorod plane of rotation is nearly parallel to the floor, the angle between rod tilt and floor being expressed by {theta}, where 0{sup 0} < {theta} < 20{sup 0}. Orthogonal magnetic fields control in-plane motion arbitrarily. Our model for translation incorporates symmetry breaking through increased drag at the no-slip surface boundary. Using this method we demonstrate considerable rod steerability. Additionally, we approach, capture, and manipulate a polystyrene microbead as proof of principle. We attach Janus nanorods to the surfaces of cells and utilize these rods to manipulate individual cells, proving the ability to manoeuver payloads with a wide range of sizes.

  13. Coherent radiance capture of scenes under changing illumination conditions for relighting applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Katrien; Vesterbæk, Jeppe; Nielsen, Anders Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    Relighting algorithms make it possible to take a model of a real-world scene and virtually modify its lighting. Unlike other methods that require controlled conditions, we introduce a new radiance capture method that allows the user to capture parts of the scene under different lighting condition...... image. Finally, the scene is relit using a novel illumination pattern....

  14. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air.

  15. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface.

  16. Activated carbon enhancement with covalent organic polymers: An innovative material for application in water purification and carbon dioxide capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) have emerged as one of the leading advanced materials for environmental applications, such as the capture and recovery of carbon dioxide and the removal of contaminants from polluted water.1–4 COPs exhibit many remarkable properties that other leading advanced...... materials do not all-encompassing possess. Moreover, COPs have proven to be extremely stable in a wide variety of conditions, i.e. extremely high temperatures and boiling water for weeks at a time, which make them ideal for environmental applications;1 ranging from CO2 capture and recovery to organic...... solvent uptake in concentrated streams to metal and organic pollutant adsorption in contaminated waters.2 However, given the nanoscale structure of these COPs, real-world application has yet remained elusive for these materials. By creating a material large and robust enough to be used in a full...

  17. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  18. First application of dynamic infrared imaging in boron neutron capture therapy for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Cruz, G. A.; Gonzalez, S. J.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J. [Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and CONICET, Avenida Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) as a functional, noninvasive technique for evaluating the skin acute toxicity and tumor control within the framework of the Argentine boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) program for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Methods: Two patients enrolled in the Argentine phase I/II BNCT clinical trial for cutaneous malignant melanoma were studied with DIRI. An uncooled infrared camera, providing a video output signal, was employed to register the temperature evolution of the normal skin and tumor regions in patients subjected to a mild local cooling (cold stimulus). In order to study the spatial correlation between dose and acute skin reactions, three-dimensional representations of the superficial dose delivered to skin were constructed and cameralike projections of the dose distribution were coregistered with visible and infrared images. Results: The main erythematous reaction was observed clinically between the second and fifth week post-BNCT. Concurrently, with its clinical onset, a reactive increase above the basal skin temperature was observed with DIRI in the third week post-BNCT within regions that received therapeutic doses. Melanoma nodules appeared as highly localized hyperthermic regions. 2 min after stimulus, these regions reached a temperature plateau and increased in size. Temperature differences with respect to normal skin up to 10 deg. C were observed in the larger nodules. Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that DIRI, enhanced by the application of cold stimuli, may provide useful functional information associated with the metabolism and vasculature of tumors and inflammatory processes related to radiation-induced changes in the skin as well. These capabilities are aimed at complementing the clinical observations and standard imaging techniques, such as CT and Doppler ultrasound.

  19. An effective solution for capturing the single twitch of muscle: application to monitor muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Omer H; Girard, Emmanuelle; Krejci, Eric

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a fast algorithm was developed to capture of train of four and to filter extra contraction and noises. A low pass filter created to filter extra contraction and high frequency noises. Then, a TCA algorithm designed to capturing of the single twitch of muscle. The algorithm updated to remove embedded extra contraction and to derive boundary values in this location from cubic spline interpolation. Efficiency of TCA and effect of extra contraction tested in time and frequency domain.

  20. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  1. Predictive factors of successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Schlegel, Peter N

    2013-01-01

    Azoospermia in men requires microsurgical reconstruction or a procedure for sperm retrieval with assisted reproduction to allow fertility. While the chance of successful retrieval of sperm in men with obstructive azoospermia approaches >90%, the chances of sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are not as high. Conventional procedures such as fine needle aspiration of the testis, testicular biopsy and testicular sperm extraction are successful in 20-45% of men with NOA. With microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), the chance of successful retrieval can be up to 60%. Despite this increased success, the ability to counsel patients preoperatively on their probability of successful sperm retrieval has remained challenging. A combination of variables such as age, serum FSH and inhibin B levels, testicular size, genetic analysis, history of Klinefelter syndrome, history of cryptorchidism or varicocele and histopathology on diagnostic biopsy have provided some insight into the chance of successful sperm retrieval in men with NOA. The goal of this review was to evaluate the preoperative factors that are currently available to predict the outcome for success with micro-TESE.

  2. Modelling ruptures of buried high pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part I. Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the pipeline transportation of high pressure dense phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following the venting or failure of su...

  3. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections and Sample Application for ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to ENA modeling (approx. few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantummechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  4. Colorimetric characterization of digital cameras with unrestricted capture settings applicable for different illumination circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingyu; Xu, Haisong; Wang, Zhehong; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    With colorimetric characterization, digital cameras can be used as image-based tristimulus colorimeters for color communication. In order to overcome the restriction of fixed capture settings adopted in the conventional colorimetric characterization procedures, a novel method was proposed considering capture settings. The method calculating colorimetric value of the measured image contains five main steps, including conversion from RGB values to equivalent ones of training settings through factors based on imaging system model so as to build the bridge between different settings, scaling factors involved in preparation steps for transformation mapping to avoid errors resulted from nonlinearity of polynomial mapping for different ranges of illumination levels. The experiment results indicate that the prediction error of the proposed method, which was measured by CIELAB color difference formula, reaches less than 2 CIELAB units under different illumination levels and different correlated color temperatures. This prediction accuracy for different capture settings remains the same level as the conventional method for particular lighting condition.

  5. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess so

  6. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in microdissected clear cell ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Stany

    Full Text Available Clear cell ovarian cancer is an epithelial ovarian cancer histotype that is less responsive to chemotherapy and carries poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid histotypes. Despite this, patients with these tumors are treated in a similar fashion as all other ovarian cancers. Previous genomic analysis has suggested that clear cell cancers represent a unique tumor subtype. Here we generated the first whole genomic expression profiling using epithelial component of clear cell ovarian cancers and normal ovarian surface specimens isolated by laser capture microdissection. All the arrays were analyzed using BRB ArrayTools and PathwayStudio software to identify the signaling pathways. Identified pathways validated using serous, clear cell cancer cell lines and RNAi technology. In vivo validations carried out using an orthotopic mouse model and liposomal encapsulated siRNA. Patient-derived clear cell and serous ovarian tumors were grafted under the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the identified pathway. We identified major activated pathways in clear cells involving in hypoxic cell growth, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism not seen in other histotypes. Knockdown of key genes in these pathways sensitized clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines to hypoxia/glucose deprivation. In vivo experiments using patient derived tumors demonstrate that clear cell tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenesis therapy (i.e. sunitinib compared with serous tumors. We generated a histotype specific, gene signature associated with clear cell ovarian cancer which identifies important activated pathways critical for their clinicopathologic characteristics. These results provide a rational basis for a radically different treatment for ovarian clear cell patients.

  7. CO2 capture technologies and application%二氧化碳捕集技术及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步学朋

    2014-01-01

    分析了CO2捕集技术及现状。 CO2捕集是CCS的关键技术单元之一,针对不同的CO2气源,国内外研究开发了多种技术。许多CO2捕集技术已经工业化,其中燃烧后烟气中CO2的捕集技术主要是以一乙醇胺( MEA)为基础的胺法;燃烧前的CO2捕集技术主要应用于IGCC电厂,一般需要对煤气中CO进行部分变换,变换后脱碳可采用成熟技术,如Selexol( NHD)等。富氧燃烧则是在中试成功的基础上,进行更大规模的工业示范。国内外大型煤制油化工项目主要采用低温甲醇洗脱除CO2,如果设置CO2产品塔,则可以获得体积分数98%以上的CO2。天然气脱碳主要采用MDEA技术。另外还有低温法、PSA、膜分离等CO2捕集技术及化学链燃烧等一些正在研发的技术。%The CO2 capture technologies and application are briefly analyzed based on literatures.CO2capture technology is one of the key technologies in CCS(carbon capture and storage).For different CO2sources,there are numerous development technologies at home and a-broad.Many kinds of CO2 capture technologies have been commercialized now.At present,MEA is the main method used for post-combus-tion flue gas CO2 capture.For pre-combustion CO2 capture,which is used in IGCC plant,part of CO convert to CO2 and H2 by shifting reac-tion first,then CO2 is captured by mature technologies such as Selexol(NHD) etc.Based on pilot experiment,commercial demonstration is demanded for Oxy-fuel technique.Rectisol is the mature technique used for large-scale CTL and CTC CO2 capture,and the CO2 content will be more than 98% if CO2 column was used in the process. For natural gas CO2 capture,MDEA is often adopted. There are also other CO2 capture technologies such as cryogenic,PSA,membrane etc.Chemical looping combustion and other CO2 capture technologies are still in the research and development phase.

  8. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  9. NCTPlan application for neutron capture therapy dosimetric planning at MEPhI nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyutina, A S; Kiger, W S; Portnov, A A

    2011-12-01

    The results of modeling of two therapeutic beams HEC-1 and HEC-4 at the NRNU "MEPhI" research nuclear reactor exploitable for preclinical treatments are reported. The exact models of the beams are constructed as an input to the NCTPlan code used for planning Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) procedure. The computations are purposed to improve the accuracy of prediction of a dose absorbed in tissue with the account of all components of radiation.

  10. Application of Advanced Technologies for CO2 Capture from Industrial Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Matteo C.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Arasto, Antti; Ozcan, Dursun Can; Ahn, Hyungwoong; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Carbo, Michiel; Boavida, Dulce

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of the research on CO2 capture worldwide is today devoted to the integration of new technologies in power plants, which are responsible for about 80% of the worldwide CO2 emission from large stationary sources. The remaining 20% are emitted from industrial sources, mainly cement production plants (∼7% of the total emission), refineries (∼6%) and iron and steel industry (∼5%). Despite their lower overall contribution, the CO2 concentration in flue gas and the average emissio...

  11. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  12. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  13. Evaluation of hand motion capture protocol using static computed tomography images: application to an instrumented glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, James H; Sancho Bru, Joaquín Luis; Crisco, Joseph J; Murray, Wendy M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a marked increase in the use of hand motion capture protocols in the past 20 yr. However, their absolute accuracies and precisions remain unclear. The purpose of this technical brief was to present a method for evaluating the accuracy and precision of the joint angles determined by a hand motion capture protocol using simultaneously collected static computed tomography (CT) images. The method consists of: (i) recording seven functional postures using both the motion capture protocol and a CT scanner; (ii) obtaining principal axes of the bones in each method; (iii) calculating the flexion angle at each joint for each method as the roll angle of the composite, sequential, roll-pitch-yaw rotations relating the orientation of the distal bone to the proximal bone; and (iv) comparing corresponding joint angle measurements. For demonstration, we applied the method to a Cyberglove protocol. Accuracy and precision of the instrumented-glove protocol were calculated as the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the differences between the angles determined from the Cyberglove output and the CT images across the seven postures. Implementation in one subject highlighted substantial errors, especially for the distal joints of the fingers. This technical note both clearly demonstrates the need for future work and introduces a solid, technical approach with the potential to improve the current state of such assessments in our field.

  14. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  15. Synchronization of single-side locally averaged adaptive coupling and its application to shock capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, G W

    2001-04-16

    We propose a single-sided locally averaged adaptive coupling scheme for the synchronization of spatially extended systems. Coupling and synchronization are analyzed from the viewpoint of image filter construction and numerical dissipation. Single-sided locally averaged coupling is introduced based on the resolution argument of control process. Control sensors are adaptively selected and automatically adjusted according to the magnitude of local oscillations. We demonstrate that the present scheme can effectively suppress and control spatiotemporal oscillations and, thus, provide a powerful approach for shock capturing. Both the Navier-Stokes equation and Burgers' equation are used to illustrate the idea.

  16. Iron phthalocyanine modified mesoporous titania nanoparticles for photocatalytic activity and CO2 capture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacharyulu, P V R K; Muhammad, Raeesh; Praveen Kumar, J; Prasad, G K; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2015-10-21

    An iron(II)phthalocyanine (Fepc) modified mesoporous titania (Fepc-TiO2) nanocatalyst with a specific surface area of 215 m(2) g(-1) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Fepc-TiO2 degrades one of the highly toxic chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM), photocatalytically under sunlight with an exposure time of as low as 70 min. Furthermore, the mesoporous Fepc-TiO2 also captured 2.1 mmol g(-1) of CO2 at 273 K and 1 atm.

  17. Library preparation and multiplex capture for massive parallel sequencing applications made efficient and easy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Neiman

    Full Text Available During the recent years, rapid development of sequencing technologies and a competitive market has enabled researchers to perform massive sequencing projects at a reasonable cost. As the price for the actual sequencing reactions drops, enabling more samples to be sequenced, the relative price for preparing libraries gets larger and the practical laboratory work becomes complex and tedious. We present a cost-effective strategy for simplified library preparation compatible with both whole genome- and targeted sequencing experiments. An optimized enzyme composition and reaction buffer reduces the number of required clean-up steps and allows for usage of bulk enzymes which makes the whole process cheap, efficient and simple. We also present a two-tagging strategy, which allows for multiplex sequencing of targeted regions. To prove our concept, we have prepared libraries for low-pass sequencing from 100 ng DNA, performed 2-, 4- and 8-plex exome capture and a 96-plex capture of a 500 kb region. In all samples we see a high concordance (>99.4% of SNP calls when comparing to commercially available SNP-chip platforms.

  18. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  19. Model-Based Reinforcement of Kinect Depth Data for Human Motion Capture Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Skiadopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Motion capture systems have recently experienced a strong evolution. New cheap depth sensors and open source frameworks, such as OpenNI, allow for perceiving human motion on-line without using invasive systems. However, these proposals do not evaluate the validity of the obtained poses. This paper addresses this issue using a model-based pose generator to complement the OpenNI human tracker. The proposed system enforces kinematics constraints, eliminates odd poses and filters sensor noise, while learning the real dimensions of the performer’s body. The system is composed by a PrimeSense sensor, an OpenNI tracker and a kinematics-based filter and has been extensively tested. Experiments show that the proposed system improves pure OpenNI results at a very low computational cost.

  20. Molecular simulation studies of CO2 adsorption by carbon model compounds for carbon capture and sequestration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-01-02

    Effects of oxygen-containing surface functionalities on the adsorption of mixtures including CO(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2), and CO(2)/H(2)O have been investigated in the current work. Together with Bader charge analysis, electronic structure calculations have provided the initial framework comprising both the geometry and corresponding charge information required to carry out statistical-based molecular simulations. The adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO(2) from CO(2)/N(2), CO(2)/CH(4), and CO(2)/H(2)O gas mixtures were determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations at temperature/pressure conditions relevant to carbon capture and sequestration applications. The interactions between the surfaces with induced polarity and nonpolar/polar molecules have been investigated. It has been observed that, due to the induced polarity of the surface functionalization, the selectivity of CO(2) over CH(4) increases from approximately 2 to higher than 5, and the selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) increases from approximately 5 to 20, especially in the low-pressure regime. However, water vapor will always preferentially adsorb over CO(2) in carbon-based systems containing oxygen functionalized surfaces at conditions relevant to carbon capture application. Molecular simulation results indicate that the surface chemistry in micropores is tunable thereby influencing the selectivity for enhanced uptake of CO(2).

  1. Clinic application of micro-dissected perforator flap technique for defatting bulky flap at the second stage%显微削薄穿支皮瓣技术在臃肿皮瓣二期削薄中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐举玉; 周征兵; 吴攀峰; 俞芳; 肖勇兵; 潘丁; 庞晓阳; 曾磊; 卿黎明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility and clinic effect of the micro-dissected perforator flap technique for defatting bulky flap at the second stage.Methods From October, 2013 to June, 2014, 9 patients had been performed to preserve 3-5 mm thickness of fascia-fatty tissue on the recipient site, remove the subcutaneous tissue uniformly around the perforator under microscope and protect the vascular pedicle and perforator vessel carefully.Results The 9 bulky flap which were taken defatting procedure survived and the wounds got healed primarily.All the patients were followed up for 3-12 months (average 6 months), the flap bulky appearance significantly reduced, and the function were improved obviously.Conclusion The micro-dissected perforator flap technique is an ideal method for defatting the bulky flap at the second stage as it can keep reliable blood supply, get good appearance and the procedure can be finished at one time.%目的 探讨显微削薄穿支皮瓣技术应用于臃肿皮瓣二期削薄的可行性与临床疗效.方法 从2013年10月至2014年6月,应用显微削薄穿支皮瓣技术治疗皮瓣移植术后臃肿畸形9例,手术显微镜下分离并保护好穿支血管,保留真皮下脂肪3~5mm,去除多余脂肪组织.结果 9例术后皮瓣无1例坏死,创口均一期愈合.术后随访3~12个月,平均6个月.皮瓣色泽正常,质地良好,受区外形及功能明显改善.结论 应用显微削薄穿支皮瓣技术对臃肿皮瓣二期削薄能一次完成手术,术后皮瓣血供可靠,外形良好,是一种理想的皮瓣削薄新方法.

  2. Fetal gut laser microdissection in combination with RNA preamplification enables epithelial-specific transcriptional profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerling, J.; Jansen, Jenny; Müller, M.; Haller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection (LMD) technology enables highly specific gene expression analyses of biologically relevant questions at cell- or tissue-specific resolution. Nevertheless, specific cell types are often limited in quantity (i.e. fetal tissue), making high quality RNA extraction and subsequent

  3. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  4. Surface modification of oil fly ash and its application in selective capturing of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaumi, Ali L.; Hussien, Ibnelwaleed A.; Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2013-02-01

    Oil fly ash from power generation plants was activated with 30% NH4OH and used for selective adsorption of carbon dioxide from CO2/N2 mixture. The treated samples were characterized for their surface area, morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and surface functional groups. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed an increase in the carbon contents from 45 to 73 wt% as a result of leaching out metal oxides. XRD proved that chemical activation of ash resulted in diminishing of major crystalline phases of zeolite, and other alumino-silicates leaving only quartz and mullite. BET analysis showed an increase in surface area from 59 to 318 m2/g after chemical activation and the pore volume increased from 0.0368 to 0.679 cm3/g. This increase in pore volume is supported by the results of SEM, where more micropores were opened with well-defined particle sizes and porous structure. The TGA of the treated fly ash showed stability at higher temperature as the weight loss decreased with increasing temperature. For treated ash, the FTIR displayed new peaks of amine functional group. The treated ash was used for the removal of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture and the maximum adsorption/capturing capacity was found to be 240 mg/g. This capacity increases with increase in initial gas concentration, inlet flow rate and temperature suggesting the endothermic nature of the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the ash.

  5. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the /sup 238/U-/sup 239/Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references.

  6. Dynamic infrared imaging for biological and medical applications in Boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; González, Sara J.; Dagrosa, Alejandra; Schwint, Amanda E.; Carpano, Marina; Trivillin, Verónica A.; Boggio, Esteban F.; Bertotti, José; Marín, Julio; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Albero, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality, currently focused on the treatment of cancer, which involves a tumor selective 10B compound and a specially tuned neutron beam to produce a lethal nuclear reaction. BNCT kills target cells with microscopic selectivity while sparing normal tissues from potentially lethal doses of radiation. In the context of the Argentine clinical and research BNCT projects at the National Atomic Energy Commission and in a strong collaboration with INVAP SE, we successfully implemented Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) in the clinical setting for the observation of cutaneous melanoma patients and included DIRI as a non invasive methodology in several research protocols involving small animals. We were able to characterize melanoma lesions in terms of temperature and temperature rate-of-recovery after applying a mild cold thermal stress, distinguishing melanoma from other skin pigmented lesions. We observed a spatial and temporal correlation between skin acute reactions after irradiation, the temperature pattern and the dose distribution. We studied temperature distribution as a function of tumor growth in mouse xenografts, observing a significant correlation between tumor temperature and drug uptake; we investigated temperature evolution in the limbs of Wistar rats for a protocol of induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA), DIRI being especially sensitive to RA induction even before the development of clinical signs and studied surface characteristics of tumors, precancerous and normal tissues in a model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch.

  7. The Applications of Mixed Metal Oxides to Capture the CO2 and Convert to Syn-Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe applicationsof different mixed metal oxides were explored for the capture of CO2and convert of CO2 to syn-gas. The several samples of the mixedmetal oxides were prepared by the sol gel, solid-solid fusion, precipitation,molten salt and template methods in order to investigate the performance ofmixed mtal oxides to the CO2 applications. These samples werecalcined for the 3h in air at 900 oC. The mixed metal oxides sampleswere characterized by acidity/ basicity, surface area, XRD pattern, SEM imagesand to capture CO2. The basicity and surface area of the samples of mixedmetal oxides were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 15.7 mmol g-1and 2.24 to 138.76 m2 g-1, respectively. The obtainedresults of prepared mixed metal oxides by different method were compared forthe purpose of searching the efficient materials. The temperature profiles of thecaptured CO2 by the samples of mixed metal oxides were obtained inthe range 100 to 800 oC. The captured CO2 was found to bein the range from 7.36 to 26.93 wt%. The conversions of CO2 bymethane were explored to syn-gas over the mixed metal oxides including the calciumiron lanthanum mixed metal oxides and Pd (5 wt %/Al2O3at 700 oC with the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 6000 ml h-1g-1 of methane, 6000 ml h-1 g-1 of CO2and 24000 ml h-1 g-1 of helium.

  8. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  9. Application of a novel affinity adsorbent for the capture and purification of recombinant factor VIII compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Walker, Joshua

    2009-11-06

    Recombinant Factor VIII (FVIII) therapies have been created to provide treatment for Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder caused by mutation in the FVIII gene. A major challenge in the purification of recombinant FVIII molecules is the development of an affinity chromatography step. Such a step must be highly specific and selective for the FVIII molecule, but also must be designed appropriately to ensure the FVIII molecule can be effectively recovered without resorting to harsh elution conditions which may be harmful to the product. Additionally, it is desirable to have affinity adsorbents designed to be reusable over a large number of column cycles while maintaining consistent purification performance. In this work, we describe the use of VIIISelect, a commercially available affinity adsorbent designed specifically for the purification of FVIII compounds. The VIIISelect adsorbent consists of a 13kDa recombinant protein ligand attached to a cross-linked agarose base matrix. The structure of the recombinant ligand is based upon Camelid-derived single domain antibody fragments. The VIIISelect adsorbent is produced using a process free of animal-derived raw materials, which is a highly desirable attribute for adsorbents used in the purification processes of recombinant protein therapeutics. The VIIISelect adsorbent was used as the initial capture column to purify a FVIII compound directly from clarified cell culture fluid prior to further downstream purification. The purification performance of the VIIISelect was evaluated, which included measurement of the static binding capacity, dynamic binding capacity, product recovery, impurity clearance, and adsorbent reuse. Following laboratory-scale process development, the VIIISelect adsorbent was scaled up and used in the large scale manufacturing of a FVIII compound.

  10. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  11. 激光显微捕获口腔上皮细胞的DNA分型%DNA Genotyping of Oral Epithelial Cells by Laser Capure Microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽华; 张晨; 陈连康; 郑会芬; 程莉; 周怀谷

    2006-01-01

    目的探索激光显微技术(laser capture microdissection system,LCM)捕获口腔上皮细胞,并进行STR-DNA分型检测的方法.方法用VERITAS显微切割仪红外低能激光显微捕获一定数量口腔上皮细胞,进行Profiler Plus试剂盒STR复合扩增,检测DNA基因型.结果7~8个口腔上皮细胞能成功获得STR-DNA分型.3~4个口腔上皮细胞不能成功获得STR-DNA分型.结论激光显微捕获作为一种分离单个细胞的新技术,对于微量口腔上皮细胞的STR-DNA分型是可行的.

  12. Comparison of numerical predictions with CO{sub 2} pipeline release datasets of relevance to carbon capture and storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareing, Christopher J. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fairweather, Michael; Woolley, Robert M. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Falle, S. A. E. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-31

    Predicting the correct multi-phase fluid flow behaviour during the discharge process in the near-field of sonic CO{sub 2} jets is of particular importance in assessing the risks associated with transport aspects of carbon capture and storage schemes, given the very different hazard profiles of CO{sub 2} in the gaseous and solid states. In this paper, we apply our state-of-the-art mathematical model implemented in an efficient computational method to available data. Compared to previous applications, an improved equation of state is used. We also compare to all the available data, rather than just subsets as previously, and demonstrate both the improved performance of the fluid flow model and the variation between the available datasets. The condensed phase fraction at the vent, puncture or rupture release point is revealed to be of key importance in understanding the near-field dispersion of sonic CO{sub 2}.

  13. Triptycene-based microporous polymer with pending tetrazole moieties for CO2 -capture application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Triptycene-based micorporous polymer is functionalized with CO2 -philic tetrazole moieties via ZnCl2 -catalyzed post-polymerization. Gas adsorption experiments indicate that it possesses high CO2 uptake capacity, reaching 134 cm(3) g(-1) (26.5 wt%) at 1.0 bar and 273 K, along with high selectivity towards CO2 over N2 and CH4 . The porous polymeric networks present the promising potentials as efficient adsorbents in clean energy applications.

  14. Comparative transcriptional survey between laser-microdissected cells from laminar abscission zone and petiolar cortical tissue during ethylene-promoted abscission in citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Francisco R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abscission is the cell separation process by which plants are able to shed organs. It has a great impact on the yield of most crop plants. At the same time, the process itself also constitutes an excellent model to study cell separation processes, since it occurs in concrete areas known as abscission zones (AZs which are composed of a specific cell type. However, molecular approaches are generally hampered by the limited area and cell number constituting the AZ. Therefore, detailed studies at the resolution of cell type are of great relevance in order to accurately describe the process and to identify potential candidate genes for biotechnological applications. Results Efficient protocols for the isolation of specific citrus cell types, namely laminar abscission zone (LAZ and petiolar cortical (Pet cells based on laser capture microdissection (LCM and for RNA microextraction and amplification have been developed. A comparative transcriptome analysis between LAZ and Pet from citrus leaf explants subjected to an in-vitro 24 h ethylene treatment was performed utilising microarray hybridization and analysis. Our analyses of gene functional classes differentially represented in ethylene-treated LAZ revealed an activation program dominated by the expression of genes associated with protein synthesis, protein fate, cell type differentiation, development and transcription. The extensive repertoire of genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism strongly suggests that LAZ layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the abscission program. In addition, over-representation of particular members of different transcription factor families suggests important roles for these genes in the differentiation of the effective cell separation layer within the many layers contained in the citrus LAZ. Preferential expression of stress-related and defensive genes in Pet reveals that this tissue is

  15. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  16. 78 FR 28229 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Device and System for Expression Microdissection (xMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... for Expression Microdissection (xMD) AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice... inspection and, to the extent permitted by law, will not be released under the Freedom of Information Act,...

