WorldWideScience

Sample records for capture household food

  1. Food discard practices of householders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  2. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  3. Household Food Demand in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores rural household food consumption behaviour in China using a large household data set from Jilin Province. Data are classified into four main food groups?grain, vegetable products, animal products and other foods. A household food demand system, incorporating four household characteristics, is estimated using an LA-AIDS model, assuming a three-stage budgeting procedure. Expenditure elasticities for a range of food groups are estimated, with a particular...

  4. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...... such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...

  5. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  6. Food security experiences of displaced North Korean households

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, So-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food shortage situation in North Korea has gained much interest, however food insecurity caused by the food shortage in North Korean households has not been much investigated. This study examined food security experiences and food consumption pattern of displaced North Korean households currently living in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS Food security experience among 51 North Korean households living in South Korea was examined using the Household Food Insecurity Access S...

  7. Rising Food Insecurity: Dimensions in Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Okezie C. Austin; Aloysius C. Nwosu; Amir H. Baharuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Nigeria runs the risk of slowing further progress toward the achievement of MDG-1 to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty; the fourth goal, to reduce child mortality since over 30% of child deaths are attributable to malnutrition and the fifth goal relating to reduction in maternal mortality. This study evaluated the manifestation of food insecurity in households in Abia State, Nigeria. Approach: Systematic sampling was adopted in selecting households from the three geopoli...

  8. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste.

  9. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste....

  10. Identifying motivations and barriers to minimising household food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Rowe, Ella; Jessop, Donna C; Sparks, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The amount of food discarded by UK households is substantial and, to a large extent, avoidable. Furthermore, such food waste has serious environmental consequences. If household food waste reduction initiatives are to be successful they will need to be informed by people's motivations and barriers to minimising household food waste. This paper reports a qualitative study of the thoughts, feelings and experiences of 15 UK household food purchasers, based on semi-structured interviews. Two core...

  11. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant. PMID:27026492

  12. Household expenditure on food at home in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    “Engel’s law” explains that the share of household expenditure on food typically falls as income and expenditure increase. The objectives of this study are to investigate the food expenditure patterns of different income groups and the relationships between household characteristics and expenditure patterns. Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005 data from Department of Statistics was used to analyze the food expenditure pattern of households. An expenditure model was developed and the coeffi...

  13. Evaluating household food insecurity: applications and insights from rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Hunger is complex, encompassing experiences ranging from a family's forced acceptance of a monotonous diet to individual physiological pain. I evaluate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) as a means of capturing the universal elements of hunger without doing violence to its culturally-specific expressions within two Malay communities. The HFIAS is assessed conceptually by comparing its assumptions and concept-to-measurement gap with competing indicators and practically with respect to village conditions and practices. This case study recommends the HFIAS for this site and for communities that similarly lack maternal buffering, while highlighting the unique features of the local hunger experience. PMID:23802913

  14. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...

  15. Exploring household food security in the Viljoenskroon area / Flipsje Jordaan

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Flipsje

    2014-01-01

    Decreased food security is a major issue which influences numerous individuals in developing countries such as South Africa. Literature suggests that although detailed information is not available about the exact amount of food insecure households in South Africa, food insecurity does exist. Multiple factors influence decreased food security and households in informal settlements often portray high risks to decreased food security due to a lack of adequate resources to ensure sustainable food...

  16. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mickey Gjerris; Silvia Gaiani

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. ...

  17. Household food diversity and nutritional status among adults in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sichieri Rosely; Bezerra Ilana N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a diversity of healthy foods in a household would decrease the availability of unhealthy foods and to evaluate the association between a healthy dietary diversity score (DDS) and nutritional status among adults. Methods Data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey were used. This nationwide survey used a two-stage sampling technique: households were selected after selection of primary sample units (PSUs). Analyse...

  18. Socio-economic Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Zahid; Muhammad, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of food insecurity for both general and farmer households. It is based on Pakistan Social and Living standard Measurement (PSLM) 2007-08 survey conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan. After having descriptive analysis of the important determinants of food insecurity, we have used logit model to find the probability for being household secure or insecure. The model is initially fitted with 16 (for general) and 19 (for farmer households)...

  19. Financial Literacy and Food Security in Extremely Vulnerable Households

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel L. Millimet; McDonough, Ian K.; Fomby, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most, if not the most, significant, nutrition-related public health issue confronted in the US. Unfortunately, we know very little about the determinants of food security except that it is not synonymous with poverty. Many households above the poverty line are food insecure; many below are not. We investigate a lack of financial literacy as a potential salient determinant of household-level food security. In light of the recent financial crisis and the burgeoning...

  20. Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén; Wikström, Fredrik; Otterbring, Tobias; Martin LÖFGREN; Gustafsson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world’s limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during sev...

  1. Food Price Change and its Welfare Impact on Iranian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh; Mohammad Bagher Ziaei

    2014-01-01

    Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV).The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricu...

  2. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and...... determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... significantly among the studies and differ from one country to another. Here, we provide a consistent methodology for characterization of household food waste, so that data comparability and source information are ensured. In this study, residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from more than...

  3. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households.

  4. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households. PMID:27045462

  5. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studie...

  6. Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.

  7. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  8. Multidimensional Household Food Security Measurement in Rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Wineman, Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Food security is recognized as a multifaceted condition of complex causality that is related to, yet distinct from, poverty and hunger. Given its broad definition, it is no surprise that food security eludes precise measurement. This study considers there to be three components of household food security (quantity, quality, and stability), and attempts to address the "concept-to-measurement" gap in food security by building an index that spans these three dimensions. A panel data set is used ...

  9. Exploring household food security in the Vaalharts area / Dorette van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Dorette

    2014-01-01

    Food security is essential amongst households as it enables consumers to live a healthy and productive life. Determining factors for households to be classified as food secure is the availability, accessibility and utilisation of food in a sustainable manner as food availability and accessibility alone are not enough for households to be food secure. The food utilisation aspect of food security, which includes the type of food consumed, food knowledge and food handling practices, should there...

  10. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household. PMID:24780762

  11. Measuring food security using household expenditure surveys:

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lisa C.; Subandoro, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Food is one of the most basic needs for human survival. Access to it is a basic human right. Moreover, the pursuit of the Millennium Development Goal to cut hunger requires a sound understanding of the related food security issues. For these reasons, accurate measurement of the food security status of populations—or their ability to gain access to sufficient high-quality food to enable them to live an active, healthy life—is imperative to all international development efforts. It is necessary...

  12. Children’s reporting of food insecurity in predominately food insecure households in Texas border colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Nalty, Courtney C.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is associated with detrimental physical, psychological, behavioral, social, and educational functioning in children and adults. Greater than one-quarter of all Hispanic households in the U.S. are food insecure. Hispanic families in the U.S. comprise 30% of households with food insecurity at the child level, the most severe form of the condition. Methods Food security discordance was evaluated among 50 Mexican-origin children ages 6–11 and their mothers living in Tex...

  13. Food Price Change and its Welfare Impact on Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV.The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricultural products increased during the entire survey period of 2004 to 2012. Based on our estimates, the food groups of cereals, dairy products, vegetable and pulses, Potables and Spices are necessary goods, as their budget elasticity is positive and below one at the same time. Meat, edible oils, fruits and dried fruits and Sugary products are luxury goods, with income elasticity above one. We find that the remarkable increases in food prices resulted in severe erosion of purchasing power for the Iranian urban households and they need to be compensated on average about 48% of their initial income for the food price changes they faced during the 2004 and 2012. In addition the high share of cereals in year 2012 implies that urban households shift their consumption to cheaper calorie source. This figure is confirmed with the decline in the share of meat, dairy Products, fruits and dried fruits, vegetables and pulses and potables expenditure.

  14. Coping strategies and attitudes to food in budget constrained households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    longitudinal data collected in 2008 and 2012 from a Danish household panel. Using data from the 2012 data only (N=1650), we show initially that obesity, also in Denmark, is clearly related to level of constraint (and especially food insecurity). We examine whether specific coping strategies employed because......Recent literature primarily from English speaking countries has made it very clear that there is a higher risk of obesity among individuals who live under economic constraints, especially if they live in so-called food insecure households. The reason for this association, however, is not well...... understood. It is an obvious assumption that the association is related to food intake. But might alterations in people’s food values also play a role? And do different kinds of coping strategies that people embark on when they are economically pressured have an influence? To examine these questions we use...

  15. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  16. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  17. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  18. Do the School Nutrition Programs Supplement Household Food Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs (a sample of 5,977 students) were used to develop estimates that somewhat less than half of each additional dollar of National School Lunch Program benefits is used by households to supplement food expenditures, and all of each additional dollar of School Breakfast Program benefits is…

  19. Household Snack-Food Purchases: Does Nutrition Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    Purchase patterns for two types of snack foods--pretzels and popcorn, and potato, corn, and tortilla chips--were analyzed using the data from a national survey. The study examined the effect of socio-economic and lifestyle factors including nutritional awareness and exercise habits of household respondents on snack-food purchase. A geometric-hurdle count-data model that distinguished between market-participation and purchase-frequency decisions revealed that the decision to participate in the...

  20. Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos ABPA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on food intake at the individual level and its statistical distribution in population groups defined by age, gender, or geographic areas are important in planning public health and nutrition programs. However, individual-based surveys in representative population samples are expensive to perform. Methods/Design In Brazil, an individual based survey is under consideration to be conducted alongside the household budget survey (HBS, which will be carried out in 2008–2009. This paper presents the methodological framework of dietary data collection and indicates the directions to combining both sources of data. The 2008–2009 Brazilian HBS sample will include 60,000 households. Of the selected HBS households, 30% will be randomly sampled to gather data on individual food intake. Therefore, individual dietary intake data is expected to be gathered for 70,000 individuals. Data collection procedures will comprise: completion of a diary with information regarding food purchases during a seven-day period; registration of all items consumed during two non-consecutive days for all 10 year-old or older members of the household. The sample will be large enough to capture the variation between individuals, and the two records will assure the estimation of the variation within individuals for food groups, energy and nutrients. Data on individual dietary intake and food family budget will be stratified by the five regions of the country and by rural or urban. A pilot study has been conducted in two states, and it indicated that combining individual and budgetary data in a survey is feasible. Discussion This kind of study will allow us to estimate correlations between individual intake and household purchases, overcoming the limitations of individual dietary surveys, and enhancing the HBS with information on eating out and intra-familiar distribution of food.

  1. Attitudes and behaviour of Greek households regarding food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Lasaridi, Katia; Chroni, Christina

    2014-03-01

    Food waste is a waste stream with serious economic, environmental and social implications. The emphasis of the reported research is on the food waste generated by households in Greece. A structured questionnaire was utilised in order to identify the attitudes of the respondents and investigate the prevalence of certain behavioural good practices that can prevent the generation of food waste. The research, to our knowledge the first of its kind in Greece, took place in February and March 2012. Face-to-face interviews were employed, resulting to a total of 231 consumers fully completing the questionnaire. Results indicate that, based on self-reported behaviour, people in Greece have positive attitudes towards food waste prevention and that their habits are close to the good practices suggested in the literature for reducing food waste. For instance, most respondents do plan their food shopping in a multitude of ways and are very careful in their purchases of fresh food supplies. However, about 40% misunderstand the meaning of food date labels. The positive findings are strongly influenced by the severe recession experienced in the country, which makes consumers more conscious of their spending. Results may serve as a yardstick to further promote and establish food waste prevention behaviour at the household level on an environmental and social awareness basis that may outlast the economic crisis. PMID:24525671

  2. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  3. Integrating Household Nutrition and Food Security Objectives into Proposed Agriculture Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Infant and Young Child Nutrition Project

    2011-01-01

    This resource offers practical suggestions for incorporating nutrition and household food security objectives into agricultural research as well as how to measure their outcomes, such as a Household Food Insecurity Access Scale.

  4. Household food waste recycling in Hong Kong : issues and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-man; 陳懿雯

    2014-01-01

    The food waste problem has recently been put in the spotlight in Hong Kong and around the world. Food waste is the largest part of the municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, which accounts for more than a third of all solid waste. In 2011, there was approximately 3,600 tonnes of food waste generated everyday, with two-thirds coming from households and one-third from the commercial and industrial sector. The capacities of the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong are going to be exhausted soon. ...

  5. Effects of season on household food security and the nutritional status of smallholder rural households in Nakuru District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1995-01-01

    Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.] (FNSP Report, no. 55), p. 71, 1995.This study investigates the effects of a unimodal climatic pattern on household food availability among rural households with limited landholdings and low cash incomes, and how this in turn affects food consumption and

  6. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government.

  7. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  8. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama Saaka; Shaibu Mohammed Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS)...

  9. Use of food expenditure data to estimate household nutrient accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T; Patterson, A W

    1996-03-01

    The nutritional status of at-risk groups is usually monitored using health statistics. This approach has limitations as individuals are identified only after they have been afflicted by morbidity. In Jamaica, national surveys are carried out in which expenditure data on all consumption items are collected. We used these data to monitor food accessibility in at-risk groups. The identification of decreases in accessibility levels relative to requirements would enable timely intervention before there is a deterioration in nutritional status. We analysed the data from the survey of 3861 households conducted by Statistical and Planning Institutes of Jamaica in 1989. Using the food expenditure data, per capita energy and protein accessibility levels were determined. The mean energy and protein accessibility levels for the sample were 2170 Cals and 64 g, respectively. The results showed that the per capita accessibility levels of 20% and 9% of the households were less than half of requirements for energy and protein, respectively. The situation was worse in rural areas than in urban centres. However, the accessibility levels may have been underestimated as the data did not include meals bought and consumed away from the home, which may be significant to some households. We believe that the use of data from these surveys is a cost-effective way to monitor nutrient accessibility in Jamaica.

  10. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less sev

  11. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Prével, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, S.; Castan, F; Coulibaly, D.; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, M.; Lange, M.; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity a...

  12. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households.

  13. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  14. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya: a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food availability of

  15. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Seydou Zakari; Liu Ying; Baohui Song

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests,...

  16. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Foo...

  17. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  18. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydou Zakari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests, labor supply, flooding, poverty, access to market, the distance away from the main road and food aid are significant factors influencing the odds ratio of a household having enough daily rations. Another important finding is that female headed households are more vulnerable to food insecurity compared to male headed households. The findings of this study provide evidence that food insecurity continues to affect the Nigerien population.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501) was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43) of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22) severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86)) while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84)). Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97) and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92), respectively). After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66)), as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38)) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13). Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (prefugees in Lebanon and is likely to be exacerbated at this time when the Syrian crisis amplifies the problem. PMID:26098108

  20. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households. PMID:27494152

  1. Is the adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) developed internationally to measure food insecurity valid in urban and rural households of Ethiopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyesus, Seifu H; Lunde, Torleif; Mariam, Damen H.; Woldehanna, Tassew; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background The concept of food insecurity encompasses three dimensions. One of these dimensions, the access component of household food insecurity is measured through the use of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Despite its application in Ethiopia and other similar developing countries, its performance is still poorly explored. Our study aims to evaluate the validity of the HFIAS in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted repeated cross-sectional studies in urban and rural villages o...

  2. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  3. Rising food prices and household welfare : evidence from Brazil in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Fruttero, Anna; Leite, Phillippe; Lucchetti, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Food price inflation in Brazil in the twelve months to June 2008 was 18 percent, while overall inflation was seven percent. Using spatially disaggregated monthly data on consumer prices and two different household surveys, we estimate the welfare consequences of these food price increases, and their distribution across households. Because Brazil is a large food producer, with a predominant...

  4. DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EASTERN AND WESTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspi Eko Wiranthi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Food Security Council in 2009 issued a Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA which stated that there were 100 districts in Indonesia which were most vulnerable to food insecurity and 79% of which were located in eastern region. By using Susenas regular data in 2008, this study aimed to analyze determinants of household food security in eastern compared to western region. The ordered logistic regression model was employed to investigate the determinants of household food security. The result showed that most of households in Indonesia were vulnerable to food insecurity (41.76%. The percentage in eastern region (48.56% was higher than that in western region (41.76%. Increase in expenditure equivalent, age and education level of household head, female household head, small household size, household head’s occupation in non-agriculture and urban household would increase the probability of a household to become food secure in both regions. The difference was in the factor of access to electricity in eastern and access to safe drinking water and loan in western region. Policies which aim to increase education, credit access, and intensive family planning have big roles in improving household food security.

  5. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  6. No time to waste: applying social psychological methods and theories to household food waste reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Rowe, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The amount of food thrown away by UK households is substantial and, to a large extent, avoidable. Despite the obvious imperative for research to identify key factors that motivate, enable or prevent household food waste reduction, little research to date has directly addressed this objective. The research presented in this thesis had two clear aims: (1) to investigate antecedents of household food waste reduction and barriers to change, and (2) to explore whether self-affirmation techni...

  7. Effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Sulaiman A.; Balogun Olubunmi L.; Falegbe Olanike E.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is an important tool for reducing the effects of household food insecurity, unemployment and poverty which are major problems in urban areas in Nigeria. Food insecurity continues to worsen in some urban areas of the country and many households resulted into urban farming as a means of coping. The study investigated the effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data was collected f...

  8. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Anjeinu Abu; Aondonenge Soom

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie i...

  9. Impact of Tissue Culture Banana Technology on Farm Household Income and Food Security in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nassul S. Kabunga; Dubois, Thomas; Qaim, Matin

    2011-01-01

    While tissue culture (TC) technology for vegetative plant propagation is gradually gaining in importance in Africa, rigorous ex post assessments of welfare effects for smallholder farm households is lacking. Using recent survey data and accounting for self-selection in technology adoption, we analyze the impacts of TC banana technology on household income and food security in Kenya. To assess food security outcomes, we employ the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) – a tool that ha...

  10. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P crisis. PMID:22833656

  11. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey Joseph R; Dean Wesley R; Nalty Courtney C; Xu Jin,

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  12. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p food expenditure (p food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.

  13. Unravelling Food Basket of Indian Households: Revisiting Underlying Changes and Future Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, S. K.; Mathur, V.C.; Sivaramane, N.; Kumar, Ranjit; Hasan, Rooba; Meena, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study empirically revealed striking difference in the consumption pattern of Indian households across rural and urban sectors, geographical regions and income categories. The findings were in conformity with Engel’s law and Bennett’s law of consumption. Expenditure elasticities of food commodities were estimated using LA-AIDS demand system and food demand was projected for the year 2020. The expenditure elasticities of high value agricultural commodities (HVACs) like milk, nonvegetari...