  17. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  18. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  19. Real-time quantitative PCR of microdissected paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2004-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using real-time quantitative PCR to determine HER-2 DNA amplification and mRNA expression in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors and compared this with standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods....... Study cases (27 carcinomas and 3 ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases) showed varying Her-2 expression as determined by IHC (HercepTest). In carcinomas, there was a good correlation between HER-2 DNA amplification and strong HER-2 protein expression detected by FISH and IHC, respectively....... A single DCIS case was amplified in FISH, but not in IHC. Both HER-2 gene amplification and expression could be quantified in microdissected paraffin-embedded tumors using real-time PCR, DNA and RNA being successfully detected in 146 of 150 (97%) and 141 of 150 (94%) samples, respectively. PCR analysis...

  20. Mini-incision microdissection testicular sperm extraction: a useful technique for men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Witmer, J; Ruiz, S; AlMalki, A; Phillips, S; Zini, A

    2016-03-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was developed to minimize the testicular injury associated with multiple open TESEs. We sought to evaluate a mini-incision micro-TESE in men with cryptozoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We conducted a retrospective study of 26 consecutive men with NOA and cryptozoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2015 and August 2015. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a mini-incision micro-TESE (with limited unilateral micro-dissection) or standard/extensive (with unilateral or bilateral micro-dissection) was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 spermatozoa) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 77% (20/26) of the men. In 37% of the men (8/26), the mini-incision micro-TESE was successful (positive sperm recovery). The remaining 18 men required a standard (extensive) microdissection: 61% (11/18) underwent a unilateral and 39% (7/18) a bilateral micro-TESE. We found that 90% (9/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 63% (10/16) of the men with NOA underwent a unilateral (mini or standard micro-TESE). The mini-incision micro-TESE allowed for successful sperm recovery in 60% (6/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 13% (2/16) of the men with NOA. The data demonstrate that a mini-incision micro-TESE together with rapid intra-operative assessment and identification of spermatozoa recovery can be useful in men undergoing microTESE, particularly, men with cryptozoospermia.

  1. Gene-expression analysis of single cells-nested polymerase chain reaction afte laser microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Shi; Jorg Kleeff; Zhao-Wen Zhu; Bruno Schmied; Wen-Hao Tang; Arthur Zimmermann; Markus W. Bucher; Helmut Friess

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The structural and functional characteristics of cells are dependent on the specific gene expression profile. The ability to study and compare gene expression at the cellular level will therefore provide valuable insights into cell physiology and pathophysiology. METHODS: Individual cells were isolated from frozen colon tissue sections using laser microdissection. DNA as well as RNA were extracted, and total RNA was reversely transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA). Both DNA and cDNA were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The quality of isolated DNA and RNA was satisfactory. RESULTS: Single cells were successfully microdissected using an ultraviolet laser micromanipulator. Nested PCR amplification products of DNA and cDNA of single cells could clearly be visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: The combined use of laser microdissection and nested-PCR provides an opportunity to analyze geneexpression in single cells. This method allows the analysisand identification of specific genes which are involved inphysiological and pathophysiological processes in a complexof variable cell phenotypes.

  2. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, María; Cabrero, Josefa; Montiel, Eugenia E; Acosta, Manuel J; Sánchez, Antonio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of knowledge of the nature and DNA content of B chromosomes has been triggered by a collection of molecular techniques, one of which, microdissection, has provided interesting results in a number of B chromosome systems. Here we provide the first data on the molecular composition of B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria, after microdissection of the B and X chromosomes, DNA amplification by one (B) or two (X) different methods, and chromosome painting. The results showed that B chromosomes share at least two types of repetitive DNA sequences with the A chromosomes, suggesting that Bs in this species most likely arose intraspecifically. One of these repetitive DNAs is located on the heterochromatic distal half of the B chromosome and in the pericentromeric regions of about half of the A chromosomes, including the X. The other type of repetitive DNA is located interspersedly over the non-centromeric euchromatic regions of all A chromosomes and in an interstitial part of the proximal euchromatic half of the B chromosome. Chromosome painting, however, did not provide results sufficiently reliable to determine, in this species, which A chromosome gave rise to the B; this might be done by detailed analysis of the microdissected DNA sequences.

  3. Sample preparation for laser-microdissection of soybean shoot apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui E. Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem houses stem cells responsible for the continuous formation of aerial plant organs including leaves and stems throughout the life of plants. Laser-microdissection in combination with high-throughput technology such as next generation sequencing permits an in-depth analysis of molecular events associated with specific cell type of interest. Sample preparation is the most critical step in ensuring good quality RNA to be extracted from samples following laser-microdissection. Here, we optimized the sample preparation for a major legume crop, soybean. We used Farmer’s solution as a fixative and paraffin as the embedding medium for soybean shoot apical meristem tissue without the use of any specialized equipment. Shorter time for tissue fixation (two days was found to be critical for the preservation of RNA in soybean shoot apical meristem. We further demonstrated the utility of this method for different tissues derived from soybean and rice. The method outlined here shall facilitate studies on crop plants involving laser-microdissection.

  4. Promoter methylation analysis on microdissected paraffin-embedded tissues using bisulfite treatment and PCR-SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y S; Yan, P; Osterheld, M C; Fontolliet, C; Benhattar, J

    2001-01-01

    Methylation-sensitive single-strand conformation analysis (MS-SSCA) is a new method of screening for DNA methylation changes. The combination of bisulfite modification and PCR results in the conversion of unmethylated cytosines to thymines, whereas methylated cytosines remain unchanged. This sequence conversion can lead to methylation-dependent alterations of single-strand conformation, which can be detected by SSCA. An analysis of mixtures of methylated and unmethylated DNA at known ratios revealed that the relative intensities of the corresponding bands following MS-SSCA were maintained. MS-SSCA was applied for methylation analysis of human p16 promoter region using genomic DNA obtained from either frozen, fixed, or microdissected fixed tissue sections. MS-SSCA is a rapid, specific, and semiquantitative approach that allows the detection of methylation of the p16 gene promoter. In reconstruction experiments, the method permits the detection of 10% or less of cells harboring a methylated p16 promoter. We have been successful in analyzing by MS-SSCA almost all (96%) tumor samples microdissected from archival paraffin-embedded fixed tissue sections and obtaining reproducible results. In addition, when microdissection was performed, the clonality of this genetic alteration could be identified.

  5. High quality RNA isolation from Aedes aegypti midguts using laser microdissection microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Geoffrey N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti. Results Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 106 μm2 in the LMM procedure. Conclusions Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while

  6. Application of adjoint Monte Carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R.L.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Van der Hagen, T.H.; Van Dam, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the adjoint transport theory in order to optimize Monte Carlo based radiotherapy treatment planning. The technique is applied to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy where most often mixed beams of neutrons and gammas are involved. In normal forward Monte Carlo simu

  7. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Helene Marie Schmitt

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12 and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20 were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  8. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  9. Laser microdissection and microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Ras-GRF1 knockout mice reveals gene expression changes affecting signal transduction pathways related to memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Medarde, A; Porteros, A; de las Rivas, J; Núñez, A; Fuster, J J; Santos, E

    2007-04-25

    We used manual macrodissection or laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate tissue sections of the hippocampus area of Ras-GRF1 wild type and knockout mice brains, and analyzed their transcriptional patterns using commercial oligonucleotide microarrays. Comparison between the transcriptomes of macrodissected and microdissected samples showed that the LCM samples allowed detection of significantly higher numbers of differentially expressed genes, with higher statistical rates of significance. These results validate LCM as a reliable technique for in vivo genomic studies in the brain hippocampus, where contamination by surrounding areas (not expressing Ras-GRF1) increases background noise and impairs identification of differentially expressed genes. Comparison between wild type and knockout LCM hippocampus samples revealed that Ras-GRF1 elimination caused significant gene expression changes, mostly affecting signal transduction and related neural processes. The list of 36 most differentially expressed genes included loci concerned mainly with Ras/G protein signaling and cytoskeletal organization (i.e. 14-3-3gamma/zeta, Kcnj6, Clasp2) or related, cross-talking pathways (i.e. jag2, decorin, strap). Consistent with the phenotypes shown by Ras-GRF1 knockout mice, many of these differentially expressed genes play functional roles in processes such as sensory development and function (i.e. Sptlc1, antiquitin, jag2) and/or neurological development/neurodegeneration processes affecting memory and learning. Indeed, potential links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Creutzfeldt-Jacobs disease (CJD), have been reported for a number of differentially expressed genes identified in this study (Ptma, Aebp2, Clasp2, Hebp1, 14-3-3gamma/zeta, Csnk1delta, etc.). These data, together with the previously described role of IRS and insulin (known Ras-GRF1 activators) in AD, warrant further investigation of a potential functional link of Ras-GRF1 to

  10. Application of the capture-recapture method in estimating the size of the active homosexual male population in Hangzhou city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Wei, Ning; Hu, Shaohua; Wei, Erqing; Xu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    The homosexual population is particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted disease because of various high-risk sexual behaviors among them. The authors explored the application of capture-recapture methods in estimating the size of the sexually active homosexual male population in Hangzhou. Homosexual men at 9 activity sites were investigated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The total active homosexual male population of Hangzhou estimated by the capture-recapture method and multiplier method was 2014 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1899-2129) and 2012.5 (95% CI 1925 to 2101), respectively. This study shows that the capture-recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the active homosexual population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled.

  11. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing. Cell 129:1401-14, 2007 13. Sica A, Mantovani A: Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas. J Clin Invest 122:787-95, 2012 18

  12. Measurement of bacterial gene expression in vivo by laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Angen, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    Due to the relative small number of bacterial pathogens present in an infected host, exploration of pathogen gene expression in vivo is challenging. This study reports the development of a protocol for quantifying bacterial gene expression in vivo in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using laser ca...

  13. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Yields wi tive to hemato s fiber (GF) an mns (A), and w mns for both  ns with their s sy when 40 quantitati ith 250 ng xpressed i While an in tal area...using the global loess regression method with a ’span’ value of 1/3 [22]. Microarray signal values were then identified as summarized Hy3™ values which

  14. The influence of immunohistochemistry on mRNA recovery from microdissected frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Abrahamsen, Helene N; Villegas, Berta; Sorensen, Boe S; Schmidt, Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2004-12-01

    Laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) is now widely used to obtain specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissues. A major disadvantage of LAM is poor tissue morphology during microscopy, in part because coverslips are not used. Immunohistochemical labeling can improve identification of target cells but may affect the subsequent analysis of the microdissected tissue. We studied the effect of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on mRNA recovery from labeled cells after microdissection from both frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections, using Melan-A and Ki-67 staining in lymph nodes with metastatic melanoma as a model. We developed rapid protocols for immunostaining in an attempt to limit loss of mRNA during procedures. A sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to measure mRNA. We found a marked decrease in the mRNA yield from 500 microdissected cells from frozen and paraffin sections after immunostaining for both markers. Recovery of mRNA decreased by up to 89%, comparing the immunostained with the routinely stained sections. Interestingly, the ratio between mRNA for the two markers was similar in all stains, indicating that immunostained sections may be used for mRNA analysis. We also investigated the effect of storing membrane-mounted sections for microdissection under different conditions. Slides mounted with paraffin sections could be stored at room temperature for up to 90 days with no significant decrease in mRNA recovery.

  15. Principles of laser microdissection and catapulting of histologic specimens and live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alfred; Horneffer, Verena; Lorenz, Kathrin; Linz, Norbert; Hüttmann, Gereon; Gebert, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Rapid contact- and contamination-free procurement of specific samples of histologic material for proteomic and genomic analysis as well as separation and transport of living cells can be achieved by laser microdissection (LMD) of the sample of interest followed by a laser-induced forward transport process [laser pressure "catapulting," (LPC)] of the dissected material. We investigated the dynamics of LMD and LPC with focused and defocused laser pulses by means of time-resolved photography. The working mechanism of microdissection was found to be plasma-mediated ablation. Catapulting is driven by plasma formation, when tightly focused pulses are used, and by ablation at the bottom of the sample for moderate and strong defocusing. Driving pressures of several hundred megapascals accelerate the specimen to initial velocities of 100-300 m/s before it is rapidly slowed down by air friction. With strong defocusing, driving pressure and initial flight velocity decrease considerably. On the basis of a characterization of the thermal and optical properties of the histologic specimens and supporting materials used, we calculated the temporal evolution of the heat distribution in the sample. After laser microdissection and laser pressure catapulting (LMPC), the samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Catapulting with tightly focused or strongly defocused pulses results in very little collateral damage, while slight defocusing involves significant heat and UV exposure of up to about 10% of the specimen volume, especially if samples are catapulted directly from a glass slide. Time-resolved photography of live-cell catapulting revealed that in defocused catapulting strong shear forces originate from the flow of the thin layer of culture medium covering the cells. By contrast, pulses focused at the periphery of the specimen cause a fast rotational movement that makes the specimen wind its way out of the culture medium, thereby undergoing much less shear stresses

  16. Modelling ruptures of buried high-pressure dense-phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part II. A full-scale rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the CCS pipeline transportation of high-pressure dense-phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following pipeline venting or failure. In Part I (Wareing et al., 2015a) validation...

  17. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-09-01

    An important advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as future systems for large scale power generation is the possibility of being efficiently integrated with processes for CO2 capture. Focusing on natural gas power generation, Part A of this work assessed the performances of advanced pressurised and atmospheric plant configurations (SOFC + GT and SOFC + ST, with fuel cell integration within a gas turbine or a steam turbine cycle) without CO2 separation. This Part B paper investigates such kind of power cycles when applied to CO2 capture, proposing two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs with internal reforming and low temperature CO2 separation process. The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a set of realistic assumptions about FC performances, main components and auxiliaries, and show the capability of exceeding 70% LHV efficiency with high CO2 capture (above 80%) and a low specific primary energy consumption for the CO2 avoided (1.1-2.4 MJ kg-1). Detailed results are presented in terms of energy and material balances, and a sensitivity analysis of plant performance is developed vs. FC voltage and fuel utilisation to investigate possible long-term improvements. Options for further improvement of the CO2 capture efficiency are also addressed.

  18. Synthesis of amino-rich silica coated magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the capture of DNA for PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic separation has great advantages over traditional bioseparation methods and has become popular in the development of methods for the detection of bacterial pathogens, viruses, and transgenic crops. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles is a key factor in allowing efficient capture of t...

  19. The neutron capture cross sections of 186;187;188 Os and their application to Re/Os cosmochronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kaori; Mastinu, P; Milazzo, P M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is a fine determination of 186;187;188Os neutron capture cross sections, in order to remove principal nuclear physics uncertainties on the age of the universe determined using the Re/Os cosmochronometer. A general introduction including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmochronometry,available neutron facilities and neutron reaction features is given. Dedicated measurements of the 186;187;188Os capture cross sections have been performed at the CERN neutron time-of- ight facility, n TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. The details of the measurement and the data treatment are reported. Using obtained capture yields, resolved resonance region analysis is completed. Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related averaged resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modelling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and ...

  20. Targeting pancreatic islets with phage display assisted by laser pressure catapult microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Virginia J; Ozawa, Michael G; Trepel, Martin; Arap, Wadih; McDonald, Donald M; Pasqualini, Renata

    2005-02-01

    Heterogeneity of the microvasculature in different organs has been well documented by multiple methods including in vivo phage display. However, less is known about the diversity of blood vessels within functionally distinct regions of organs. Here, we combined in vivo phage display with laser pressure catapult microdissection to identify peptide ligands for vascular receptors in the islets of Langerhans in the murine pancreas. Protein database analyses of the peptides, CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC, showed sequence identity to two ephrin A-type ligand homologues, A2 and A4. Confocal microscopy confirmed that most immunoreactivity of CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC phage was associated with blood vessels in pancreatic islets. Antibodies recognizing EphA4, a receptor for ephrin-A ligands, were similarly associated with islet blood vessels. Importantly, binding of both islet-homing phage and anti-EphA4 antibody was strikingly increased in blood vessels of pancreatic islet tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. These results indicate that endothelial cells of blood vessels in pancreatic islets preferentially express EphA4 receptors, and this expression is increased in tumors. Our findings show in vivo phage display and laser pressure catapult microdissection can be combined to reveal endothelial cell specialization within focal regions of the microvasculature.

  1. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerle Martine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+ translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5 were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2 from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases.

  2. Generation of chicken Z-chromosome painting probes by microdissection for screening large-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, R; King, W A; Verrinder Gibbins, A M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for rapid generation of chicken sex chromosome-Z painting probes has been developed using microdissection. Whole chromosome painting probes (WCPs) were prepared from 10-15 copies of mitotic metaphase chicken Z chromosomes. The microisolated chromosomes were subjected to PEG/proteinase K treatment in a collection drop to release DNA, which was then amplified using a degenerate oligonucleotide-primed shuttle PCR (DOP-Shuttle-PCR) strategy. Size distributions of the PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and smears of DNA were revealed that ranged in size from 200-800 bp, without any evidence of preferential amplification. Both specificity and complexity of the probes have been analyzed by Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Non-specific hybridization was efficiently blocked by using chicken competitor DNA. Analysis of the WCPs produced shows that collectively they provide uniform hybridization signals along the entire length of the chicken Z chromosome. To demonstrate one possible application of these complex probes, we screened a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) chicken genomic library to select Z chromosome-specific clones. To address specificity of the selected clones and to physically map them to the Z chromosome, FISH analysis was used. Of the 3 clones initially tested, one clone (C3) carrying a 250-kb insert mapped to the distal portion of the short arm of the chicken Z chromosome. Therefore, this technique has provided appropriate probes for screening large-insert genomic libraries. Further application of these probes includes the analysis of chromosome rearrangements, studies of cases of heteroploidy involving the Z chromosome, positional cloning of Z-linked genes and studies on mechanisms of sex-chromosome evolution in birds.

  3. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  4. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  5. Validation of a model of gas and dense phase CO jet releases for carbon capture and storage application

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M; Woolley, RM; Falle, SAEG

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO) released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated a programme of research known as the COOLTRANS research programme. Part of this work involves the development of a mathematical model for predicting the near-field dispersion of CO following the puncture or rupture of a high pressure dense phase pipeline typical...

  6. Comparative genomic hybridization of microdissected samples from different stages in the development of a seminoma and a non-seminoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, LHJ; Rosenberg, C; van Gurp, RJHLM; Geelen, E; van Echten-Arends, J; de Jong, B; Mostert, M

    2000-01-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults, both seminomas and non-seminomas, originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN). Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was applied to microdissected samples from different stages of the development of a seminoma and a m

  7. Selection, characterization and application of nucleic acid aptamers for the capture and detection of human norovirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I Escudero-Abarca

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoV are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and an important cause of foodborne disease. Despite their public health significance, routine detection of HuNoV in community settings, or food and environmental samples, is limited, and there is a need to develop alternative HuNoV diagnostic reagents to complement existing ones. The purpose of this study was to select and characterize single-stranded (ssDNA aptamers with binding affinity to HuNoV. The utility of these aptamers was demonstrated in their use for capture and detection of HuNoV in outbreak-derived fecal samples and a representative food matrix. SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment was used to isolate ssDNA aptamer sequences with broad reactivity to the prototype GII.2 HuNoV strain, Snow Mountain Virus (SMV. Four aptamer candidates (designated 19, 21, 25 and 26 were identified and screened for binding affinity to 14 different virus-like particles (VLPs corresponding to various GI and GII HuNoV strains using an Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Sorbant Assay (ELASA. Collectively, aptamers 21 and 25 showed affinity to 13 of the 14 VLPs tested, with strongest binding to GII.2 (SMV and GII.4 VLPs. Aptamer 25 was chosen for further study. Its binding affinity to SMV-VLPs was equivalent to that of a commercial antibody within a range of 1 to 5 µg/ml. Aptamer 25 also showed binding to representative HuNoV strains present in stool specimens obtained from naturally infected individuals. Lastly, an aptamer magnetic capture (AMC method using aptamer 25 coupled with RT-qPCR was developed for recovery and detection of HuNoV in artificially contaminated lettuce. The capture efficiency of the AMC was 2.5-36% with an assay detection limit of 10 RNA copies per lettuce sample. These ssDNA aptamer candidates show promise as broadly reactive reagents for use in HuNoV capture and detection assays in various sample types.

  8. Combined fluorescent-chromogenic in situ hybridization for identification and laser microdissection of interphase chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Paz

    Full Text Available Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis.

  9. Construction of a DNA library from chromosome 4 of rice (Oryza sativa) by microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOYINGWEI; SIYUANLIANG; 等

    1998-01-01

    A simple method to create a chromosome-specific DNA librqary of rice,including microdissection,amplification,charterization and cloning,is described.Rice chromosome 4 from a metaphase cell has been isolated and amplified by the Linker Adapter PCR (LA-PCR).The PCR products were labeled as probes with DIG-11-dUTP using the random priming method.Southern blot analysis with rice genomic DNA and specific RFLP markers demonstrated that the PCR products were derived from rice chromosome 4.A large library comprising over 100,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from rice chromosome 4 was constructed.Colony hybridization showed that 58% of the clones contained single or low-copy sequences and 42% contained repetitive sequences.The size of inserts generated by PCR ranged from 140bp to 500bp.This method will facilitate cloning of the specific chromosome DNA markers and important genes of rice.

  10. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Electron Capture Cross-Sections in Ion-Ion Collisions at few MeV's/nucleon: Application to ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to energetic neutral atom (ENA) modeling (approx few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on first-principles approaches and/or detailed quantum-mechanical simulation of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground, elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. We shall present a sample application and current progress in applying and extending Kuang's formalism to ENA modeling.

  11. Comparison in gene expression of secretory human endometrium using laser microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tadateru

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium prepares for implantation under the control of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that there are complicated interactions between the epithelium and stroma in the endometrium during menstrual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate a difference in gene expression between the epithelial and stromal areas of the secretory human endometrium using microdissection and macroarray technique. Methods The epithelial and stromal areas were microdissected from the human endometrium during the secretory phase. RNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. Macroarray analysis of nearly 1000 human genes was carried out in this study. Some genes identified by macroarray analysis were verified using real-time PCR. Results In this study, changes in expression 5-fold were WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (44.1 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (40.1 fold, homeo box B5 (19.8 fold, msh homeo box homolog (18.8 fold, homeo box B7 (12.7 fold and protein kinase C, theta (6.4 fold. On the other hand, decorin (55.6 fold, discoidin domain receptor member 2 (17.3 fold, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (9 fold, ribosomal protein S3A (6.3 fold, and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains (5.2 fold were strongly expressed in the stromal areas. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (19.4 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (9.7-fold, decorin (16.3-fold and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (7.2-fold were verified by real-time PCR. Conclusions Some of the genes we identified with differential expression are related to the immune system. These results are telling us the new information for understanding the secretory human endometrium.

  12. Markerless motion capture and measurement of hand kinematics: validation and application to home-based upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Cheryl D; Robinson, Rebecca; Malpass, Adam J; Bogle, Tristan P; Dell, Thomas A; Harris, Chris; Demain, Sara H

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic movements of the hand, fingers, and thumb are difficult to measure due to the versatility and complexity of movement inherent in function. An innovative approach to measuring hand kinematics is proposed and validated. The proposed system utilizes the Microsoft Kinect and goes beyond gesture recognition to develop a validated measurement technique of finger kinematics. The proposed system adopted landmark definition (validated through ground truth estimation against assessors) and grip classification algorithms, including kinematic definitions (validated against a laboratory-based motion capture system). The results of the validation show 78% accuracy when identifying specific markerless landmarks. In addition, comparative data with a previously validated kinematic measurement technique show accuracy of MCP ± 10° (average absolute error (AAE) = 2.4°), PIP ± 12° (AAE = 4.8°), and DIP ± 11° (AAE = 4.8°). These results are notably better than clinically based alternative manual measurement techniques. The ability to measure hand movements, and therefore functional dexterity, without interfering with underlying composite movements, is the paramount objective to any bespoke measurement system. The proposed system is the first validated markerless measurement system using the Microsoft Kinect that is capable of measuring finger joint kinematics. It is suitable for home-based motion capture for the hand and, therefore, achieves this objective.

  13. Image Processing for Capturing Motions of Crowd and Its Application to Pedestrian-Induced Lateral Vibration of a Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An image processing technique to capture motions of crowds is proposed and it is applied to understanding pedestrian-induced lateral vibration in a footbridge. Firstly, an outline of recording sequential images of vibration in the bridge is described and, then an image processing for human-head recognition from a single image of crowd is developed. In this method, conventional template matching techniques with human-head templates are extended by employing some selected templates, an updated search-algorithm and a classifier for clustering. Consequently, more than 50% of human-heads could be identified by the proposed method. Then, motions of detected human-heads, together with the bridge response, are tracked. Finally, interaction between the motions of pedestrians and the vibration of the bridge is discussed, with the emphasis on synchronization between the responses of the pedestrians and the bridge.

  14. Neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy and its analytical applications for gold ore sample using the reactor neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, A.M.; El-Kady, A.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma-rays which immediately follow thermal neutrons capture have been used as a technique for non-destructive elemental analysis for gold ore sample. The thermal column of the Egyptian Research Reactor - 1 (ET-RR-1) was used. This requires a design of a well collimated and thermalized neutron beam. A high resolution and high efficiency Ge (Li) detector was required. In order to estimate the content of gold in its ore, calibration curves were constructed. For testing the results obtained, an empirical formula including the thermal neutron flux, the microscopic cross-section and the absolute efficiency of the detection system were applied. The concentration of gold in its ore sample was found to be as low as 5 ppM. Several elements beside gold could be identified in the ore sample. 10 references.

  15. Approaches to capture variance differences in rest fMRI networks in the spatial geometric features: Application to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti eGopal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functionally connected regions while at rest has been at the forefront of research focusing on understanding interactions between different brain regions. Studies have utilized a variety of approaches including seed based as well as data-driven approaches to identifying such networks. Most such techniques involve differentiating groups based on group mean measures. There has been little work focused on differences in spatial characteristics of resting fMRI data. We present a method to identify between group differences in the variability in the cluster characteristics of network regions within components estimated via independent vector analysis (IVA. IVA is a blind source separation approach shown to perform well in capturing individual subject variability within a group model. We evaluate performance of the approach using simulations and then apply to a relatively large schizophrenia data set (82 schizophrenia patients and 89 healthy controls. We postulate that group differences in the intra-network distributional characteristics of resting state network voxel intensities might indirectly capture important distinctions between the brain function of healthy and clinical populations. Results demonstrate that specific areas of the brain, superior and middle temporal gyrus that are involved in language and recognition of emotions, show greater component level variance in amplitude weights for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Statistically significant correlation between component level spatial variance and component volume was observed in 19 of the 27 non-artifactual components implying an evident relationship between the two parameters. Additionally, the greater spread in the distance of the cluster peak of a component from the centroid in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls was observed for seven components. These results indicate that there is hidden potential in exploring variance and possibly

  16. From radiation-induced chromosome damage to cell death: modelling basic mechanisms and applications to boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Altieri, S

    2011-02-01

    Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed to interpret radiation-induced cell killing; after briefly discussing some of these models, in this paper, a mechanistic approach based on an experimentally observed link between chromosome aberrations and cell death was presented. More specifically, a model and a Monte Carlo code originally developed for chromosome aberrations were extended to simulate radiation-induced cell death applying an experimentally observed one-to-one relationship between the average number of 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and deletions) per cell and -ln S, S being the fraction of surviving cells. Although such observation was related to X rays, in the present work, the approach was also applied to protons and alpha particles. A good agreement between simulation outcomes and literature data provided a model validation for different radiation types. The same approach was then successfully applied to simulate the survival of cells enriched with boron and irradiated with thermal neutrons at the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia, to mimic a typical treatment for boron neutron capture therapy.

  17. Convolution/deconvolution of generalized Gaussian kernels with applications to proton/photon physics and electron capture of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2012-01-01

    Scatter processes of photons lead to blurring of images produced by CT (computed tomography) or CBCT (cone beam computed tomography) in the KV domain or portal imaging in the MV domain (KV: kilovolt age, MV: megavoltage). Multiple scatter is described by, at least, one Gaussian kernel. In various situations, this approximation is crude, and we need two/three Gaussian kernels to account for the long-range tails (Landau tails), which appear in the Moli\\`ere scatter of protons, energy straggling and electron capture of charged particles passing through matter and Compton scatter of photons. The ideal image (source function) is subjected to Gaussian convolutions to yield a blurred image recorded by a detector array. The inverse problem is to obtain the ideal source image from measured image. Deconvolution methods of linear combinations of two/three Gaussian kernels with different parameters s0, s1, s2 can be derived via an inhomogeneous Fredholm integral equation of second kind (IFIE2) and Liouville - Neumann ser...

  18. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Microdissected Cell Populations Indicates that Testicular Carcinoma In situ Is an Arrested Gonocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, S. B.; Almstrup, K.; Dalgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    performed laser microdissection of CIS cells. Highly enriched cell populations were obtained and subjected to gene expression analysis. The expression profile of CIS cells was compared with microdissected gonocytes, oogonia, and cultured embryonic stem cells with and without genomic aberrations. Three...... a meiotic cell, and the similarity to embryonic stem cells was modest compared with gonocytes. Thus, we provide new evidence that the molecular phenotype of CIS cells is similar to that of gonocytes. Our data are in line with the idea that CIS cells may be gonocytes that survived in the postnatal testis....... speculate that disturbed development of somatic cells in the fetal testis may play a role in allowing undifferentiated cells to survive in the postnatal testes. The further development of CIS into invasive germ cell tumors may depend on signals from their postpubertal niche of somatic cells, including...

  19. Identification of the origin of chromosomal aberrations by laser microdissection: Double minutes observed in two cases derive from different chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajcan-Separovic, E. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Wang, H.S.; Janes, L. [Children`s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Single copies of tiny chromosome fragments appearing as double minutes were observed in high frequency in amniotic fluid cultures of two mothers who underwent prenatal testing because of advanced age. In case 1, the minutes were C band and NOR negative, while in case 2 they were C band positive, NOR negative. In both cases centromeric DNA sequences were detected on double minutes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using all human centromeric probe (ONCOR). We applied the laser microdissection method to diagnose the origin of double minutes. The diagnostic procedures consisted of microdissection of double minutes from single cells, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the dissected DNA and subsequent FISH using PCR products as a probe pool on metaphase chromosomes from the patient`s amniocytes and fibroblasts from a karyotypically normal newborn. Using this strategy we observed strong FISH signals on double minutes and centromeres of a D and G group chromosome in case 1 amniocyytes, while in case 2 the signal was present on double minutes and a C group chromosome centromere. Hybridization of amniocyte chromosome spreads with centromeric {alpha}-satellite probes for the candidate chromosomes 13/21 and 14/22 (ONCOR) in case 1 revealed FISH signals on double minutes only with the 13/21 probe. In case 2, {alpha}-satellite probes for candidate chromosomes 10 and 12 (ONCOR) were used, and only the probe for chromosome 12 hybridized to double minutes. With the laser microdissection method we were thus able to diagnose and confirm that the double minutes observed in human amniocytes derived from centromeres of chromosomes 13/21 in case 1, and from centomeres of chromosome 12 in case 2. This demonstrates the utility of laser microdissection for identification of chromosomal abnormalities of unknown origin.

  20. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

    2009-07-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  1. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: halfon@phys.huji.ac.il; Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Steinberg, D. [Biofilm Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah (Israel); Nagler, A.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Polacheck, I. [Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center (Israel); Srebnik, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2009-07-15

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  2. Directed isolation and mapping of microsatellites from swine Chromosome 1q telomeric region through microdissection and RH mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, N; Hawken, R J; Takahashi, S; Alexander, L J; Awata, T; Schook, L B; Yasue, H

    2001-07-01

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (vertebrate number, birth weight, age at puberty, growth rate, gestation length, and backfat depth) have been independently mapped to the distal region of swine Chromosome (SSC) 1q in several resource populations. In order to improve the map resolution and refine these QTLs more precisely on SSC1q, we have isolated and mapped additional microsatellites (ms), using chromosome microdissection and radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. Five copies of the telomeric region of SSC1q were microdissected from metaphase spreads and pooled. The chromosomal fragment DNA was randomly amplified by using degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR), enriched for ms, and subcloned into a PCR vector. Screening of subsequent clones with ms probes identified 23 unique ms sequences. Fifteen of these (65%) were subjected to radiation hybrid (RH) mapping by using the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine RH panel (IMpRH); and the remaining eight were not suited for the RH mapping. Twelve microsatellites were assigned to SSC1q telomeric region of IMpRH map (LOD >6), and three remain unlinked (LOD pig. In summary, we have used microdissection and radiation hybrid mapping to clone and map 12 new microsatellites to the swine gene map to increase the resolution of SSC1q in the region of known QTLs.

  3. Improved methods for the generation of 24.5 keV neutron beams with possible application to boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G.; Baker, L. J.; Taylor, N. P.

    1986-09-01

    The production of epithermal neutron beams, filtered to provide a spectrum in which a small energy range predominates, is of importance for radiobiological research and in the development and calibration of instruments for monitoring intermediate energy neutrons. The penetration characteristics of intermediate energy neutrons in tissue lead to the possibility of application in the field of neutron capture therapy if beams of sufficient intensity and adequate spectral properties can be generated. In this paper methods of utilising the 24.5 keV antiresonance in the iron neutron cross section are described, and the DENIS (depth enhanced neutron intense source) principle by which beam intensities may be optimised is explained. Calculations and experimental measurements in an in-core facility in the DIDO reactor at Harwell have indicated that a DENIS scatterer can achieve a 6-fold improvement in 24.5 keV beam intensity compared with a conventional titanium disc scatterer.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of gadolinium nanostructured materials with potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging, neutron-capture therapy and targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F., E-mail: ghanotakis@chemistry.uoc.g [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Two Gadolinium nanostructured materials, Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} nanoparticles and Gd(OH){sub 3} nanorods, were synthesized and extensively characterized by various techniques. In addition to the potential use of Gd{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3} in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) application, it could also be used in targeted drug delivery. An antibiotic (nalidixic acid), two amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acid), a fatty acid and a surfactant (SDS) were intercalated in the nanoparticles. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic acid in order to be capable of targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing sites, such as tumor human cells.

  5. First tests of the applicability of $\\gamma$-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Magán, D L Pérez; Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt-Ros, J; Albiol, F; Casanovas, A; González, A; Guerrero, C; Lerendegui-Marco, J; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using $\\gamma$-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr$_3$ scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a $^{197}$Au sample have been carried out at n\\_TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of 2 in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  6. First tests of the applicability of γ-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Magán, D.L.; Caballero, L. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C., E-mail: domingo@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Casanovas, A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); González, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging, I3M-CSIC 46022 Valencia (Spain); Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J. [Dto. de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using γ-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr{sub 3} scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a {sup 197}Au sample have been carried out at n-TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of two in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  7. Using permalloy based planar hall effect sensors to capture and detect superparamagnetic beads for lab on a chip applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volmer, Marius, E-mail: volmerm@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department. Eroilor 29, Brasov 500036 (Romania); Avram, Marioara [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Str. Erou Iancu Nicolae 32B, 72996 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out on planar Hall effect (PHE) sensors used to detect magnetic nanoparticles employed as labels for biodetection applications. Disk shaped sensors, 1 mm diameter, were structured on Permalloy film, 20 nm thick. To control the sensor magnetisation state and thus the field sensitivity and linearity, a DC biasing field has been applied parallel to the driving current. Maghemite nanoparticles (10 nm) functionalised with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were immobilised over the sensor surface using particular magnetisation state and applied magnetic fields. In order to obtain a higher response from the magnetic nanoparticles, it was used a detection setup which allows the application of magnetic fields larger than 100 Oe but avoiding saturation of the PHE signal. Based on this setup, two field scanning methods are presented in this paper. During our experiments, low magnetic moments, of about 1.87×10{sup −5} emu, have been easily detected. This value corresponds to a mass of 9.35 µg of maghemite nanoparticles functionalised with PEG 6000. The results suggest that this type of structure is feasible for building low cost micrometer sized PHE sensors to be used for high-resolution bio sensing applications. - Highlights: • Disk-shaped Permalloy planar Hall effect sensors have been obtained and tested. • Two field scanning methods have been proposed. • The magnetic nanoparticles can be trapped on the sensor surface. • High detection sensitivity has been obtained.

  8. Cupula-receptor cell relationships with evidence provided by SEM microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, V C; Emerson, C J

    1979-01-01

    Ampullae from the inner ear of the skate, Raja ocellata, were examined by SEM to further elucidate the relationships of the sensory hairs of the receptor cells to the overlying cupula. Specimens were prepared by a variety of methods and were fractured to visualize these relationships. Critical point drying resulted in good cellular and sensory hair preservation, but the cupulae were grossly shrunken. Freeze-dried cupulae, in contrast, more closely approximated the in vivo condition. Although tissues suffered freezing damage, sensory hair bundles were readily discerned. In both critical point dried and freeze-dried ampullae, the peripheral hair cell bundles and the kinocilia of most of the central hair cells, extended across the subcupular space and contacted the cupular material. Some of the specimens were further investigated by dissection in the SEM, the process being viewed in real time stereo. Microdissection confirmed that most kinocilia were attached to the cupula. When the cupula was displaced, sensory hair bundles remained attached to it and broke preferentially at their base from the receptor cells.

  9. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, M; Cabrero, J; Perfectti, F; Acosta, M J; Sánchez, A; Camacho, J P M

    2009-01-01

    The relative location of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal (rDNA) and a tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNA), with respect to the centromere, suggested that B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans derived intraspecifically from the X chromosome. To test this hypothesis, we microdissected X and B chromosomes and amplified the obtained DNA by 2 different procedures, the conventional DOP-PCR method and the single-cell whole-genome amplification GenomePlex method. We then generated DNA probes to perform chromosome painting. Our results have confirmed that X and B chromosomes share many DNA sequences between them and with most of the autosomes, especially at locations where the satDNA and rDNA reside, in consistency with previous information. This supports the hypothesis of an intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in E. plorans. Nevertheless, the present results did not help to clarify whether Bs were derived from the X chromosome or else from 1 or more autosomes.

  10. Selective Gene Expression Analysis of Muscular and Vascular Components in Hearts Using Laser Microdissection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The heart consists of various kinds of cell components. However, it has not been feasible to separately analyze the gene expression of individual components. The laser microdissection (LMD method, a new technology to collect target cells from the microscopic regions, has been used for malignancies. We sought to establish a method to selectively collect the muscular and vascular regions from the heart sections and to compare the marker gene expressions with this method. Methods and Results. Frozen left ventricle sections were obtained from Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP at 24 weeks of age. Using the LMD method, the muscular and vascular regions were selectively collected under microscopic guidance. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, a marker of cardiac myocytes, was expressed in the muscular samples, but not in the vascular samples, whereas α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of smooth muscle cells, was detected only in the vascular samples. Moreover, SHR-SP had significantly greater BNP upregulation than WKY (<0.05 in the muscular samples. Conclusions. The LMD method enabled us to separately collect the muscular and vascular samples from myocardial sections and to selectively evaluate mRNA expressions of the individual tissue component.

  11. ERα and ERK1/2 MAP kinase expression in microdissected stromal and epithelial endometrial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Abu Alkhair Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Total and phosphorylated levels for ERK1/2 and ERα were measured by quantitation of signals from Western blots using specific antibodies against the active and total forms of ERK1/2 and against ERα. When the level of the proteins was quantitated and normalized to β actin from microdissected stroma and epithelium, no significant difference was detected in the levels of these proteins between the two tissue compartments. There was a trend toward higher expression in the stroma vs. epithelium, respectively (active ERK1/2 0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.2 ± 0.65; total ERK1/2 0.54 ± 0.35 vs. 0.28 ± 0.23; ERα 0.82 ± 0.28 vs. 0.54 ± 0.18; n = 6. These data demonstrate that there are comparable levels of ERα (P = 0.41, total ERK1/2 (P = 0.18 and active ERK1/2 (P = 0.13 in the stroma and epithelium of proliferative phase endometrium with a trend toward higher expression of these proteins in the stromal compartment.

  12. Sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Wachter, A; Phillips, S; Cohen, B; Al-Hathal, N; Zini, A

    2015-05-01

    Several studies support of the use of testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in couples with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia, although this approach remains controversial. We sought to evaluate sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia. We conducted a retrospective study of 24 consecutive micro-TESEs in men with cryptozoospermia. We also evaluated the outcomes of seven consecutive TESAs (testicular sperm aspiration) in cryptozoospermic men during the same time period (January 2007 and September 2014). Micro-TESE and TESA were performed on the day prior to ICSI. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of ICSI) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a unilateral or bilateral micro-TESE was guided by the intra-operative evaluation of sperm recovery from the first testicle. A unilateral procedure was performed in 87.5% (21/24) and 57% (4/7) of the micro-TESE and TESA cohorts, respectively. Sperm recovery was successful in 96% (23/24) of the men who underwent micro-TESE and 43% (3/7) of the men who underwent TESA (p cryptozoospermia and few of these men will require a bilateral procedure. Moreover, sperm retrieval rates are higher with micro-TESE than TESA in this group of men.

  13. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim......The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  14. Microarray analysis of gene expression by microdissected epidermis and dermis in mycosis fungoides and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Keiko; Yasumoto, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Kazutaka; Arakawa, Fumiko; Kiyasu, Junichi; Kimura, Yoshizo; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasuda, Kaori; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ohshima, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    The characteristic histopathological feature of mycosis fungoides (MF) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is epidermotropism. To identify the mechanism for epidermotropism of lymphoma cells, total RNAs were obtained from skin biopsies of epidermis and dermis of MF and ATLL patients by means of laser capture microdissection, and used for subsequent complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray experiments. This procedure has made it possible for us to observe and evaluate the regional environment of MF and ATLL. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the cDNAs could be clearly differentiated into MF and ATLL. CCL27 was expressed in the dermis generated from keratinocytes, CCR4/CCR6/CCR7/CCR10/cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) lymphoma cells in the dermis, and CCL21 in the extracellular matrix (stroma). Lymphotoxin (LT) β and CCL21 expression was significantly higher and that of CCR10 relatively for MF, while CCR4 and CLA expression was relatively higher for ATLL. In the epithelium, keratinocytes expressed CCL20/CCL27, and lymphoma cells CCR4/CCR6/CCR10, while CCR4, CCR6, CCL20 and CCL27 expression was relatively higher for ATLL than MF. The dermis of MF, but not that of ATLL, showed correlation between CCR7 and CCL21. These findings support the suggestion that chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of MF and ATLL, indicate that cutaneous homing seems to be different for MF and ATLL, and point to the possibility that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas originate in regulatory T cells, especially in the case of ATLL.

  15. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adungo, Ferdinard; Yu, Fuxun; Kamau, David; Inoue, Shingo; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Sang, Rosemary; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units.

  16. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Justin A.; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools.

  17. Gene profiles between non-invasive and invasive colon cancer using laser microdissection and polypeptide analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Zhu; Hua Guo; Ming-Quan Song; Guo-Qiang Chen; Qun Sun; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of differential gene expression profiles of target cell between non-invasive submucosal and invasive advanced tumor in colon carcinoma using laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with polypeptide analysis.METHODS: Normal colon tissue samples from 20 healthy individuals and 30 cancer tissue samples from early non-invasive colon cancer cells were obtained. The cells from these samples were used LMD independently after P27-based amplification. aRNA from advanced colon cancer cells and metastatic cancer cells of 40 cases were applied to LMD and polypeptide analysis, semiquantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical assays were used to verify the results of microarray and further identify differentially expressed genes in non-invasive early stages of colon cancer.RESULTS: Five gene expressions were changed in colon carcinoma cells compared with that of controls. Of the five genes, three genes were downregulated and two were upregulated in invasive submucosal colon carcinoma compared with non-invasive cases. The results were confirmed at the level of aRNA and gene expression. Five genes were further identified as differentially expressed genes in the majority of cases (50%, 25/40) in progression of colon cancer, and their expression patterns of which were similar to tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes.CONCLUSION: This study suggested that combined use of polypeptide analysis might identify early expression profiles of five differential genes associated with the invasion of colon cancer. These results reveal that this gene may be a marker of submucosal invasion in early colon cancer.

  18. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  19. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining...

  20. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  1. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  2. Irradiation facility for boron neutron capture therapy application based on a rf-driven D-T neutron source and a new beam shaping assembly (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Leung, K. N.

    2002-02-01

    Selecting the best neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires optimizing neutron beam parameters. This involves solving many complex problems. Safety issues related to the use of nuclear reactor in hospital environments, as well as lower costs have led to interest in the development of accelerator-driven neutron sources. The BNCT research programs at the Nuclear Departments of Pisa and Genova Universities (DIMNP and DITEC) focus on studies of new concepts for accelerator-based DT neutron sources. Simple and compact accelerator designs using relatively low deuteron beam energy, ˜100 keV, have been developed which, in turn, can generate high neutron yields. New studies have been started for optimization of moderator materials for the 14.1 MeV DT neutrons. Our aim is to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for therapeutic application at the exit end, with minimal beam intensity losses, the specific goal is to achieve an epithermal neutron flux of at least of 1×109 n/cm2 s at the beam port, with low gamma and fast neutron dose contamination. According to the most recent neutron BNCT beam parameters some moderating and spectrum shifter materials and geometrical configurations have thus far been tested, and neutron and gamma beam data at beam port have been computed. A possible beam shaping assembly model has been designed. This research demonstrates that a DT neutron source could be successfully implemented for BNCT application, with performance surpassing the minimum requirements stated above, using DT neutron sources with yields in the range 1013-1014 n/s. The latest Monte Carlo simulation results of an accelerator based facility which relies on a rf-driven DT fusion neutron generator will be presented.

  3. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  4. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome in programme in vitro fertilization: literature review and cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vityazeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes modern methods of examination, preoperative preparation and surgical treatment of infertility in men with non-mosaic form of Klinefelter syndrome (SK by microdissection method of testicular sperm retrieval. Men with SK responsive to hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors and human chorionic gonadotropin (НCG, have a greater chance of a favourable outcome of infertility treatment. Testicular volume, testosterone levels and test results with НCG are important prognostic factors in this group of patients. We present a clinical case of treatment of infertility in men with SK by microTESE (microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

  5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome in programme in vitro fertilization: literature review and cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vityazeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes modern methods of examination, preoperative preparation and surgical treatment of infertility in men with non-mosaic form of Klinefelter syndrome (SK by microdissection method of testicular sperm retrieval. Men with SK responsive to hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors and human chorionic gonadotropin (НCG, have a greater chance of a favourable outcome of infertility treatment. Testicular volume, testosterone levels and test results with НCG are important prognostic factors in this group of patients. We present a clinical case of treatment of infertility in men with SK by microTESE (microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

  6. The controversial existence of the human superior fronto-occipital fasciculus: Connectome-based tractographic study with microdissection validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Comert, Ayhan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    The superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), a long association bundle that connects frontal and occipital lobes, is well-documented in monkeys but is controversial in human brain. Its assumed role is in visual processing and spatial awareness. To date, anatomical and neuroimaging studies on human and animal brains are not in agreement about the existence, course, and terminations of SFOF. To clarify the existence of the SFOF in human brains, we applied deterministic fiber tractography to a template of 488 healthy subjects and to 80 individual subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and validated the results with white matter microdissection of post-mortem human brains. The imaging results showed that previous reconstructions of the SFOF were generated by two false continuations, namely between superior thalamic peduncle (STP) and stria terminalis (ST), and ST and posterior thalamic peduncle. The anatomical microdissection confirmed this finding. No other fiber tracts in the previously described location of the SFOF were identified. Hence, our data suggest that the SFOF does not exist in the human brain.

  7. Identification of chromosome abnormalities in the horse using a panel of chromosome-specific painting probes generated by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno, Monika; Słota, Ewa; Pieńkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Schelling, Claude

    2009-09-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of molecular probes for all chromosome pairs obtained by chromosome microdissection of the domestic horse ( Equus caballus ) was used to diagnose karyotype abnormalities in 35 horses (32 mares, 2 stallions and 1 intersex), which were selected for the study due to infertility (23 horses), reduced fertility (10 horses) and developmental anomalies (2 horses). The use of the FISH technique with probes for each horse chromosome pair enabled the diagnosis of many different chromosome aberrations in this population. Among the horses analysed, 21 animals had normal karyotype - 64,XX (19 mares) and 64,XY (2 stallions). Fourteen animals, constituting 40% of the population studied, showed the following chromosome abnormalities: 63,X (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX (6 mares); 63,X/64,XX/65,XXX (3 mares); 63,X/65,XXX (1 mare); 64,XX/65,XX+Xp (1 mare); 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+Xq (1 mare), and 63,X/64,XX/65,XX+delY (1 intersex). When only the mares studied because of complete infertility were taken into consideration, this proportion exceeded 56%. Due to the increased frequency of the above-mentioned aberrations in the mosaic form of two or more lines, it was necessary to analyse a large number (100-300) of metaphase spreads. The use of specific molecular probes obtained by chromosome microdissection made these diagnoses much easier.

  8. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  9. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  10. Direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue after automated sequential laser microdissection and pressure catapulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, S L; Garimella, V; Sivarajasingham, N; Drew, P J; Cawkwell, L

    2007-02-01

    A robust method to facilitate rapid laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) coupled with direct polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) to eliminate the need for extraction of DNA before a PCR-based assay is described. This sequential LMPC-dPCR method is rapid and decreases the number of processing steps, reducing the chance of tissue loss and contamination.

  11. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  13. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  14. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  15. Reproducibility of Protein Identification of Selected Cell Types in Barrett's Esophagus Analyzed by Combining Laser-Capture Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Stingl; F.G.I. van Vilsteren; C. Guzel; F.J.W. ten Kate; M. Visser; K.K. Krishnadath; J.J. Bergman; T.M. Luider

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and characterized by replacement of normal esophageal squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. These alterations are also reflected in changes in the protein-expression profiles of the cell types involve

  16. Laser capture microdissection followed by next-generation sequencing identifies disease-related microRNAs in psoriatic skin that reflect systemic microRNA changes in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    and miR-223 were expressed in Th17 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LCM combined with NGS provides a robust approach to explore the global miRNA expression in the epidermal and dermal compartments of psoriatic skin. Furthermore, our results indicate that the altered local miRNA changes seen...

  17. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  18. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th.intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th.intermedium in common wheat-Th.intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization.Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes.This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line,but also a replacing line.The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed.A special probe of Th.intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library.The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data.This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance,adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  19. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik;

    2009-01-01

    protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... microdissection technology allows for enrichment of specific cell types. However, when the cells are not morphologically distinguishable, it is necessary to use a specific staining method for the target cells. In this study we have tested different fixatives, storage conditions for frozen sections and staining...

  20. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th. intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靫; 卢一凡; 邓继先; 李滨; 张学勇; 刘广田

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th, intermedium in common wheat-Th. intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization. Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes. This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line, but also a replacing line. The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed. A special probe of Th. intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library. The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data. This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance, adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  1. MicroRNA Profiling of Laser-Microdissected Hepatocellular Carcinoma Reveals an Oncogenic Phenotype of the Tumor Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peveling-Oberhag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microRNAs (miRNAs are associated with the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, previous studies analyzing the dysregulation of miRNAs in HCC show heterogeneous results. We hypothesized that part of this heterogeneity might be attributable to variations of miRNA expression deriving from the HCC capsule or the fibrotic septa within the peritumoral tissue used as controls. Tissue from surgically resected hepatitis C–associated HCC from six well-matched patients was microdissected using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique. Four distinct histologic compartments were isolated: tumor parenchyma (TP, fibrous capsule of the tumor (TC, tumor-adjacent liver parenchyma (LP, and cirrhotic septa of the tumor-adjacent liver (LC. MiRNA expression profiling analysis of 1105 mature miRNAs and precursors was performed using miRNA microarray. Principal component analysis and consecutive pairwise supervised comparisons demonstrated distinct patterns of expressed miRNAs not only for TP versus LP (e.g., intratumoral down-regulation of miR-214, miR-199a, miR-146a, and miR-125a; P< .05 but also for TC versus LC (including down-regulation within TC of miR-126, miR-99a/100, miR-26a, and miR-125b; P< .05. The tumor capsule therefore demonstrates a tumor-like phenotype with down-regulation of well-known tumor-suppressive miRNAs. Variations of co-analyzed fibrotic tissue within the tumor or in controls may have profound influence on miRNA expression analyses in HCC. Several miRNAs, which are proposed to be HCC specific, may indeed be rather associated to the tumor capsule. As miRNAs evolve to be important biomarkers in liver tumors, the presented data have important translational implications on diagnostics and treatment in patients with HCC.