  14. Food Poverty Profile in Settled Pastrol Households of Lowland Marsabit: Evidence from Micro Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequent and severe droughts experienced in ASALs push pastoralists out of the traditional livestock monoculture, which together with the growing human population lead to increasing settlement. Unlike nomads who access traditional livestock foods at all times, settled households have limited access, which does not guarantee their food security. To achieve the food security the settled households supplement limited livestock foods with market foods. High demand for market foods increases demand for money and since pastoral communities have limited income-generating opportunities, many households are relegated to below food poverty line. Most studies on food security in ASALs focus on livestock productivity without considering that settled households depend, to a small extent, on livestock foods. Since settled households experience a lot of socio-economic changes,their food security status needs to be appropriately evaluated. The aim of this study t is to establish the food poverty profile of the settled households and recommend appropriate measures for attaining food security in the settled households

  15. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L.; West, Keith P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Methods Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to ...

  16. The San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module: Validation of a Translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module

    OpenAIRE

    Lyles, CR; Nord, M; Chou, J.; Kwan, CML; Seligman, HK

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. There are no validated scales for measuring the prevalence of food insecurity among U.S. Chinese speakers. We validated the newly developed SF Chinese Food Security Module (a translation of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module) among 483 Chinese-speaking adults at a street fair. Most (8/10) of the translated items performed well compared to national statistics. Food insecure households had lower income and higher financial stress and used mor...

  17. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. PMID:26680687

  18. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  19. Nutritional Outcomes Related to Household Food Insecurity among Mothers in Rural Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ihab, A.N.; Rohana, A. J.; Manan, W. M. Wan; Suriati, W. N. Wan; Zalilah, M. S.; Rusli, A. Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18–55 years, who were non-lactating...

  20. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  1. Household Food Insecurity: Serious Concerns for Child Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gundersen, Craig; Koester, Brenda; Washington, LaTesha

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 14.7% of households were food insecure at some time during the year. In other words, members of those households did not have access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. This is arguably the most serious nutrition-related public health problem facing the U.S. today. The serious developmental consequences of food…

  2. Utilization of Selected Vitality Staple Foods by Low Income Households in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igba, Chimezie Elizabeth; Okoro, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the utilization of selected vitality foods among low income household in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study aimed at identifying vitality foods that are available, accessible and utilized by low income household in state. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study is 2,173,501 households…

  3. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  4. Household Demand for Food in Switzerland. A Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System

    OpenAIRE

    Awudu Abdulai

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we estimate a complete demand system for Switzerland, with emphasis on food demand, using a recent household expenditure survey. The Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed in the analysis of six food commodity and a non-food groups. The quadratic terms in the QUAIDS were found to be empirically important in describing household budget behaviour in Switzerland. For most food commodity groups, demand is inelastic, with elasticities ranging between -0.64 and -1.0...

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY SITUATION AMONG NIGERIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS: EVIDENCE FROM LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolarin Titus; Grace Adetokunbo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented the food security situation among urban households in Nigeria. Primary data were used in this study and these were obtained with a structured questionnaire. The households were randomly selected from 7 locations with the number selected proportionate to the size of each location. The analytical tools used include tables, percentages and food security incidence. The food insecurity incidence for the study area is 0.49. Food insecurity incidence increases with increase in a...

  6. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  7. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  8. The impact of food allergy on household level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food can be caused by food hypersensitivity. Prominent examples include food allergy or food intolerance. Patients suffering from food hypersensitivity have inappropriate autoimmune system reactions to potentially harmless food components. Symptoms can vary from uncomfortable sk

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  10. India - Improving Household Food and Nutrition Security : Achievements and the Challenges Ahead, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on the performance of, and future challenges for, the Government of India's primary "direct food and nutrition safety nets" or food-based transfer programs designed to alleviate short-term food and nutrition insecurity and improve caring behavior within households. This study focuses on the public food distribution system, the government's buffer stocking operations for...

  11. India - Improving Household Food and Nutrition Security : Achievements and the Challenges Ahead, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on the performance of, and future challenges for, the Government of India's primary "direct food and nutrition safety nets" or food-based transfer programs designed to alleviate short-term food and nutrition insecurity and improve caring behavior within households. This study focuses on the public food distribution system, the government's buffer stocking operations for...

  12. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Ghattas; Sassine, AnnieBelle J.; Karin Seyfert; Mark Nord; Sahyoun, Nadine R.

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501) was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally valid...

  14. Food Security, Gender and Occupational Choice among Urban Low-Income Households

    OpenAIRE

    Floro, Maria S; Ranjula Bali Swain

    2010-01-01

    Rising urban poverty and food insecurity are serious concerns in developing countries today. Urban livelihoods and coping strategies remain poorly understood however. This paper examines the response of female and male household members in marginalized urban (predominantly squatter) areas to the risk of food shortage in terms of occupational choice. More specifically, we use probit analyses to investigate whether household vulnerability or the need to provide self-insurance for food security,...

  15. Dietary Patterns and Household Food Insecurity in Rural Populations of Kilosa District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Edward Ntwenya; Joyce Kinabo; John Msuya; Peter Mamiro; Zahara Saidi Majili

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Methodology Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February–May) and post harvest season (S...

  16. Solutions exist for constraints to household production and retention of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan L

    2003-11-01

    This article reviews constraints to household level animal source food production in developing countries and suggests solutions to some of these constraints. These constraints include land, labor, money, feed quality, water, disease, animal genetics, roles for animals beyond food production, grazing techniques and an understanding of the entire agricultural system at the household level. Better understanding of farming systems and the elements that comprise it which affect animal food production permits wise management of nutrient flows and enhanced sustainability. PMID:14672309

  17. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; Pfood purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  18. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  19. Household food security among migrant and seasonal latino farmworkers in North Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Early, Julie; Tapia, Janeth; Davis, Jessie D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is defined as lack of access at all times, due to economic barriers, to enough food for an active and healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was threefold: to characterize levels of food security, food insecurity, and hunger among migrant and seasonal Latino farmworkers; to assess predictors of food insecurity for this group; and to describe the strategies farmworkers use to cope with food insecurity. METHODS: Adults from 102 farmworker households in North C...

  20. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity.

  1. Association between household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among children in Northeastern of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naser, Ihab; Jalil, Rohana; Wan Muda, Wan Manan; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Abdullah, Mohamed Rusli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children in low-income households. A cross sectional study involved a survey of households (n = 223) receiving the financial assistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS Eligible mothers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as non-pregnant, non-lactating mothers, aged 18 to 55 years with their youngest children aged 2 to 12 years, were purposively selected. The ...

  2. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  3. Measuring household food security: the global experience A medida da segurança alimentar: a experiência mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring household food insecurity represents a challenge due to the complexity and wide array of factors associated with this phenomenon. For over one decade, researchers and agencies throughout the world have been using and assessing the validity of variations of the United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Supplemental Module. Thanks to numerous studies of diverse design, size, and purpose, the Household Food Security Supplemental Module has shown its suitability to directly evaluate the perceptions of individuals on their food security status. In addition, challenges and limitations are becoming clearer and new research questions are emerging as the process advances. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, validation procedures, and use of the Household Food Security Supplemental Module in very diverse settings. The most common Household Food Security Supplemental Module related studies have been conducted using criterion validity, Rasch modeling and Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient. It is critical that researchers, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental agencies intensify their efforts to further develop tools that provide valid and reliable measures of food security in diverse population groups. Additional work is needed to synthesize a universally applicable tool able to capture the global human phenomenon of food insecurity.Medir a insegurança alimentar domiciliar representa um desafio devido à complexidade e ao vasto número de fatores associados a este fenômeno. Por mais de uma década, pesquisadores e agências em todo o mundo têm usado o Módulo Suplementar da Segurança Alimentar Domiciliar , do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos (Household Food Security Supplemental Module, e avaliado suas variações. Graças a numerosos estudos com diversos formatos, extensões e propósitos, a adequação do Household Food Security Supplemental Module para avaliar diretamente a

  4. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Ken E. Giller; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Mark T. van Wijk

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households ...

  5. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  6. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  7. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  8. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  9. FOOD INSECURITY VULNERABILITY STATUS OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGER- DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offiong Uma Ukpe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the vulnerability of farm households in Niger Delta to food insecurity. Four States were randomly selected from the region. Primary data were collected from 384 crop farmers, stratified into beneficiaries and non beneficiaries of microcredit schemes using multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using Vulnerability Index Analysis. The vulnerability indicators assessed in this study were: education, farm size, land ownership status of the farmer, access to remittance, household size, farm income, age of household head, asset value, dependent relatives and co-operative membership. Results show a high level of vulnerability among non- beneficiary households (0.55 and low level of vulnerability among beneficiary households (0.47. Based on the result, the study recommended among others, that the scope of microcredit should be expanded and the volume increased to reduce farmers’ vulnerability to food insecurity in the study area.

  10. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1 developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2 conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3 determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security; and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose varied from once (n = 1 to every week (n = 5; 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of

  11. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are

  12. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  13. Development of a food security measurement tool for New Zealand households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Winsome R; Gray, Andrew R

    2014-10-28

    To determine the prevalence of household food insecurity in New Zealand (NZ), eight food security statements were included in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey of adults. Rasch model analysis was performed to determine whether each food security statement (addressing a food security attribute) was discrete and could be ranked on a unidimensional scale. The NZ model had marginal 'household' reliability (0·60-0·66), good item separation (17·20-17·77) and item infit/outfit values between 0·8 and 1·25. Indices could be ranked by level of severity and represent the experience of household food insecurity in NZ. Categories of food security were assigned and used to predict food choice, and energy and nutrient intakes. Compared with fully secure/almost fully secure households, those that were moderately secure or of low security were less likely to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and more likely to consume fatty meats. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, lactose and vitamin B12 increased with lower levels of food security. Intakes of glucose, fructose and vitamin C were highest in the fully secure/almost fully secure category. This unique eight-component food security measurement tool has less respondent burden than the US Core Food Security Measure. The relationships between the level of food insecurity and food choice and nutrient intakes illustrate that the most food-insecure households have less healthy diets. This relatively brief population-specific measurement tool is suitable to monitor population food security status, and is a useful marker of nutritional status.

  14. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey Joseph R; Sisk Cheree; McIntosh William A; Anding Jenna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodolog...

  15. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    products is to examine to which degree such choices are rational - i.e., lead to maximum ob-tainable welfare under given constraints. 2. The rational choice of food products can be analysed using modern extensions of the neo-classical theory of consumer behaviour. Such theories view the preparation......Executive summary: 1. Households' choice of food products can be analysed from various perspectives with different scientific backgrounds. Choice of food products is, e.g., to a large degree a question of cultural and environmental factors. One additional possible way to analyse choice of food...... of meals as a case of household production with four kinds of input: the food products bought, the time used for shopping, cooking, and washing up, ho capital like kitchen appliances, and human capital like cooking skills. Maximum welfare will result when these inputs are optimised given the household...

  16. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus;

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  17. Soup kitchen users' social representations of healthy eating associated with their household food security status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina BENTO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.

  18. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial f...

  19. Contribution of Selected Indigenous Fruits on Household Income and Food Security in Mwingi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mwema

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors that influence consumption of indigenous fruits during periods of food shortage among the Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL and then assess the contribution of the indigenous fruits to household income and food security. The study was carried out in Nuu division, Mwingi District where a sample size of 120 households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Multi stage sampling method was used. The logit, Gross Margin Analysis, Pearson’s correlations and t-tests were used for analysis. The results of the logit model indicated household size, education and income to be significant variables in influencing household decision to consume indigenous fruits in order to cope with food shortage with income and education having a negative influence and household size a positive influence. Utilization of indigenous fruits for consumption and sale was found to be higher among the low income earners and contributed to total household food insecurity coping strategies.

  20. Household Food Purchase Patterns: The Case of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Diansheng; Stewart, Hayden

    2008-01-01

    A household’s purchase pattern for food can be described along three dimensions: how much food is bought, what types of food are bought, and how often food is bought. We have proposed a model in which these three facets of purchase behavior are simultaneously determined. Among other things, our model allows us to ask whether a household’s frequency of purchase influences how much food is bought on any shopping occasion. This was not possible with past studies. We find that, in fact, the more ...

  1. Impacts of Adoption of Improved Wheat Technologies on Households' Food Consumption in Southeastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta, Tsegaye; Hundie, Bekele

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at shedding light on the potential impact of agricultural technology adoption on household food consumption status. The analysis is based on the data collected from randomly selected 200 farm households in Southeast Ethiopia. Since the process of technology adoption usually involves non-random placement of adopters, we employed a propensity score matching method to avoid bias arising from possible self-selection. The results show that adoption of improved wheat technologies ha...

  2. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Houcine Boughanmi; Ahmed Al Shamakhi; Msafiri Mbaga; Hemesiri Kotagama

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV) methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural). Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. ...

  3. Effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sulaiman A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important tool for reducing the effects of household food insecurity, unemployment and poverty which are major problems in urban areas in Nigeria. Food insecurity continues to worsen in some urban areas of the country and many households resulted into urban farming as a means of coping. The study investigated the effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data was collected for the study using structured questionnaire. Two-stage sampling technique was employed for this study. The first stage involved the random selection of two urban local government areas from Ibadan metropolis. This was followed with the selection of 110 urban farming households from these local government areas. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and probit regression. Results showed that sex, years of schooling, marital status, household size, access to extension agent, hired labour and type of farming enterprises are determinants of food security. The study recommends the policies that make extension services accessible to urban farmers and also skills development among others.

  4. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, van, A.C.; Wijk, van, C.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of househol...

  5. Food Expenses in the Rhythm of Daily Life. An Analysis of Household Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Orszulak-Dudkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The subject of detailed analysis presented in the article is the daily shopping and food expenses incurred by a single family resident in a large Polish city in the period of the People’s Republic of Poland. The source material for the analysis is the ledger of daily food expenses originating from a set of household accounts in the household of a female clerk in Łódź, which in its entirety covers the period from August 1952 to August 2004. The analysis presented herein, however...

  6. FOOD CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS AMONG FARMER HOUSEHOLDS IN SUBANG, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Sufiani Suhanda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The objectives of this study were : 1 to analyze the consumption of various types of foods (meat, milk, fish, fruit, and others and the methods of getting the foods among farmer households, 2 To analyze the nutritional status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households, and 3 To analyze the health status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households. This research was of a retrospective and cross sectional design. This research was conducted in Subang Farming Regency, West Java. There are two types of population (farmer households, namely, those of horticultural region and those of rice field region. The sample size at each location was 261 households, so the total sample was 522 households.  The results of this research show that in general the frequency and quantity of food consumed by the non poor households are relatively better than those of the poor households. Further, as the centers of agricultural production, both regions (rice and horticulture will produce certain foods in abundance and will affect the patterns of food consumption among the local community and households.  Children’s nutritional status is in general of good category (based on W/A and H/A. Husband’s and wives’ nutritional status is normal. The length of upper respiratory tract infection on wives and children is quite low (. Key words: Farmer, food consumption, nutritional and health status

  7. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally ...

  8. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.

  9. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  10. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  11. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  12. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. PMID:25445261

  13. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  14. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Canella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity and obesity in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata, geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products. Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. RESULTS: The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile to 39.4% (upper quartile. Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. CONCLUSION: Greater

  15. The 18 Household Food Security Survey items provide valid food security classifications for adults and children in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Cheryl; Gulliford Martin C; Rocke Brian

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We tested the properties of the 18 Household Food Security Survey (HFSS) items, and the validity of the resulting food security classifications, in an English-speaking middle-income country. Methods Survey of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Parents completed the HFSS. Responses were analysed for the 10 adult-referenced items and the eight child-referenced items. Item response theory models were fitted. Item calibrations and subject scores from a one-paramet...

  16. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  17. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  18. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. PMID:27047944

  19. Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-06-01

    An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem.

  20. The persistent food crisis in Ethiopis: causes, government responses and household strategies; the case of Enebse Sar Midir district

    OpenAIRE

    Lakew, Ejiga Jemberu

    2006-01-01

    This study looks into the underlying causes of household food shortage and coping and survival strategies of households. It also analyzes government intervention undertaken to address the problem. It was based on a field survey in three peasant associations of the Enebse Sar Midir district in Amhara Region. The findings of this study show that various and interrelated factors are responsible for the problem of household food shortage. There are many natural predisposing factors such as drough...

  1. The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security an

  2. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey Joseph R; Dean Wesley R; St John Julie A; Huber J Charles

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in ...

  3. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  4. Food Expenditures in Rural Households in the Northern Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ting; Wojciech J. FLORKOWSKI; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to identify farmer and farm characteristics that determine the food expenditure in rural households in the Northern Region of Ghana. The results indicate income, implicit wealth, age, family structure, cultivation staple or cash crop, and buying dry goods in bulks are the major determinants.

  5. Does Household Food Security Affect Cognitive and Social Development of Kindergartners?

    OpenAIRE

    Stormer, Ame; HARRISON, GAIL G.

    2003-01-01

    The development in the last decade of methodology for measuring and scaling household food insecurity and hunger in U.S. populations makes possible systematic examination of the ways in which hunger and food insecurity affect individuals and families. The impact on children has always been of primary concern for policy, advocacy, and science because of the vulnerability of children to long-term developmental sequelae. There is an emerging and rapidly growing literature demonstrating deletriou...

  6. Household consumption of food: An analysis for Midwest Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena Maria Schlindwein; Marciele de Freitas Oliveira; Diane Aparecida Ostroski

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Midwest has been increasing over time as an important food production area, both for domestic consumption and for export. However, it has been discussing in a little way about the dietary patterns of the population that live in this region. Meanwhile, the central objective of this study was to characterize the food consumption of households of people that live in the Brazilian Midwest region, as well as a comparison among the data for the Federative Units of that region. This st...

  7. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...

  8. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Megan Ann; Dubois Lise; Tremblay Mark S; Taljaard Monica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation,...

  9. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  10. Sustainable Household Food Consumption Patterns in Zhangye City of Heihe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Hai-yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation on the demand for Food plays an important role in the adjustment about prices of agricultural products and agricultural structure. The study, by utilizing the extended linear expenditure system, analyses the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou of Zhangye city, determines the basic food consumption demand, the marginal propensity of consumption, the income elasticities of demand, the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents, which illustrates the influencing factors about food consumption of rural residents and forecasts the food consumption structure. The results show that the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7050.35 Yuan; the marginal propensities of consumption for fruit and vegetable are relatively high (respectively, 0.062 and 0.106, followed by meat (0.044; the demands for various food are increasing, as income increasing, the largest income elasticity of demand is corresponding to fruit (1.354, the lowest to cereal (0.310; the fruit and vegetables own the relatively high own-price elasticities (respectively -0.879 and -0.442, the cereal owns the lowest one (-0.184. The price increase of cereal will greatly affect demand for other products; the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas for cereal is increasing with the rising size of rural households; As the improvement of household education level, it will lead to increased consumption of fruits (E = 0.297; the amount of cereal expenditures is continually growing nevertheless the share is declining with the increase of household income in 2012-2020. Therefore, making sure the stability of cereal output the government should encourage the cultivation of Economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding. In order to attain the balance between supply and demand, it is important to adjust rationally the prices of fruits and vegetables on the basis of the stable price with

  11. Household consumption of food: An analysis for Midwest Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Maria Schlindwein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Midwest has been increasing over time as an important food production area, both for domestic consumption and for export. However, it has been discussing in a little way about the dietary patterns of the population that live in this region. Meanwhile, the central objective of this study was to characterize the food consumption of households of people that live in the Brazilian Midwest region, as well as a comparison among the data for the Federative Units of that region. This study has na exploratory and descriptive feature, because it tried to describe the pattern characteristics household food consumption. Data from the Household Budget Surveys were used (POF from the period of 2002-03 and 2008-09, published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The results show that in the analyzed period, there has been a downward trend in the consumption of staple foods such as rice, beans and flour, while the rapid preparation of goods such as bread, soft drinks and juices, yoghurts and prepared food showed an increase in consumption.

  12. Household food insecurity is associated with childhood malaria in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dessalines, Michael; Finnigan, Mousson; Pachón, Helena; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Gupta, Nishang

    2009-11-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is heavily affected by food insecurity and malaria. To find out if these 2 conditions are associated with each other, we studied a convenience sample of 153 women with children 1-5 y old in Camp Perrin, South Haiti. Household food insecurity was assessed with the 16-item Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA) scale previously validated in the target communities. ELCSA's reference time period was the 3 mo preceding the survey and it was answered by the mother. Households were categorized as either food secure (2%; ELCSA score = 0), food insecure/very food insecure (42.7%; ELCSA score range: 1-10), or severely food insecure (57.3%; ELCSA score range: 11-16). A total of 34.0% of women reported that their children had malaria during the 2 mo preceding the survey. Multivariate analyses showed that severe food insecure was a risk factor for perceived clinical malaria (odds ratio: 5.97; 95% CI: 2.06-17.28). Additional risk factors for perceived clinical malaria were as follows: not receiving colostrum, poor child health (via maternal self-report), a child BMI <17 kg/m(2), and child vitamin A supplementation more than once since birth. Findings suggest that policies and programs that address food insecurity are also likely to reduce the risk of malaria in Haiti.

  13. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  14. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (pfood insecurity worsened (pfood security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community-based interventions should be designed and implemented to address the problems of food insecurity and possible health and nutritional outcomes.

  15. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (pfood insecurity worsened (pfood security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community-based interventions should be designed and implemented to address the problems of food insecurity and possible health and nutritional outcomes. PMID:23082631

  16. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  17. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  18. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security; conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the

  19. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Buijzen; J. Schuurman; E. Bomhof

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  20. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  1. The Effect of Food Stamps and Income on Household Food Expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Levedahl, J. William

    1991-01-01

    This report, reexamining past estimates of tile effect of income and food stamp benefits on food expenditures, finds that a cash-only Food Stamp Program would result in a significant reduction in food expenditures, although smaller than suggested, by some previous results. Most prior studies found spending on food from marginal food stamp benefits to be several times greater than from marginal income, suggesting that cashing out the Food Stamp Program could greatly reduce food expenditures. T...

  2. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  3. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  4. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  5. Food Security Index and Socio-Economic Effects of Climate Change on Rural Farming Households in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the food security status and the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in Delta State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to determine the food security status of the rural farming households in the state while the specific objective was to determine the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of local government, communities and rural households for the research study. The data for the study were obtained with the aids of structured questionnaire survey randomly administered to rural farming households in the state. Food security index was used to determine the level of food insecurity (food security status among the rural households in communities that have been affected by flood and or other climate hazardswhile descriptive statistics was used to summarize the socio-economic effects and their food security status of the rural farming households in the state. Most respondents (65.10% were married with low annual income of N54,702 ($353 which is less than the poverty line of less than $1 (one dollar a day. Most rural farming households witnessed loss of investment on farm lands, lives and income respectively in the state. The study also reveals that rural farming households suffered ill health, such as malaria, water borne diseases and skin infections that were on the increase in the state. The study also revealed that majority of respondents was moderately food insecure. The study also recommends that Government planning agencies and policy makers should put into consideration these food insecurity situations in their planning and policy implementation to prevent future chronic food insecurity situation in the state.

  6. Taste or Waste: An Analysis of Barriers to Reducing Household Food Waste among Young Adults in Fredrikstad, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jenssen, Elisabeth Riise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis sets out to investigate the factors that challenge a reduction of food waste within households of young adults in Norway. Food wastage is one of the biggest barriers to ensuring a sustainable food system, with massive implications for the environment, food security and economy. In Norway, national mappings reveal that young adults are the least concerned about food waste, and have also reduced their levels of food waste less than other age groups. By examining the factors challeng...

  7. An Evaluation of Effect of Climate Change on Food Security of Rural Households in Cross River State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emaziye, P. O.; Okoh, R. N.; Ike, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the linkage between climate change and food security of rural households in Cross River state. The specific objectives are to ascertain the level of food security of rural households and impacts of climate change factors on the food security of rural households. Cross River State is located within Latitude 05°13’ 26’’ North and longitude 08° 17’ 44’’ East with an estimated population of 2.888,966 persons. The state is a coastal area usually affected by climate events (flo...

  8. Exploration of the Relationship Between Household Food Insecurity and Diabetes in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Gucciardi, Enza; Vogt, Janet A.; DeMelo, Margaret; Stewart, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the household food insecurity (HFI) prevalence in Canadians with diabetes and its relationship with diabetes management, self-care practices, and health status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from Canadians with diabetes aged ≥12 years (n = 6,237) from cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005. The HFI prevalence in Canadians with diabetes was compared with that in those without diabetes....

  9. FOOD INSECURITY VULNERABILITY STATUS OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGER- DELTA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Offiong Uma Ukpe; Noble Jackson Nweze; Chukwuemeka John Arene

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the vulnerability of farm households in Niger Delta to food insecurity. Four States were randomly selected from the region. Primary data were collected from 384 crop farmers, stratified into beneficiaries and non beneficiaries of microcredit schemes using multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using Vulnerability Index Analysis. The vulnerability indicators assessed in this study were: education, farm size, land ownership status of the farmer,...

  10. AGGREGATE FOOD DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR A TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY: AN APPLICATION TO CHINESE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE DATA

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, HONGQI; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Wahl, Thomas I.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical framework to assess the effects of changing income and socio-demographic distributions on aggregate food demand functions in transitional economies is presented. Ignoring such distributional effects can lead to biased estimates of aggregate demand elasticities. The proposed method is applied to Chinese urban household expenditure survey data. The results indicate that the drastic distributional changes that have occurred in China have had notable effects on estimated demand elas...

  11. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  12. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Santin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC and household food insecurity (HFI among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families.

  13. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  14. Reliability and validity of a short form household food security scale in a Caribbean community

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    Mahabir Deepak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the reliability and validity of the short form household food security scale in a different setting from the one in which it was developed. Methods The scale was interview administered to 531 subjects from 286 households in north central Trinidad in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. We evaluated the six items by fitting item response theory models to estimate item thresholds, estimating agreement among respondents in the same households and estimating the slope index of income-related inequality (SII after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. Results Item-score correlations ranged from 0.52 to 0.79 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. Item responses gave within-household correlation coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.78. Estimated item thresholds (standard errors from the Rasch model ranged from -2.027 (0.063 for the 'balanced meal' item to 2.251 (0.116 for the 'hungry' item. The 'balanced meal' item had the lowest threshold in each ethnic group even though there was evidence of differential functioning for this item by ethnicity. Relative thresholds of other items were generally consistent with US data. Estimation of the SII, comparing those at the bottom with those at the top of the income scale, gave relative odds for an affirmative response of 3.77 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 10.2 for the lowest severity item, and 20.8 (2.67 to 162.5 for highest severity item. Food insecurity was associated with reduced consumption of green vegetables after additionally adjusting for income and education (0.52, 0.28 to 0.96. Conclusions The household food security scale gives reliable and valid responses in this setting. Differing relative item thresholds compared with US data do not require alteration to the cut-points for classification of 'food insecurity without hunger' or 'food insecurity with hunger'. The data provide further evidence that re-evaluation of the 'balanced meal' item is required.

  15. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P fish (P Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  16. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  17. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. PMID:27475055

  18. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.

  19. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika B Karki

    Full Text Available Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District, Pang (Parbat District, and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District, with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods.

  20. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  1. Household food insecurity and mental distress among pregnant women in Southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study design

    OpenAIRE

    Jebena, Mulusew G.; Taha, Mohammed; Nakajima, Motohiro; Lemieux, Andrine; Lemessa, Fikre; Hoffman, Richard; Tesfaye, Markos; Belachew, Tefera; Workineh, Netsanet; Kebede, Esayas; Gemechu, Teklu; Tariku, Yinebeb; Segni, Hailemariam; Kolsteren, Patrick; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background There are compelling theoretical and empirical reasons that link household food insecurity to mental distress in the setting where both problems are common. However, little is known about their association during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of household food insecurity with mental distress during pregnancy. Six hundred and forty-two pregnant women were recruited from 11 health centers and one hospital. Probability ...

  2. Estimation of Urban-Rural Expenditure and Household Size Elasticities of Food Items in Pakistan: - Evidence From PSLM Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abdur Rehman; Wang Jian; Zhang Runqing

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the household food demand patterns among different income sorts in urban and rural areas of Pakistan and estimation of food expenditure and household size elasticities. The different income sorts are the Lower Income Group(≤ 8000), Lower-middle Income Group(8001-12000), Middle Income Group(12001-18000),Upper-middle Income Group (18001-35000) and Upper Income Group (35000+) Pakistani rupees respectively. For the analysis purpose the cross sectional data were taken from Pak...

  3. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  4. Feeding her children, but risking her health: the intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of childrearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999-2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty. PMID:22245381

  5. Feeding her children, but risking her health: the intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of childrearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999-2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty.

  6. Going Beyond Calories – Looking At Experiential Food Insecurity In Urban Slum Households In Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Chandana Maitra

    2014-01-01

    This paper primarily addresses the issue of food access in urban India by investigating into the possibility of constructing an experience-based measure of food access following the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), on the basis of a survey conducted in 500 households in the slums of Kolkata, India, in 2010-11. In past, National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) attempted to measure food insecurity, subjectively, by asking a single question based on whether or not a house...

  7. Reducing food waste by households and in retail in the EU; A prioritisation using economic, land use and food security impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, M.M.; Nowicki, P.L.; Bogaardt, M.J.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the impacts of reducing food waste by households and retail in the EU. In view of the broader aim of resource efficiency, the outcomes are contrasted with those associated with adopting a healthier diet.

  8. Are food and beverage purchases in households with preschoolers changing? A longitudinal analysis from 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background US dietary studies from 2003–2010 show decreases in children’s caloric intake. We examine purchases of consumer-packaged foods/beverages in the US between 2000- and 2011 among households with children ages 2–5y. Objectives Describe changes in consumer-packaged goods purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for economic indicators, and explore differences by race, education, and household income level. Methods Consumer-packaged goods purchases data were obtained for 42,753 US households with ≥1 child aged 2–5y using the Nielsen Homescan Panel. Top sources of calories purchased were grouped, and random effects regression was used to model the relationship between calories purchased from each food/beverage group and race, female head of household education, and household income. Models adjusted for household composition, market-level unemployment rate, prices, and quarter. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Results Between 2000 and 2011, adjusted total calories purchased from foods (−182 kcal/d) and beverages (−100 kcal/d) declined significantly. Decreases in purchases of milk (−40 kcal), soft drinks (−27 kcal/d), juice and juice drinks (−24 kcal/d), grain-based desserts (−24 kcal/d), savory snacks (−17 kcal/d), and sweet snacks and candy (−13 kcal/d) were among the major changes observed. There were significant differences by race, female head of household education, and household income for changes in consumer-packaged food and beverage purchases between 2000 and 2011. Conclusions Trends in consumer-packaged goods purchases suggest that solid fats and added sugars are decreasing in the food ply of US preschool children. Yet, pronounced differences by race, education, and household income persist. PMID:25049217

  9. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents’ food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits. PMID:27441687

  10. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs hav...

  11. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Boughanmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural. Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. On average, Omani households need to be compensated about 10.3% of their income for the price increase they experienced during the 2006–2008 period. Rural households are more affected than urban households with a required compensation of 12.4% and 9.87%, respectively. In all cases most of the impact is felt on the first round where no consumption adjustment is made; the second round effect is comparatively small compared to the first-order effect. Total compensation required to compensate all households amounts to O.R. 266 M, that is, a 1.14% of GDP, whereas a compensation targeted to the low-income quartile amounts only to O.R. 26.7 M representing 0.1% of GDP.

  12. Home garden: a potential strategy for food and nutrition security in HIV households : a case study in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Home garden, HIV and AIDS, dietary diversity, plant species diversity, coping strategy index, food security, Ghana. The aim of this thesis was to explore how rural households with HIV and AIDS in Ghana are employing home garden management strategies to enhance food and nutrition security

  13. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, Van P.J.A.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributi

  14. Coping with household food insecurity: a longitudinal and seasonal study among the Otammari in North-Western Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal and seasonal study was designed to examine the relationships between, at one hand, coping with food insecurity and socio-economic characteristics at household level and, at the other hand, food consumption, time allocation and nutritional status at individual level in a unimodal clima

  15. Food patterns characterization for Mexico and Sonora’s households, 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borbón-Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a descriptive analysis about the characterization of the consumption’s pattern in Mexico and Sonora, by determining how much money is spent in households and the proportion that those intended to consume on goods and services. Income level is considered to account for such classification. A comparison between the patterns of consumption is made for Mexico and Sonora in 2005, by emphasizing on food expenditures and some specific food products such as vegetables; including tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. The study also performs a look into the spending behavior in Mexico from 2000 to 2006, by contrasting the hypothesis of Modigliani and Friedman (Dornbusch, 2004; Camacho, 2000 and the mathematical formulation of Campbell and Mankiw (1989 on the assumption of the society’s consumption. It finally outlines a series of proposals for future studies.

  16. Off-farm income diversification among rural households in Nigeria : impact on income, food security and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, Raphael O.

    2009-01-01

    The promotion of off-farm activities and income diversification in order to provide alternative income earning opportunities for rural households in developing countries has received increased policy attention recently. The growing importance of off-farm activities has also led to rising interest in analyzing the wider implications for household livelihoods and rural development, especially in Africa. In this dissertation, the impact of off-farm income diversification on income, food security...

  17. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-01

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age.

  18. The Roles of Women, Children and Men in Household Food Planning, Purchasing, Preparation and Consumption in Santiago, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garth, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    This work explores the roles of Women, Children and Men in Household food planning, purchasing, preparation and consumption in Santiago de Cuba. The data for this investigation were collected over a 10-week period during the Summer of 2008. This work focuses on Cuba’s second largest city, Santiago, located in the southeastern part of the island, Santiago provides an urban setting through which to view urban food cultivation and food symbolism in Cuba. Little scholarly work has been published ...

  19. Features of child food insecurity after the 2010 Haiti earthquake: results from longitudinal random survey of households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royce A Hutson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent commentary on the health consequences of natural disasters has suggested a dearth of research on understanding the antecedents prior to the disaster that are associated with health consequences after the disaster. Utilizing data from a two-wave panel survey of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, conducted just prior to and six weeks after the January 2010 earthquake, we test factors prior to the quake hypothesized to be associated with food insecurity after the quake. METHODS: Using random Global Positioning System (GPS sampling, we re-interviewed 93.1% (N = 1732 of the original 1,800 households interviewed in 2009. Respondents were queried with regard to mortalities, injuries, food security, housing, and other factors after the quake. FINDINGS: Child food insecurity was found to be common on all three indices of food security (17.2%-22.6%. Additionally, only 36.5% of school-aged children were attending school prior to the quake. Findings suggest that prior schooling was associated with a substantial reduction on food insecurity indices (OR 0.62-0.75. Findings further suggest that several household characteristics were associated with food insecurity for children. Prior chronic/acute illnesses, poor living conditions, remittances from abroad, primary respondent mental health, and histories of criminal and other human rights violations committed against family members prior to the quake were associated with food insecurity after the earthquake. Earned household income after the quake was only associated with one of the measures of food insecurity. INTERPRETATION: Food insecurity for children was common after the quake. Those households vulnerable on multiple dimensions prior to the quake were also vulnerable to food insecurity after the quake. Remittances from abroad were leading protective factors for food security. Because Haiti is well known for the potentiality of both hurricanes and earthquakes, reconstruction and redevelopment should

  20. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pdiets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pzone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.

  1. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pcaregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pcaregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (Pcaregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (Pchild nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016

  2. The Household Economy Approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have severe effects on the populations of developing countries because many of these depend heavily on agriculture for income, have large impoverished rural populations which rely on agriculture for subsistence, and are financially and technically least equipped to adapt to changing conditions. Planning to target measures to support adaptation to reduce the impact of climate change on poverty and food insecurity requires methods of identifying vulnerable households. This paper describes an established approach to vulnerability assessment, the ‘Household Economy Approach’ (HEA and its potential application to the management of climate change in developing countries. The HEA is widely used by Governments and others, chiefly in Africa, for the assessment of household vulnerability to poverty and food security. HEA uses a model based on Amartya Sen’s entitlement theory and detailed social and economic data to simulate the impact of weather related, price, policy and other shocks on household income and food access, to provide information for decision making. In developing countries climate change will be experienced in terms of increased climate variability and an increased frequency of extreme events. HEA provides a way of managing the effects of year to year shocks to prevent impoverishment and the erosion of household resilience. It also provides the information needed to develop scenarios to support the design of policies to support longer term adaptation. HEA data has already been collected for large areas of Africa.

  3. Analysis of household food security concerns and coping strategies of small farmers in northwestern highlands of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food insecurity is turning out to be one of the worst crises of world in future. Developing countries are especially considered vulnerable to be hit most severely by this impending danger. Resource scarce regions of Pakistan are also included in the list of marginalized areas where population is not able to manage its food by herself. The present study was designed to analyze the state of household food security concerns and identify managing strategies for dealing with shortage of food patterns in Northern Pakistan. The research was based upon a survey of randomly selected two districts. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for data collection. The results indicated that prices of food items were very high. It also delineated that lack of irrigational water; limited market access, and high cost of fertilizers were leading production related constraints. As a resort to these constraints and due to low output from the food crops there was found a shift from subsistence to cash seeking cropping patterns of the growers. This increase in income was perceived as a mean to ensure household food security. Furthermore, at household level the respondents expressed to reduce their expenses on the agricultural inputs in future. (author)

  4. The Impact of Groundnut Production and Marketing Decisions upon Household Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa:  Does Gender Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Enterline, Darren James

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between groundnut cash cropping decisions and household food security in two regions of sub-Saharan Africa.  Particular attention is paid to how the gender of groundnut growers influences this relationship.  Additionally, the thesis examines how gender influences household marketing decisions.  Household groundnut production and marketing data was obtained using surveys administered in eastern Uganda and central Ghana.  A food consumption score develo...