  2. MicroRNA Profiling of Laser-Microdissected Hepatocellular Carcinoma Reveals an Oncogenic Phenotype of the Tumor Capsule123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Seiz, Anna; Döring, Claudia; Hartmann, Sylvia; Köberle, Verena; Liese, Juliane; Zeuzem, Stefan; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Piiper, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, previous studies analyzing the dysregulation of miRNAs in HCC show heterogeneous results. We hypothesized that part of this heterogeneity might be attributable to variations of miRNA expression deriving from the HCC capsule or the fibrotic septa within the peritumoral tissue used as controls. Tissue from surgically resected hepatitis C–associated HCC from six well-matched patients was microdissected using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique. Four distinct histologic compartments were isolated: tumor parenchyma (TP), fibrous capsule of the tumor (TC), tumor-adjacent liver parenchyma (LP), and cirrhotic septa of the tumor-adjacent liver (LC). MiRNA expression profiling analysis of 1105 mature miRNAs and precursors was performed using miRNA microarray. Principal component analysis and consecutive pairwise supervised comparisons demonstrated distinct patterns of expressed miRNAs not only for TP versus LP (e.g., intratumoral down-regulation of miR-214, miR-199a, miR-146a, and miR-125a; P< .05) but also for TC versus LC (including down-regulation within TC of miR-126, miR-99a/100, miR-26a, and miR-125b; P< .05). The tumor capsule therefore demonstrates a tumor-like phenotype with down-regulation of well-known tumor-suppressive miRNAs. Variations of co-analyzed fibrotic tissue within the tumor or in controls may have profound influence on miRNA expression analyses in HCC. Several miRNAs, which are proposed to be HCC specific, may indeed be rather associated to the tumor capsule. As miRNAs evolve to be important biomarkers in liver tumors, the presented data have important translational implications on diagnostics and treatment in patients with HCC. PMID:25500075

  3. 海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤%TThe Therapy of Cavernous Sinus Parietal Microdissection and Expand Sphenoid Sinus Approach in Invasion Cavernous Sinus Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恩

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤方法。方法随机选取2013年1月~2015年12月我院收治的22例垂体腺瘤患者临床资料,应用海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的手术方法。结果22例垂体腺瘤患者均顺利完成手术,19例垂体腺瘤全部切除,3例垂体腺瘤次全切除,未发生感染、昏迷和死亡病例。结论海绵窦内侧壁的显微解剖与扩大经蝶窦入路治疗侵袭海绵窦的垂体腺瘤手术效果理想。%Objective To study the therapy of cavernous sinus parietal microdissection and expand sphenoid sinus approach in invasion cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma.Methods Randomly selected 22 patients with pituitary adenoma clinical data from January 2013 to December 2015 in our hospital, which were application therapy of cavernous sinus parietal microdissection and expand sphenoid sinus approach.Results 22 patients with pituitary adenoma patients were successfully operated, 19 patients total removal of pituitary adenoma, 3 patients subtotal resection of pituitary adenoma, infection did not occur, coma and death.Conclusion Expansion of the cavernous sinus microdissection transsphenoidal approach over the side wall of the treatment of pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous effect.

  4. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  5. Development and application potential analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology from flue gas in steel works%钢厂烟气CO2捕捉技术的开发及其应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 曲余玲; 李博; 景馨; 朱剑兵

    2016-01-01

    The iron and steel industries in several countries have been carried out the development of carbon capture and sequestration(CCS)technology in recent years. The carbon dioxide capture cost approximately accounts for 70 per-cent of the total cost of CCS. Therefore,the reduction of the cost to capture the carbon dioxide becomes the major prob-lem. The carbon dioxide capture processes developed by the steel works so far are mainly chemical absorption methods and physical adsorption methods,the costs in experimental scale have been reduced. The carbon dioxide capture technol-ogies developed by Japanese steel works,such as Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal,South Korea's POSCO and China-Taiwan's China Steel etc are described and the industrial application potentials of the technologies are analyzed.%近年来,许多国家开展钢铁工业CO2捕捉与封存(CCS)技术研究。在CCS成本中,CO2捕捉成本约占70%,因此,降低CO2捕捉成本是CCS首先要解决的问题。目前钢厂开发的CO2捕捉工艺主要以化学吸收法和物理吸附法为主,并在试验规模取得成本降低的效果。介绍日本新日铁和JFE、韩国浦项、中国台湾中钢等开发的CO2捕捉技术,并对CO2捕捉技术的工业化应用前景进行分析。

  6. No relationship between biopsy sites near the main testicular vessels or rete testis and successful sperm retrieval using conventional or microdissection biopsies in 220 non-obstructive azoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, J Ullrich; Steinfatt, Heiko; Schleyer, Manfred; Köhn, Frank M; Fiedler, Klaus; von Hertwig, Irene; Krüsmann, Gottfried; Würfel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In 220 consecutive patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval was attempted by a combination of conventional and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE). For sperm retrieval, 2-3 conventional biopsies were performed followed by a microdissection TESE in cases of negative conventional biopsies. During the surgery, the vasculature of the testis was assessed using the operative microscope, and the location of positive biopsies was registered in relation to the blood supply. The overall sperm retrieval rate was 58.2%. From the initial conventional biopsies, sperm could be retrieved in 46.8% of the patients. With microdissection TESE, sperm could be retrieved from an additional 11.4% of the patients. The further use of microdissection TESE improved the sperm retrieval rate significantly (P=0.017). No significant accumulation of positive biopsies was found towards the rete testis or the main testicular vessels.

  7. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Electron Capture Cross-Sections in Ion-Ion Collisions at Approximately to MeV/amu: Application to ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discovery by STEREO A/B of energetic neutral hydrogen is spurring an interest and need for reliable estimates of electron capture cross sections at few MeVs per nucleon as well as for multi-electron ions. Required accuracy in such estimates necessitates detailed and involved quantum-mechanical calculations or expensive numerical simulations. For ENA modeling and similar purposes, a semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground approach. Kuang's semiclassical formalism to calculate electron-capture cross sections for single and multi-electron ions is an elegant and efficient method, but has so far been applied to limited and specific laboratory measurements and at somewhat lower energies. Our goals are to test and extend Kuang s method to all ion-atom and ion-ion collisions relevant to ENA modeling, including multi-electron ions and for K-shell to K-shell transitions.

  8. Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-03-19

    Although amine-based CO(2) absorption is a leading contender for full-scale postcombustion CO(2) capture at power plants, concerns have been raised about the potential release of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines formed by reaction of exhaust gas NO(x) with the amines. Experiments with a laboratory-scale pilot unit suggested that washwater units meant to scrub contaminants from absorber unit exhaust could potentially serve as a source of N-nitrosamines via reactions of residual NO(x) with amines accumulating in the washwater. Dosage requirements for the continuous treatment of the washwater recycle line with ultraviolet (UV) light for destruction of N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, and with ozone or hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for destruction of amines and aldehydes, were evaluated. Although capture synergies between UV and ozone treatments.

  9. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  10. Validation of a Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Targeted Degradation Compounds of Ethanolamine Used in CO2 Capture: Application to Real Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzuel Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of greenhouse gas emission, a promising approach consists in CO2 storage and capture. However most of the processes are based on amine solutions which are likely to degrade and produce potentially harmful compounds. So there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. Monoethanolamine was used as a model compound for the amines used for CO2 capture. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of six products of degradation of monoethanolamine (Glycine, N-(2-hydroxyethylglycine, N-glycylglycine, bicine, N,N′-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl urea (BHE Urea, and diethanolamine that were systematically detected with a LC-MS Scan method in real samples from CO2 capture and storage processes. The main difficulty of this study and its originality ly in the strategy developed to overcome the complexity of the matrix which is a mix of water and amine (70/30: the combined use of deuterated internal standards and a recent chemiometric approach to validate the method, i.e. the accuracy profile. For five compounds it was possible to validate the method with acceptance limits of 20%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples from pilot plant and lab-scale experiments.

  11. Realtime or Delayed Tele-Echography Using (A) a Robotic Arm, ISDN or Satellite Lines, (B) a Volumic Echographic Capture Mode and Internet (Application to Abdomen and Fetus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Cloppet, F.; Boucher, A.; Capri, A.; Vincent, N.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: to test (a) the tele-echography in realtime based on the use of a robotic arm, (b) the delayed tele echography using a volumic echographic capture and delayed processing. Method: A dedicated robotic arm (ESTELE) holding a real ultrasound probe is remotely controlled from the expert site with a fictive probe, and reproduces on the real probe all the movements of the expert hand. A dedicated motorized probe holder (TILTER) was used for tilting a 2D probe from -45 to +45°. Results: During fetal robotized Tele-echography (n=50) the expert was able to visualize and measure the fetal structures in 95% of the cases, while during abdomen echography (n=87) the expert visualized the main organs and lesions in 87% of the cases. The mean duration of the robotized tele echography session for one patient was 20+/-10 min. The delayed echography using the TILTER was tested on 40 patients. The organs were adequately visualized in 85% of the cases after 3 capture per organ. The average time from the first capture until the diagnostic was delivered was 40+/-10 minutes. Conclusion: Realtime or delayed Tele-echography provide similar information as direct examination in at least 85% of the cases. No false diagnostic was reported.

  12. 基于ARM的Qt/Embedded视频采集应用程序设计的改进与实现%ARM-based Qt/Embedded video capture application improving design and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞飞; 赖惠成; 齐立飞; 任旭强

    2015-01-01

    In view of integrity problems and repeated transplantation debuggings encountering in Qt/Embedded video capture application development,this paper presents a preferable solving method of improving the development of video capture application. Based on the target platform of ARM&Linux,aiming at developing Qt/Embedded applica-tion , through performing the transplantation of the Linux operating system and completly building the development plat-form of ARM&Linux,Finally realizing the video acquisition on Qt/Embedded application.%鉴于Qt/Embedded视频采集应用程序在开发中遇到开发完整性与反复移植调试问题,本文提出了一种完善的视频采集应用程序的开发方法。本文在ARM+Linux目标平台的基础上,以Qt/Embedded应用程序开发为目的,进行Linux操作系统的移植,完成开发平台的搭建,最终在QT/Embedded上实现了视频采集应用程序。

  13. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  14. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  15. A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Bryan T

    2010-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). METHODS: Herein, 82 antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling proteins and effectors were validated for RPPA. Intraslide and interslide coefficients of variability were <15%. Multiple sites in non-microdissected breast tumors were analyzed using RPPA after intervals of up to 24 h on the benchtop at room temperature following surgical resection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability at room temperature with most variability occurring at later time points between 6 and 24 h. However, the 82-protein functional proteomic "fingerprint" was robust in most tumors even when maintained at room temperature for 24 h before freezing. In repeat samples from each tumor, intratumoral protein levels were markedly less variable than intertumoral levels. Indeed, an independent analysis of prognostic biomarkers in tissue from multiple tumor sites accurately and reproducibly predicted patient outcomes. Significant correlations were observed between RPPA and immunohistochemistry. However, RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range. Classification of 128 breast cancers using RPPA identified six subgroups with markedly different patient outcomes that demonstrated a significant correlation with breast cancer subtypes identified by transcriptional profiling. CONCLUSION: Thus, the robustness of RPPA and stability of the functional proteomic "fingerprint" facilitate the study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected breast tumors.

  16. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  17. Differential gene expression profiling in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma compared to the adjacent microscopically normal urothelium by microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Ma, F L; Ma, X B; Han, R F; Zhang, Y B; Chang, J W

    2006-01-01

    Identifying novel and known genes that are differentially expressed in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) has important implications in understanding the biology of bladder tumorigenesis and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this study we identified the differential gene expression profiles comparing tumor to the adjacent microscopically normal mucosa by manual microdissection on frozen sections. The RNAs extracted from microdissected tissues were amplified by SMART cDNA PCR technology to generate forward subtractive cDNA library by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). We obtained 376 positive clones, one hundred clones of aggressive BTCC subtracted cDNA library were selected at random and inserts were reamplified by PCR. After differential screening by reverse dot blotting, 73 positive clones, that contend inserts putatively upregulated in aggressive BTCC, were further analysed by DNA sequencing, GenBank and EST database searching. Sequencing results showed that 66 clones stand for 23 known genes and 7 clones for three new EST (Genbank number: DN236875, DN236874 and DN236873). In conclusion, microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH allowed for an efficient way to identify aggressive BTCC-specific differential expressed genes that may potentially be involved in the carcinogenesis and/or progression of aggressive BTCC. These differentially expressed genes may be of potential utility as therapeutic and diagnostic targets for aggressive BTCC.

  18. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-20

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed.

  19. Challenges in the Application of Fractional Derivative Models in Capturing Solute Transport in Porous Media: Darcy-Scale Fractional Dispersion and the Influence of Medium Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous media consisting of segregated flow regions are fractional-order systems, where the regional-scale anomalous diffusion can be described by the fractional derivative model (FDM. The standard FDM, however, first, cannot characterize the Darcy-scale dispersion through repacked sand columns, and second, the link between medium properties and model parameters remains unknown. To fill these two knowledge gaps, this study applies a tempered fractional derivative model (TFDM to capture bromide transport through laboratory repacked sand. Column transport experiments are conducted first, where glass beads and silica sand with different diameters are repacked individually. Late-time tails are observed in the breakthrough curves (BTC of bromide even in relatively homogeneous glass beads. The TFDM can capture the observed subdiffusion, especially the late-time BTC with a transient declining rate. Results also show that both the size distribution of repacked sand and the magnitude of fluid velocity can affect subdiffusion. In particular, a wider sand size distribution or a smaller flow rate can enhance the subdiffusion, leading to a smaller time index and a higher truncation parameter in the TFDM. Therefore, the Darcy-scale dispersion follows the tempered stable law, and the model parameters might be related to the soil size and flow conditions.

  20. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  1. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  2. Analysis of steroidogenic pathway key transcripts in interrenal cells isolated by laser microdissection (LMD) in stressed rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Castro, Camino; Santa-Cruz, María Carmen; Hernández-Sánchez, Marta; Teles, Mariana; Tort, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    An assessment of the key transcripts expression of the steroidogenesis-related genes in rainbow trout subjected to either acute or chronic stress was performed in both interrenal cells and whole head kidney tissue. The analysis of interrenal cells was possible thanks to the use, for the first time in this specific type of cells, of the technique of laser microdissection (LMD) which allows to isolate specific cells and process them independently of other surrounding cells in the tissue. The results indicated that both acute and chronic stressors induced a significant up-regulation of the steroidogenesis-related genes with a higher but expected degree in the isolated cells. In addition, under acute stress a delay between cortisol levels and transcript expression was found. Under chronic stress a clear relation between plasma cortisol levels, mRNA transcription and interrenal tissue area was observed, since all parameters were concomitantly increased at day 5 after stress. Moreover results indicated that the LMD technique allowed ascertaining with more precision and accuracy whether and when the steroidogenesis-related genes were significantly expressed, disregarding the noise produced by other cells present in the head kidney. Results also showed a typical physiological response in plasma parameters and a positive relationship between plasma cortisol data and transcript abundance in isolated cells. The present results may help to better understand the mechanisms behind the interrenal response to stress challenges in fish.

  3. Isolation of expressed sequences encoded by the human Xq terminal portion using microclone probes generated by laser microdissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Kang, X. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada)); Hadano, Shinji; Kogi, Mieko; Wakasa, Kyo (Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)); Ikeda, J.E. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada) Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan) National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The genes that cause a variety of neurologic and neuromuscular disorders have been mapped to the distal region of Xq. In an effort to isolate genes from this area, a regional genomic library of the distal 30% of Xq was constructed from a single metaphase spread by means of laser microdissection and single unique primer-polymerase chain reaction. Using pooled probes of 1000 clones from the genomic library, human brain cDNA libraries were screened for expressed sequences encoded by this region. From the 250,000 cDNA clones screened so far, 10 nonoverlapping sequences that mapped back to the target portion were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones have been determined. Analysis of the sequences indicates that none has significant similarity to previously characterized primate genes. One sequence mapping to Xq27.3-qter contained an open reading frame of 281 amino acids and was expressed in every tissue tested. This gene, as well as others isolated in this manner, may prove to be a candidate gene for heritable disorders mapping to this region. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Unusual Fe(CN)₆³⁻/⁴⁻ capture induced by synergic effect of electropolymeric cationic surfactant and graphene: characterization and biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Shan, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Dou, Yan-Zhi; Cosnier, Serge; Zhang, Xue-Ji

    2014-12-10

    Herein, a special microheterogeneous system for Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) capture was constructed based on graphene (GN) and the electropolymeric cationic surfactant, an amphiphilic pyrrole derivative, (11-pyrrolyl-1-yl-undecyl) triethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (A2). The morphology of the system was characterized by scanning electron microscope. The redox properties of the entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectrometry. The entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) exhibited highly electroactive with stable and symmetrical cyclic voltammetric signal. A dramatic negative shift in the half wave potential can be obtained due to the unusual Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) partitioning in in this microheterogeneous system based on poly(A2+GN). Finally, the entrapped Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) was applied in the construction of the enhanced biosensors to hydrogen peroxide and sulfide.

  5. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  6. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    changing the affinity ligand, we can use capture matrices to detect other chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, nerve and blister agents, pesticides...require significant chemical additives and complex equipment, generate a large secondary waste stream, and are difficult to automate. Magnetically...secondary wastes . 2 Other advantages are a large active surface area for a given mass of particles; the ability to process a solution that

  7. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  8. How many foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infection occurred in France in 1995? Application of the capture-recapture method to three surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Vaillant, V; Bouvet, P; Grimont, P; Desenclos, J C

    2000-07-15

    Despite control measures, foodborne outbreaks of non-typhi Salmonella infection continue to occur in developed countries. The authors aimed to assess the number of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks that occurred in France in 1995 using a capture-recapture approach. Data from three sources--the National Public Health Network (NPHN), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA), which receives mandatory notification, and the National Salmonella and Shigella Reference Center (NRC)-were collected. Matching algorithms permitted identification of matched outbreaks. The total number of outbreaks was estimated by log-linear modeling taking into account source dependencies and the variable catchability. The final estimate was adjusted for the positive predictive value (66%) of the NRC case definition. The dependence between the NPHN and the MA was also evaluated by means of a qualitative survey. A total of 716 foodborne Salmonella outbreaks were reported to the three sources, and 108 matches were identified. The best-fitting model, taking into account a positive dependence between the NPHN and MA sources, gave an estimate of 757 outbreaks. The sensitivity was 15% for the NPHN, 10% for the MA, and 50% for the NRC. In France, routine mandatory reporting of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks is very incomplete, and it is not representative of the serotype and the type of outbreak.

  9. Application of Temperature Modulation-SDP on MOS Gas Sensors: Capturing Soil Gaseous Profile for Discrimination of Soil under Different Nutrient Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Sudarmaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of temperature modulation-SDP (specified detection point on MOS gas sensors was designed and tested on their sensing performance to such complex mixture, soil gaseous compound. And a self-made e-nose was built to capture and analyze the gaseous profile from sampling headspace of two soils (sandy loam and sand with the addition of nutrient at different dose (without, normal, and high addition. It comprises (a 6 MOS gas sensors which were driven wirelessly on a certain modulation through (b a PSoC CY8C28445-24PVXI-based interface and (c the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and neural network (NN as pattern recognition tools. The gaseous compounds are accumulated in a static headspace with thermostatting and stirring under controlled condition to optimize equilibration and gases concentration as well. The patterns are trained by backpropagation algorithm which employs a log-sigmoid function and updates the weights using search-then-converge schedule. PCA results indicate that the sensor array used is able to differentiate the soil type clearly and may provide a discrimination as a response to presence/level of the nutrients addition in soil. Additionally, the PCA enhances the classification performance of NN to discriminate among the predescribed nutrient additions.

  10. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  11. 支撑型离子液体膜用于捕集酸性气体研究%Application of Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes in Capturing Acid Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉玲; 徐琴琴; 徐刚; 银建中

    2012-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are widely used for capturing acid gases in recent years because of its higher mass transfer rate and stability. In this paper, preparation methods of supported ionic liquid membranes were introduced; the capture mechanism was analyzed; some factors to affect permeability and stability of the supported ionic liquid membranes were discussed in detail, such as structure of ionic liquid, properties of supported materials, operation temperature and trans-membrane pressure, water vapor in flue gas and so on; some methods to improve the stability were introduced. On this basis, some problems during application of SILMs in capturing the acid gases were put forward as well as its industrialization prospect.%烟道气中酸性气体的捕集非常重要.近年来,支撑型离子液体膜(Supported ionic liquid membranes,SILMs)因传质速率高、稳定性好等特点而广泛应用于酸性气体的捕集研究.主要综述了利用离子液体作为膜液相来制备支撑液膜的方法,分析了捕集机理,讨论了离子液体阴阳离子结构、支撑体材料性能、原料气中水蒸汽、操作温度及跨膜压差等因素对支撑型离子液体膜渗透性及稳定性的影响,叙述了目前提高稳定性的一些方法,并在此基础上提出了支撑型离子液体膜用于酸性气体捕集需要解决的问题和工业化前景.

  12. A powerful method for transcriptional profiling of specific cell types in eukaryotes: laser-assisted microdissection and RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W Schmid

    Full Text Available The acquisition of distinct cell fates is central to the development of multicellular organisms and is largely mediated by gene expression patterns specific to individual cells and tissues. A spatially and temporally resolved analysis of gene expression facilitates the elucidation of transcriptional networks linked to cellular identity and function. We present an approach that allows cell type-specific transcriptional profiling of distinct target cells, which are rare and difficult to access, with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. We combined laser-assisted microdissection (LAM, linear amplification starting from <1 ng of total RNA, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. As a model we used the central cell of the Arabidopsis thaliana female gametophyte, one of the female gametes harbored in the reproductive organs of the flower. We estimated the number of expressed genes to be more than twice the number reported previously in a study using LAM and ATH1 microarrays, and identified several classes of genes that were systematically underrepresented in the transcriptome measured with the ATH1 microarray. Among them are many genes that are likely to be important for developmental processes and specific cellular functions. In addition, we identified several intergenic regions, which are likely to be transcribed, and describe a considerable fraction of reads mapping to introns and regions flanking annotated loci, which may represent alternative transcript isoforms. Finally, we performed a de novo assembly of the transcriptome and show that the method is suitable for studying individual cell types of organisms lacking reference sequence information, demonstrating that this approach can be applied to most eukaryotic organisms.

  13. Outcomes of Micro-Dissection TESE in Patients with Non-Mosaic Klinefelter’s Syndrome without Hormonal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozveri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klinefelter syndrome (KS is the most common sex chromosomal disorder in males and historically patients have been labeled as sterile. After the introduction of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE, successful sperm retrievals for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI have been reported. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken on ten patients with non-mosaic KS undergoing micro-TESE for ICSI. The testicular volume and FSH and LH levels of each patient were measured. Karyotypes were confirmed by analyzing peripheral lymphocyte metaphases. Physical examination of the external genitalia was performed in all patients to rule out any co-existing anomaly. Micro-TESE was performed in order to investigate the presence of seminiferous tubules which may contain spermatozoa. When testicular spermatozoa were found in micro-TESE, ICSI was performed. Embryos were evaluated for further development. Fertilization was considered to have occurred after the visualization of the two pro-nuclei stage of the oocyte 24 hours after the intracytoplasmic injection of the motile spermatozoa. Pregnancy was confirmed by visualization of an intrauterine gestational sac under ultrasonographic examination. Results: Testicular biopsy revealed motile spermatozoa in 6 of 9 patients (66.6 %. Fertilization rate per embryo-transfer was 40%. One patient was able to conceive and fathered a healthy boy weights 3410 g at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusion: Retrieval of testicular spermatozoa by micro-TESE is possible for azoospermic men with KS when assisted reproductive techniques are applied. For patients with KS who want to conceive, assisted reproductive techniques (ART should be recommended.

  14. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit.

  15. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  16. The Application Microdissection Study of Meckel Cave%Meckel腔的应用显微解剖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师林; 衣服新; 孔令常

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究Meckel腔及其比邻结构的显微解剖,为涉及Meckel腔相关疾病的显微手术治疗和影像学检查提供解剖学资料.方法 成年尸体头颅标本10例,开颅切除大脑,手术显微镜观察和测量Meckel腔及其比邻结构.结果 Meckel腔是由颅后窝向颅中窝后内侧部分突入的硬脑膜陷凹,腔内容纳三叉神经半月节和三叉池.Meckel腔由上下、前后和内外侧壁构成,其中内侧壁与海绵窦外侧壁相贴,并有重要的神经血管比邻.Meckel腔上腔深(14.39±1.37)mm、下腔深(14.95±1.18)mm、宽(12.14±0.64)mm、厚(5.45±0.53)mm;三叉神经节长(11.90±1.16)mm、宽(10.04±1.24)mm、厚(3.44±0.74)mm.结论 Meckel腔及相邻结构的显微解剖研究,对显微神经外科手术和影像诊断具有重要意义.

  17. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  18. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  19. Research on Application of Kinect Motion Capture Technology in Health Care%Kinect运动捕获技术在健康医疗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗章; 谭海波; 李晓风; 赵赫

    2016-01-01

    体感交互技术在人机交互领域具有跨时代的意义,实现了不需要任何手持设备就可进行人机交互的全新体验。Kinect作为最新的人机交互技术,如何利用自身的运动捕获技术与健康医疗进行结合并开展相关应用成为当下的研究重点。通过调研Kinect运动捕获技术在健康医疗中的应用,为课题组利用Kinect开发针对青少年的康复训练系统提供理论指导和技术支持,并探索新的应用模式。通过调研国内外文献,并对第二代Kinect体感产品进行研究,探讨了Kinect for Windows SDK的数据源和编程模型,分析了基于Kinect的人体运动捕获技术在健康医疗领域中的应用方式和前景。%Somatosensory interactive technology has a big significance in the field of human-computer interaction. It realizes the new ex-perience without any handled device. As the latest interactive technology,how to combine Kinect motion capture and health care has been the focus of the current study. It can provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the group to develop rehabilitation training sys-tem for teenagers through researching the application of health care with Kinect motion capture technology and explore new application. Studying the documents in domestic and foreign and researching the Kinect V2 of somatosensary technology,the data source and pro-grammable model for Kinect for Windows SDK are discussed,and the application and prospect of human motion capture technology based on Kinect in health care field are analyzed.

  20. pH-controlled quaternary ammonium herbicides capture/release by carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized magnetic adsorbents: Mechanisms and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Peng [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193 (China); Shen, Zhigang [Zhong Nong Fa Seed Industry Group Co. Ltd, Beijing 600313 (China); Liu, Xueke; Zhou, Zhiqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Donghui, E-mail: liudh@cau.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-12-11

    In our work, the pH-controlled magnetic solid phase extraction for the determination of paraquat and diquat was introduced firstly. Furthermore, to clarify the mechanism of carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized magnetic adsorbents, we studied the pH-responsive supramolecular interaction between carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) and paraquat/diquat by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, and the energy-minimized structures were also obtained. Then, the functional group CM-β-CD was modified on the surface of magnetic materials to synthesize the adsorbent. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) results proved the successful modification of CM-β-CD. Thus, this absorbent was applied for the determination of paraquat and diquat in water. Under the optimal condition, limits of detection (LODs) of paraquat and diquat were 0.8 μg L{sup −1} and 0.9 μg L{sup −1}, relative standard deviations (RSD) and recoveries varied 0.7–4.6% and 86.5–106.6%, respectively. Good recoveries (70.2–100.0%) and low RSD (1.7–9.6%) were achieved in analyzing spiked water samples. Furthermore, with the capillary electrophoresis (CE) as the analyser, the whole analytical process did not need the attendance of organic solvents. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized magnetic adsorbents were synthesized. • The adsorbents could capture or release quaternary ammonium herbicides by changing pH. • The adsorbents were applied in the analysis of real water samples. • There is no attendance of organic solvents in the whole analysis process.