  5. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  6. Household and food shopping environments : do they play a role in socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption? A multilevel study among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giskes, K.; Van Lenthe, F. J.; Kamphuis, C. B. M.; Huisman, M.; Brug, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetables are protective of a number of chronic diseases; however, their intakes have been shown to vary by socioeconomic position (SEP). Household and food shopping environmental factors are thought to contribute to these differences. To determine whether household and food s

  7. Relationship Between Dietary Diversity and Perceived Food Security Status in Indonesia : A Case of Households in The North Luwu of South Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pipi, Diansari; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the relationship between the objective and subjective measurement of household food security status in North Luwu in Indonesia. The objective measurement is done by means of the composite Dietary Diversity Score (DDS_) consisted of nine food groups, while the subjective measurement is done using the Subjective Food Security Score (SFSS). Specifically, this study estimated the probability of household for being more food secure due to their dietary diversity...

  8. Effect of season on food consumption and nutritional status of smallholder rural households in Nakuru District : research outline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1992-01-01

    Leiden [etc.] : African Studies Centre [etc.] (FNSP report, no. 42), p. 46, 1992.This is a research outline for a study aimed at finding out the effect of climatic seasonality on food consumption patterns and the nutritional status of the vulnerable members of smallholder rural households in Nakuru

  9. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  10. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. PMID:22397903

  11. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  12. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  13. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (Pfarmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (Pfarmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; Page (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; Pfarmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity. PMID:26777212

  14. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  15. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  16. The Contribution of Small Scale Irrigation Water Use to Households Food Security in Gorogutu District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwafik Kelilo; Mengistu Ketema; Adem Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Small scale irrigation expansion has got vital role in assisting the development of sustainable agriculture in Ethiopia. And more number of small scale irrigation schemes were developed in the country including Gorogutu district of Oromia Region, considering the reality that irrigation is the obvious response to low agricultural productivity. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the contribution of small-scale irrigation to household’s food security in Gorogutu district. Primary...

  17. Optimising contributions of goat farming to household economic success and food security in three production systems in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatek Woldu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyse factors affecting contributions of goat farming to household economic success and food security in three goat production systems of Ethiopia. A study was conducted in three districts of Ethiopia representing arid agro-pastoral (AAP, semi-arid agro-pastoral (SAAP and highland mixed crop-livestock (HMCL systems involving 180 goat keeping households. Gross margin (GM and net benefit (NB1 and NB2 were used as indicators of economic success of goat keeping. NB1 includes in-kind benefits of goats (consumption and manure, while NB2 additionally constitutes intangible benefits (insurance and finance. Household dietary diversity score (HDDS was used as a proxy indicator of food security. GM was significantly affected by an off-take rate and flock size interaction (P0.05. Nevertheless, a significant positive correlation (P<0.05 was observed between GM from goats and HDDS in AAP system, indicating the indirect role of goat production for food security. The study indicated that extent of utilising tangible and intangible benefits of goats varied among production systems and these differences should be given adequate attention in designing genetic improvement programs.

  18. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (Pdiet diversity score (DDS) - 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95% CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95% CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01)--but lower DDS - 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95% CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity.

  19. Rural resident household food consumption patterns in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city:an analysis based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Demand for food plays an important role in the adjustment of prices for agricultural products and for adjusting agricultural structure.By using the extended linear expenditure system(ELES),we analyzed the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city,and determined the basic food-consumption demand,the marginal propensity of consumption,the income elasticities of demand,and the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents,all of which illustrate the influencing factors on food consumption of rural residents and for forecasting the food-consumption structure.Those analyses show the following:the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7,050.35 Yuan;the marginal propensities of consumption of fruits and vegetables are relatively high(0.062 and 0.106,respectively),followed by meat(0.044);the demands for various foods are increasing as income increases,with the largest income elasticity of demand corresponding to fruits(1.354) and the lowest to cereal(0.310);fruits and vegetables have relatively high own-price elasticities(respectively-0.879 and-0.442),with the cereal having the lowest one(-0.184).An increase in cereal prices would greatly affect demand for other products;with the rising size of rural households,the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas it is increasing for cereal.The improvement of household education levels will lead to the increase of fruit consumption(E = 0.297),which indicates that people will pay more attention to diet and nutrition structure with the improvement of education.Further,although the amount of cereal expenditure is continually growing,the share will be declining with the increase of household income in 2006-2012.For all these reasons,therefore,the government should encourage the cultivation of economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding to ensure the stability of cereal output.In order to attain the balance between

  20. Relating Behavioral Elements of Household Food Negotiation to Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ehmke, Mariah D.; Schroeter, Christiane; Morgan, Kari; Larson-Meyer, Enette; Ballenger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Researchers working in the fields of family studies and psychology show motherchild relationship dynamics affect the occurrence of childhood overweight and obesity. Many of the significant behaviors they identify relate to negotiation and generosity norms in the household. The primary objective of this study is to test the value of altruistic and collective models of household behavior using the dictator and ‘carrotstick’ laboratory experiments. We also test exploratory hypotheses relating mo...

  1. Use of vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos o amigos (neighbors or friends) as alternative sources of food for purchase among Mexican-origin households in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies acknowledging the existence of alternative food sources, and factors associated with food purchasing from three common alternative sources: vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos/amigos (neighbors/friends). This analysis aims to examine the use of alternative food sources by Mexican-origin women from Texas-border colonias and determine factors associated with their use. The design was cross-sectional. Promotora-researchers (promotoras de salud trained in research methods) recruited 610 Mexican-origin women from 44 colonias and conducted in-person surveys. Surveys included participant characteristics and measures of food environment use and household food security. Statistical analyses included separate logistic regressions, modeled for food purchase from mobile food vendors, pulgas, or neighbors/friends. Child food insecurity was associated with purchasing food from mobile food vendors, while household food security was associated with using pulgas or neighbors/friends. School nutrition program participants were more likely to live in households that depend on alternative food sources. Efforts to increase healthful food consumption such as fruits and vegetables should acknowledge all potential food sources (traditional, convenience, nontraditional, and alternative), especially those preferred by colonia residents. Current findings support the conceptual broadening of the retail food environment, and the importance of linking use with spatial access (proximity) to more accurately depict access to food sources.

  2. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  3. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. → The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. → Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  4. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... saving rates over time. We do not find any convincing explanation for the change in saving rates. We also discuss some analyses of saving behavior over the life-cycle, addressing such questions as whether households save "enough" for retirement and whether the consumption patterns of older households can......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  5. MICROECONOMETRIC MODELING OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD DEMAND: THE CASE OF TRANSITION BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Barry K.; Phaneuf, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Considerable optimism has been expressed about the outlook for increased exports of food products to Central and Eastern Europe. A clear understanding of the potential for increased exports to this region requires comprehension of consumers' demands for food products. This analysis resents detailed elasticity estimate for food commodities in transition Bulgaria. The analysis is conducted in two segments. The first considers demand for five aggregate food commodities---cereals, fruits and vege...

  6. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. PMID:23320519

  7. The Effect of Household Income on Land Requirements for Food : an International Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter de, Henri

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The production of food has major consequences for the appropriation of land. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that 38% of the total arable land is currently used for the production of food. This share is expected to increas

  8. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1, mental health (MHI-5, blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  9. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:27752266

  10. A Monoclonal Antibody Based Capture ELISA for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B: Toxin Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalytic disease, caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A–H have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We report here a group of serotype B specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs capable of binding toxin under physiological conditions. Thus, they serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture ELISA. The antibodies were generated using recombinant peptide fragments corresponding to the receptor-binding domain of the toxin heavy chain as immunogen. Their binding properties suggest that they bind a complex epitope with dissociation constants (KD’s for individual antibodies ranging from 10 to 48 × 10−11 M. Assay performance for all possible combinations of capture-detector antibody pairs was evaluated and the antibody pair resulting in the lowest level of detection (L.O.D., ~20 pg/mL was determined. Toxin was detected in spiked dairy samples with good recoveries at concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL and in ground beef samples at levels as low as 2 ng/g. Thus, the sandwich ELISA described here uses mAb for both the capture and detector antibodies (binding different epitopes on the toxin molecule and readily detects toxin in those food samples tested.

  11. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  12. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged. PMID:27446220

  13. A Latent Class Model to discover Household Food Waste Patterns in Lisbon City in Support of Food Security, Public Health and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R.S. Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the middle of a great world financial crisis that also affects food security, it is important to characterize the habits of households concerning the buying and wasting food. With this study we intend (1 to uncover the patterns of Portuguese citizens concerning food waste by using a mixed research approach and (2 to identify demographic factors that can influence the production of food waste and that may support initiatives towards the education of society on food waste. We used a random sample of 542 Portuguese citizens to identify consumer profiles and 18 in-depth interviews for better understanding the uncovered profiles in a mixed method research approach. Through a two-latent class model two clusters of consumers were identified: cluster 1, the Non food waste citizens with 65% of respondents, mainly 24 years or more, female and married or divorced and cluster 2, the Food waste citizens  with 35% of respondents, mainly up to 23 years old, male and single. Our findings may impact in two distinct ways: they may be used to educate Portuguese citizens concerning the issue of food waste and they may be useful in contributing to a less polluted world. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  14. Examining the incentive effects of food aid on household behaviour in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddinott, John

    2004-01-01

    "In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis." from Text

  15. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    of participation in the labour-market has an impact on food choice only in double-career families, who spend more on semi-preparation and fast lunch/breakfast foodstuffs. They seem to place special emphasis on convenient lunch. 5. Higher education goes along with more expenditures on semi-convenient food...

  16. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  17. Household Food Insufficiency, Financial Strain, Work–Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms in the Working Class: The Work, Family, and Health Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayadi, Alison M.; Tamers, Sara L.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association of household-level stressors with depressive symptoms among low-wage nursing home employees. Methods. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 452 multiethnic primary and nonprimary wage earners in 4 facilities in Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of depressive symptoms with household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover (preoccupation with work-related concerns while at home and vice versa). Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with household financial strain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 3.21) and food insufficiency (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.10, 4.18). Among primary earners, stratified analyses showed that food insufficiency was associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 9.11) but financial strain was not. Among nonprimary wage earners, depressive symptoms correlated with financial strain (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.48, 9.01) and work–family spillover (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.11, 9.35). Conclusions. Household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover are pervasive problems for working populations, but associations vary by primary wage earner status. The prevalence of food insufficiency among full-time employees was striking and might have a detrimental influence on depressive symptoms and the health of working-class families. PMID:22095360

  18. Household attitudes and behaviour toward sustainable food waste management : a case study in residential estates

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Chau-ping; 麥洲平

    2015-01-01

    Being a densely populated city, Hong Kong is now facing a serious waste problem. According to waste disposal statistics from Environment Protection Department, 9,547 tonnes of municipal solid waste were generated every day in Hong Kong in 2013. Food waste was the major composition in the MSW, accounting for 38% of MSW in 2013, whereas over 70% of food waste was generated from the residential sector. Since 2005, the government has introduced various schemes and policies with the objectives of ...

  19. Food for thought : Self-sufficient households towards a sustainablefood supply

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Timo; Eriksson, William; Persson, Madeleine; Norman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines to what extent a co-create community called Bobyggetin Herrljunga, Sweden, can be food self-sufficient. To obtain a more comprehensiveresult, the difference between a vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet, as well as howtime spent on farming and available cultivation area affects the outcome, are studied.Moreover, difficulties regarding food self-sufficiency are brought up and discussed.Linear programming is used to maximise the amount of calories obtained fromfarmi...

  20. Food Insecurity, Health and Nutritional Status among Sample of Palm-plantation Households in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadpour, M.; Sharif, Z. Mohd; Keysami, M. Avakh

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years o...

  1. Household food insecurity and childhood overweight in Jamaica and Québec: a gender-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Strachan Georgiana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood overweight is not restricted to developed countries: a number of lower- and middle-income countries are struggling with the double burden of underweight and overweight. Another public health problem that concerns both developing and, to a lesser extent, developed countries is food insecurity. This study presents a comparative gender-based analysis of the association between household food insecurity and overweight among 10-to-11-year-old children living in the Canadian province of Québec and in the country of Jamaica. Methods Analyses were performed using data from the 2008 round of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development and the Jamaica Youth Risk and Resiliency Behaviour Survey of 2007. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1190 10-year old children in Québec and 1674 10-11-year-old children in Jamaica. Body mass index was derived using anthropometric measurements and overweight was defined using Cole's age- and sex-specific criteria. Questionnaires were used to collect data on food insecurity. The associations were examined using chi-square tests and multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results The prevalence of overweight was 26% and 11% (p Conclusions Public health interventions which aim to stem the epidemic of overweight/obesity should consider gender differences and other family factors associated with overweight/obesity in both developed and developing countries.

  2. Analyzing nutritional impacts of price and income related shocks in Malawi: Simulating household entitlements to food

    OpenAIRE

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Rischke, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    The 2007/2008 food price crisis and the following global economic recession has (temporarily) increased the number of people to suffer from hunger. While the impacts can be measured with precision only ex post, for policy makers it is critical to get a sense of likely impacts ex ante in order to plan approaches to mitigate these impacts. In this paper we adopt a very simple micro-based simulation approach to analyze how changes in prices of specific food groups, such as maize prices or prices...

  3. The water household reclamation complex within the system of food security in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. Levkovska; K. Ryzhova

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with current state of main directions of development of water management and meliorative complex in the context of food security. Strategic priorities that are to enable the increasing the efficiency and expand the agricultural production volume on irrigated lands have been suggested to improve the functioning of the complex

  4. Identifying pathways for improving household food self-sufficiency outcomes in the hills of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintaining and improving food security in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the problem, including comparatively high levels of system diversity and crop-livestock integration, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to o...

  5. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  6. Impact of household food insecurity on the nutritional status and the response to therapeutic feeding of people living with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahwere P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paluku Bahwere1,2,*, Hedwig Deconinck3,*, Theresa Banda1,*, Angella Mtimuni1,*, Steve Collins1,* 1Valid International, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Center of Research in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; 3Save the Children, Westport, CT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The role of household food security (HFS in the occurrence of wasting and the response to food-based intervention in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, especially adults, is still controversial and needs investigation.Methods: Face-to-face interviews to collect data for Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score estimation were conducted during a noncontrolled and nonrandomized study assessing the effectiveness of ready-to-use therapeutic food in the treatment of wasting in adults with HIV. Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score were used to determine HFS, and the participants and tertiles of Coping Strategies Index score were used to categorize HFS.Results: The study showed that most participants were from food insecure households at admission, only 2.7% (5/187 ate food from six different food groups the day before enrolment, and 93% (180/194 were applying forms of coping strategy. Acute malnutrition was rare among <5-year-old children from participants’ households, but the average (standard deviation mid-upper arm circumference of other adults in the same households were 272.7 (42.1 mm, 254.8 (33.8 mm, and 249.8 (31.7 mm for those from the best, middle, and worst tertile of HFS, respectively (P = 0.021. Median weight gain was lower in participants from the worst HFS tertile than in those from the other two tertiles combined during therapeutic feeding phase (0.0 [–2.1 to 2.6] kg versus 1.9 [–1.7 to 6.0] kg; P = 0.052 and after ready-to-use therapeutic food discontinuation (–1.9 [–5.2 to 4.2] kg

  7. Comparison of synthetic food-based lures and liquid protein baits for capture of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests that were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or NuLure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two component (ammonium acetate, putrescine...

  8. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  9. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ► Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ► Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ► Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ► We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m3/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane

  10. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Marika, E-mail: marika.murto@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Björnsson, Lovisa, E-mail: lovisa.bjornsson@miljo.lth.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Håkan, E-mail: hakan@rosqvist-resurs.se [Rosqvist Resurs, Gamla Malmövägen 25, SE-230 41 Klågerup (Sweden); Bohn, Irene, E-mail: irene.bohn@nsr.se [NSR AB, Hjortshögsvägen 1, SE-251 89 Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ► Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ► Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ► Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ► We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  11. The Synergy between Scuba Diving and Household Behaviour: Testing Plastic and Food Waste "The use of natural habitats for tourism education"

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Mota, Luís Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The activity of scuba diving is used for studying behaviours of U.S. visitors to a popular tourist destination in Mexico. The impact created by human activity can produce marine debris and therefore affect the marine environment. The subpopulation of 181 divers was tested for their current household practices regarding discarding plastic and food waste, providing quantitative statistics for divers’ referential behaviour. Prior to partaking in scuba diving, certified, trainee, and “one-day-exp...

  12. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tokich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus

    2015-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which inc...

  13. Validación de escala de la seguridad alimentaria doméstica en Antioquia, Colombia Validation of a household food security scale in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecilia Álvarez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Adaptar y validar en hogares de Antioquia, Colombia, una escala de seguridad alimentaria anteriormente aplicada en hogares de Caracas, Venezuela. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en 44 municipios del departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, durante los años 2003 y 2004, en una muestra representativa de los hogares rurales y urbanos del departamento de Antioquia, constituida por 1 624 hogares con niños menores de 10 años; los hogares fueron seleccionados de manera aleatoria, con un índice de confianza de 95% y un error de 3%. Se validó la escala de seguridad alimentaria doméstica utilizada por Paulina Lorenzana en Venezuela, y se determinó la consistencia interna de la escala mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. La validez del constructo se estableció mediante el método de componentes principales para datos categóricos. Se utilizaron el procedimiento de Prinqual y el modelo de Rasch para definir los componentes y los ��tems de la escala. RESULTADOS: El análisis factorial arrojó dos componentes: 1 las variables relacionadas con "inseguridad alimentaria sin hambre" que lo explican en 95% y 2 las relacionadas con "inseguridad alimentaria con hambre" que lo explican en 89.4%. El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach para el primer componente fue de de 0.95 y para el segundo de 0.89. Al ser analizados con el modelo Rasch, todos los ítems presentaron valores infit en un rango de 0.8 a 1.2. La escala se correlacionó significativamente con la disponibilidad de alimentos, el recurso de la limosna, el trabajo infantil, el tamaño del hogar y la ocupación del jefe de familia (pOBJETIVE: To adapt and validate in households of Antioquia, Colombia, a food security scale previously applied in households of Caracas, Venezuela. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 44 municipalities in the department of Antioquia, Colombia, in 2003 and 2004, with a randomly selected sample

  14. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI, weight for height z-score (WHZ and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433 in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%, born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9% and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%. The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119 and WHZ (P = 0.198. Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047, and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009. Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  15. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population.

  16. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. PMID:26603573

  17. A study of the incentive mechanism in households' participation in the food waste recycling program in private housing estates

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hon-kwan, Erica; 宋漢群

    2013-01-01

    Recently, food waste issue has been raised by many environmental friendly organizations, there are approximately 3,584 tons food waste produced in Hong Kong every day. Food waste originates from commercial and industry (C&I) sector and domestic sector that about 11% and 28% respectively of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Hong Kong. Food waste leads to many pollution problems, as food waste contains a lot of moisture, during the decomposing process, the food waste will release lan...

  18. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G.; Murphy, Michelle; Van Der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Food addiction” has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on “food addiction” is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term “food addiction”, which combines the concepts of “substance based” and behaviora...

  19. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  20. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 273.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household...

  1. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  2. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vineyard, Edward Allan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  3. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  4. Sensory capabilities and food capture of two small copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Saiz, Enric; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Detection, handling, and selection of prey are key features of suspension-feeding copepods. Using high-speed video, we determined detection distances and durations of all elements of the food gathering process in two small calanoid copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp. Animals were f...

  5. Investigation of the relation between self-reported food consumption and household chemical exposures with urinary levels of selected nonpersistent pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieszak, Stephanie M; Naeher, Luke P; Rubin, Carol S; Needham, Larry L; Backer, Lorraine; Barr, Dana; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Concerns about pesticide exposure through food consumption have increased during the past several years. The main objective of our study was to determine whether we could use data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption--particularly consumption of fruits, vegetables, and bread products--and urinary levels of pesticides or their metabolites in a population of 978 adults living in the US. A secondary objective was to investigate whether these urine levels differed for people who reported exposure to selected common household chemicals including bug or insect spray, weed killer, and mothballs or crystals. We used monthly food frequency data from the NHANES III, 1988-1994. Urinary pesticide/metabolite levels and information about chemical exposures were taken from the Priority Toxicant Reference Range Study (a component of the NHANES III). Six pesticides or their metabolites were detected in at least 50% of the sample, three of which--1-naphthol (86.4%), pentachlorophenol (62.5%), and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (82.0%)--were possibly related to food consumption. We were unable to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption and their urinary levels. This may be due more to the limitations of the datasets than to a lack of a relation between food consumption and urine pesticide/metabolite levels. We did find that people who reported recently using selected common chemicals had higher geometric mean urine pesticide/metabolite levels than did people who reported not recently using these chemicals. PMID:12415488

  6. Method for the determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in food via gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Ryan, P Barry

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a rapid, high-throughput, accurate, multiresidue method for the analysis of selected organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in a variety of food samples suitable for use in public health and epidemiologic investigations of high-use pesticides using modifications of existing methods. The procedure involves a pesticide extraction from the food sample with acetonitrile followed by a salting-out with NaCl and cleanup of the extract with a multilayer solid-phase extraction cartridge composed of a Supelclean ENVI-CARB-II top layer and a primary-secondary amine bottom layer separated by a polyethylene frit. To evaluate the method, we performed fortification studies at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g for 3 organophosphorus and 4 pyrethroid pesticides in 16 different foods. Instrumental analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Confirmatory analysis was performed by GC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Average recoveries for each fortification level ranged from 49 to 146% with 80% of recoveries between 80 and 120%. PMID:20073464

  7. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  8. Expanding the corporate food regime : the southern agricultural growth corridor of Tanzania. Current and potential implications for rural households

    OpenAIRE

    Bergius, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed that agriculture will remain a key foundation in efforts to reduce poverty, achieve food security and improve the environment worldwide. However, what type of agricultural development that is best suited to achieve these multiple aims is debated. Some argue for an expanded role of multinational agribusiness corporations in partnerships with governments, while others call for a radical transformation of the agri-food chain by reembedding control over agriculture in small-sc...

  9. Demand for Nutrients: The Household Production Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Rebecca H.; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    This study uses the household production theory to study the demand for nutrients, i.e., households purchase a combination of food items from the market and produce the needed nutrients from these food items. By following the traditional household production approach, shadow prices for nutrients in food consumption are calculated. The cost function that generates the shadow prices appears plausible in terms of its elasticities of substitution and factor demand. After obtaining the calculated ...

  10. Disponibilidade familiar de alimentos na Zona da Mata e Semi-Árido do Nordeste do Brasil Household food availability in the Forest Zone (Zona da Mata and Semi-Arid Brazilian Northeast regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Osório

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a disponibilidade de alimentos em domicílios de Gameleira (PE e São João do Tigre (PB, municípios das referidas regiões, considerando a freqüência dos alimentos, o número de pessoas no domicílio e a escolaridade do chefe da família. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 502 e 458 famílias, em Gameleira (PE e São João do Tigre (PB, respectivamente, de área urbana e rural de cada município. As informações, referentes aos sete dias anteriores à entrevista, foram fornecidas pelo responsável pela preparação dos alimentos. RESULTADOS: Verifica-se a disponibilidade de 33 alimentos em Gameleira (PE e 30 em São João do Tigre (PB, em mais de 20% das famílias; restringindo-se a 16 e 15 alimentos nos dois municípios respectivamente, quando considerada a disponibilidade em 50% das famílias. Os alimentos disponíveis na maioria dos domicílios possuíam alto valor energético e pertenciam aos grupos de cereais e leguminosas, em detrimento de hortaliças, frutas e produtos de origem animal. A disponibilidade alimentar sofreu pouca variação em decorrência do número de pessoas no domicílio e da escolaridade do chefe da família. CONCLUSÃO: O estímulo ao aumento qualitativo e quantitativo da disponibilidade familiar de alimentos deve ser o foco dos esforços governamentais em programas sociais de combate à fome.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine household food availability in Gameleira (PE and São João do Tigre (PB, municipalities in the abovementioned regions, taking into account the frequency of food consumption, number of people per household, and education level of the head of the household. METHODS: The sample consisted of 502 and 458 families in Gameleira (PE and São João do Tigre (PB, respectively, living in both urban and rural areas. Information on food consumption during the seven days prior to the interview was provided by the person in

  11. Food Access and Perceptions of the Community and Household Food Environment as Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Rural Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Cassandra M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption to health has been well established, few studies have focused on access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas; even fewer examined the relationship between food access and fruit and vegetable consumption among seniors. Methods To examine the spatial challenges to good nutrition faced by seniors who reside in rural areas and how spatial access influences fruit and vegetable intake. A cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Health Assessment (mailsurvey for 582 rural seniors (60-90 years, who were recruited by random digit dialing; food store data from the 2006-2007 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project that used ground-truthed methods to identify, geocode, and inventory fruit and vegetables in all food stores. Results Few of the BVHA seniors consumed the recommended intakes of fruits or vegetables; women consumed more servings of fruit (1.49 ± 0.05 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07, p = 0.02, similar servings of vegetables (2.18 ± 0.04 vs. 2.09 ± 0.07, p = 0.28, and more combined fruit and vegetables (3.67 ± 0.08 vs. 3.38 ± 0.12, p = 0.04 than men. The median distances to fresh fruit and vegetables were 5.5 miles and 6.4 miles, respectively. When canned and frozen fruit and vegetables were included in the measurement of overall fruit or vegetables, the median distance for a good selection of fruit or vegetables decreased to 3.4 miles for overall fruit and 3.2 miles for overall vegetables. Almost 14% reported that food supplies did not last and there was not enough money to buy more. Our analyses revealed that objective and perceived measures of food store access - increased distance to the nearest supermarket, food store with a good variety of fresh and processed fruit, or food store with a good variety of fresh and processed vegetables - were associated with decreased daily consumption of fruit, vegetables, and combined fruit and vegetables, after

  12. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  13. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  14. Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  15. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderjohann, J; Vellakkal, S; Stuckler, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods: Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005-2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n=20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of brea...

  16. 粮食作物生产结构与农户粮食消费的演变%The Development of Food Crop Production and Farmer Household Food Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯璐; 武功文; 张焱; 吴春梅

    2015-01-01

    利用效用理论的无差异曲线研究方法,基于云南南部山区陆稻改良技术推广的农户调查,分析陆稻改良技术对主要粮食作物生产结构以及农户粮食消费偏好的影响。研究发现,云南南部山区陆稻增产种植面积大幅度下降,释放了玉米作为饲料粮的生产空间,加深了粮食的市场化消费程度,经济发展步入初级小康阶段。但是,粮食消费偏好显示陆稻作为口粮消费的收入效应高于替代效应,反映出云南南部山区在与市场接轨中的政策效力不足或者发展方式滞后。因此,云南南部山区农业经济发展不仅需要依托科技,更需要结合粮食消费需求加强市场发展,保障粮食安全。%Using the indifference curve of utility theory , based on the household survey of improved up-land rice technology ( IURT) promotion in southern upland of Yunnan , this paper analyzes the influence of IURT on the production structure of main grain crops and household food consumption preference .The results indicate that there is a significant decrease of planting area of upland rice releasing the planting zone of maize as feed grain , which deepens the marketization of food consumption , and promotes the e-conomy onto a stage of relatively primary well-off society .However , food consumption preference shows that, upland rice as staple food , its income effect is higher than its substitution effect , which reflects an insufficiency or lag of policies in the market-oriented development in southern upland of Yunnan .There-fore, the agricultural economy development should not only depend on science and technology , but also combine with the food consumption demand to promote the market-oriented development and food securi-ty.

  17. Household Consumption Characteristics of Cookies: The Case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shengfei; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Nambiar, Padmanand Madhavan; Resurreccion, Anna V.A.; Chinnan, Manjeet S.

    2013-01-01

    The cookie consumption and purchase characteristics of households were investigated in six cities in Uganda using household survey data. Cookies can be fortified with vitamins to improve child nutrition. The application of a Logit model permitted the identification of factors significantly affecting household decision to eat cookies. They are household food buyer/preparer’s age, employment status, education level, household monthly income, household location, number of children from 4 to 18 y...

  18. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  19. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  20. Demographic and Expenditure Profiles of Zambian Households: Evidence from the June 1991 Zambian Household Expenditure and Income Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Stampley

    1993-01-01

    The HEIS's linkage of household-level demographic and expenditure data for Zambia provides the foundation for an analysis of household expenditure patterns. For this report, total household expenditure was composed of two broad expenditure classifications, food and nonfood. An analytical emphasis was placed on developing the food expenditure patterns of household groups identified by various socioeconomic characteristics. In general, within the various household classifications, there were th...

  1. Food Access and Perceptions of the Community and Household Food Environment as Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Rural Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R; Dean Wesley R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption to health has been well established, few studies have focused on access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas; even fewer examined the relationship between food access and fruit and vegetable consumption among seniors. Methods To examine the spatial challenges to good nutrition faced by seniors who reside in rural areas and how spatial access influences fruit and vegetable intake. A cross-sectional analysis using...

  2. Microeconomic theory of the household and nutrition programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Zangwill, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Lack of food is no longer the major cause of malnutrition. Many households and individuals remain malnourished when income and supplies of food are adequate. Nutrition policy and programs must be based on a sound knowledge of household behaviour patterns. The microeconomic theory of the household focuses on the household's decisionmaking about scarce food resources based upon such considerations as: (i) the size of the family; (ii) the purchasing power of the family; (iii) the availability of...

  3. Is the serving size and household measure information on labels clear and standardized? Analysis of the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil / As informações sobre porção e medida caseira nos rótulos são claras e padronizadas? Uma análise em rótulos de alimentos industrializados brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Kliemann; Marcela Boro Veiros; David Alejandro González-Chica; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the household measures reported on labels of processed foods, taking into account their adequacy with the type of food and their relationship with the declared serving size. We analyzed the labels of processed foods for sale in a Brazilian supermarket. Serving sizes were assessed according to the parameters of the Brazilian law, and household measures were assessed according to the term used. A chi-square heterogeneity test was performed, and a p value of

  4. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  5. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  6. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  7. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). PMID:27247774

  8. Household Formation, Poverty and Unemployment – The Case of Rural Households in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Keller

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines household formation and composition decisions within the context of risk reduction and risk mitigation strategies of the poor in South Africa. A multi-level heckprobit estimator is employed in order to capture the influence of various factors at the individual, household and regional level, and we focus on the implications of the presence of pensioners and the unemployment on household composition and structure. Results are consistent with earlier findings that pensions are...

  9. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  10. NUTRITION CONSIDERATIONS IN FOOD SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.; McWatters, Kay H.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of nutrition consideration to households in food selection is instrumental in the development of information programs to promote public health and to market healthy food. Using a national telephone survey of 2880 U.S. households, this study examines the role and influence of socio-economic characteristics and lifestyle on a household meal plannerÂ’s consideration of four dietary components in food selection. Household income, children in households, geographic location, and gen...

  11. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha F. Aflague

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63 captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63 returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%; willingness to use the mFR again (87%; and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%. Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%; Time 2 (49/63, 78%; and at both times (47/63, 75%. This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR.

  12. Analysis of prey capture and food transport kinematics in two Asian box turtles, Cuora amboinensis and Cuora flavomarginata (Chelonia, Geoemydidae), with emphasis on terrestrial feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natchev, Nikolay; Heiss, Egon; Lemell, Patrick; Stratev, Daniel; Weisgram, Josef

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the kinematics and morphology of the feeding apparatus of two geoemydid chelonians, the Malayan (Amboina) box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) and the yellow-margined box turtle (Cuora flavomarginata). Both species are able to feed on land as well as in water. Feeding patterns were analysed by high-speed cinematography. The main focus of the present study is on the terrestrial feeding strategies in both Asian box turtles, because feeding on land has probably evolved de novo within the ancestrally aquatic genus Cuora. During terrestrial feeding (analysed for both species), the initial food prehension is always done by the jaws, whereas intraoral food transport and pharyngeal packing actions are tongue-based. The food uptake modes in Cuoras differ considerably from those described for purely terrestrial turtles. Lingual food prehension is typical of all tortoises (Testudinidae), but is absent in C. amboinensis and C. flavomarginata. A previous study on Terrapene carolina shows that this emydid turtle protrudes the tongue during ingestion on land, but that the first contact with the food item occurs by the jaws. Both Asian box turtles investigated here have highly movable, fleshy tongues; nonetheless, the hyolingual complex remains permanently retracted during initial prey capture. In aquatic feeding (analysed for C. amboinensis only), the prey is captured by a fast forward strike of the head (ram feeding). As opposed to ingestion on land, in the underwater grasp the hyoid protracts prior to jaw opening. The head morphology of the investigated species differs. In contrast to the Malayan box turtle, C. flavomarginata exhibits a more complexly structured dorsal lingual epithelium, a considerable palatal vault, weaker jaw adductor muscles and a simplified trochlear complex. The differences in the hyolingual morphology reflect the kinematic patterns of the terrestrial feeding transport. PMID:19010648

  13. KAJIAN IDENTIFIKASI PANGAN POKOK BERBASIS KEARIFAN LOKAL PADA RUMAH TANGGA PRA SEJAHTERA DI JAWA TENGAH(STUDY OF STAPLE FOOD IDENTIFICATION BY LOCAL WISDOM BASE ON PRE-PROSPEROUS HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyna Wida R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pangan pokok seringkali diidentikkan dengan beras, padahal ada juga masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi bahan pangan pokok lain seperti jagung, sagu, umbi-umbian dan gandum. Tujuan khusus penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi pangan pokok berbasis kearifan lokal di rumah tanggapra sejahtera Jawa Tengah. Desain penelitian menggunakan riset eksploratori. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei sedangkan metode pendekataannya menggunakan cross sectional study. Dari 35 kabupaten dan kota di Jawa Tengah diambil tiga kabupaten secara purposive dengan pertimbangan kabupaten yang memiliki proporsi rumah tangga pra sejahtera terbesar yaitu Kabupaten Grobogan, Rembang, dan Blora. Untuk menganalisis tujuan penelitian dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa identifikasi pangan pokok rumah tangga pra sejahtera di Jawa Tengah menurut jenis pangan pokok sebesar 75,56 persen rumah tangga pra sejahtera mengkonsumsi beras saja sebagai pangan pokok dan 12,22 persen mengkonsumsi nasi jagung. Cara budidaya yang dilakukan dalam setahun 2 – 3 kali pola tanam dimana tanaman yang sering dibudidayakan adalah padi dan jagung. Cara budidaya masih konvensional dan zero tillage dilakukan untuk budidaya kacang hijau. Panen dan pengelolaan pasca panen dilakukan oleh petani menyimpan gabah antara 30 – 90 persen dari total panen dimana sebagian besar petani menyimpan 50 persen dari total panennya. Distribusi dan kelembagaan pangan pokok berbasis kearifan lokal di tingkat rumah tangga petani sudah ada pengelolaan cadangan pangan sedangkan di tingkat rukun tetangga maupun desa tidak ada lumbung pangan. ABSTRACT Staple food is oftentimes identical with rice, although there are also peoples consumes other staple food such as corn, sago, tubers and wheat. Specific purpose of this study was identifying staple food by local wisdom base on poor households in Central Java. The design of this research used exploratory research. The method used was survey method

  14. Investigating the Sensitivity of Household Food Security to Agriculture-related Shocks and the Implication of Informal Social Capital and Natural Resource Capital: The Case of Rural Households in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Byela Tibesigwa, Martine Visser and Wayne Twine

    2014-01-01

    Resource-poor rural South Africa is characterised by high human densities due to the historic settlement patterns imposed by apartheid, high levels of poverty, under-developed markets and substantially high food insecurity. This chronic food insecurity combined with climate and weather variability has led to the adoption of less conventional adaptation methods in resource-poor rural settings. This paper examines the impact of agriculture-related shocks on the consumption patterns of rural hou...

  15. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė; Tadas Lukauskas

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g) placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products) and plant origin (vegetables, fruit) waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all ho...

  16. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  17. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and

  18. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production.

  19. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. PMID:24632434

  20. Understanding Food Stamp Program Participation Among Female-Headed Households: Has It Been Affected By Participation In The AFDC/TANF Program?

    OpenAIRE

    Shangguan, Zhaoyun

    2000-01-01

    The caseloads of food stamp program and welfare program experienced sharp drops among non-metropolitan single female-headed families with children (SFHFwC) after welfare reform in 1996. There is concern that leaving welfare program has led to nonparticipation in food stamp program due to multiple reasons. This study conducts an empirical analysis of non-metropolitan SFHFwC's participation in food stamp program and welfare program, using the 1993 and 1999 CPS data. Results from using reduce...

  1. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  2. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  3. Top Level Results of a Study of Czech Households´ Awareness of the Food Advertising Industry’s Self-Regulation Related to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Markéta Lhotáková; Květa Olšanová

    2015-01-01

    This paper is primarily focused on analyses of the research undertaken to understand the awareness of food advertising’s self-regulation authority (Council for Advertising) and of the Czech Code of Conduct in the context of the growing issue of child obesity. The objective is to find out the perception of food advertising to children and awareness of regulation and industry self-regulation amongst Czech mothers. Our theoretical framework presumes dependence between the awareness levels and se...