  1. Basic research of boron neutron-capture therapy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Application of neutron radiography for visualization of boron compound on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science

    1997-02-01

    The cytotoxic effects of locally injected {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with {sup 10}B-immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in {sup 10}B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of {sup 10}B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared boronated PEG-binding bovine serum albumin ({sup 10}B-PEG-BSA). {sup 10}B concentrations in AsPC-1, human pancreatic cancer cells (2 x 10{sup 5} /well) obtained 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA was 13.01 {+-} 1.74 ppm. The number of {sup 10}B atoms delivered to the tumor cells was calculated to be 7.83 x 10{sup 11} at 24 hrs after incubation with {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA. These data indicated that the {sup 10}B-PEG-BSA could deliver a sufficient amount of {sup 10}B atoms (more than 10{sup 9} atoms/cell) to the tumor cells to induce cytotoxic effects after incubation upon thermal neutron irradiation. Neutron capture autoradiography by using an Imaging Plate (IP-NCR) was performed on AsPC-1 tumor-bearing mouse that had been given an intratumoral injection of {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome. We had demonstrated the {sup 10}B-PEG BSA or {sup 10}B-cationic liposome is taken up by AsPC-1 tumor tissue to a much greater extent than by normal tissues. (J.P.N.)

  2. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  3. Detection of clonal B cells in microdissected reactive lymphoproliferations: possible diagnostic pitfalls in PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, X.G.; Sandvej, K.; Gregersen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    rearrangement analysis is a sensitive and specific method for demonstrating B cell clonality in whole paraffin wax embedded sections. However, oligoclonal and monoclonal rearrangement patterns are regularly encountered in small tissue fragments from otherwise unremarkable reactive lymphoproliferations, possibly...... because of preferential priming or detection of local B cell clones. Data from clonal analysis of small, microdissected or lymphocyte poor samples must be evaluated critically. It is recommended that analyses should be run in parallel on at least two tissue specimens. Only reproducible bands present...

  4. Extraction of venom and venom gland microdissections from spiders for proteomic and transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Jessica E

    2014-11-03

    Venoms are chemically complex secretions typically comprising numerous proteins and peptides with varied physiological activities. Functional characterization of venom proteins has important biomedical applications, including the identification of drug leads or probes for cellular receptors. Spiders are the most species rich clade of venomous organisms, but the venoms of only a few species are well-understood, in part due to the difficulty associated with collecting minute quantities of venom from small animals. This paper presents a protocol for the collection of venom from spiders using electrical stimulation, demonstrating the procedure on the Western black widow (Latrodectus hesperus). The collected venom is useful for varied downstream analyses including direct protein identification via mass spectrometry, functional assays, and stimulation of venom gene expression for transcriptomic studies. This technique has the advantage over protocols that isolate venom from whole gland homogenates, which do not separate genuine venom components from cellular proteins that are not secreted as part of the venom. Representative results demonstrate the detection of known venom peptides from the collected sample using mass spectrometry. The venom collection procedure is followed by a protocol for dissecting spider venom glands, with results demonstrating that this leads to the characterization of venom-expressed proteins and peptides at the sequence level.

  5. Approaches for targeted proteomics and its potential applications in neuroscience

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Sethi; Dipti Chourasia; Ishwar S Parhar

    2015-09-01

    An extensive guide on practicable and significant quantitative proteomic approaches in neuroscience research is important not only because of the existing overwhelming limitations but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. Early methodologies to understand the functioning of biological systems are now improving with high-throughput technologies, which allow analysis of various samples concurrently, or of thousand of analytes in a particular sample. Quantitative proteomic approaches include both gel-based and non-gel-based methods that can be further divided into different labelling approaches. This review will emphasize the role of existing technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their applications in neuroscience. This review will also discuss advanced approaches for targeted proteomics using isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) coupled with laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. This technology can further be extended to single cell proteomics in other areas of biological sciences and can be combined with other ‘omics’ approaches to reveal the mechanism of a cellular alterations. This approach may lead to further investigation in basic biology, disease analysis and surveillance, as well as drug discovery. Although numerous challenges still exist, we are confident that this approach will increase the understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in neuroendocrinology, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering protein biomarker signatures for brain dysfunction.

  6. DigitalVHI--a freeware open-source software application to capture the Voice Handicap Index and other questionnaire data in various languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Oh, Jinook; Vydrová, Jitka; Švec, Jan G

    2015-07-01

    In this short report we introduce DigitalVHI, a free open-source software application for obtaining Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and other questionnaire data, which can be put on a computer in clinics and used in clinical practice. The software can simplify performing clinical studies since it makes the VHI scores directly available for analysis in a digital form. It can be downloaded from http://www.christian-herbst.org/DigitalVHI/.

  7. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications.

  8. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  9. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  10. Feasibility study of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schach, M.O.; Oyarzun, B.A.; Schramm, H.; Schneider, R.; Repke, J.U.

    2011-01-01

    Processes for carbon capture and storage have the drawback of high energy demand. In this work the application of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation is analyzed. The process was simulated using Aspen Plus. Process description is accomplished by phase equilibria models which are able to reproduce the va

  11. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  12. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  13. Novel markers for differentiation of lobular and ductal invasive breast carcinomas by laser microdissection and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srovnal Josef

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas (IDC and ILC are the most common histological types of breast cancer. Clinical follow-up data and metastatic patterns suggest that the development and progression of these tumors are different. The aim of our study was to identify gene expression profiles of IDC and ILC in relation to normal breast epithelial cells. Methods We examined 30 samples (normal ductal and lobular cells from 10 patients, IDC cells from 5 patients, ILC cells from 5 patients microdissected from cryosections of ten mastectomy specimens from postmenopausal patients. Fifty nanograms of total RNA were amplified and labeled by PCR and in vitro transcription. Samples were analysed upon Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. The expression of seven differentially expressed genes (CDH1, EMP1, DDR1, DVL1, KRT5, KRT6, KRT17 was verified by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Expression of ASPN mRNA was validated by in situ hybridization on frozen sections, and CTHRC1, ASPN and COL3A1 were tested by PCR. Results Using GCOS pairwise comparison algorithm and rank products we have identified 84 named genes common to ILC versus normal cell types, 74 named genes common to IDC versus normal cell types, 78 named genes differentially expressed between normal ductal and lobular cells, and 28 named genes between IDC and ILC. Genes distinguishing between IDC and ILC are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, TGF-beta and Wnt signaling. These changes were present in both tumor types but appeared to be more prominent in ILC. Immunohistochemistry for several novel markers (EMP1, DVL1, DDR1 distinguished large sets of IDC from ILC. Conclusion IDC and ILC can be differentiated both at the gene and protein levels. In this study we report two candidate genes, asporin (ASPN and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1 which might be significant in breast carcinogenesis. Besides E-cadherin, the proteins validated on tissue

  14. Outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome and other sex-chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Chiba, Koji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-08-01

    It has been indicated that approximately 20% of azoospermic patients have chromosomal anomalies, 90% of which are sex-chromosome abnormalities. Even azoospermic patients with sex-chromosomal anomalies might be able to father children using an advanced assisted reproductive technique such as microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). To evaluate the effect of micro-TESE in azoospermic patients with various sex-chromosomal anomalies, we reviewed their clinical results. A chromosomal survey using the G-banding technique was performed on males whose semen analysis demonstrated azoospermia at the Division of Male Infertilities at our institution between January 2004 and December 2009. Forty-two of these subjects demonstrated sex-chromosomal anomalies. The mean patient age was 34.4 ± 4.3 years. We classified them into two groups: Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Thirty-five patients showed Klinefelter syndrome and seven patients showed other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels were 36.3 ± 14.0 IU/L, 15.8 ± 6.7 IU/L, and 3.2 ± 2.0 ng/ml in Klinefelter syndrome, and 20.8 ± 10.4 IU/L, 8.2 ± 5.2 IU/L and 4.1 ± 1.5 ng/ml in other sex-chromosome abnormalities, respectively. The mean testicular volume was 4.0 ± 2.1 ml in Klinefelter syndrome and 9.9 ± 4.6 ml in other sex-chromosome abnormalities. Serum FSH and LH in Klinefelter syndrome were significantly higher than those in other sex-chromosome abnormalities, and the mean testicular volume in Klinefelter syndrome was significantly smaller than that in other sex-chromosome abnormalities. The sperm retrieval rate (SRR) for micro-TESE showed no significant difference between the two groups (42.4% vs. 42.9%). In this study, the outcome of micro-TESE appeared not to differ between Klinefelter syndrome and other sex

  15. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiteye Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18, Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha, ACT 2 (Actin2, UBQ (polyubiquitin, PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5. Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEfα1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEfα1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEfα1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed

  16. Cytogenetic Characterization of the TM4 Mouse Sertoli Cell Line. II. Chromosome Microdissection, FISH, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Guttenbach, Martina; Steinlein, Claus; Wanner, Gerhard; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomes and interphase cell nuclei of the permanent mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 were examined by chromosome microdissection, FISH, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The already known marker chromosomes m1-m5 were confirmed, and 2 new large marker chromosomes m6 and m7 were characterized. The minute heterochromatic marker chromosomes m4 and m5 were microdissected and their DNA amplified by DOP-PCR. FISH of this DNA probe on TM4 metaphase chromosomes demonstrated that the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes have derived from the centromeric regions of normal telocentric mouse chromosomes. Ectopic pairing of the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes with the centromeric region of any of the other chromosomes (centromeric associations) was apparent in ∼60% of the metaphases. Scanning electron microscopy revealed DNA-protein bridges connecting the centromeric regions of normal chromosomes and the associated m4 and m5 marker chromosomes. Interphase cell nuclei of TM4 Sertoli cells did not exhibit the characteristic morphology of Sertoli cells in the testes of adult mice as shown by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  17. A novel procedure for the quantitative analysis of metabolites, storage products and transcripts of laser microdissected seed tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchuk Ruslana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority in the context of seed biotechnology. Results We provide a guideline and detailed procedures towards the quantitative analysis of laser micro-dissected (LM tissues in oilseed rape (Brassica napus. This includes protocols for laser microdissection of the seed, and the subsequent extraction and quantitative analysis of lipids, starch and metabolites (sugars, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle. We have also developed a protocol allowing the parallel analysis of the transcriptome using Brassica-specific microarrays. Some data are presented regarding the compartmentation of metabolites within the oilseed rape embryo. Conclusion The described methodology allows for the rapid, combined analysis of metabolic intermediates, major storage products and transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The protocols are robust for oilseed rape, and should be readily adjustable for other crop species. The suite of methods applied to LM tissues represents an important step in the context of both the systems biology and the biotechnology of oilseeds.

  18. Redistribution of ionotropic glutamate receptors detected by laser microdissection of the rat dentate gyrus 48 h following LTP induction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T T Kennard

    Full Text Available The persistence and input specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP make it attractive as a mechanism of information storage. In its initial phase, both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that LTP is associated with increased membrane localization of AMPA receptor subunits, but the molecular basis of LTP maintenance over the long-term is still unclear. We have previously shown that expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits is elevated in whole homogenates prepared from dentate gyrus 48 h after LTP induction in vivo. In the present study, we utilized laser microdissection (LMD techniques to determine whether AMPA and NMDA receptor upregulation occurs specifically in the stimulated regions of the dentate gyrus dendritic arbor. Receptor proteins GluN1, GluA1 and GluA2, as well as postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa and tubulin were detected by Western blot analysis in microdissected samples. Gradients of expression were observed for GluN1 and GluA2, decreasing from the inner to the outer zones of the molecular layer, and were independent of LTP. When induced at medial perforant path synapses, LTP was associated with an apparent specific redistribution of GluA1 and GluN1 to the middle molecular layer that contains these synapses. These data indicate that glutamate receptor proteins are delivered specifically to dendritic regions possessing LTP-expressing synapses, and that these changes are preserved for at least 48 h.

  19. Trojan capture by terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigate the capture of asteroids by Venus, Earth and Mars into the 1:1 mean motion resonance especially into Trojan orbits. Current theoretical studies predict that Trojan asteroids are a frequent by-product of the planet formation. This is not only the case for the outer giant planets, but also for the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System. By using numerical integrations, we investigated the capture efficiency and the stability of the captured objects. We found out that the capture efficiency is larger for the planets in the inner Solar System compared to the outer ones, but most of the captured Trojan asteroids are not long term stable. This temporary captures caused by chaotic behaviour of the objects were investigated without any dissipative forces. They show an interesting dynamical behaviour of mixing like jumping from one Lagrange point to the other one.

  20. Application of CO2 capture technology before burning in IGCC power generation system%燃烧前CO2捕集技术在IGCC发电中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新明; 史绍平; 闫姝; 方芳; 许世森; 段立强

    2014-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation is an advanced and next generation coal-fired power generation technology, can provide clean and low-cost electricity for the users, and will play an important role in the future development of high-efficiency and zero-emissions power plants. CO2 capture technology before burning should be very suitable for IGCC system. Based on IGCC technical features, a CO2 capture process before burning, consisting of MDEA acid gas removal and wet oxidation sulfur recovery steps, is proposed in this paper. The feasibility study of application in IGCC system is verified by process simulation calculation. The results show that this process works well for acid gas removal, and the efficiency for separating CO2 and H2S from syngas can reach 99%and 98.5%respectively. However, the overall efficiency of power supply by IGCC, obtained by calculation, declines about 10 percent from 45.35% to 35.16%, when the CO2 capture process before burning is introduced into IGCC system. The three main factors of decrease of total efficiency are steam consumption, fuel chemical energy loss and new auxiliary power increase, and they could be used for determining optimization direction.%由于整体煤气化联合循环(IGCC)发电本身的技术特点,使得其非常适合于进行燃烧前 CO2捕集。针对IGCC特点,提出了一种MDEA脱酸气结合湿法氧化法硫回收的燃烧前CO2捕集流程。通过模拟计算,验证了流程的可行性。将其与IGCC发电系统集成,对比计算了有无燃烧前CO2捕集的IGCC系统供电效率等相关参数,燃烧前CO2捕集使IGCC供电效率降低约10个百分点。分析指出了导致包含燃烧前CO2捕集的IGCC供电效率降低的3个因素:蒸汽消耗、燃料化学能损失和新增动力设备电耗,并据此确定了今后的优化方向。

  1. Preparation and Application of the Sol-Gel Combustion Synthesis-Made CaO/CaZrO3 Sorbent for Cyclic CO2 Capture Through the Severe Calcination Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowen Wang; Xiaoyong Song; Zonghua Wang; Chuguang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    abstract Calcium looping method has been considered as one of the efficient options to capture CO2 in the combustion flue gas. CaO-based sorbent is the basis for application of calcium looping and should be subjected to the severe calcination condition so as to obtain the concentrated CO2 stream. In this research, CaO/CaZrO3 sorbents were synthesized using the sol-gel combustion synthesis (SGCS) method with urea as fuel. The cyclic reaction performance of the synthesized sorbents was evaluated on a lab-scaled reactor system through calcination at 950 °C in a pure CO2 atmosphere and carbonation at 650 °C in the 15%(by volume) CO2. The mass ratio of CaO to CaZrO3 as 8:2 (designated as Ca8Zr2) was screened as the best option among al the synthesized CaO sorbents for its high CO2 capture capacity and carbonation conversion at the initial cycle. And then a gradual decay in the CO2 capture capacity was observed at the following 10 successive cycles, but hereafter stabilized throughout the later cycles. Furthermore, structural evolution of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 over the looping cycles was investigated. With increasing looping cycles, the pore peak and mean grain size of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 sorbent shifted to the bigger direction but both the surface area (SA) ratioΦand surface fractal dimension Ds decreased. Finally, morphological transformation of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 was observed. Agglomeration and edge rounding of the newly formed CaCO3 grains were found as aggravated at the cyclic carbonation stage. As a result, carbonation of Ca8Zr2 with CO2 was observed only confined to the external active CaO by the fast formation of the CaCO3 shell outside, which occluded the further carbonation of the unreacted CaO inside. Therefore, enough attention should be paid to the carbonation stage and more effective activation measures should be explored to ensure the unreacted active CaO fully carbonated over the extended looping cycles.

  2. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  3. Surface modification of graphite-encapsulated iron nanoparticles by RF excited Ar/NH3 gas mixture plasma and their application to Escherichia coli capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Anchu; Chou, Han; Sugiura, Kuniaki; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    Graphite-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm were synthesized using the DC arc discharge method. For biomedical application, the nanoparticles were functionalized with amino groups using an inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) plasma. The Ar, NH3, and Ar/NH3 plasmas that were used for functionalization were diagnosed using optical emission spectroscopy, confirming the presence of the required elements. The best conditions for functionalization were optimized by changing various parameters. The pretreatment time with Ar plasma was varied from 0 to 12.5 min, the post-treatment time from 30 s to 3 min. The dependence of the RF power and the gas mixture ratio of Ar/NH3 on the amino group population was also analyzed. From Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and determination of absolute number of amino groups through chemical derivatization, it was found that 5 min of Ar pretreatment and 6%NH3/94%Ar plasma post-treatment for 3 min with an RF power of 80 W gives the best result of about 5  ×  104 amino groups per particle. The nanoparticles that were amino functionalized under optimized conditions and immobilized with an Escherichia coli (E.coli) antibody on their surface were incubated with E.coli bacteria to determine the efficiency of collection by direct culture assay.

  4. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  5. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  6. Capture-recapture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  7. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  8. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  10. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia ; pre- combustion capture (also via chemical solvents) from the synthesis gas produced in an integrated coal gasification...71 D. Heaven et al., “ Synthesis Gas Purification in Gasification to Ammonia /Urea Plants,” Gasification Technologies...32 Ammonia -Based Capture Processes

  11. Muon capture on Chlorine-35

    CERN Document Server

    Arole, S; Gorringe, T P; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Kuzmin, V; Moftah, B A; Sedlar, R; Stocki, T J; Tetereva, T

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of $\\gamma$--ray spectra from muon capture on $^{35}$Cl. For the allowed Gamow--Teller transitions to the $^{35}$S$(2939, 3/2^+)$ state and the $^{35}$S$(3421, 5/2^+)$ state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences and $\\gamma$--$\

  12. On neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, E G

    2016-01-01

    We found the probability for the neutrinoless double electron capture in the case of $KK$ capture. We clarified the mechanism of the energy transfer from the nucleus to the bound electrons. This enabled us to obtain the equations for the probability of the $2EC0\

  13. Capture-Gated Fast Neutron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, H. P.; Abdurashitov, J. N.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Gavrin, V. N.; Heimbach, C. R.; Langford, T. J.; Mendenhall, M.; Nico, J. S.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    We present recent developments in fast neutron detection using segmented spectrometers based on the principle of capture-gating. Our approach employs an organic scintillator to detect fast neutrons through their recoil interaction with protons in the scintillator. The neutrons that thermalize and are captured produce a signal indicating that the event was due to a neutron recoil and that the full energy of the neutron was deposited. The delayed neutron capture also serves to discriminate against uncorrelated background events. The segmentation permits reconstruction of the initial neutron energy despite the nonlinear response of the scintillator. We have constructed spectrometers using both He-3 proportional counters and Li-6 doping as capture agents in plastic and liquid organic scintillators. We discuss the operation of the spectrometers for the measurement of low levels of fast neutrons for several applications, including the detection of very low-activity neutron sources and the characterization of the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons at the Earth's surface and in the underground environment.

  14. Research and improvement on packet capture mechanism in linux for high-speed network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wu; FANG Bin-xing; YUN Xiao-chun; ZHANG Hong-li

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing enlargement of network scale and the rapid development of network techniques,large numbers of the network applications begin to appear. Packet capture plays an important role as one basic technique used in each field of the network applications. In a high-speed network, the heavy traffic of network transmission challenges the packet capture techniques. This paper does an in-depth analysis on the traditional packet capture mechanisms in Linux, and then measures the performance bottleneck in the process of packet capture. The methods for improving the packet capture performance are presented and an optimized packet capture scheme is also designed and implemented. The test demonstrates that the new packet capture mechanism (Libpacket) can greatly improve the packet capture performance of the network application systems in a highspeed network.

  15. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  16. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  17. Research and Application of IRIG-B(DC) Code Decoding based on Edge Capture%基于边沿捕获的IRIG-B(DC)码解码的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾成龙; 亓常松

    2013-01-01

    通过研究IRIG-B(DC)码原理,提出了基于定时器脉冲边沿捕获技术来实现IRIG-B(DC)码解码的新方法,并选用STM8S103芯片完成了IRIG-B(DC)码解码器的设计。功能仿真和实际测试表明该设计方法是一种解决自动化系统IRIG-B码解码对时的有效方案。目前,该设计已经成功应用于某变电站中的GPS&IRIG-B(DC)对时系统。%A new IRIG-B (DC) decoding method based on the timer’s pulse edge capture technology is proposed in this paper according to the discussion of the principle of IRIG-B(DC) code. And a corresponding IRIG-B (DC) decoder is also realized on STM8S103 chip. The result of functional simulation and practical test shows that this approach is effective to the application of time synchronization in automatic system. Currently, this design has been applied successfully in GPS&IRIG-B(DC) time synchronization system in a certain substa-tion.

  18. Laser-based microdissection of single cells from tissue sections and PCR analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin genes from isolated normal and malignant human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, Ralf; Schneider, Markus; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2013-01-01

    Normal and malignant B cells carry rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes, which due to their practically limitless diversity represent ideal clonal markers for these cells. We describe here an approach to isolate single cells from frozen tissue sections by microdissection using a laser-based method. From the isolated cells rearranged IgH and Igκ genes are amplified in a semi-nested PCR approach, using a collection of V gene family-specific primers recognizing nearly all V gene segments together with primers for the J gene segments. By sequence analysis of V genes from distinct cells, the clonal relationship of the B lineage cells can unequivocally be determined and related to the histological distribution of the cells. The approach is also useful to determine V, D, and J gene usage. Moreover, the presence and pattern of somatic Ig V gene mutations give valuable insight into the stage of differentiation of the B cells.

  19. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Web pages of the universities and institutes.1 Notes are made and links pasted in a variety of formats. Files are saved on a shared drive. When...institutions/ 3. Capture Methods There are several capture methods that are available for use [4]: • Manual capture. • Scraping of logs or...the high-level user desktop. Save links App: Word, SharePoint User: Alice Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Notes.txt Create

  20. Neutron Capture Experiments Using the DANCE Array at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.; Chyzh, A.; Walker, C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Sleaford, B.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.

    2009-03-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is designed for neutron capture measurements on very small and/or radioactive targets. The DANCE array of 160 BaF2 scintillation detectors is located at the Lujan Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Accurate measurements of neutron capture data are important for many current applications as well as for basic understanding of neutron capture. The gamma rays following neutron capture reactions have been studied by the time-of-flight technique using the DANCE array. The high granularity of the array allows measurements of the gamma-ray multiplicity. The gamma-ray multiplicities and energy spectra for different multiplicities can be measured and analyzed for spin and parity determination of the resolved resonances.

  1. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  2. Predictive value of FSH, testicular volume, and histopathological findings for the sperm retrieval rate of microdissection TESE in nonobstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Yang, Jun; Li, Ming-Chao; Chen, Rui-Bao; Lan, Ru-Zhu; Wang, Shao-Gang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-24

    We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of different parameters in the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). All relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO. We chose three parameters to perform the meta-analysis: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular volume, and testicular histopathological findings which included three patterns: hypospermatogenesis (HS), maturation arrest (MA), and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS). If there was a threshold effect, only the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) was calculated. Otherwise, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were also calculated. Twenty-one articles were included in our study finally. There was a threshold effect among studies investigating FSH and SCOS. The AUSROCs of FSH, testicular volume, HS, MA, and SCOS were 0.6119, 0.6389, 0.6758, 0.5535, and 0.2763, respectively. The DORs of testicular volume, HS, and MA were 1.98, 16.49, and 1.26, respectively. The sensitivities of them were 0.80, 0.30, and 0.27, while the specificities of them were 0.35, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively. The PLRs of them were 1.49, 10.63, and 1.15, respectively. And NLRs were 0.73, 0.72, and 0.95, respectively. All the investigated factors in our study had limited predictive value. However, the histopathological findings were helpful to some extent. Most patients with HS could get sperm by microdissection TESE.

  3. Use of laser microdissection for the construction of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae sex chromosome-specific DNA library and cytogenetics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Yakovin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioecy is relatively rare among plant species, and distinguishable sex chromosomes have been reported in few dioecious species. The multiple sex chromosome system (XX/XY1Y2 of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 differs from that of other members of the family Cannabaceae, in which the XX/XY chromosome system is present. Sex chromosomes of H. japonicus were isolated from meiotic chromosome spreads of males by laser microdissection with the P.A.L.M. MicroLaser system. The chromosomal DNA was directly amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR. Fast fluorescence in situ hybridization (FAST-FISH using a labeled, chromosome-specific DOP-PCR product as a probe showed preferential hybridization to sex chromosomes. In addition, the DOP-PCR product was used to construct a short-insert, H. japonicus sex chromosomes-specific DNA library. The randomly sequenced clones showed that about 12% of them have significant homology to H. lupulus and 88% to Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, 1753 sequences from GenBank database. Forty-four percent of the sequences show homology to plant retroelements. It was concluded that laser microdissection is a useful tool for isolating the DNA of sex chromosomes of H. japonicus and for the construction of chromosome-specific DNA libraries for the study of the structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The results provide the potential for identifying unique or sex chromosome-specific sequence elements in H. japonicus and could aid in the identification of sex chromosome-specific repeat and coding regions through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction.

  4. Molecular analysis of cell type-specific gene expression profile during mouse spermatogenesis by laser microdissection and qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-03-01

    Laser microdissection (LMD) is a selective cell isolation technique that enables the separation of desired homogenous cell subpopulations from complex tissues such as the testes under direct microscopic visualization. The LMD accompanied by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) represents an indispensable tool in quantifying messenger RNA (mRNA) expression among defined cell populations. Gene expression is temporally and spatially regulated at 3 sequential phases of mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. The present study demonstrates a short modified LMD protocol based upon hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Stage-specific LMD success was validated by the use of mRNA profiling of "marker genes" which are conserved across species and are known to be differentially expressed during spermatogenesis. Magea4, Hspa2, Cox6b2, Tnp1, Prm1, and Prm2 are used to differentiate among the microdissected cell populations, namely spermatogonia (group I), spermatocytes (group II), round and condensing spermatids (group III), and elongated and condensed spermatids (group IV), respectively. The LMD combined with qRT-PCR is further extended to assess the cell stage-specific distribution of selected stress response genes such as Hsp90aa1, Gpx4, Ucp2, Sod1, and Sod2. The germ cell-specific mRNA profiles are suitably complemented by Western blot of the LMD samples, immunohistochemistry, and confocal localization of the corresponding proteins. The current study suggests that LMD can successfully isolate cell subpopulations from the complex tissues of the testes; and establish cell stage-specific basal expression patterns of selected stress response genes and proteins. It is our hypothesis that the baseline expression of stress response genes will differ by cell stage to create discrete stage-specific vulnerabilities to reproductive toxicants.