  4. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  5. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Household Safety: Preventing Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > Household Safety: ... and often contain small parts. Make sure small refrigerator magnets are out of your child's reach. Check ...

  6. Unemployment and Household formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to other continents, Africa has received little scholarly attention with regard to household composition. Household composition is endogenous to a variety of welfare issues and little is understood about the determinants of this composition. Understanding the household composition and formation decision may improve our understanding of how the unemployed gain access to resources and how household composition could provide a safety net to the unemployed. However, increasingly, mo...

  7. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  8. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  9. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  10. Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households.%基于农户尺度的陕北退耕区粮食安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 谢永生

    2011-01-01

    对陕北退耕区米脂县(人口高密度区)和吴起县(低密度区)农户尺度粮食生产能力进行分析,应用最小人均耕地面积和生产函数方法研究了该区粮食安全状况及影响因素.结果表明:人口低密度区的粮食生产能力可基本保障其粮食安全,而人151高密度区不能确保粮食安全;基本农田面积和农业科技投入是影响农户粮食安全的主要因素,劳动力投入、素质和粮食补贴也有正向影响,但目前的农业科技水平和劳动力素质未达到粮食生产能力的囤蓄要求.应加大基本农田和农业科学技术的囤蓄力度,达到最小人均基本农田0.14 hm2,重视农业劳动力的技术培训,并制定合理的退耕后续政策.%This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population ( Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi. and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the mimmum standard of 0.14 hm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  11. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE FOOD ASSISTANCE CHOICES OF FOOD NEEDY FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Gandhi Raj; Duffy, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    A bivariate probit model was used to determine public and private food assistance participation among the population below 125 percent poverty level, using the Current Population Survey data. Food stamp use and food pantry use were complements. Household income, food insecurity status, household structure, and rural residence affected participation decisions.

  12. Small scale integrated agriculture: a tool of poverty alleviation, gender equality promotion and improving food security at household level in coastal region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Begum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  13. Research of Urban Households' Food consumption:Based on AIDS Model%我国城镇居民食品消费研究——基于 AIDS 模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辰; 穆月英

    2015-01-01

    The paper collected urban households' food consumption and price data between 2005 and 2012 of 31 provinces in China.The expenditure elasticity and price elasticity were computed using AIDS model.Based on the results, we discussed food consumption trend and the relationships of different foods.Compared with dietary goal, food consumption of urban households was evaluated and the varying trend was analyzed.Some conclusions were made after research:the influence of cereal and oil consumption was very limited and their share tended to re-duce in future.Outdoor dining, milk and egg consumption would be the main growth points of food consumption. The shares of these foods would increase.Meat, vegetable, fruit and egg consumption would also maintain a compa-rably rapid growth.Price had a small impact to almost of food consumption except aquatic product, milk and egg. There is a certain deviation between food consumption at present and the goal of dietary nutrition.Comparing the e-lasticity of different time, we found that the influence of expenditure was gradually becoming weak.The price re-sponse was also becoming insignificant.%依据2005~2012年我国31个省份城镇居民食品消费支出和价格数据,运用AIDS模型测算了食品消费支出和价格弹性系数,并基于所得结果讨论了居民食品消费需求的影响因素以及食品消费变动态势. 在对各类食品消费的相互关系进行分析的同时,结合膳食营养发展目标对我国城镇居民食品消费进行了评价,分析了食品消费弹性的变化趋势. 研究的主要结论是:未来粮食、油脂消费受支出影响有限,消费份额趋于减少;在外用餐、奶及奶制品、水产品消费是今后食品消费主要增长点,消费份额趋于增加;肉禽及制品、蔬果、蛋类消费将保持较快增速. 除水产品、奶及奶制品和蛋类自价格弹性较大外,多数食品受自身价格的影响较小. 目前食品消费发展方向与未来居民

  14. First-Year Evaluation of Mexico's Tax on Nonessential Energy-Dense Foods: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Batis

    2016-07-01

    urban areas, we only have 2 y of data prior to the tax, and, as with any consumer panel survey, we did not capture all foods purchased by the household.Household purchases of nonessential energy-dense foods declined in the first year after the implementation of Mexico's SSB and nonessential foods taxes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of the taxes on overall energy intake, dietary quality, and food purchase patterns (see S1 Abstract in Spanish.

  15. Heterogeneity analysis on household food demand among different regions by QUAIDS model%不同地区家庭食品需求的异质性分析--基于QUAIDS模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菲; 于冷

    2016-01-01

    消费是推动国家经济发展的三驾马车之一,而食品消费则是消费问题中最基本同时也是最重要的问题。基于实地调研,分析城镇和农村地区家庭食品需求和外出就餐情况,采用QUAIDS模型,探讨家庭食品需求的异质性。结果表明,东南地区家庭食品支出金额最高,为2469.62元/月,江南地区次之,西北地区最低,为1588.95元/月;其外出就餐支出与在家就餐支出之比分别为0.35、0.42和0.78。人均外出就餐已经占到全部就餐次数的1/5-1/4,并且每增加1次中式快餐消费,肉食类食品支出份额将增加0.19%,蔬果类食品支出份额将减少0.14%。各个地区横向比较结果表明,随着地理位置的南移,肉食类食品支出份额逐渐增加,蔬果类支出份额则减少:东南地区肉食类支出份额最高,为0.58,蔬果类支出份额最低,仅0.21;西北地区的肉食类支出份额最低,为0.36,蔬果类支出份额最高,为0.37。支出和价格变动对于各类食品需求的影响也存在和地理位置一致的趋势性,因此在决定生产和制定政策时应该考虑到地区差异性。%Food consumption is a critical component in consumption while consumption is one of the three main boosting forces for economic development. Based on the survey data in urban and rural areas, this paper examined the dining-out and household food demand situations and also analyzed the heterogeneity of household food demand among different regions by the QUAIDS model. Results show that 1) households in the southeast areas spend most on food at home with 2 469.62 yuan per month, followed by households in the south of the Yangtze River and northwest regions; while the ratios of expenditure on food-away-from-home and food-at-home are 0.35, 0.42 and 0.78 respectively; 2) the average number of dining-out accounts for 1/5-1/4 in total dining number; 3) the budget share of meat increases by 0

  16. From global economic modelling to household level analyses of food security and sustainability: how big is the gap and can we bridge it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Policy and decision makers have to make difficult choices to improve the food security of local people against the background of drastic global and local changes. Ex-ante impact assessment using integrated models can help them with these decisions. This review analyses the state of affairs of the mu

  17. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  18. Top Level Results of a Study of Czech Households´ Awareness of the Food Advertising Industry’s Self-Regulation Related to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Lhotáková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily focused on analyses of the research undertaken to understand the awareness of food advertising’s self-regulation authority (Council for Advertising and of the Czech Code of Conduct in the context of the growing issue of child obesity. The objective is to find out the perception of food advertising to children and awareness of regulation and industry self-regulation amongst Czech mothers. Our theoretical framework presumes dependence between the awareness levels and selected demographic variables. We conclude several actions to overcome low awareness of the Council of Advertising and its Code of Conduct and to transfer the industry’s self-regulation into an efficient and recognized tool of shaping the culture of responsible advertising in the Czech Republic. The conclusions lead towards stronger protection of children.

  19. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  20. Food Demand in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Regorsek, Darja; Erjavec, Emil

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyse food consumption patterns in Slovenia for households segmented by quartile income levels and for whole Slovenian population. Food items are divided into seven commodity groups. Cross-sectional household data from Household Budget Survey 2001 were used. We apply the linearly approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). Empirical results show positive expenditure elasticities being close to one where in general demands for dairy products and fo...

  1. AN ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF HOUSEHOLD ORGANIC WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Puneeta Dandotiya; Praval Singh Chauhan; Hemant Samadhiya; O.P. Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    The household organic wastes commonly include dust, food and kitchen waste, garden waste, paper waste etc. that is generated everyday from every house. This highly nutritive organic waste is the house of infectious bacteria, vector and insect. A study was conducted to explore the possibility of vermicomposting of household organic waste at home level. For this study household waste (HW) and garden (leaves with soil-dust) waste (GW) were selected. They were mixed with dried dung powder (DDP) a...

  2. Consumer Behaviour of Households

    OpenAIRE

    Netrdová, Blanka

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is focused on the consumer behavior of the households in the period from 2003 to 2013. The theoretical part is divided into two parts, household consumption from the perspective of marketing, and from the perspective of economics. In the marketing section explains the concepts of consumer, household, consumer credit, consumer behavior, consumer predisposition and the buying decision process. In the section dedicated to economics concepts are explained, the budget line consumption, ...

  3. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  4. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  5. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  6. Insegurança alimentar das famílias residentes em municípios do interior do estado da Paraíba, Brasil Household food insecurity in municipalities of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de segurança alimentar e dos diferentes graus de insegurança alimentar entre famílias residentes em 14 municípios da Paraíba e a relacionar com o perfil social, demográfico e econômico destas famílias. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito populacional no qual 4.533 famílias foram entrevistadas. Utilizou-se questionário para avaliar as características sócio-demográficas, juntamente com a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Foram calculadas medidas de prevalência e verificada a associação entre as variáveis do estudo pelo teste qui-quadrado. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística para examinar a associação dos fatores de risco à segurança e à insegurança alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de 11,3% de insegurança alimentar grave, 17,6% de insegurança moderada, 23,6% de insegurança leve; 47,5% da população foi classificada em situação de segurança alimentar. As áreas rurais apresentaram pior situação. O principal motivo referido para insegurança alimentar foi a falta de dinheiro para aquisição de comida. A regressão logística final foi composta por três variáveis: baixa renda familiar per capita (R$25,00 versus R$300,00, Odds Ratio=19,10, moradia precária (Odds Ratio=1,98 e falta de água permanente (Odds Ratio=1,38. As famílias do menor estrato de renda apresentaram menor prevalência de insegurança alimentar grave, quando incluídas em programas sociais. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de insegurança alimentar foi elevada. O instrumento utilizado demonstrou ser uma ferramenta importante de avaliação da situação de segurança alimentar e útil para o monitoramento de políticas públicas, como é o caso dos programas sociais que integram a estratégia Fome Zero do Governo Federal.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of household food security in 14 municipalities of Paraiba State and examine its association with

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. Does Financial Literacy Contribute to Food Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Katherine G.; Zamarro, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members, is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity. PMID:26949563

  9. Bens de consumo e insegurança alimentar: diferenças de gênero, cor de pele autorreferida e condição socioeconômica Household appliances and food insecurity: gender, referred skin color and socioeconomic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marin-Leon

    2011-09-01

    nos de mulheres negras. CONCLUSÃO: Em nível nacional e em domicílios com renda de até um salário mínimo, condições socioeconômicas mais precárias estão associadas à insegurança alimentar, sendo a situação agravada naqueles chefiados por mulheres e onde residem pessoas de cor autorreferida como negra. A ausência de bens identifica, entre os pobres, a população mais vulnerável à insegurança alimentar e pode se constituir em indicador complementar, sobretudo em estudos locais, onde há escassez de recursos técnicos para coleta de dados e análises mais sofisticadas.OBJECTIVE: Data from the National Household Survey 2004 was analyzed to compare differences in prevalence among moderate or severe food insecurity. Also, it was compared food security or mild food insecurity households in relation to the assets and other socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the household. METHOD: Private permanent households, with per capita monthly income of up to one minimum wage and with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale answered by a household resident were studied (n=51,357. Association of variables with the dependent variable (food security was verified using Χ2 test, with 5% significance level. Crude prevalence ratio, respective 95% confidence interval and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression Stata 8.0. It considers the weights of the complex sampling design of the survey. RESULTS: The per capita monthly household income was the variable with strongest association to food security. Both in urban and rural areas, there were higher risk of moderate or severe food insecurity prevalence ratio when the head of the household was a female, black color, presence of six or more members in the household, metropolitan area and with absence of some specific assets (stove, water filter, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine and cellular phone. In a model that, among assets, included just the refrigerator, it was observed the highest

  10. Influence of Seasonal On-Farm Diversity on Dietary Diversity: A Case Study of Smallholder Farming Households in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'endo, Mary; Bhagwat, Shonil; Keding, Gudrun B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the associations between dietary patterns and farm diversity as well as socioeconomic variables during two seasons in rural Western Kenya. As a mean of two surveys, the average dietary diversity scores (DDS) of households and women were low, implying low household economic access to food and low women's dietary quality. The Food Consumption Score (FCS) showed that acceptable levels of food consumption were realized over seven consecutive days in the 2014 survey by the majority of households (83%) and women (90%). While there was no strong association between the food scores and seven farm diversity indicators, both food scores were significantly associated with the household's wealth status, ethnicity of both the household head and the spouse, and the education level of the spouse. For holistic household food and nutrition security approaches, we suggest a shift from a focus on farm production factors to incorporating easily overlooked socioeconomic factors such as household decision-making power and ethnicity.

  11. Influence of Seasonal On-Farm Diversity on Dietary Diversity: A Case Study of Smallholder Farming Households in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'endo, Mary; Bhagwat, Shonil; Keding, Gudrun B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the associations between dietary patterns and farm diversity as well as socioeconomic variables during two seasons in rural Western Kenya. As a mean of two surveys, the average dietary diversity scores (DDS) of households and women were low, implying low household economic access to food and low women's dietary quality. The Food Consumption Score (FCS) showed that acceptable levels of food consumption were realized over seven consecutive days in the 2014 survey by the majority of households (83%) and women (90%). While there was no strong association between the food scores and seven farm diversity indicators, both food scores were significantly associated with the household's wealth status, ethnicity of both the household head and the spouse, and the education level of the spouse. For holistic household food and nutrition security approaches, we suggest a shift from a focus on farm production factors to incorporating easily overlooked socioeconomic factors such as household decision-making power and ethnicity. PMID:27398836

  12. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s directions. It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish ...

  14. First-Year Evaluation of Mexico’s Tax on Nonessential Energy-Dense Foods: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2016-01-01

    ), our sample is only representative of urban areas, we only have 2 y of data prior to the tax, and, as with any consumer panel survey, we did not capture all foods purchased by the household. Conclusions Household purchases of nonessential energy-dense foods declined in the first year after the implementation of Mexico’s SSB and nonessential foods taxes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of the taxes on overall energy intake, dietary quality, and food purchase patterns (see S1 Abstract in Spanish). PMID:27379797

  15. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  16. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a significant component of household income. For these households, labour is the main input in both farm and off-farm activities. This study was motivated by three reasons: Firstly, there are contra...

  17. Subsidized Housing and Household Hardship among Low-Income Single-Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Heintze, Theresa; Naidich, Wendy B.; Meyers, Marcia K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate associations of housing assistance with housing and food-related hardship among low-income single-mother households using data from the National Survey of America's Families (N = 5,396). Results from instrumental variables models suggest that receipt of unit-based assistance, such as traditional public housing, is associated with a…

  18. Use of Internet by households

    OpenAIRE

    Humlová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This work is engaged in analysis of internet usage by the households by Czech households. The first part of work defines the basic concepts of Internet such as internet history, types of internet connection or the possibilities of its use. I tis followed by concrete analysis of trends in Internet usage by households in the Czech Republic, according to several aspects. The basic aspect is the share of households connected to the Internet to the total number of households. Next the work analyze...

  19. Household skills and low wages

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Household skills provide job skills when tasks in jobs and household production are similar and jobs produce substitutes for home-made services. Opportunity costs of higher education are foregone earnings during schooling and foregone household production while studying and later in life. I show that individuals in jobs requiring household skills accept lower wage rates than traditional human capital theory predicts, and that individuals with low household skills tend to enter higher educatio...

  20. Food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  1. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  2. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  3. Laser capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  4. Household metabolism in Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, Henk-Jan; Moll, Henri C.; Noorman, Klaas Jan; Kok, Rixt; Benders, René

    2003-01-01

    This report is the Dutch national report of the second work package of the ToolSust project. ToolSust, the involvement of stakeholders to develop and implement Tools for Sustainable households in the city of tomorrow, has been developed within the fifth framework program of the EU, as a part of Ener

  5. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  6. Coping strategies of HIV-affected households in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Laar, Amos; Manu, Abubakar; Laar, Matilda; El-Adas, Angela; Amenyah, Richard; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Quarshie, Dave; Adjei, Andrew Anthony; Quakyi, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV and negative coping mechanisms have a cyclical relationship. HIV infections may lead to the adoption of coping strategies, which may have undesired, negative consequences. We present data on the various coping mechanisms that HIV-affected households in Ghana resort to. Methods We collected data on coping strategies, livelihood activities, food consumption, and asset wealth from a nationally representative sample of 1,745 Ghanaian HIV-affected households. We computed coping stra...

  7. Household Metabolism in the Five Cities. Swedish National Report - Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Karlsson, Rebecka [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group; Moll, Henri; Kok, Rixt [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). IVEM; Wadeskog, Anders [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The study present results from a European project, ToolSust, in which direct and indirect energy use of household consumption is quantified. The focus is on households in Stockholm and how their spending contributes to energy use. A Dutch energy analyses programme, EAP, was modified to portray Swedish conditions, and analyses of more than 300 consumer goods were performed. These data were matched with information about family expenditure patterns from 1996. Six households were analysed, Swedish average, Stockholm City average and four households from Stockholm City. The results show that it is possible to portray households' total energy use, even the indirect one, with the help of the EAP programme and Swedish statistics. Further, indirect energy use may account for more than half of households total energy use and therefore it needs to be considered in policy making. The total primary energy use for the average households varied from 240 to 260 GJ during 1996. Heating, food and transportation were large contributors. The energy efficiency of total household spending varied from 8.8 MJ per Euro 13 MJ per Euro. Information about the energy efficiency on spending is valuable but cannot be presented and used without considering basic needs and quality of life. The total energy use per person varied from 50 to 350 GJ per year, a difference of factor seven. The analyses of energy efficiency of spending, MJ per SEK, indicate important opportunities for less energy demanding spending patterns, but those with low incomes have fewer opportunities than those with high incomes. The energy profiles for different households show that the individual ones may differ a lot from the average picture. There is a need for individual household advice about how to find more energy efficient spending patterns. Large cuts in household energy use means substantial changes in both energy intensity of goods and services and expenditure profiles. Expenditure levels should also be

  8. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  9. The Relation Between Financial and Housing Wealth of Dutch Households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze households' joint investment decisions for financial wealth and homes.In our bivariate censored regression model with endogenous switching, fixed costs or transaction costs are captured by a threshold that has to be passed before the purchase.The model allows for spill-over effects of a b

  10. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  11. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  12. 陕西果业发展对农户粮食生产和粮食安全影响的调查%Influence of fruit industry on farmers' household grain production and food security in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 上官周平

    2011-01-01

    A random survey was carried out to 1430 farm households in three representational counties (Luochuan county, Changwu county and Baishui county) located in the apple-producing region of Shaanxi. The results indicate that in the fruit-producing area, the development of fruit industry not only promotes the development of the rural economy, but also improves the farmers' living standard, while the grain production is greatly hampered and food security seriously threatened; The grain self-sufficiency rate of the three counties is low and the grain production is insufficient; Significant changes take place in the structure of grain-growing, and the maize proportion in the total yield increases largely; The proportion of grain ration reduces gradually, meanwhile the proportion of feed grain increases rapidly; The farmers have no sense of storing grain, thus the fruit-producing area is still short of grain supply and demand. Therefore, to ensure food security in fruit-grain areas, we should strengthen the construction of food distribution channels and change the concept of the farmers for storing grain and do the work of food reserves, while the government should increase agricultural subsidies and technological input to reduce grain production costs and risks, and mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers for grain production.%通过对陕西渭北旱塬3个代表性的苹果生产基地县(长武县、白水县和洛川县)Ⅰ 340户农户的调查发现,渭北旱塬果粮交错区果业产业的发展不仅促进了农村经济的发展,而且提高了农民的生活水平,但对粮食生产带来了限制,对区域粮食安全构成潜在的威胁;3县粮食均不能自给,粮食自给率低;粮食种植结构发生较大变化,玉米比重增大;粮食构成中口粮比例逐渐缩小,饲料用粮比例增加迅速;农户无储粮观念,果区仍然存在区域性粮食供需短缺.因此,要确保果粮区粮食安全,应加强粮食流通渠道建设,改变农民储粮观

  13. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...... a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization...

  14. Is knowledge shared within households?

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; Narayan, Ambar; Ravallion, Martin

    1999-01-01

    According to theory, a member of a collective-action household may or may not share knowledge with others in that household. Shared income gains from shared knowledge may well be offset by a shift in the balance of power within the family. But do literate members of the household share the benefits of literacy with other members of the household in practice? Using household survey data for Bangladesh, the authors find that education has strong external effects on individual earnings. When a r...

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  16. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  17. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...... demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada....... The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions...

  18. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  19. Quantifying the economic contribution of wild food harvests to rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, Gordon M.; Pouliot, Mariève; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    policies. We used household income data from 7975 households in 24 developing countries across three continents collected by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). We found 77% of households to be engaged in wild food collection from forest and non-forest environments even though the share of wild food...... income in total household income was on average only 4%. Poorer households and households experiencing shocks derived higher income shares from wild foods. State land is the main source of forest-derived wild food income while private lands are most important for non-forest wild food income. Considerable...... regional variation in determinants and the direction of significant relationships indicate there is no one-size-fits-all approach to integrating wild foods into food and forest policies. However, our results reveal potential to increase household food security by integrating wild foods into national food...

  20. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  1. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations potato chips). PMID:24176333

  2. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context.

  3. The Impact of Value Added Tax on Household Expenditure in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Jaramillo; Jorge Tovar

    2008-01-01

    this paper quantifies the impact of VAT on household expenditures by taking advantage of the relative variation of VAT in Colombia; this variation is usually used as identification strategy. To this end, we use data drawn from the Encuesta Continua de Hogares (Continuous Household Survey) and we correlate the VAT and household expenditures. In doing so, we estimate the impact of VAT on food, entertainment and telecommunication (cellular phone) expenditures. Our results suggest that an increme...

  4. ANALYSIS OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THE EAST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashid; Aslina Nasir; Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Nik Fuad Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of expenditure and income patterns of households in Malaysia that focuses on income, expenditure, loan, and saving is important. This study analyzes the impact of post global economic crisis on the income and expenditure patterns of Malaysian households. The study identifies major components of household’s expenditure on food, education, and health; as well as saving and loan, in relation to household income. In Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu, the total expenditures come from the va...

  5. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  6. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  7. 7 CFR 274.10 - Use of identification cards and redemption of coupons by eligible households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eligible households. (a) General provisions. State agencies shall issue an ID card to each certified..., shall present the household's ID card at issuance points, retail food stores or meal services in order... member or members whose name(s) appear on the ID card shall sign the coupon books issued to the...

  8. Matching food with mouths: A statistical explanation to the abnormal decline of per capita food consumption in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an alternative explanation for the unusual apparent decline in food consumption in rural China after 2000. We find that it is mainly attributable to significant measurement errors in the Chinese Rural Household Survey and the calculation of per capita food consumption. In a household survey, total consumption for a household in a certain period is often well recorded, and per capita consumption is obtained by dividing total consumption by household size. Such a calculation...

  9. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Zoe G; Fuller, Richard A; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally. PMID:22761872

  10. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe G Davies

    Full Text Available Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities. House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more

  11. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  12. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  13. Food Affordability, 2006-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the average cost of a market basket of nutritious food items relative to income for female-headed households with children, for...

  14. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible. PMID:26751464

  15. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  16. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  17. FOOD EXPENDITURE PATTERNS OF THE HISPANIC POPULATION IN THE U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ames, Glenn C.W.; Huang, Chung L.

    2000-01-01

    Food expenditure patterns were examined for Hispanic households in the U.S. Engel curves for three food categories: food eaten at-home, food eaten away-from-home, and for total food, were estimated using four different functional forms. Confidence intervals for income and household elasticities were computed and results compared with previous research.

  18. 食品价格上涨对城镇家庭消费与福利影响研究——基于EASI模型%The Effects of the Increase in Food Prices on Urban Households'Consumption and Welfare:Based on EASI Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕东; 王小叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on EASI demand system which shares the same origin with the 2015 Nobel Prize owner Deaton's AIDS ,this paper employs CHNS data and EASI demand sys-tem to empirically analyze the effects of the increase in food prices on consumption and welfare of urban households at different income levels ,and compares the different effects of income-based subsidies and price-based .It comes to the results as follows :firstly ,the ani-mal food expenditure of urban residents accounts for the largest proportion of total food expenditure ,followed by grain and vegetables ,and the food consumption structure of urban residents is composed of animal food ,grain and vegetables ,showing that the increase in an-imal food prices has relatively greater effect on daily diet consumption of urban residents ;secondly ,food prices have the greatest effects on the welfare of poor households and fami-lies with the lowest income ,and the prices of animal food have the greatest effect on the welfare of families with lower income ;thirdly ,as for families with low income ,when the prices of animal food increase ,the effect of income-based subsidy policy is superior to the one of price-based subsidy policy ;when the food prices increase ,the effect of price-based subsidy policy is superior to the one of income-based subsidy policy. It finally provides poli-cy suggestions from the perspectives of production ,subsidy policy and distribution system .%文章基于与2015年度诺贝尔经济学奖得主迪顿的接近理想需求系统 AIDS 来源相同的EASI需求系统 ,采用CHNS调查数据 ,运用 EASI需求系统实证分析了各类食品价格上涨对不同收入等级城镇家庭消费与福利的影响 ,并比较了收入补贴与价格补贴的经济效果.研究发现:(1)我国城镇居民动物性食品消费支出占食品总支出的比重最大 ,其次是粮食和蔬菜 ,城镇居民的食品消费结构为"动物性食品+粮食+蔬菜" ,这说明动物性食品价格上涨对我

  19. Utilization of Forest Products and Services for Livelihoods among Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the utilization of forest resources for livelihoods in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the ILUA survey. The analysis of the ILUA data in which households indicated the types of forest products and services they obtained from woodlands in their area show that majority households (25% fetched fuelwood, followed by construction materials such as poles and thatching grass (19%. A good number (16% derived plant foods such as fruits and nuts as well as mushrooms. Equally, a considerable proportion of households (11% were harvesting medicinal plants for household use and sale. Some households were producing charcoal (5%, sawn or industrial timber (5% and wood carvings (4% from the local forests. A number of households also obtained important animal products such as honey and bee wax (4% and game meat and other edible animal products (5%. These results from the ILUA survey clearly show that indigenous forests and woodland resources are important sources of household energy and provide other important livelihood products and services for most rural households These findings also indicate that forests and woodland resources are critical to household food security especially during stressful conditions (drought and floods and they are a “drug store” and ‘insurance” for the rural poor and underscore the need to ensure that these forest resources are sustainably managed.

  20. THE IMPACT OF “ONE VILLAGE ONE PRODUCT (OVOP)” ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME – IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF BVUMBWE OPERATION AREA, THYOLO DISTRICT, MALAWI

    OpenAIRE

    Chidumu, Juliana Immaculate

    2007-01-01

    Malawi is among the most poor and food insecure countries in the world according to UNDP’s Human Development Report (2004). Agriculture is the driving force of the economy of Malawi and the backbone to food security. The government of Malawi introduced a program called One Village One Product (OVOP) in 2003 whose major objective is poverty reduction by bringing economic independence into the communities. However, no effort had been made to evaluate the program and its activities hence creatin...

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  2. To What Extent Are Credit Constraints Responsible for the Non-separable Behavior at Household Level? Evidence from Tobacco Growing Households in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simtowe, Franklin Peter; Phiri, Alexander

    Microfinance institutions world-wide are continuously developing strategies for addressing credit market failure among liquidity constrained households. While an enormous amount of research has provided evidence for the positive welfare impact of access to credit at household level, very little is known regarding the extent to which credit can be used as a tool for enhancing separation in the making of consumption and production decisions at household level, which is an important precondition for specialization. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which credit constraints can be used to explain non-seperability among households from Malawi. The data used was collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The test for separation of consumption and production decisions is done using the on-farm labor demand model. Consistent with theory, results indicate that household demographic factors affect demand for labor among credit constrained households while they have no effect among unconstrained households. The implication from the study is that increased access to credit can be an important tool for arresting current market failures faced by poor rural households to the extent that once liquidity constraints are relaxed households can hire extra labor to enhance their productivity.

  3. Households Headed by Women: Income, Employment and Household Organization

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHNAZ KAZI; BILQUEES RAZA

    1988-01-01

    The poverty of households headed by women has emerged as an important development issue in the recent past. Evidence from many developing countries, specially in Latin America and Africa, has underlined the economic vulnerability of this group and predicted an increasing incidence of female-headed households in developing societies [Buvinic and Youssef (1978); Kossaudji and Mueller (1983); Merrick and Schmink (1983)]. Among Asian countries sample surveys have revealed, a significant proportio...

  4. Commercialization of Food Consumption in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Tang, Ping; Bai, Xianhong; Xu, Huijun

    2005-01-01

    Rural households in China have traditionally consumed food mostly grown on their own farms. While they continue to rely on self-produced grains, vegetables, meats, and eggs for a large portion of their diet, rural households are now purchasing more of their food as they enter the mainstream of the Chinese economy. Cash purchases of food by rural Chinese households increased 7.4 percent per year from 1994 to 2003. Consumption has shifted from self-produced to purchased food at a rate faster th...

  5. CHINA'S RURAL HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, TONG; Wahl, Thomas I.

    1998-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting LES-LA/AIDS system is sued to estimate rural household demand in China with special emphasis on changes in demand for fruit and vegetable commodities across different income groups. The own-price elasticity for food was found to be more elastic than that for clothing, housing, durable goods, and other items. Within the food group, price elasticities range from -1.042 to -0.019. Grain, with an expenditure elasticity of almost unity, is an important staple food for the ave...

  6. Marriage in Rural Philippine Households

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizing intergenerational data from a sample of rural households in Laguna Province, this article tests the proposition that rural families are responsive to economic conditions as choices are made regarding children’s educational needs, their location and occupation choices.

  7. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  8. Simulating Household Waste Management Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tucker; Andrew Smith

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of research to demonstrate the proof of concept for simulating individual, collective and interactive household waste management behaviours to provide a tool for efficient integrated waste management planning. The developed model simulates whole communities as distributions of individual households engaged in managing their own domestic waste, through home composting or recycling activities. The research addresses the personal hierarchical ordering of these activ...

  9. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  10. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  11. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  12. Rural livelihood and food poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of livelihood activities on food security status of rural households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 150 households through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The majority of the rural residents were in their economic active years, had diversified their livelihood activities so as to increase their income stream and also mitigate against shocks. The highest food poverty headcount was observed among female crop farming non-farming households with one to six members while all households with more than 12 members were food poor. Severity of food poverty decreased with years of farming experience, educational status and farm size of crop farmers and those engaged in non-farm activities. The probability of a rural household being food poor reduced with household head’s attainment of primary education and land ownership but increases with being headed by a woman and having high dependency ratio.

  13. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    de Mato Grosso y raza/color (negro del adolescente. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de acciones para la mejoría del acceso al saneamiento básico, la cualificación de recursos humanos con el objeto de generar empleo y renta y las acciones educativas que amplíen la comprensión sobre la inseguridad alimentaria y sus determinantes en los municipios.This cross-sectional population-based study in 2007 focused on prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors in households with adolescents in four towns in the Legal Amazonia located along highway BR-163, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, to Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. The study applied the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to a sample of 363 households. Anthropometric assessment was performed on 534 adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age. A Poisson model was used in the multiple regression analysis. The results showed 23.1% prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, suggesting association with the following: low income, poor sanitation, head of household born in Mato Grosso State, and the adolescent's race (black. The results emphasize the need for improved access to basic sanitation, training of human resources to generate employment/income, and educational activities to improve understanding of food insecurity and its determinants.

  14. Informal Labor and Social Relations in Northern Malawi: The Theoretical Challenges and Implications of Ganyu Labor for Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Food insecurity is a problem faced by smallholder farmers in Malawi. In any given year between 70 and 85 percent of households run out of food stocks several months prior to the next harvest. Once food stocks are depleted many households obtain food by doing ganyu. This paper uses qualitative data to examine ganyu in relation to food security in…

  15. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  16. Food demand for quality in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was the estimation of the food demand for quality of perishable food commodity groups. The magnitude of the estimated elasticity of demand for food quality would indicate to the incentives the market provides to the market stages, to supply food quality,. The cross section data of the household budget survey of Egypt in 2009 were used to estimate per capita income-consumption function. The income elasticity of food demand for quality was derived from the food demand for ex...

  17. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  18. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  19. Consumer agency and food retailer choice in an American urban neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonethele...

  20. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  1. National Health Insurance Scheme: How Protected Are Households in Oyo State, Nigeria from Catastrophic Health Expenditure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4% households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9% and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6% households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9% of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5% in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004. The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI: 4.7 (1.3–16.8, P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.

  2. 7 CFR 273.10 - Determining household eligibility and benefit levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... merely because of changes in mailing cycles or pay dates or because weekends or holidays cause additional... exclude the student's earnings in the month of application and count the student's earnings in the... of the household's normal issuance cycle. (4) Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) and Maximum Food...

  3. Economic impact of maternal death on households in rural china: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1-3 months after maternal death or childbirth and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID, linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. FINDINGS: The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse" during the follow-up period (adjusted OR = 6.04, p<0.001. During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001. Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p = 0.024. Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p = 0.037, clothes and commodity (p = 0.003, traffic and communication (p = 0.022 and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse

  4. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (rxy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  5. Have Labour Market Outcomes Affected Household Structure in South Africa? A Descriptive Analysis of Households

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Pirouz

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate how the demography of households relates to individual labour market outcomes. We comprehensively examine household size and structures in the October Household Surveys 1995, 1997, 1999 and the Labour Force Surveys September 2001 and 2002. Over the 1995-2002 period, the number of households has increased in the face of rising unemployment and the average household size has decreased signifi cantly. A rising proportion of single households mostly drives this res...

  6. Factors Associated with Backyard Composting Behavior at the Household Level

    OpenAIRE

    Park, William M.; Lamons, Kevin S.; Roberts, Roland K.

    2002-01-01

    Communities in most states are under pressure to reduce the amount of solid waste going into landfills. Many are making efforts to encourage their citizens to practice backyard composting. A logit regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with backyard composting of yard and food wastes in a case study area. Sample data were obtained through a September 1997 telephone survey of 865 households residing in single-family dwellings in Knox County, Tennessee. Findings indica...

  7. Exploring Farm Business and Household Expenditure Patterns and Community Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Dayton M.; Sullivan, Patrick; Wojan, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Farm operators are an integral part of some rural economies. The businesses they operate often hire seasonal and full-time employees and purchase goods and services from local farm implement dealers, input suppliers, and financial institutions. Farm household spending on food, furniture and appliances, trucks and automobiles, and a range of consumer goods also support local jobs and retail businesses in some communities. Based on the 2002 agricultural census and the 2004 Agricultural Resource...

  8. Modeling Household Preferences for Cereals and Meats in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 household data and a two-step censored model, this article analyzes separability among preferences of the major food groups in Mexico. The main objective of the present paper was to determine if beans and potatoes are not separable from meats and cereals, respectively. Results indicate that beans belong to the protein source demand system and potatoes are not separable from cereals. Another major finding is that corn income elasticity very close to one might indicate a sensitive si...

  9. Household energy assessment: integration of approaches and additional factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate household energy assessment for developing countries which use substantial biomass, requires a coordinated effort between surveyors, experimentalists and analysts. This paper describes the role of each and also the additional factors which need to be considered, recorded, measured and analyzed to account for variations in energy consumption across countries, income classes, etc. These range from seasonal and regional differences, fuel scarcities and coping strategies, dietary and cooking practices, food and fuel processing, to the role of women.

  10. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  11. Moral discourses and pharmaceuticalised governance in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Kevin; Norris, Pauline; Gabe, Jonathan; Chamberlain, Kerry; Hodgetts, Darrin

    2015-04-01

    This article extends our understanding of the everyday practices of pharmaceuticalisation through an examination of moral concerns over medication practices in the household. Moral concerns of responsibility and discipline in relation to pharmaceutical consumption have been identified, such as passive or active medication practices, and adherence to orthodox or unorthodox accounts. This paper further delineates dimensions of the moral evaluations of pharmaceuticals. In 2010 and 2011 data were collected from 55 households across New Zealand and data collection techniques, such as photo- and diary-elicitation interviews, allowed the participants to develop and articulate reflective stories of the moral meaning of pharmaceuticals. Four repertoires were identified: a disordering society repertoire where pharmaceuticals evoke a society in an unnatural state; a disordering self repertoire where pharmaceuticals signify a moral failing of the individual; a disordering substances repertoire where pharmaceuticals signify a threat to one's physical or mental equilibrium; a re-ordering substances repertoire where pharmaceuticals signify the restoration of function. The research demonstrated that the dichotomies of orthodox/unorthodox and compliance/resistance do not adequately capture how medications are used and understood in everyday practice. Attitudes change according to why pharmaceuticals are taken and who is taking them, their impacts on social relationships, and different views on the social or natural production of disease, the power of the pharmaceutical industry, and the role of health experts. Pharmaceuticals are tied to our identity, what we want to show of ourselves, and what sort of world we see ourselves living in. The ordering and disordering understandings of pharmaceuticals intersect with forms of pharmaceuticalised governance, where conduct is governed through pharmaceutical routines, and where self-responsibility entails following the prescription of other

  12. FOOD PRICE INFLATION AND CONSUMER WELFARE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Bonsu Osei-Asare

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effects of food price inflation on Ghanaian households using GLSS-5 household data. Expenditure endogeneity and truncated expenditures were controlled in the estimation process using the “Augmented Regression Approach” and Heckman’s two-stage procedure, respectively. Symmetry and homogeneity conditions were rejected in the unconstrained LA/AIDS model. The study reveals that cereals and bread; fish; vegetables; and roots and tubers will continue to constitute important share of Ghanaian food expenditure as they collectively constitute 67% of future food expenditure. Food price inflation between 2005 and 2011 has eroded real household food purchasing power by 47.18%.