  5. Book review: Spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals use space is a vital aspect of conservation planning and wildlife management. Technological developments (e.g., increased computer power and desktop geographic information system [GIS] applications) are bringing the ability to analyze spatial data sets to the individual biologist. Therefore, it is not surprising that methodologies have been developed to incorporate space into capture-recapture models, which are some of the most fundamental models in the field of wildlife ecology. Spatial Capture-Recapture (hereafter SCR) is a timely and informative contribution that summarizes the history and motivation behind SCR models, in addition to providing details of the methodological framework that allows the reader to develop and customize SCR models to address their own ecological questions.

  6. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...... the carbonate looping process to the cement industry. In order to study the application of thecarbonate looping process to cement industry, the project work is divided into three scales: 1) atparticle scale (TGA), 2) at reactor scale (Fluid-bed) and 3) at process scale (process modeling Pro/II).The results from...

  7. Developments in the pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.; Gnutek, R.; Kaptein, J.; Nannan, N.R.; Oyarzun, B.; Trapp, C.; Colonna, P.; Van Dijk, E.; Gross, J.; Bardow, A.

    2011-01-01

    N.V. Nuon (part of the Vattenfall Group) operates an IGCC in Buggenum and is developing a multi-fuel IGCC with CO2 capture and storage (Nuon Magnum) in Eemshaven, the Netherlands. In order to prepare for large-scale application of CO2 capture and storage, a CO2 capture pilot plant is constructed at

  8. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  9. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  10. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Gorringe, T.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Henderson, R. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility); McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.D. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.).

  11. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  12. Client/server approach to image capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris; Stokes, Earle

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of the digital image capturing devices on the market today is quite astonishing and ranges from low-cost CCD scanners to digital cameras (for both action and stand-still scenes), mid-end CCD scanners for desktop publishing and pre- press applications and high-end CCD flatbed scanners and drum- scanners with photo multiplier technology. Each device and market segment has its own specific needs which explains the diversity of the associated scanner applications. What all those applications have in common is the need to communicate with a particular device to import the digital images; after the import, additional image processing might be needed as well as color management operations. Although the specific requirements for all of these applications might differ considerably, a number of image capturing and color management facilities as well as other services are needed which can be shared. In this paper, we propose a client/server architecture for scanning and image editing applications which can be used as a common component for all these applications. One of the principal components of the scan server is the input capturing module. The specification of the input jobs is based on a generic input device model. Through this model we make abstraction of the specific scanner parameters and define the scan job definitions by a number of absolute parameters. As a result, scan job definitions will be less dependent on a particular scanner and have a more universal meaning. In this context, we also elaborate on the interaction of the generic parameters and the color characterization (i.e., the ICC profile). Other topics that are covered are the scheduling and parallel processing capabilities of the server, the image processing facilities, the interaction with the ICC engine, the communication facilities (both in-memory and over the network) and the different client architectures (stand-alone applications, TWAIN servers, plug-ins, OLE or Apple-event driven

  13. The Capture of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The origin of Jupiter Trojans remained mysterious for decades. Particularly, it was difficult to explain the excitation of the inclinations of the Trojan population [1]. In 2005, Morbidelli et al. [2] proposed a scenario of capture from the trans-Neptunian disk, in the framework of the so-called "Nice model" [3,4]. This scenario explained in a natural way the observed orbital distribution of Trojans. The Nice model, however, evolved in the years, in order to satisfy an increasingly large number of constraints. It now appears that the dynamical evolution of the giant planets was different from that envisioned in [2]. Here, we assess again the process of capture of Trojans within this new evolution. We show that (6-8)×10 - 7 of the original trans-Neptunian planetesimals are captured in the Trojan region, with an orbital distribution consistent with the one observed. Relative to [2], the new capture mechanism has the potential of explaining the asymmetry between the L4 and L5 populations. Moreover, the resulting population of Trojans is consistent with that of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter, which are captured in the same process; a few bodies from the main asteroid belt could also be captured in the Trojan cloud.

  14. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    At the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi, April 2011 (CEM 2), the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers on concrete, near-term actions to accelerate global carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment. Twelve CCUS AG governments agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third Clean Energy Ministerial (London, 25-26 April 2012) (CEM 3). Following CEM 2, the CCUS AG requested the IEA and the Global CCS Institute to report on progress made against the 2011 recommendations at CEM 3. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial responds to that request. The report considers a number of key questions. Taken as a whole, what advancements have committed CCUS AG governments made against the 2011 recommendations since CEM 2? How can Energy Ministers continue to drive progress to enable CCS to fully contribute to climate change mitigation? While urgent further action is required in all areas, are there particular areas that are currently receiving less policy attention than others, where efforts could be redoubled? The report concludes that, despite developments in some areas, significant further work is required. CCS financing and industrial applications continue to represent a particularly serious challenge.

  15. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  16. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  17. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-05

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  18. Molecular markers of extracellular matrix remodeling in glioblastoma vessels: microarray study of laser-captured glioblastoma vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ally; Moreno, Maria J; Martin, Joel; Stanimirovic, Danica B

    2007-04-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most malignant and vascularized brain tumors. The aberrant vascular phenotype of GBM could be exploited for diagnosis or therapeutic targeting. This study identified new molecular markers of GBM vessels, using a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) microscopy, RNA amplification, and microarray analyses to compare vessels from nonmalignant human brain and GBM tumors. Forty-two genes were differentially expressed in GBM vessels compared to nonmalignant brain vessels. Validation of differentially expressed genes was performed by literature mining, Q-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Among the differentially expressed genes, only 64% were previously associated with vessels, angiogenesis, gliomas, and/or cancer. The upregulation of genes encoding secreted extracellular proteins IGFBP7 and SPARC was confirmed by Q-PCR in LCM-captured vessels. Whereas SPARC and IGFBP7 protein were absent in nonmalignant brain vessels, a distinct immunoreactivity patterns were observed in GBM sections whereby SPARC was strongly expressed in perivascular cells adjacent to GBM vessels while GBM endothelial cells were immunostained for IGFBP7. IGFBP7 immunoreactivity was also detected on the abluminal side of GBM vessels deposited between strands of vascular basal lamina. The study discerns unique molecular characteristics of GBM vessels compared with nonmalignant brain vessels that could potentially be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  19. Optic capture pars plana lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joo Eun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South KoreaObjective: To describe an optic capture pars plana lensectomy technique.Methods: After core vitrectomy, pars plana lensectomy is performed with preservation of the anterior capsule. Capsulorhexis is performed on the preserved anterior capsule through a 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. An intraocular lens (IOL is placed in the ciliary sulcus, and then the optic of the IOL is pushed back to the vitreous cavity so that the optic is captured by the surrounding capsulorhexis margin.Results: The captured IOL-capsule diaphragm remained stable during air–fluid exchange and prevented air prolapse to the anterior chamber. IOL stability and a clear visual axis were preserved during the follow-up period.Conclusion: With this modified pars plana lensectomy technique, stable IOL position and clear visual axis can be maintained when a pars plana approach is needed during combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery.Keywords: lensectomy, optic capture, pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy

  20. Multiple predator based capture process on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Pu, Cunlai; Chen, Rongbin

    2016-01-01

    The predator/prey (capture) problem is a prototype of many network-related applications. We study the capture process on complex networks by considering multiple predators from multiple sources. In our model, some lions start from multiple sources simultaneously to capture the lamb by biased random walks, which are controlled with a free parameter $\\alpha$. We derive the distribution of the lamb's lifetime and the expected lifetime $\\left\\langle T\\right\\rangle $. Through simulation, we find that the expected lifetime drops substantially with the increasing number of lions. We also study how the underlying topological structure affects the capture process, and obtain that locating on small-degree nodes is better than large-degree nodes to prolong the lifetime of the lamb. Moreover, dense or homogeneous network structures are against the survival of the lamb.

  1. Parametric control of collision rates and capture rates in geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture (GEDI) microfluidic devices for rare cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Lannin, Timothy B; Syed, Yusef; Santana, Steven M; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-02-01

    The enrichment and isolation of rare cells from complex samples, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood, is an important engineering problem with widespread clinical applications. One approach uses a microfluidic obstacle array with an antibody surface functionalization to both guide cells into contact with the capture surface and to facilitate adhesion; geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture is a design strategy in which the array is designed to promote target cell–obstacle contact and minimize other interactions (Gleghorn et al. 2010; Kirby et al. 2012). We present a simulation that uses capture experiments in a simple Hele-Shaw geometry (Santana et al. 2012) to inform a target-cell-specific capture model that can predict capture probability in immunocapture microdevices of any arbitrary complex geometry. We show that capture performance is strongly dependent on the array geometry, and that it is possible to select an obstacle array geometry that maximizes capture efficiency (by creating combinations of frequent target cell–obstacle collisions and shear stress low enough to support capture), while simultaneously enhancing purity by minimizing nonspecific adhesion of both smaller contaminant cells (with infrequent cell–obstacle collisions) and larger contaminant cells (by focusing those collisions into regions of high shear stress).

  2. 49 CFR 563.9 - Data capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... frontal or side air bag deployment crash, capture and record the current deployment data, up to two events... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data capture. 563.9 Section 563.9 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.9 Data capture. The EDR must capture and record...

  3. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  4. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. • Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10–20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut. • Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position. • The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium. PMID:26150965

  5. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. •Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10-20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut.•Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position.•The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium.

  6. NS1抗原捕获 ELISA 在登革热筛查及诊断中的应用%Application of NS1 antigen capture ELISA in screening and diagnosis of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启欣; 朱嫦琳; 陈文翠; 李炜煊

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价检测登革病毒NS1抗原捕获酶联免疫吸附试验(NS1‐ELISA)在登革热实验室诊断中的应用价值。方法选取2014年9~10月在广东省佛山市第一人民医院就诊的疑似登革热病毒感染的患者共173例,分别采用NS1‐ELISA、实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)和胶体金免疫层析法(以下简称金标法)对其血清中的登革病毒标志物进行检测,比较3种方法对登革热诊断的灵敏度、特异性、预测值、似然比、约登指数和卡帕值。结果173例疑似患者中共88例(50.87%)被确诊为登革热患者,检测结果阳性率最高为金标法,显著高于 NS1‐ELISA和PCR;NS1‐ELISA敏感度、阴性预测值和约登指数均高于 PCR和金标法,阴性似然比低于 PCR和金标法,3种方法的敏感度差异无有统计学意义(P>0.05),PCR和NS1‐ELISA特异性显著优于金标法,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),PCR特异性高于NS1‐ELISA ,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 NS1‐ELISA对登革热的检测效能和应用价值优于PCR和金标法,可作为登革热暴发或散发的筛查及确诊方法。%Objective To assess the application value of NS1 antigen capture ELISA (NS1‐ELISA) in the lab‐oratorial diagnosis of dengue fever .Methods Serum samples were obtained from 173 borderline cases of dengue virus infection in the First People′s Hospital of Foshan from September to October in 2014 .Serum markers of dengue virus were detected by NS1‐ELISA ,PCR and immunogold labeling assay (IGLA) ,respectively .The sensitivity ,specificity , predictive value (PV) ,likelihood ratio (LR) ,Youden′s index (YI) and kappa value of 3 methods in diagnosis of den‐gue fever were assessed .Results Among 173 patients ,there were 88 cases (50 .87% ) diagnosed to be dengue fever . IGLA had the highest positive rate ,which was significantly higher than NS1‐ELISA and PCR .The

  7. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  8. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    for the pre-combustion capture of CO2 is the use of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle ( IGCC ) technology to generate electricity.14 There are...currently four commercial IGCC plants worldwide (two in the United States) each with a capacity of about 250 MW. The technology has yet to make a major... IGCC is an electric generating technology in which pulverized coal is not burned directly but mixed with oxygen and water in a high-pressure gasifier

  9. Focusing of the Flow Capture for Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Spotar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The extraction hoods commonly used as inlet element of the local ventilation systems exhibit limited emission capture over moderate distances from the source of the hazardous emissions. Proposed inclusion of a swirling peripheral jet was found to increase the effective length over which the extraction hood successfully captures harmful fumes. However information on a detailed pattern field of the vortex focused inflow was insufficient thus restricting the potential applications of the method. Approach: The numerical modeling study of the focusing by vortex inflow was accomplished to reveal the implication of the key operating parameters. In addition the visualization technique was applied to confirm the fume capturing features. Results: The simulated overall flow field patterns for an inflow of 10 m sec-1 value under sets of 0.5-1.5 swirl numbers and 0- 21 m sec-1 outcome velocities of peripheral jet showed the arrangement and contour of the capture stream. Under optimum parameters the capture zone derived from the vector velocity field yielded up to 4 inlet diameters near-axis distance from the extractor entrance. The complimentary observations using laser sheet visualization technique confirmed the enhanced capturing capacity from the mist or smoke sources of emission. Conclusion: Through numerical modeling study the capacity of peripheral vortex shielding to generate the more concentrated exhaust inflow comparing with action of the conventional hood has been elucidated.

  10. 应用活性炭在燃烧后捕获二氧化碳的研究%Application of activated carbon in post combustion CO2 capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双振; 韩晓春

    2012-01-01

    It is more efficient to capture CO2 from the point resources, such as from fossil fuel fired power plants, cement and steel plants. The activated carbon CO2 capture is based on physical/chemical sorption and adsorption phenomena, which has an easy operation and low cost. Furthermore, many waste and by products can be precursors of activated carbon, which has made it more promising for CO2 capture.%从燃烧后大型固定二氧化碳点源捕获分离二氧化碳,如燃烧化石燃料的发电厂,水泥和钢铁厂,能减少操作成本并提高效率。利用活性炭分离吸附二氧化碳操作简单和成本低廉。而且,许多副产品及废物都可以作为活性炭的来源。因此,活性炭分离吸附二氧化碳的技术有远大前途。

  11. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  12. Research in boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, E.; Shortkroff, S.; Jones, A.; Viveiros, C.; Ly, A.; Sledge, C. B.; Davison, A.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1997-02-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS) is a novel application of the 10B(n, (alpha) )7Li reaction for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. This potential treatment modality is in its developmental stages; in this paper results of research in two aspects of BNCS are presented. First, quantification of 10B-uptake in samples of human arthritic tissue by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis is presented. 10B concentrations from 1625 to 2726 ppm are readily achieved. Second, ideal neutron beam studies have been undertaken and indicate that neutrons from thermal energies to 1 keV are useful for BNCS. This information is of use in designing practical therapy beams should this treatment modality be realized.

  13. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  14. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  15. Muon capture on light isotopes in Double Chooz

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Almazan, H; Alt, C; Appel, S; Barriere, J C; Baussan, E; Bekman, I; Bergevin, M; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukov, L; Blucher, E; Brugière, T; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chauveau, E; Chimenti, P; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A S; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; de Kerret, H; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Anjos, J C dos; Dracos, M; Etenko, A; Fallot, M; Felde, J; Fernandes, S M; Fischer, V; Franco, D; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gomez, H; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodenough, L; Goodman, M C; Haag, N; Hara, T; Haser, J; Hellwig, D; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Hourlier, A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L N; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaneda, M; Kaplan, D M; Kawasaki, T; Kemp, E; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; López-Castaño, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lucht, S; Maeda, J; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Minotti, A; Nagasaka, Y; Navas-Nicolás, D; Novella, P; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Palomares, C; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Röhling, M; Roncin, R; Rybolt, B; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Schilithz, A C; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Shaevitz, M H; Sharankova, R; Shrestha, D; Sibille, V; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Soiron, M; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Svoboda, R; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Thi, H H Trinh; Valdiviesso, G; Vassilopoulos, N; Veyssiere, C; Vivier, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Wagner, S; Walsh, N; Watanabe, H; Wiebusch, C; Wurm, M; Yang, G; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V

    2015-01-01

    Using the Double Chooz detector, designed to measure the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, the products of $\\mu^-$ capture on $^{12}$C, $^{13}$C, $^{14}$N and $^{16}$O have been measured. Over a period of 489.5 days, $2.3\\times10^6$ stopping cosmic $\\mu^-$ have been collected, of which $1.8\\times10^5$ captured on carbon, nitrogen, or oxygen nuclei in the inner detector scintillator or acrylic vessels. The resulting isotopes were tagged using prompt neutron emission (when applicable), the subsequent beta decays, and, in some cases, $\\beta$-delayed neutrons. The most precise measurement of the rate of $^{12}\\mathrm C(\\mu^-,\

  16. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  17. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  18. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  19. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  20. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  1. Application of a High-Throughput Analyzer in Evaluating Solid Adsorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture via Multicomponent Adsorption of CO2, N-2, and H2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, JA; McDonald, TM; Bae, TH; Bachman, JE; Sumida, K; Dutton, JJ; Kaye, SS; Long, JR

    2015-04-15

    Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N-2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N-2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg-2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 degrees C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O.

  2. Halo Effect on Direct Neutron Capture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 周宏余

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ) 11 Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11 Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray,respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

  3. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  4. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  5. Application of the Video Capture and Coding Technology in Video Monitoring Terminals%视频采集与编码技术在视频监控终端中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵满意; 赵利; 莫金旺; 李和; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    考虑到开发的难易程度、生产成本和软件升级等因素,本文介绍了一种基于ARM处理器和嵌入式Linux操作系统的无线视频监控终端的设计和实现方法;分析了在嵌入式Linux操作系统下基于V4L的视频采集的新思路与基于MPEG-4的视频编码的优点,阐述了整个终端系统开发的难点及相应的解决方案;给出了无线监控终端的实现方案、视频采集模块的设计方法、XVID编码器的编码过程和MPEG-4视频编码标准在ARM平台上的优化方案.系统在ARM-Linux平台上进行了实际的视频采集及编码性能测试.测试结果表明,基于V4L的视频采集和基于XVID的MPEG-4编码的无线监控终端视频采集实时性好,压缩效率高,码流平稳,完全能满足用户的监控需求.%Considering the degree of realization,cost of manufacturing and upgrading, this paper introduces the design and implementation of wireless video monitoring terminals based on ARM and embedded Linux systems.The new idea of video capture based on V4L and the merits of video coding based on MPEG-4 in the Linux systems are analysed.We described the difficulty of the whole system development and the corresponding solutions.Also, the implementation of wireless video monitoring terminals,the design of video capture, the encoding process of the XVID encoder and the optimization schemes of the MPEG-4 video coding standard on the ARM platform are all given in this paper.After the actual video capture and encoding performance test based on the AMR-Linux, the results show that the wireless monitoring terminals based on V4L and MPEG-4 do well in real-time video capturing ,high compression efficiency and steady streams,and are fully able to meet the user's needs on video monitoring.

  6. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  7. Recent Advances in Carbon Capture with Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Queen, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    The escalating level of CO(2) in the atmosphere is one of the most critical environmental issues of our age. The carbon capture and storage from pilot test plants represents an option for reducing CO(2) emissions, however, the energy cost associated with post-combustion carbon capture process alone is ∼30% of the total energy generated by the power plant. Thus, the generation of carbon capture adsorbents with high uptake capacities, great separation performance and low cost is of paramount importance. Metal-organic frameworks are infinite networks of metal-containing nodes bridged by organic ligands through coordination bonds into porous extended structures and several reports have revealed that they are ideal candidates for the selective capture of CO(2). In this review we summarize recent advances related to the synthesis of porous MOFs and the latest strategies to enhance the CO(2) adsorption enthalpies and capacities at low-pressures, increase hydrolytic and mechanical stabilities, and improve the ease of regeneration. Although they show great promise for post-combustion carbon capture, there are still major challenges that must be overcome before they can be used for such a large-scale application.

  8. Capturing atmospheric CO2 using supported amine sorbents for microalgae cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, D.W.F.; Garcia, Alba L.; Veneman, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose, demonstrate and evaluate the concept of atmospheric CO2 capture for enhanced algae cultivation (and horticulture), as alternative to the application of flue gas derived CO2. A supported amine sorbent was prepared and able to capture CO2 at atmospheric conditions and releasi

  9. Post-Combustion CO2 capture using supported amine sorbents: A process integration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, R.; Kamphuis, H.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of supported amine sorbents (SAS) for their application in post- combustion CO2 capture. For this, the energy efficiency of a power plant equipped with a supported amine based capture facility is compared with the energy efficiency of a power plant equipped with a s

  10. Genome-Wide analysis of allelic imbalance in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue using the Affymetrix 50K Mapping array identifies genomic patterns associated with metastasis and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina;

    2007-01-01

    to be developed for patient stratification based on risk of progression. We analysed laser-microdissected prostate tumour tissue from 43 patients with histologically verified PCa, using the new high-resolution Affymetrix Mapping 50K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The results showed six major loss......, tumour progression towards a metastatic stage, as well as poor differentiation, was identified by specific patterns of copy number gains of genomic regions located at chromosomes 8q, 1q, 3q and 7q. Androgen ablation therapy was further characterised by copy gain at chromosomes 2p and 10q. In conclusion...

  11. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  12. Muon capture by silicon 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bauer, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Evans, J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gorringe, T.P. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Johnson, B.L. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kalvoda, S. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Porter, R. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Siebels, B. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gete, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Measday, D.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Moftah, B.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Stanislaus, S. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the angular correlation of the neutrino with the 1229 keV {gamma}-ray from the de-excitation of the 2201 keV 1{sup +} level in aluminum-28, following muon capture in silicon-28. To suppress the neutron-induced background in the HPGe detector, a coincidence in a NaI array is required with the 942 keV {gamma}-ray in the de-excitation cascade. The lifetime of the 2201 keV level is found to be 61{+-}4{+-}9 fs. The correlation coefficient {alpha} is found to be 0.36{+-}0.06 implying g{sub P}/g{sub A}=0{sup +3.5}{sub -3}. (orig.).

  13. 近海捕贝作业平台技术经济论证模型及应用%Technical and economical evaluation model of offshore scallops capture operation platform and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光发; 张斌; 许家帅; 吕健

    2016-01-01

    为了辅助一种近海捕贝作业平台的方案决策,使其达到较佳经济效果,以解决近海扇贝养殖捕捞生产中的能耗大、劳动强度高、捕捞效率低以及捕捞效果差的问题,该文根据给定的营运条件、捕捞能力和贝类资源情况,对其进行了技术经济论证研究。选取捕贝平台的拖网主机功率、平台跨距、平台锚次横移时间、平台总建造成本、平台拖网速度作为论证的参数,以单位面积捕捞油耗、单位捕捞成本、捕捞效率为经济评价指标,建立了近海捕贝作业平台技术经济论证模型。基于该模型利用比较论证方法对渔船捕捞方式与捕贝作业平台捕捞方式进行了经济性计算,然后对选取的技术经济参数进行了敏感性分析。结果表明:当平台拖网主机功率400~470 kW、平台跨距0.5~3.0 km、平台锚次横移时间2.0 h以下、平台捕捞拖网速度1.4 kn以上、平台总建造成本低于2750万元时,平台捕捞方案比渔船捕捞方案具有明显的优势。实例计算证明,利用该文提出的技术经济论证模型,通过比较分析论证方法,可得到捕捞作业平台的技术参数范围,为新型近海捕贝作业平台的技术参数设计与实施提供参考。%At present, trawl fishing as a traditional method is widely used in shellfish harvesting at home and abroad. However, using this method to catch the scallops has many disadvantages, such as huge energy consumption, high labor intensity, and poor fishing efficiency, which have become the key questions to restrict the sustainable development of marine fishing industry. Therefore, it’s very worth researching alternative scallop fishing equipment to meet the requirements of green development. The offshore scallop capture equipment is made up of platform deck, floating body and mooring, which is a kind of floating offshore engineering structure. This equipment occupies multiple

  14. Development and Evaluation of an in-House IgM-Capture ELISA for the Detection of Chikungunya and Its Application to a Dengue Outbreak Situation in Kenya in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Kimotho, James; Morita, Kouichi; Ongus, Juliette; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne viral disease. In the 2004 CHIK outbreak in Kenya, diagnosis was delayed because of the lack of accurate diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate an in-house IgM-capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (in-house ELISA) for the detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections. Anti-CHIKV antibodies were raised in rabbits, purified and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. These anti-CHIKV antibodies and cell-culture derived antigen were used to develop the ELISA. To validate the in-house ELISA, 148 patient sera from the 2005 Comoros CHIK outbreak were tested with centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) IgM-capture ELISA (CDC ELISA) and focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) as reference assays. The in-house ELISA had a sensitivity of 97.6% and specificity of 81.3% compared to the CDC ELISA and a sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 96.7% compared to FRNT. Furthermore, 254 clinically suspected dengue patient samples from Eastern Kenya, collected in 2013, were tested for CHIKV IgM using the in-house ELISA. Out of the 254 samples, 26 (10.2%) were IgM positive, and of these 26 samples, 17 were further analyzed by FRNT and 14 (82.4%) were positive. The in-house ELISA was able to diagnose CHIKV infection among suspected dengue cases in the 2013 outbreak.

  15. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikado, S. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: mikado@cit.nihon-u.ac.jp; Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, N. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I. [Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Kumamoto Institute Branch, Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan); Morishita, Y. [Department of Human and Molecular Pathology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Department of Humanities, The Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogura, K. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Iikura, H.; Ando, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishimoto, M. [Department of Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)

    2009-06-21

    It is necessary to accumulate the {sup 10}B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of {sup 10}B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of {sup 10}BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The {sup 10}B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of {sup 10}B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping)

  16. An efficient method of capturing Painted Buntings and other small granivorous passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    To study survival in the eastern breeding population of the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris), I developed a technique to capture a large sample of buntings for color marking with leg-bands. This involved the use of bird feeders and an array of three short mist nets located at 40 sites in four states, each site meeting five specific criteria. In five years of mist netting (1999-2003), 4174 captures (including recaptures) of Painted Buntings were made in 3393 net-hours or 123 captures per 100 net-hours. The technique proved to be effective and efficient, and may have broad application for capturing large numbers of small granivorous passerines.

  17. Komadu: A Capture and Visualization System for Scientific Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru Suriarachchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Data provenance captured from scientific applications is a critical precursor to data sharing and reuse. For researchers wanting to repurpose data, it is a source of information about the lineage and attribution of the data and this is needed in order to establish trust in a data set. Komadu is a standalone provenance capture and visualization system for capturing, representing, and manipulating provenance coming from scientific tools, infrastructures, and repositories. It uses the W3C PROV standard [1] in representing data, and it is the successor of the Karma [2] provenance capture system which was based on Open Provenance Model (OPM [3]. Komadu comes with two different interfaces: a Web Services interface based on Apache Axis2 [4] and a messaging interface based on RabbitMQ [5]. Komadu is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub [6]. Even though Komadu has been used most extensively in relation to scientific research, its interfaces are designed to collect and visualize provenance of any kind of application needing provenance.

  18. Application of Trajectory Estimation Algorithm in the Automatic Capture of Key Figures%运动轨迹估计算法在关键人物自动捕获中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭显波

    2012-01-01

    Because the color of the key figures and the background area is too close, the color difference between the both is not obvious. The traditional algorithm is based on the different date of the gray scale of adjacent images to catch the key figures and it can't avoid the defects in which the color difference is not obvious bacause the color difference between the key figures and the background area is too small, so it will reduce the precision in which the key character is captured automatically. A method based on the trajectory estimation algorithm for automatic acquisition of key figures was proposed in this paper to solve the above problem. The method extracts the characteristic parameters of the key figures, and predicts the critical movement trajectory of the key figures to complete the automatic capture of key figures. The experiments show that this algorithm enhances the accurate rate of key figures automation capture, and gets a satisfactory result.%关键人物与背景区域的颜色过于接近,造成二者的颜色差异不明显.传统算法是基于相邻图像灰度差值进行关键人物捕获的,无法避免由于关键人物与背景区域颜色差异过小造成的颜色差异不明显的缺陷,降低了关键人物自动捕获的精度.为了解决上述问题,提出了一种基于运动轨迹估计算法的关键人物自动捕获方法,即提取关键人物特征参数,预测关键人物运动轨迹,从而完成关键人物的自动捕获.实验证明,这种算法提高了关键人物自动捕获的准确率,取得了令人满意的效果.

  19. 捕获-标记-再捕获法在广东省广州市男男同性恋人群规模估计中的应用%Application of capture-mark-recapture method in estimating the size of male homosexual population in Guangzhou City of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 凌莉; 何群; 陈昂

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the size of male homosexual population in Guangzhou City of Guangdong Province and analyze the application of capture-mark-recapture method. Methods The capture-mark-recapture method was applied in different activity places to estimate the size of male homosexual population in Guangzhou City. Results The estimation size of visible and hidden male homosexual population were 3442 ( 1361 -5522) and 27 536 ( 10 888 -44 176)respectively. The total number of male homosexual population was 30 978 ( 12 249 -49 698) in Guangzhou City. Conclusion Capture-mark-recapture is an economic and time-saved method for the size estimation of male homosexual population. More attention should be paid to the application conditions.%目的 估计广东省广州市男男同性恋人群规模,探讨捕获-标记-再捕获法应用过程中的影响因素.方法 应用捕获-标记-再捕获法对广州市男男同性恋人群规模进行估计.结果 广州市男男同性恋人群显性人群规模数为3442人(1361~5522人),隐性人群规模数为27 536人(10 888~44 176人),总人群规模数为30 978人(12 249~49 698人).结论 运用捕获-标记-再捕获法对男男同性恋人群规模进行估计用时短,但难度较大,尤其在条件满足上较为困难,实施时应加以注意.

  20. An anti-CD34 antibody-functionalized clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for cardiovascular stent coating applications: a preliminary assessment of endothelial progenitor cell capture and hemocompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Tan

    Full Text Available In situ endothelialization of cardiovascular implants has emerged in recent years as an attractive means of targeting the persistent problems of thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of immobilizing anti-CD34 antibodies onto a POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer surface to sequester endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs from human blood, and to characterize the surface properties and hemocompatibility of this surface. Amine-functionalized fumed silica was used to covalently conjugate anti-CD34 to the polymer surface. Water contact angle, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used for surface characterization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were seeded on modified and pristine POSS-PCU polymer films. After 7 days, adhered cells were immunostained for the expression of EPC and endothelial cell markers, and assessed for the formation of EPC colonies. Hemocompatibility was assessed by thromboelastography, and platelet activation and adhesion assays. The number of EPC colonies formed on anti-CD34-coated POSS-PCU surfaces was not significantly higher than that of POSS-PCU (5.0±1.0 vs. 1.7±0.6, p>0.05. However, antibody conjugation significantly improved hemocompatibility, as seen from the prolonged reaction and clotting times, decreased angle and maximum amplitude (p<0.05, as well as decreased platelet adhesion (76.8±7.8 vs. 8.4±0.7, p<0.05 and activation. Here, we demonstrate that POSS-PCU surface immobilized anti-CD34 antibodies selectively captured CD34+ cells from peripheral blood, although only a minority of these were EPCs. Nevertheless, antibody conjugation significantly improves the hemocompatibility of POSS-PCU, and should therefore continue to be explored in combination with other strategies to improve the specificity of EPC capture to promote in situ endothelialization.

  1. Radioactive proton capture on {sup 6}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvan, E.; Marques, F.M. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysich Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) at 40 MeV. Capture into {sup 7}Li is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded that may be described by quasi-free capture on halo neutron, the {alpha} core and {sup 5}He. The possibility of describing such events by capture into the continuum of {sup 7}Li is also discussed. (authors)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF REFINERY CO2 CAPTURE BY MICROALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Keresztényi, István; Babos, Katalin; Bohács, György; Siklósi, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    As a significant emitter of carbon-dioxide in the region MOL Hungarian Oil & Gas Plc. has launched an extensive research program associated with carbon capture and utilization. Research is focused on the utilization of carbon dioxide as a feedstock for biological processes such as greenhouse growing and microalgae cultivation for further industrial applications. For the development of microalgae related technologies MOL Downstream Development has established collaboration with several scienti...

  3. Synthesis and Application of Heavy Metal Capturing Agent Salicylaldehyde Schiff Base%重金属离子捕集剂水杨醛双Schiff碱的合成及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽华; 毕学; 封孝华

    2011-01-01

    以2,6-吡啶二甲酸、乙二胺及水杨醛等为原料合成了一种重金属离子捕集剂水杨醛双Schiff碱N,N'-双(2-水杨醛亚胺基乙基)-2,6-吡啶二甲酰胺(Ⅱ),并以其为配体与一些重金属离子(如Cu2+、Pb2+、Hg2+、Cr3+等)进行螯合反应.结果表明,配体化合物Ⅱ能与重金属离子生成稳定性较高且不溶于水的螯合物,可以去除废水中的重金属离子.%A heavy metal capturing agent, salicylaldehyde Schiff base N, N'-bis(2-salicylaldehyde-iminoethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic diamide( Ⅱ ), was synthesized with 2, 6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, ethylenediamine and salicylaldehyde as raw materials. And then it reacted as a ligand with some heavy metal ions such as Cu2+ ,Pb2+ , Hg2+ , Cr3+. The result showed that the ligand could react with the heavy metal ions to obtain chelates,which was insoluable in water and had high stability, so it could remove heavy metal ions in wastewater.

  4. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  5. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  6. Capture and Decay of Electroweak WIMPonium

    CERN Document Server

    Asadi, Pouya; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J; Krupczak, Emmett; Slatyer, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle (WIMP) dark matter generically possesses bound states when the WIMP mass becomes sufficiently large relative to the mass of the electroweak gauge bosons. The presence of these bound states enhances the annihilation rate via resonances in the Sommerfeld enhancement, but they can also be produced directly with the emission of a low-energy photon. In this work we compute the rate for SU(2) triplet dark matter (the wino) to bind into WIMPonium -- which is possible via single-photon emission for wino masses above 5 TeV for relative velocity v < O(10^{-2}) -- and study the subsequent decays of these bound states. We present results with applications beyond the wino case, e.g. for dark matter inhabiting a nonabelian dark sector; these include analytic capture and transition rates for general dark sectors in the limit of vanishing force carrier mass, efficient numerical routines for calculating positive and negative-energy eigenstates of a Hamiltonian containing ...

  7. Experience machines : Capturing and retrieving personal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental to human existence is the ability to capture, memorise and retrieve personal experiences and to share them with others. Can systems help us to capture and retrieve experiences? After motors have supplemented our muscles and sensors have supplemented our senses, emerging computer systems

  8. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  9. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E; Marques, FM; Wilschut, HW; Orr, NA; Angelique, JC; Borcea, C; Catford, WN; Clarke, NM; Descouvemont, P; Diaz, J; Grevy, S; Kugler, A; Kravchuk, [No Value; Labiche, M; Le Brun, C; Lienard, E; Lohner, H; Mittig, W; Ostendorf, RW; Pietri, S; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Saint Laurent, MG; Savajols, H; Wagner, [No Value; Yahlali, N

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  10. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  11. Capture-stabilize approach for membrane protein SPR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ruiyin; Reczek, David; Brondyk, William

    2014-12-08

    Measuring the binding kinetics of antibodies to intact membrane proteins by surface plasmon resonance has been challenging largely because of the inherent difficulties in capturing membrane proteins on chip surfaces while retaining their native conformation. Here we describe a method in which His-tagged CXCR5, a GPCR, was purified and captured on a Biacore chip surface via the affinity tag. The captured receptor protein was then stabilized on the chip surface by limited cross-linking. The resulting chip surface retained ligand binding activity and was used for monoclonal antibody kinetics assays by a standard Biacore kinetics assay method with a simple low pH regeneration step. We demonstrate the advantages of this whole receptor assay when compared to available peptide-based binding assays. We further extended the application of the capture-stabilize approach to virus-like particles and demonstrated its utility analyzing antibodies against CD52, a GPI-anchored protein, in its native membrane environment. The results are the first demonstration of chemically stabilized chip surfaces for membrane protein SPR assays.

  12. Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, David M.; Cooper, Matthew; Denoue, Laurent; Adcock, John; Billsus, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.

  13. Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the ...

  14. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  15. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  16. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  17. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia%显微切割睾丸活检在非梗阻性无精子症中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨竣

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-obstnietive azoospeimia was once considered to be infertile due to impaired testieidar spermatogene-sis and consequent absence of sperm in the ejaculate. With the advent of intracytoplasraic sperm injection (ICSI) , various testicular sperm retrieval techniques have been introduced recently, including line needle aspiration, testicular sperm extraction, microdissection testicular sperm extraction, and so on. A large number of studies show that sperm can be retrieved in non-obstructive azoospermia patients, even in those with Klinefelter syndrome, because of the existence of isolated regions of spermatogenie tissue within the testis. 2010 EAU guidelines on male infertility recommend testicular sperm extraction or microdissection testicular sperm extraction for sperm retrieval from non-obstructive azoospermia. However, compared with testicular sperm extraction, the latter has a higher sperm retrieval rate with minimal postoperative complications. This article presents an overview on the prediction, operative procedure, sperm retrieval rate and postoperative complications of microdissection testicular sperm extraction.%一直以来,学者们认为非梗阻性无精子症因睾丸生精功能受损,导致精液中无精子,而无法生育自己的后代.但随着卵胞质内单精于注射技术的问世,近十几年来涌现出多种睾丸取精术(包括开放性睾丸活检、细针穿刺抽吸、显微切割睾丸活检等).之后,大量研究表明非梗阻性无精子症患者睾丸中仍存有局部的生精灶,即使是Klinefelter综合征,也可成功取出精子.2010年欧洲泌尿外科学会(EAU)指南明确推荐非梗阻性无精子症采用开放性睾丸活检或显微切割睾丸活检取精.与开放性睾丸活检相比,显微切割睾丸活检的取精成功率高且并发症少,本文就其取精前预测指标、手术操作方法、取精成功率及术后并发症进行综述.

  18. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  19. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  20. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  1. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  2. Application of multiplier method and capture-mark-recapture method in estimating the size of male homosexual popula- tion%乘数法与捕获-标记-再捕获法在男性同性恋人群基数估计中的比较应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 凌莉; 何群; 陈昂; 陈君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the male homosexual population in one city of Guangdong province and explore the more suitable method on estimating the size of male homosexual population. Methods The multiplier method and capture-mark-recapture method were applied to estimate the size of male homosexual population in one city of Guangdong Province. Results The estimates of the size of male homosexual population through multiplier method and capturemark-recapture method were 24 893 (95 % CI: 22 042 ~ 28 561 ) and 30 978 (95 % CI: 12 249 ~ 49 698 ) respectively.Conclusions Application of multiplier method is economic, simple and high credibility. Capture-mark-recapture method is both in economizes and time saving, but the application conditions is difficult to satisfy.%目的 通过调查估计广东省某地男性同性恋人群规模,探讨适合男性同性恋人群的基数估计方法.方法 按场所分层,确定6家活动场所为目标机构,分别应用乘数法与捕获-标记-再捕获法对广东省某地男性同性恋人群规模进行估计.结果 乘数法估计结果为24 893(95% CI:22 042~28 561)人;捕获-标记-再捕获法估计结果为30 978(95% CI:12 249~49 698)人.结论 运用乘数法对男性同性恋人群规模进行估计经济易行、结果可信;捕获-标记-再捕获法用时短,花费较低,但满足应用条件较困难.

  3. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  4. Neutron capture reactions on Lu isotopes at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters J.M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments array located at the Los Alamos national laboratory has been used to obtain the neutron capture cross sections for the 175Lu and 176Lu isotopes with neutron energies from thermal up to 100 keV. Both isotopes are of current interest for the nucleosynthesis s-process in astrophysics and for applications as in reactor physics or in nuclear medicine. Three targets were used to perform these measurements. One was natLu foil and the other two were isotope-enriched targets of 175Lu and 176Lu. The cross sections are obtained for now through a precise neutron flux determination and a normalization at the thermal neutron cross section value. A comparison with the recent experimental data and the evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII.0 will be presented. In addition, resonances parameters and spin assignments for some resonances will be featured.

  5. Compact and controlled microfluidic mixing and biological particle capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matthew; Owen, Drew; Mills, Zachary Grant; Hesketh, Peter J.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations and experiments to develop a multifunctional microfluidic device that performs rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing and specific particle capture. Our device uses a compact microfluidic channel decorated with magnetic features. A rotating magnetic field precisely controls individual magnetic microbeads orbiting around the features, enabling effective continuous-flow mixing of fluid streams over a compact mixing region. We use computer simulations to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms that lead to effective mixing and compare them with experimental mixing results. We study the effect of various system parameters on microfluidic mixing to design an efficient micromixer. We also experimentally and numerically demonstrate that orbiting microbeads can effectively capture particles transported by the fluid, which has major implications in pre-concentration and detection of biological particles including various cells and bacteria, with applications in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics, biohazard detection, and food safety. Support from NSF and USDA is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  8. Capture effeciency of a vegetative environmental buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  9. Data capture and processing. [for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John; Smith, Gene; Carper, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A systems concept developed in response to the specific requirements imposed by the Space Station and affiliated instrumentation is described. Particular attention is given to those subsystems associated with initial data capture, handling, routing, and distribution control for return link data via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The conceived approach, designated the Customer Data and Operations System, includes a data interface facility and a data handling center whose functions are data capture, demultiplexing and routing, early preprocessing, and ancillary data handling.

  10. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  11. Gate manipulation of DNA capture into nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2011-10-25

    Understanding biophysics governing DNA capture into a nanopore and establishing a manipulation system for the capture process are essential for nanopore-based genome sequencing. In this work, the functionality of extended electric field and electroosmotic flow (EOF) during the capture stage and their dependence on gate voltage, U(G), are investigated. We demonstrate that while both the electric field and EOF within a cis chamber make long-distance contributions to DNA capture around the pore mouth, the former effect is always capturing, while the latter causes trapping or blocking of the molecule depending on the magnitude of the gate voltage, U(G): an anionic EOF induced by high U(G) is capable of doubling the DNA trapping speed and thus the absorption radius in the cis chamber, whereas a cationic EOF by low U(G) would substantially offset the trapping effort by the electric field and even totally block DNA entrance into the pore. Based on the analysis, a gate regulation is proposed with the objective of achieving a high DNA capture rate while maintaining a low error rate.

  12. Telescoping Sample Canister Capture Mechanism (TSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Gorevan, Stephen; Mukherjee, Suparna; Wilson, Jack

    2003-11-01

    Sample return from solar system bodies including planets, moons, comets and asteroids is of high importance within the space science community. A returned sample will allow much more elaborate and detailed analysis not feasible through remote robotic analysis. For this reason, Honeybee Robotics has developed a low-cost reusable, automated on-orbit sample canister capture mechanism. The purpose of the mechanism is to capture a full sample canister and transfer it to a storage cache, sample return spacecraft, or on-orbit laboratory for further scientific study. The current design allows for reliable misalignment-compensated capture for various sample container geometries in any initial orientation. After capture, the sample canister is aligned and presented for transfer. Honeybee has demonstrated the concept through tests of two- and three-dimensional telescopic capture mechanism breadboards. The telescopic capture mechanism design is scalable, minimizes volume and can be made of lightweight material to minmize mass, all of which are critical aspects of spacecraft design.

  13. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonaqueous silylamines for efficient CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jackson R; Ethier, Amy L; Hart, Emily C; Flack, Kyle M; Rumple, Amber C; Donaldson, Jordan C; Bembry, Ashley T; Scott, Owen M; Biddinger, Elizabeth J; Talreja, Manish; Song, Myoung-Geun; Pollet, Pamela; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    A series of silylated amines have been synthesized for use as reversible ionic liquids in the application of post-combustion carbon capture. We describe a molecular design process aimed at influencing industrially relevant carbon capture properties, such as viscosity, temperature of reversal, and enthalpy of regeneration, while maximizing the overall CO2 -capture capacity. A strong structure-property relationship among the silylamines is demonstrated in which minor structural modifications lead to significant changes in the bulk properties of the reversible ionic liquid formed from reaction with CO2 .

  14. A log-linear multidimensional Rasch model for capture-recapture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, E; Hessen, D J; van der Heijden, P G M

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a log-linear multidimensional Rasch model is proposed for capture-recapture analysis of registration data. In the model, heterogeneity of capture probabilities is taken into account, and registrations are viewed as dichotomously scored indicators of one or more latent variables that can account for correlations among registrations. It is shown how the probability of a generic capture profile is expressed under the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model and how the parameters of the traditional log-linear model are derived from those of the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model. Finally, an application of the model to neural tube defects data is presented.

  15. Neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectra of 89Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katabuchi Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron capture cross section of 89Y was measured by the time-of-flight method in an energy range from 15 to 100 keV. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive the capture yield. The absolute cross section was determined based on the standard reaciotn 197 Au(n, γ198 Au reaction. The neutron capture γ-ray spectrum was derived by unfolding the pulse-height spectrum with detector response functions.

  16. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (Pcrocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  17. Effective fingerprint quality estimation for diverse capture sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Shin, Jinwook; Park, Dong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  18. CO2 Capture by Carbon Aerogel–Potassium Carbonate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various composites for reducing CO2 emissions have been extensively studied. Because of their high sorption capacity and low cost, alkali metal carbonates are recognized as a potential candidate to capture CO2 from flue gas under moist conditions. However, undesirable effects and characteristics such as high regeneration temperatures or the formation of byproducts lead to high energy costs associated with the desorption process and impede the application of these materials. In this study, we focused on the regeneration temperature of carbon aerogel–potassium carbonate (CA–KC nanocomposites, where KC nanocrystals were formed in the mesopores of the CAs. We observed that the nanopore size of the original CA plays an important role in decreasing the regeneration temperature and in enhancing the CO2 capture capacity. In particular, 7CA–KC, which was prepared from a CA with 7 nm pores, exhibited excellent performance, reducing the desorption temperature to 380 K and exhibiting a high CO2 capture capacity of 13.0 mmol/g-K2CO3, which is higher than the theoretical value for K2CO3 under moist conditions.

  19. Effective Fingerprint Quality Estimation for Diverse Capture Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the quality of fingerprints in advance can be beneficial for improving the performance of fingerprint recognition systems. The representative features to assess the quality of fingerprint images from different types of capture sensors are known to vary. In this paper, an effective quality estimation system that can be adapted for different types of capture sensors is designed by modifying and combining a set of features including orientation certainty, local orientation quality and consistency. The proposed system extracts basic features, and generates next level features which are applicable for various types of capture sensors. The system then uses the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier to determine whether or not an image should be accepted as input to the recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed method can perform better than previous methods in terms of accuracy. In the meanwhile, the proposed method has an ability to eliminate residue images from the optical and capacitive sensors, and the coarse images from thermal sensors.

  20. Power coupler kick of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; E. Laxdal, R.; Zvyagintsev, V.; Yu., Chao; C., Gong; Koscielniak, S.

    2011-06-01

    The TRIUMF Injector CryoModule (ICM) adapted two superconducting single cavities as the capture section for the low injecting energy of 100 keV electrons. Coupler kick induced beam deflection and projected emittance growth are one of the prime concerns of the beam stability, especially at low energies. In low energy applications, the electron velocity changes rapidly inside the cavity, which makes the numerical analysis much more complicated. The commonly used theoretical formulas of the direct integral or the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is not suitable for the kick calculation of β < 1 electrons. Despite that, the above mentioned kick calculation method doesn't consider injecting electron energy, the beam offset due to the coupler kick may not be negligible because of the low injection energy even if the kick is optimized. Thus the beam dynamics code TRACK is used here for the simulation of the power coupler kick perturbation. The coupler kick can be compensated for by a judicious choice of the coupler position in successive cavities from upstream to downstream. The simulation shows that because of the adiabatic damping by the following superconducting 9-cell cavity, even for the worst orbit distortion case after two capture cavities, the kick is still acceptable at the exit of the ICM after reaching 10 MeV. This paper presents the analysis of the transverse kick and the projected emittance growth induced by the coupler for β < 1 electrons. The simulated results of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities are described and presented.

  1. Power coupler kick of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fang; R.E. Laxdal; V. Zvyagintsev; Yu. Chao; C. Gong; S. Koscielniak

    2011-01-01

    The TRIUMF Injector CryoModule (ICM) adapted two superconducting single cavities as the capture section for the low injecting energy of 100 keV electrons. Coupler kick induced beam deflection and projected emittance growth are one of the prime concerns of the beam stability, especially at low energies. In low energy applications, the electron velocity changes rapidly inside the cavity, which makes the numerical analysis much more complicated. The commonly used theoretical formulas of the direct integral or the Panofsky- Wenzel theorem is not suitable for the kick calculation of β <1 electrons. Despite that, the above mentioned kick calculation method doesn't consider injecting electron energy, the beam offset due to the coupler kick may not be negligible because of the low injection energy even if the kick is optimized. Thus the beam dynamics code TRACK is used here for the simulation of the power coupler kick perturbation. The coupler kick can be compensated for by a judicious choice of the coupler position in successive cavities from upstream to downstream. The simulation shows that because of the adiabatic damping by the following superconducting 9-cell cavity, even for the worst orbit distortion case after two capture cavities, the kick is still acceptable at the exit of the ICM after reaching 10 MeV. This paper presents the analysis of the transverse kick and the projected emittance growth induced by the coupler for β <1 electrons. The simulated results of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities are described and presented.

  2. CO2 capture from power plants. Part II : A parametric study of the economical performance based on mono-ethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M. R. M.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Feron, P. H. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    While the demand for reduction in CO2 emission is increasing, the cost of the CO2 capture processes remains a limiting factor for large-scale application. Reducing the cost of the capture system by improving the process and the solvent used must have a priority in order to apply this technology in t

  3. CO2 capture from power plants: Part II. A parametric study of the economical performance based on mono-ethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R.M.; Niederer, John P.M.; Feron, Paul H.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2007-01-01

    While the demand for reduction in CO2 emission is increasing, the cost of the CO2 capture processes remains a limiting factor for large-scale application. Reducing the cost of the capture system by improving the process and the solvent used must have a priority in order to apply this technology in t

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you are required to comply with operating limits by § 63.3093, you must comply with the applicable operating limits in the following...

  5. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  6. Active suppression after involuntary capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.

  7. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  8. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  9. Design of multidirectional neutron beams for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierga, D.P.; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shefer, R.E. [Newton Scientific, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is a potential application of the {sup 10}B(n, a) {sup 7}Li reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The target of therapy is the synovial membrane. Rheumatoid synovium is greatly inflamed and is the source of the discomfort and disability associated with the disease. The BNCS proposes to destroy the synovium by first injecting a boron-labeled compound into the joint space and then irradiating the joint with a neutron beam. This study discusses the design of a multidirectional neutron beam for BNCS.

  10. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functional

  11. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  12. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon from waste tobacco by a simple pre-treatment process and their application in electrochemical capacitor and CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Yunfei; Lou, Jiaying [Technical Center, Shanghai Tobacco Group Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200082 (China); Bai, Shizhe [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Da, E-mail: wud@sh.tobacco.com.cn [Technical Center, Shanghai Tobacco Group Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200082 (China); Liu, Baizhan [Technical Center, Shanghai Tobacco Group Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200082 (China); Ling, Yun, E-mail: yunling@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A pre-treatment process is used to prepared N-doped carbon from waste biomass. • Waste tobaccos, which are limited for the disposal, are used as the raw materials. • The product shows a specific surface area and nitrogen content. • Its electrochemical performance is better than commercial activated carbon. • Its CO{sub 2} sorption performance is also better than commercial activated carbon. - Abstract: Preparing nitrogen-doped porous carbons directly from waste biomass has received considerable interest for the purpose of realizing the atomic economy. In this study, N-doped porous carbons have been successfully prepared from waste tobaccos (WT) by a simple pre-treatment process. The sample calcinated at 700 °C (WT-700) shows a micro/meso-porous structures with a BET surface area of 1104 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and a nitrogen content of ca. 19.08 wt.% (EDS). Performance studies demonstrate that WT-700 displays 170 F g{sup −1} electrocapacitivity at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} (in 6 M KOH), and a CO{sub 2} capacity of 3.6 mmol g{sup −1} at 0 °C and 1 bar, and a selectivity of ca. 32 for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} at 25 °C. Our studies indicate that it is feasible to prepare N-enriched porous carbons from waste natural crops by a pre-treatment process for potential industrial application.

  13. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Brandon J.; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J. Jonathan; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lerman, Amir; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S.

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance.

  14. Electron capture from coherent elliptic Rydberg states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.C.; DePaola, B.D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Hansen, S.B.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Leontiev, Y.; Mogensen, K.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    Experimental relative cross sections for electron capture by singly charged ions (Na{sup +}) from coherent elliptic states of principal quantum number n=25 are presented. An interval of reduced impact velocities from about 1{endash}2 is covered. Absolute reaction cross sections could not be determined precisely, but the eccentricity of the coherent elliptic states and their orientation relative to the ion-impact velocity were varied to expose the dependence of the electron-capture process on the initial motion of the electron. The dependencies on eccentricity and orientation are generally strong and they vary sharply with impact velocity. Qualitatively, the observations agree fairly well with classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations, as expected for the large quantum numbers involved, but significant deviations of a systematic nature do remain, showing that some aspects of the capture reactions studied are described poorly by classical physics as represented by the CTMC model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Muon capture rates within the projected QRPA

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Danilo Sande; Krmpotić, Francisco; Dimarco, Alejandro J

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of the number of particles within the QRPA plays an important role in the evaluation muon capture rates in all light nuclei with A \\precsim 30 . The violation of the CVC by the Coulomb field in this mass region is of minor importance, but this effect could be quite relevant for medium and heavy nuclei studied previously. The extreme sensitivity of the muon capture rates on the 'pp' coupling strength in nuclei with large neutron excess when described within the QRPA is pointed out. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are much more robust for such a purpose.

  16. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  17. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  18. Selective gas capture via kinetic trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Joyjit; Prendergast, David; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Conventional approaches to the capture of CO_2 by metal-organic frameworks focus on equilibrium conditions, and frameworks that contain little CO_2 in equilibrium are often rejected as carbon-capture materials. Here we use a statistical mechanical model, parameterized by quantum mechanical data, to suggest that metal-organic frameworks can be used to separate CO_2 from a typical flue gas mixture when used under {\\em nonequilibrium} conditions. The origin of this selectivity is an emergent gas-separation mechanism that results from the acquisition by different gas types of different mobilities within a crowded framework. The resulting distribution of gas types within the framework is in general spatially and dynamically heterogeneous. Our results suggest that relaxing the requirement of equilibrium can substantially increase the parameter space of conditions and materials for which selective gas capture can be effected.

  19. Inertial capture in flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Araújo, A. D.; Vasconcelos, T. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate through numerical calculation of non-Brownian particles transported by a fluid in a porous medium, the influence of geometry and inertial effects on the capture efficiency of the solid matrix. In the case of a periodic array of cylinders and under the action of gravity, our results reveal that δ ˜ St, where δ is the particle capture efficiency, and St is the Stokes number. In the absence of gravity, we observe a typical second order transition between non-trapping and trapping of particles that can be expressed as δ ˜ ( St - St c ) α , with an exponent α ≈ 0.5, where St c is the critical Stokes number. We also perform simulations for flow through a random porous structure and confirm that its capture behavior is consistent with the simple periodic model.

  20. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  1. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... processes of the solitary individual. A new framework for studying and capturing creativity, which goes beyond individual cognitive processes by examining the applied creative process of individuals in context, is proposed. We apply a context sensitive framework that embraces the creative collaborative...... process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  2. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  3. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  4. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: Opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Van der Ham, L.; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  5. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency penalti

  6. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samana, A. R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, UESC-Br (Brazil); Sande, D. [Instituto de Geociências, UFBA-Br (Brazil); Krmpotić, F. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET-Ar and Fac. de Cs. Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP-Ar (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  7. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  8. Acoustic streaming enhances the Multicyclic CO2 capture of natural limestone at Ca-looping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J M; Ebri, J M P; Quintanilla, M A S

    2013-08-20

    The Ca-Looping (CaL) process, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO at high temperatures, is a viable technology to achieve high CO2 capture efficiencies in both precombustion and postcombustion applications. In this paper we show an experimental study on the multicyclic CO2 capture of a natural limestone in a fixed bed at CaL conditions as affected by the application of a high-intensity acoustic field. Our results indicate that sound promotes the efficiency of CO2 sorption in the fast carbonation phase by enhancing the gas-solids mass transfer. The fundamentals of the physical mechanism responsible for this effect (acoustic streaming) as well as the technical feasibility of the proposed technique allows envisaging that sonoprocessing will be beneficial to enhance multicyclic CO2 capture in large-scale applications.

  9. USING TAILORED TRANQUILIZER COMBINATIONS TO REDUCE STRESS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE UNGULATE CAPTURE AND TRANSLOCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Miller, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    Capture and translocation are important tools for managing and studying large ungulates. Although widely used, many established field practices cause fear and stress in subject animals that can hamper overall effectiveness and safety. Over the last 10 years we have been exploring uses of tranquilizer combinations as adjuncts to wild ungulate capture and translocation work in Colorado, USA. Our approaches have been tailored to various field applications to reduce fear and stress, facilitate handling, and improve the overall success of capture and translocation for research or management purposes. For physical capture (drop net or helicopter-net gunning) with local release, combinations of midazolam and azaperone administered immediately upon capture provide transient tranquilization and muscle relaxation during manual restraint and handling to prevent hyperthermia and capture myopathy. For extended tranquilization (during transport and overnight holding), adding a sustained-release haloperidol formulation provides calming effects for at least 24-48 h. In our assessment, appropriate and adaptive use of these tranquilizer combinations benefits captured animals without impeding management or research goals.

  10. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-23

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10(-3) bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  11. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  12. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  13. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  14. Particle capture into the lung made simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Talita Felipe; Sapoval, Bernard; Andrade, José S; Grotberg, James B; Hu, Yingying; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the impact distribution of particles entering the human respiratory system is of primary importance as it concerns not only atmospheric pollutants or dusts of various kinds but also the efficiency of aerosol therapy and drug delivery. To model this process, current approaches consist of increasingly complex computations of the aerodynamics and particle capture phenomena, performed in geometries trying to mimic lungs in a more and more realistic manner for as many airway generations as possible. Their capture results from the complex interplay between the details of the aerodynamic streamlines and the particle drag mechanics in the resulting flow. In contrast, the present work proposes a major simplification valid for most airway generations at quiet breathing. Within this context, focusing on particle escape rather than capture reveals a simpler structure in the entire process. When gravity can be neglected, we show by computing the escape rates in various model geometries that, although still complicated, the escape process can be depicted as a multiplicative escape cascade in which each elementary step is associated with a single bifurcation. As a net result, understanding of the particle capture may not require computing particle deposition in the entire lung structure but can be abbreviated in some regions using our simpler approach of successive computations in single realistic bifurcations. Introducing gravity back into our model, we show that this multiplicative model can still be successfully applied on up to nine generations, depending on particle type and breathing conditions.

  15. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  16. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  17. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  18. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.

  19. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  20. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S; Armstrong, D.S.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Burnham, R.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Depommier, P.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Larabee, A.J.; Macdonald, J.A.; Mes, H.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Robertson, B.C.; Serna-Angel, A.; Summhammer, J.; Taylor, G.N.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Zhang, N.S.; MacDonald, S.C. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver,

    1989-06-01

    Radiative muon capture rates have been measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g{sub p} when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurement on hydrogen is also given. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The radiative muon capture program at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorringe, T. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); RMC Collaboration

    1998-11-01

    We describe recent measurements of radiative muon capture on hydrogen, [sup 3]He and [sup 58,60,62]Ni using the RMC pair spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron laboratory. Our determinations of the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon's weak current are discussed. (author) 5 refs, 1 fig

  2. Capture technologies: Improvements and promising developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomen, E.; Hendriks, C.; Neele, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this status report we want to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status and promising technologies of CO2 capture by means of a literature review, in-house knowledge and interviews. We describe the technology, bottlenecks towards implementation and potential use. The results will be

  3. Nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Bahk, S. Y.; Chung, S. H.; Funahashi, H.; Hahn, C. H.; Hanabata, M.; Hara, T.; Hirata, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieiri, M.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Jin-ya, T.; Kazuno, M.; Kim, C. O.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kodama, K.; Kuze, T.; Maeda, Y.; Masaike, A.; Masuoka, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsui, A.; Nagase, Y.; Nagoshi, C.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Nakano, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Niwa, K.; Oda, H.; Okabe, H.; Ono, S.; Ozaki, R.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, Y.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H. M.; Song, J. S.; Sugimoto, M.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, K. H.; Teranaka, M.; Tezuka, I.; Togawa, H.; Tsunemi, T.; Ukai, M.; Ushida, N.; Watanabe, T.; Yasuda, N.; Yokota, J.; Yoon, C. S.; KEK E176 Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    An emulsion-counter hybrid experiment (KEK E176) was carried out to search for double strangeness systems such as double- Λ hypernuclei and H-dibaryons. More than 10% of Ξ hyperons produced in the (K -, K +) reaction were brought to rest in the nuclear emulsion. We have obtained 98 candidate events of nuclear capture at rest of Ξ hyperons which are described in this report. Among those, four events were identified as sequential weak decay of double- Λ hypernuclei. The binding energies of Ξ-( 12C, 14N and 16O) states have been estimated for two events which emit twin single- Λ hypernuclei back to back from the capture point. The Σp decay vertex of an H-dibaryon was searched for near the capture point and no evidence was observed. Upper limits for the branching ratio of H emission are 5-10% for a lifetime less than 0.1 ns at the 90% confidence level. The trapping probabilities of single and double strangeness to a nuclear fragment following Ξ capture at rest have been studied.

  4. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  5. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, P.J.P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or chromo

  6. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  7. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  8. A Methodology for a Sustainable CO2 Capture and Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Gani, Rafiqul

    are being investigated and implemented [1]. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the dominant method that is discussed. However, CO2 utilization is receiving increased attention for its ability to help in long-term CO2 reduction and the formation of various chemical products. One of the primary elements...... is the sustainable linkage of carbon capture to produce the CO2 feed and the subsequent conversion processes. A manipulation of an MEA absorption process, the current industrial standard for carbon capture [2], is investigated. The resulting CO2 stream can be directly fed into a variety of conversion processes...... hydrogenation highlights the application. This case study illustrates the utility of the utilization network and elements of the methodology being developed. In addition, the conversion process is linked with carbon capture to evaluate the overall sustainability. Finally, the production of the other raw...

  9. A Methodology for a Sustainable CO2 Capture and Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    are being investigated and implemented [1]. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the dominant method that is discussed. However, CO2 utilization is receiving increased attention for its ability to help in long-term CO2 reduction and the formation of various chemical products. One of the primary elements...... is the sustainable linkage of carbon capture to produce the CO2 feed and the subsequent conversion processes. A manipulation of an MEA absorption process, the current industrial standard for carbon capture [2], is investigated. The resulting CO2 stream can be directly fed into a variety of conversion processes...... hydrogenation highlights the application. This case study illustrates the utility of the utilization network and elements of the methodology being developed. In addition, the conversion process is linked with carbon capture to evaluate the overall sustainability. Finally, the production of the other raw...

  10. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  11. Developments in Characterizing Capture Zone Distributions in Island Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto; GonzáLez, Diego Luis; Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh

    2013-03-01

    The utility of using the distribution of capture zones (CZD) to characterize epitaxial growth continues to mount. For non-Poisson deposition (i.e. when island nucleation is not fully random) the areas of these Voronoi cells (proximity polygons) can be well described by the generalized Wigner distribution (GWD), particularly in the central region around the mean area. We discuss several recent applications to experimental systems, showing how this perspective leads to insights about the critical nucleus size. In contrast, several studies have shown that the GWD may not describe the numerical data from painstaking simulations in both tails. We discuss some refinements that have been proposed. Finally, we comment on applications to social phenomena such as area distributions of secondary administrative units (like counties) and of Voronoi cells around Metro stops. Work at UMD supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF CHE 07-49949

  12. Full-matrix capture with a customizable phased array instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Gavin; Braconnier, Dominique; Gruber, Matt

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a technique known as Full-Matrix Capture (FMC) has gained some headway in the NDE community for phased array applications. It's important to understand that FMC is the method that the instrumentation acquires the ultrasonic signals, but further post-processing is required in software to create a meaningful image for a particular application. Having a flexible software interface, small form factor, excellent signal-to-noise ratio per acquisition channel on a 64/64 or 128/128 phased array module with FMC capability proves beneficial in both industrial implementation and in further investigation of post-processing techniques. This paper will provide an example of imaging with a 5MHz linear phased array transducer with 128 elements using FMC and a popular post-processing algorithm known as Total-Focus Method (TFM).

  13. Statistical inference for capture-recapture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kenneth H.; Nichols, James D.; Brownie, Cavell; Hines, James E.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph presents a detailed, practical exposition on the design, analysis, and interpretation of capture-recapture studies. The Lincoln-Petersen model (Chapter 2) and the closed population models (Chapter 3) are presented only briefly because these models have been covered in detail elsewhere. The Jolly- Seber open population model, which is central to the monograph, is covered in detail in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5 we consider the "enumeration" or "calendar of captures" approach, which is widely used by mammalogists and other vertebrate ecologists. We strongly recommend that it be abandoned in favor of analyses based on the Jolly-Seber model. We consider 2 restricted versions of the Jolly-Seber model. We believe the first of these, which allows losses (mortality or emigration) but not additions (births or immigration), is likely to be useful in practice. Another series of restrictive models requires the assumptions of a constant survival rate or a constant survival rate and a constant capture rate for the duration of the study. Detailed examples are given that illustrate the usefulness of these restrictions. There often can be a substantial gain in precision over Jolly-Seber estimates. In Chapter 5 we also consider 2 generalizations of the Jolly-Seber model. The temporary trap response model allows newly marked animals to have different survival and capture rates for 1 period. The other generalization is the cohort Jolly-Seber model. Ideally all animals would be marked as young, and age effects considered by using the Jolly-Seber model on each cohort separately. In Chapter 6 we present a detailed description of an age-dependent Jolly-Seber model, which can be used when 2 or more identifiable age classes are marked. In Chapter 7 we present a detailed description of the "robust" design. Under this design each primary period contains several secondary sampling periods. We propose an estimation procedure based on closed and open population models that allows for

  14. Optimized and Executive Survey of Physical Node Capture Attack in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Butani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are novel large-scale wireless networks that consist of distributed, self organizing, low-power, low-cost, tiny sensor devices to cooperatively collect information through infrastructure less wireless networks. These networks are envisioned to play a crucial role in variety of applications like critical military surveillance applications, forest fire monitoring, commercial applications such as building security monitoring, traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring and smart homes and many more scenarios. Node capture attack is one of the most dreadful security attack exist in wireless sensor networks. An adversary steals cryptographic key or other confidential information like node’s id etc from a captured node to compromise entire network. So, Security of wireless sensor network is an important issue for maintaining confidentiality and integrity of wireless links. Now-a-days, researchers are paying attention towards developing security schemes against Node capture attack. Our survey provides deep insights of existing techniques that enhance the attacking efficiency of the node capture attack in wireless sensor network. It also analyzes various detection and key pre-distribution schemes for inventing a new scheme to improve resilience against node capture attack.

  15. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    These pages provide an example of the layout and style required for the preparation of four-page papers for the TechConnect World 2015 technical proceedings.Documents must be submitted in electronic (Adobe PDFfile) format. Please study the enclosed materials beforebeginning the final preparation of your paper. Proofread your paper carefully before submitting (it will appear in the published volume in exactly the same form). Your PDF manuscript must be uploaded online by April 11th, 2015.You will receive no proofs. Begin your paper with an abstract of no more than 18 lines. Thoroughly summarize your article in this section since this text will be used for on-line listing and classification of the publication.

  16. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experimen...

  17. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  18. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance.

  19. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  20. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  1. Muon Capture on the Proton and Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    By measuring the lifetime of the negative muon in pure protium (hydrogen-1), the MuCap experiment determines the rate of muon capture on the proton, from which the proton's pseudoscalar coupling g_p may be inferred. A precision of 15% for g_p has been published; this is a step along the way to a goal of 7%. This coupling can be calculated precisely from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and therefore permits a test of QCD's chiral symmetry. Meanwhile, the MuSun experiment is in its final design stage; it will measure the rate of muon capture on the deuteron using a similar technique. This process can be related through pionless effective field theory and chiral perturbation theory to other two-nucleon reactions of astrophysical interest, including proton-proton fusion and deuteron breakup.

  2. Head-Up Displays and Attention Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Risser, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The primary role of head-up displays (HUDs) is to provide primary flight, navigation, and guidance information to the pilot in a forward field-of-view on a head-up transparent screen. Therefore, this theoretically allows for optimal control of an aircraft through the simultaneous scanning of both instrument data and the out-the-window scene. However, despite significant aviation safety benefits afforded by HUDs, a number of accidents have shown that their use does not come without costs. The human factors community has identified significant issues related to the pilot distribution of near and far domain attentional resources because of the compellingness of symbology elements on the HUD; a concern termed, attention or cognitive capture. The paper describes the phenomena of attention capture and presents a selected survey of the literature on the etiology and potential prescriptions.

  3. Cutting the cost of carbon capture: a case for carbon capture and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Lennart; Huck, Johanna M; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Smit, Berend

    2016-10-20

    A significant part of the cost for carbon capture and storage (CCS) is related to the compression of captured CO2 to its supercritical state, at 150 bar and typically 99% purity. These stringent conditions may however not always be necessary for specific cases of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). In this manuscript, we investigate how much the parasitic energy of an adsorbent-based carbon capture process may be lowered by utilizing CO2 at 1 bar and adapting the final purity requirement for CO2 from 99% to 70% or 50%. We compare different CO2 sources: the flue gases of coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plants and ambient air. We evaluate the carbon capture performance of over 60 nanoporous materials and determine the influence of the initial and final CO2 purity on the parasitic energy of the carbon capture process. Moreover, we demonstrate the underlying principles of the parasitic energy minimization in more detail using the commercially available NaX zeolite. Finally, the calculated utilization cost of CO2 is compared with the reported prices for CO2 and published costs for CCS.

  4. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  5. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter G.; Borovicha, Jiri; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbeny, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an initial mass of ~5 kg and diameter of 15 cm, with a maximum Earth-relative velocity just over 11.0 km/s. Spectral observations prove its natural origin. Back-integration across observational uncertainties yields a 92 - 98% probability of TCO behaviour, with close lunar dynamical interaction. The capture duration varies across observational uncertainties from 48 days to 5+ years. We also report on two low-speed impacts recorded by US Government sensors, and we examine Prairie Network event PN39078 from 1965 having an extremely low entry speed of 10.9 km/s. In these cases uncertainties in measurement and origin make TCO designation uncertain.

  6. Double electron capture searches in $^{74}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Lehnert, B; Degering, D; Sommer, D; Wagner, L; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    A search for various double electron capture modes of $^{74}$Se has been performed using an ultralow background Ge-detector in the Felsenkeller laboratory, Germany. Especially for the potentially resonant transition into the 1204.2 keV excited state of $^{74}$Ge a lower half-life limit of $0.70\\cdot 10^{19}$ yr (90% credibility) has been obtained. Serious concerns are raised about the validity of obtained $^{74}$Se limits in some recent publications.

  7. GDP-capture compound--a novel tool for the profiling of GTPases in pro- and eukaryotes by capture compound mass spectrometry (CCMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Fischer, Jenny J; Baessler, Olivia Y Graebner Neé; Schrey, Anna K; Ungewiss, Jan; Glinski, Mirko; Sefkow, Michael; Dreger, Mathias; Koester, Hubert

    2010-02-10

    The functional isolation of proteome subsets based on small molecule-protein interactions is an increasingly popular and promising field in functional proteomics. Entire protein families may be profiled on the basis of their common interaction with a metabolite or small molecule inhibitor. This is enabled by novel multifunctional small molecule probes. One platform approach in this field are Capture Compounds that contain a small molecule of interest to bind target proteins, a photo-activatable reactivity function to covalently trap bound proteins, and a sorting function to isolate Capture Compound-protein conjugates from complex biological samples for direct trypsinisation and protein identification by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (CCMS). We here present the synthesis and application of a novel GDP-Capture Compound for the functional enrichment of GTPases, a pivotal protein family that exerts key functions in signal transduction. We present data from CCMS experiments on two biological lysates from Escherichia coli and from human-derived Hek293 cells. The GDP-Capture Compound robustly captures a wide range of different GTPases from both systems and will be a valuable tool for the proteomic profiling of this important protein family.

  8. Direct Capture of CO2 from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pérez, Eloy S; Murdock, Christopher R; Didas, Stephanie A; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-10-12

    The increase in the global atmospheric CO2 concentration resulting from over a century of combustion of fossil fuels has been associated with significant global climate change. With the global population increase driving continued increases in fossil fuel use, humanity's primary reliance on fossil energy for the next several decades is assured. Traditional modes of carbon capture such as precombustion and postcombustion CO2 capture from large point sources can help slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration, but only the direct removal of CO2 from the air, or "direct air capture" (DAC), can actually reduce the global atmospheric CO2 concentration. The past decade has seen a steep rise in the use of chemical sorbents that are cycled through sorption and desorption cycles for CO2 removal from ultradilute gases such as air. This Review provides a historical overview of the field of DAC, along with an exhaustive description of the use of chemical sorbents targeted at this application. Solvents and solid sorbents that interact strongly with CO2 are described, including basic solvents, supported amine and ammonium materials, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as the primary classes of chemical sorbents. Hypothetical processes for the deployment of such sorbents are discussed, as well as the limited array of technoeconomic analyses published on DAC. Overall, it is concluded that there are many new materials that could play a role in emerging DAC technologies. However, these materials need to be further investigated and developed with a practical sorbent-air contacting process in mind if society is to make rapid progress in deploying DAC as a means of mitigating climate change.

  9. Impact detections of temporarily captured natural satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David L; Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, Ed; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Temporarily Captured Orbiters (TCOs) are Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) which make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one TCO has been observed to date, 2006 RH120, captured by Earth for one year before escaping. Detailed modeling predicts capture should occur from the NEO population predominantly through the Sun-Earth L1 and L2 points, with 1% of TCOs impacting Earth and approximately 0.1% of meteoroids being TCOs. Although thousands of meteoroid orbits have been measured, none until now have conclusively exhibited TCO behaviour, largely due to difficulties in measuring initial meteoroid speed with sufficient precision. We report on a precise meteor observation of January 13, 2014 by a new generation of all-sky fireball digital camera systems operated in the Czech Republic as part of the European Fireball Network, providing the lowest natural object entry speed observed in decades long monitoring by networks world-wide. Modeling atmospheric deceleration and fragmentation yields an...

  10. Developing shock-capturing difference methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Guo-hua; YUAN Xiang-jiang; LU Li-peng

    2007-01-01

    A new shock-capturing method is proposed which is based on upwind schemes and flux-vector splittings. Firstly, original upwind schemes are projected along characteristic directions. Secondly, the amplitudes of the characteristic decompositions are carefully controlled by limiters to prevent non-physical oscillations. Lastly, the schemes are converted into conservative forms, and the oscillation-free shock-capturing schemes are acquired. Two explicit upwind schemes (2nd-order and 3rd-order) and three compact upwind schemes (3rd-order, 5th-order and 7th-order) are modified by the method for hyperbolic systems and the modified schemes are checked on several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test cases. Some numerical solutions of the schemes are compared with those of a WENO scheme and a MP scheme as well as a compact-WENO scheme. The results show that the method with high order accuracy and high resolutions can capture shock waves smoothly.

  11. Longitudinal RF capture simulation and BPM signal estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Chen, Yu-Cong; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Ruan, Shuang; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Kang, Xin-Cai; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Li, Peng; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical aspects behind longitudinal RF capture are reviewed and the capture process is simulated via a program based on this theory. Four kinds of cases with different initial distribution and capture curve are considered, i.e. uniform distribution with adiabatic capture, uniform distribution with non-adiabatic capture, Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture and Gaussian distribution with non-adiabatic capture. The simulation results are compared each other and discussed, and Gaussian distribution with adiabatic capture is demonstrated having a higher capture efficiency and leading to a shorter bunch length. In addition, the BPM induced signal is simulated with high input impendence, i.e. $1M\\Omega$, and low input impendence, i.e. $50\\Omega$, respectively. Finally, the BPM signal of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) is estimated and compared with measured one, and a good agreement is achieved.

  12. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  13. CT Reconstruction from Simultaneous Projections: A Step towards Capturing CT in One Go

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sajib; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on minimizing the time requirement for CT capture through innovative simultaneous x-ray capture method. The state-of-the-art CT imaging methodology captures a sequence of projections during which the internal organ movements may lead to poor reconstruction due to motion artefacts. Traditional CT scanners' minimize such effect by taking more projections than necessary. In this work we focus on an innovative CT capture method that captures projections simultaneously, promising super fast scans along with possible radiation dose reductions. While the simultaneous CT capture model has already been proposed in our earlier work 'Multi-axial CT Reconstruction from Few View Projections' (in SPIE Optical Engineering and Applications, pp. 85000A-85000A. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012) and 'A New Imaging Method for Real-time 3D X-ray Reconstruction' (in SPIE Medical Imaging, pp. 86685G-86685G. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), in this work we enhance the mode...

  14. Development of low-cost amine-enriched solid sorbent for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelor, Thuy Thi Nguyen; Toochinda, Pisanu

    2012-12-01

    CO2 capture amine-enriched solid sorbent using agricultural wastes, such as bagasse, or industrial wastes, such as mullite, as support materials could provide efficient alternative CO2 reduction due to their low cost and ability to shape into many forms. These amine-enriched solid sorbents were prepared by treatment with monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine, piperazine (PZ), 2-(2-aminoethyl-amino) ethanol (AEEA) and mixtures of these amines. The performance of amine-enriched solid sorbents with various amine compositions was studied in a tubular column at 1 atm and an adsorption temperature of 303 K. The CO2 capture capacities of the amine-enriched solid sorbents were determined by gas chromatography at a desorption temperature of 393 K. Amine-enriched solid sorbents in this study exhibited high performance CO2 capture. The MEA-PZ-enriched solid sorbent does have the highest CO2 capture performance of the amine-enriched bagasse support-based sorbents, and the results indicate that PZ is the most effective promoter in this study. The CO2 capture performances of solid sorbents in this study were compared with commercial solid sorbents. This study could lead to the development of low-cost solid sorbents for CO2 capture that can be used in many industrial applications.

  15. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  16. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  18. Segmentation of Camera Captured Business Card Images for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    Due to huge deformation in the camera captured images, variety in nature of the business cards and the computational constraints of the mobile devices, design of an efficient Business Card Reader (BCR) is challenging to the researchers. Extraction of text regions and segmenting them into characters is one of such challenges. In this paper, we have presented an efficient character segmentation technique for business card images captured by a cell-phone camera, designed in our present work towards developing an efficient BCR. At first, text regions are extracted from the card images and then the skewed ones are corrected using a computationally efficient skew correction technique. At last, these skew corrected text regions are segmented into lines and characters based on horizontal and vertical histogram. Experiments show that the present technique is efficient and applicable for mobile devices, and the mean segmentation accuracy of 97.48% is achieved with 3 mega-pixel (500-600 dpi) images. It takes only 1.1 se...

  19. The mind in the model: capturing expert knowledge with the help of fuzzy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.A.E.B.; Schielen, R.M.J.; Augustijn, D.C.M.; Os, van A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy logic offers a way of capturing qualitative knowledge in models. We tested its application in modelling for long term river management planning. We used fuzzy logic to model landscape impacts of different river measures. Preliminary results show that the method allows for modelling expert know

  20. Tracer Gas Technique Versus a Control Box Method for Estimating Direct Capture Efficiency of Exhaust Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Aubertin, G.; Breum, N. O.;

    Numerical modelling of direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust is used to compare the tracer gas technique of a proposed CEN standard against a more consistent approach based on an imaginary control box. It is concluded that the tracer gas technique is useful for field applications....