  13. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control....... Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities....... Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data...

  14. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  15. Food Assistance: How Strong Is the Safety Net?

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, Michael; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smallwood, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Food assistance programs, particularly the Food Stamp Program, increase food spending and household income. In 2004, adding food stamp benefits to recipients’ incomes raised 9 percent of recipients out of poverty. Nutritional effects of food assistance programs are uncertain.

  16. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  17. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  18. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of househo

  19. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  20. Households' recycling efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Halvorsen, Bente [Research Department, Statistics Norway, 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Nyborg, Karine [The Ragnar Frisch Centre of Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    Households' recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households' use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting at source involves significant extra use of time and energy in the households. On average, each of those asked reported that they use close to half an hour a week for cleaning, sorting and transporting recyclable waste. On average, 185 h is used per tonne of waste. Four out of ten reported that they use warm or hot water to clean the materials. When investigating the motives for sorting waste, we find that many perceive sorting as mandatory, while some in fact find it a pleasant activity in itself. Moral motives for sorting at source are also widespread. A majority would prefer that a company took over the sorting if this were possible, and on average, the respondents are willing to pay US$ 20/year for this service.

  1. Measuring the local economic integration of farm households: Findings from two case study areas

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Deborah; Majewski, Edward; Sulewski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Despite the emphasis given in EU agricultural policy to the local economic benefits of a maintaining a strong agricultural sector, relatively little research has focussed on the contribution farm households make to their localities. The lack of understanding is particularly acute given ongoing changes in the agri-food chain and changes in farm structures. The paper presents findings from an analysis of the direct transactions associated with a sample of farm households drawn from two European...

  2. Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Osbjer, Kristina; Boqvist, Sofia; Sokerya, Seng; Kannarath, Chheng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region,...

  3. Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Drought Prone Regions of Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Erenstein, Olaf; Kassie, Girma Tesfahun; Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Mwangi, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture in eastern Africa is predominantly rainfed and maize is a major food crop,primarily produced for home consumption and the market by small-scale family farms. The study characterized farm households in the drought prone maize growing areas of eastern Africa synthesizing data from parallel household surveys in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The study provides a comparative analysis of the farm households’ assets, livelihood strategies and crop management practices, with an em...

  4. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Known as the “food of grain†, chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime, its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties (districts) of Anhui Province as samples, the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research show...

  5. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  6. Consumer agency and food retailer choice in an American urban neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonetheless something that is difficult to access for a large sector of the population. By examining both food secure and food insecure households, light is shed on some of the factors that lead to the relative ability of each group to successfully and reliably obtain food. In particular, this study focuses on the perception and behaviour of consumers in relation to the decision to shop, or not to shop, at various food retailers. Some theories of consumer behaviour tend to focus either on class related cultural elements which determine taste preferences while other theories focus on structural elements of the food system which force a limited selection onto various social groups. While certainly class culture influences taste preference to some extent, results from this study suggest that structural elements of the food system and economic differences between food secure and food insecure households have a larger influence on store choice than cultural preferences. In fact, both food secure and insecure households indicated similar sets of criteria used in determining store choices. However, in examination of actual shopping behaviours, this study found that food insecure households are more likely to shop at deep discounters and more likely to travel farther to obtain food. These results suggest that structural elements such as food retailer locations limit the range of shopping options of food insecure households when compared to food secure households. Keywords: food

  7. Regional Differences in Food Consumption in Urban Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer

    A nationwide household survey for Mozambique is used to estimate a large censored food demand system with 12 food groups for the sample of urban households. Using the translog indirect utility approach, the censored nature of the data is addressed by estimating a system of Tobit equations...

  8. Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarchelier, P M; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Z. Ahmad; Barnes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftove...

  9. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  10. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  11. Recent Refrigeration Cycle Technologies for Household Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    The household refrigerator is one of the most important and the biggest energy-consuming home appliances. This paper summarize recent refrigeration cycle developments in the field of domestic household refrigerators based on a survey of publications.

  12. Dietary practices in households as risk factors for stomach cancer: a familial study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Boeing, H; Popiela, T; Wahrendorf, J; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Kulig, J

    1992-06-01

    In the framework of a nationwide case-control study of risk factors for stomach cancer, a household survey was conducted on those food habits at the family level which were considered relevant for stomach cancer. The practices of 741 case and 741 control households were compared and relative risks calculated by the unconditional maximum likelihood method. For each household, the person responsible for cooking completed the survey. Respondents to the household survey were 35% of the cases and 40% of the controls of the case-control study and otherwise other household members. Case households relied more frequently on their own gardens as a major source of vegetables and fruit, and they cooked their vegetables more often than control households. The vegetable and fruit consumption during the summer period per family member was significantly less in case households compared to control households. The difference in per capita vegetable and fruit consumption between case and control households persisted, but was considerably less pronounced when the consumption of the index person (case or control) was subtracted from the household consumption. The consumption of mainly wholemeal bread showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.18 (95% CI 0.07-0.44) compared with mainly white bread consumption, whereas frequent frying and stewing of meat was associated with an increased risk compared to boiling of meat (RR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.48-2.87). No association with risk was found for long-term refrigerator use or other storage modalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467778

  13. ICT and Household-Firm Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar; Wikström, Solveig

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses how ICT and emerging electronic commerce in consumer products influence the relative efficiency in production of households and firms, resulting in changes in the division of tasks between these two types of agents. Increased information and competence of households, in combination with stiffer competition among firms, will also increase the power of households relative to firms, at least in a long-term perspective with free entry of firms. Households will also get more p...

  14. Household Behavior and the Marriage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    There is some controversy in the field of household economics regarding the efficiency of household decisions. We make the point that a flexible specification of spousal preferences and the household production technology precludes the possibility of using revealed preference data on household time allocations to determine the manner in which spouses interact: efficiently or inefficiently. Under strong, but standard, assumptions regarding marriage market equilibria, marital sorting patterns c...

  15. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  16. A Limit to Reflexivity: The Challenge for Working Women of Negotiating Sharing of Household Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Peter; Whitehouse, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Unpaid household labor is still predominantly performed by women, despite dramatic increases in female labor force participation over the past 50 years. For this article, interviews with 76 highly skilled women who had returned to the workforce following the birth of children were analyzed to capture reflexive understandings of the balance of paid…

  17. 家用和类似用途电动食品加工器具机械式磁性接近开关应用%Mechanical Magnetic Proximity Switch for the Household and Similar Motor-operated Food Preparing Appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙克文; 刘利; 颜天宝

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts forward the existing problems about the application of the mechanical magnetic proximity switches in the different loading conditions of the household and similar use electric food processing apparatus. In or-der to better satisfies the IEC requirements to adapt to the product of the external promotion, this paper points out that mechanical magnetic proximity switches should at least meet the rated current greater than or equal to 7A, and not less than the electrical endurance requirement for 10000 cycles.%提出了面向家用和类似用途电动食品加工器具在不同负载条件下,当前机械式磁性接近开关应用存在的问题,为更好的满足IEC要求适应产品的对外推广,给出机械式磁性接近开关产品应最少满足额定电流≥7A,不低于10000周期的电寿命要求。

  18. Distribuição regional e socioeconômica da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil em 2008-2009 Distribución regional y socioeconómica de la disponibilidad domiciliaria de alimentos en Brasil, 2008-2009 Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy

    2012-02-01

    transformadas en calorías y nutrientes con el auxilio de tablas de composición alimentaria. Indicadores de calidad de la dieta fueron construidos y analizados según estratos socioeconómicos y regionales de la población brasileña. RESULTADOS: La proporción proteica de la disponibilidad alimentaria se mostró adecuada en todos los estratos regionales y económicos. En contrapartida, se observó exceso de azúcares libres en todas las regiones y de grasas especialmente en las regiones Sur y Sureste. La proporción de grasas saturadas fue elevada en el medio urbano y consistente con la mayor participación de productos de origen animal. La presencia insuficiente de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue común en todas las regiones. Intensificación de la proporción de grasas y disminución de la proporción de carbohidratos de la dieta fueron observados con el aumento de la renta. CONCLUSIONES: Las características negativas de la calidad de dieta de la población brasileña observadas al final de la primera década del siglo XXI confieren alta prioridad para políticas públicas de promoción de la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. METHODS: Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. RESULTS: The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern

  19. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives. PMID:26993575

  20. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

  1. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  2. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  3. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  4. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  5. THE ROLE OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION ON FOOD SECURITY IN SUDAN: RURAL WHITE NILE STATE

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. ELZAK; A.A. ELBUSHRA; S.E.H. AHMED; A.M. MUBARAK

    2011-01-01

    Food security status is determined by the combination of aggregate food availability, household food access and utilization. In Sudan, given climate extremes and insecurity, food availability is a crucial component of household food security status. Communities that rely on raising livestock are most vulnerable to hunger when drought or other disaster strikes. The general objective of this study was to assess the role of livestock production on food security in the White Nile State. Specifica...

  6. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed. PMID:26299713

  7. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed.

  8. Income distribution trends and future food demand

    OpenAIRE

    Cirera,Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the di...

  9. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  10. THE CHANGING POLISH FOOD CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Sznajder, Michal; Senauer, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of major demographic and food trends in Poland and the rapid changes in Polish food retailing. The demographic changes include the size of the population; birth, death, marriage and divorce rates; the age distribution, education and household types. Two important demographic factors that will affect food consumption are the aging population and the major gap in education between urban and rural areas. In the next 20 years, the number of children will decrease r...

  11. Determinants of Deprivation among Part–time Cassava Farming Households in the Humid Tropi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak-Abasi A Etim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As cost of living rises and people’s wages / salaries do not cover their basic food and dietary needs, interest in parttime farming has risen. Part-time farming activities are being practiced by different people as a food security strategy from vulnerable households. But these part-time farms have had limited success in providing food/nutrition security, increasing incomes and improving well-being. Understanding the factors underlying their persistent deprivation is imperative when designing policies and programmes to meet their needs and improve their welfare. Farm level survey data collected from 60 households with the aid of questionnaire were used to estimate the determinants of deprivation by Tobit regression model. Using the maximum likelihood approach, asymptotic parameters estimates were evaluated to describe determinants of deprivation. Sex, marital status, household size, education, farm income and labour were significant determinants of deprivation.

  12. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    How does an economic crisis influence food related practices? This study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed in Danish households as a consequence of experienced restraints on food budgets. The study applied a mixed method design. The qualitative data source...... consisted of interviews with 30 individuals from Danish households with different socio-economic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms...... of application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, first seemed to appear when food budget...

  13. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where the unce......We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...... the uncertainty is described by a scenario tree generated from a vector auto-regressive process for equity returns and interest rate evolution. We find strong evidence of the importance of taking into account the multi-stage nature of the problem, as well as the need to consider the asset and liability sides...

  14. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  15. Household Poverty Dynamics in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Bokosi, Fanwell Kenala

    2006-01-01

    This paper’s goal is to identify the sources of expenditure and poverty dynamics among Malawian households between 1998 and 2002 and to model poverty transitions in Malawi using a bivariate probit model with endogenous selection to address the "initial conditions' problem. The exogeneity of the initial state is strongly rejected and could result in considerable overstatement of the effects of the explanatory factors. The results of the bivariate probit model do indicate that education of th...

  16. Householder triangularization of a quasimatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2008-01-01

    A standard algorithm for computing the QR factorization of a matrix A is Householder triangularization. Here this idea is generalized to the situation in which A is a quasimatrix, that is, a “matrix” whose “columns” are functions defined on an interval [a,b]. Applications are mentioned to quasimatrix leastsquares fitting, singular value decomposition, and determination of ranks, norms, and condition numbers, and numerical illustrations are presented using the chebfun system.

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs Are Present in Soil at Multiple Locations within Households in Rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Steinbaum

    Full Text Available Almost one-quarter of the world's population is infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and location of STH-Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm spp.-egg contamination in soil within rural household plots in Kenya. Field staff collected soil samples from July to September 2014 from the house entrance and the latrine entrance of households in Kakamega County; additional spatial sampling was conducted at a subset of households (N = 22 samples from 3 households. We analyzed soil samples using a modified version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA method for enumerating Ascaris in biosolids. We found 26.8% of households had one or more species of STH eggs present in the soil in at least one household location (n = 18 out of 67 households, and Ascaris was the most commonly detected STH (19.4%, n = 13 out of 67 households. Prevalence of STH eggs in soil was equally likely at the house entrance (19.4%, N = 67 as at the latrine entrance (11.3%, N = 62 (p = 0.41. We also detected STH eggs at bathing and food preparation areas in the three houses revisited for additional spatial sampling, indicating STH exposure can occur at multiple sites within a household plot, not just near the latrine. The highest concentration of eggs in one house occurred in the child's play area. Our findings suggest interventions to limit child exposure to household soil could complement other STH control strategies.

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs Are Present in Soil at Multiple Locations within Households in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbaum, Lauren; Njenga, Sammy M; Kihara, Jimmy; Boehm, Alexandria B; Davis, Jennifer; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of the world's population is infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH). We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and location of STH-Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm spp.-egg contamination in soil within rural household plots in Kenya. Field staff collected soil samples from July to September 2014 from the house entrance and the latrine entrance of households in Kakamega County; additional spatial sampling was conducted at a subset of households (N = 22 samples from 3 households). We analyzed soil samples using a modified version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method for enumerating Ascaris in biosolids. We found 26.8% of households had one or more species of STH eggs present in the soil in at least one household location (n = 18 out of 67 households), and Ascaris was the most commonly detected STH (19.4%, n = 13 out of 67 households). Prevalence of STH eggs in soil was equally likely at the house entrance (19.4%, N = 67) as at the latrine entrance (11.3%, N = 62) (p = 0.41). We also detected STH eggs at bathing and food preparation areas in the three houses revisited for additional spatial sampling, indicating STH exposure can occur at multiple sites within a household plot, not just near the latrine. The highest concentration of eggs in one house occurred in the child's play area. Our findings suggest interventions to limit child exposure to household soil could complement other STH control strategies. PMID:27341102

  19. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson;

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  20. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T; Krishna, Vijesh V; Qaim, Matin

    2015-08-25

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifying production on these smallholder farms is widely perceived as a useful approach to improve dietary diversity. However, empirical evidence on the link between production and consumption diversity is scarce. Here, this issue is addressed with household-level data from Indonesia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. Regression models show that on-farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity in some situations, but not in all. When production diversity is already high, the association is not significant or even turns negative, because of foregone income benefits from specialization. Analysis of other factors reveals that market access has positive effects on dietary diversity, which are larger than those of increased production diversity. Market transactions also tend to reduce the role of farm diversity for household nutrition. These results suggest that increasing on-farm diversity is not always the most effective way to improve dietary diversity in smallholder households and should not be considered a goal in itself. Additional research is needed to better understand how agriculture and food systems can be made more nutrition-sensitive in particular situations. PMID:26261342

  1. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  2. Food Assistance Programs and Outcomes in the Context of Welfare Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider how the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor force participation, and food insecurity status affect outcomes of low-income households under different program designs and economic co

  3. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  4. Farmers’ Behavioral Response and Anticipation Response to Food Subsidy Policies under Risk Conditions:Based on Household Survey Data in Major Grain Producing Areas%风险条件下农户对粮食补贴政策的预期及其行为反应--基于粮食主产区农户的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰; 吴连翠

    2015-01-01

    粮食补贴政策通过农户生产行为实现其政策传导,那么,在农业生产风险条件下,农户的风险偏好和政策预期是否影响到粮食补贴政策的作用发挥?基于粮食主产区农户的调研数据,将行为经济学的实验性测试分析方法运用于农户行为研究,分析不同风险偏好农户对补贴政策的预期和行为反应。研究结果显示:农户对粮食补贴政策的认知、态度及其风险偏好通过农户的政策预期作用到农户种粮决策行为,且农户的风险偏好和生产行为决策出现了“效用不一致”的现象,风险规避型农户对粮食补贴政策的预期相对较强,有更强烈的稳定粮食生产的预期,据此提出粮食补贴政策设计时应该考虑农户风险偏好特征,将风险规避型农户的粮食生产激励政策放在首要地位,稳定和刺激粮食生产发展。%Food subsidy policies are to achieve its policy through farmer production behaviors.Then under risk conditions of agricultural production,do farmers’ risk appetite and policy anticipation affect the perform⁃ance of food subsidy policies?Based on household survey data from major grain producing areas,experimental testing methods used in experimental behavioral economics research were adopted to analyze farmers’ behavioral responses and policy expectations under different risk preferences. The results show that farmers’ awareness of food subsidies,their attitudes and risk preferences through policy anticipation do affect farmers’ grain decision⁃making behaviors,that farmers’ risk appetite and production behavior conduct a“utility inconsistencies”phe⁃nomenon,and that risk⁃averse farmers have relatively higher policy expectations as well as stronger stabilizing grain production expectations.Accordingly,farmers’ risk appetite should be taken into consideration when de⁃signing food subsidy policies and food production incentives to risk

  5. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these resu...

  6. The Relationship between Commercial Agriculture and Food Availability to Kenyan Farm Families: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriti, Tabitha; Clement A. Tisdell

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the effects of agricultural commercialization and other factors on per capita food availability by means of a case study in the Nyeri district in Kenya. It was found that cash cropping has a negative influence on per capita food availability in the male-headed households. This negative influence is not apparent in the female-headed households and in fact, per capita food availability rises with increased agricultural commercialization. Households of married women seem to...

  7. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  8. A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mogotlane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aftermath of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has resulted in great suffering in terms of loss of income, poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality, with children being destitute and orphaned at an alarming rapid rate. Families and communities are currently unable to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS with special emphasis on the care and support of the affected orphans and vulnerable children, who as a result have been compelled to look after themselves giving rise to a new type of family, the child-headed household. The emergence of this type of family requires government’s response in terms of care and support. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad picture of the location, prevalence, composition, functions, needs and challenges of child-headed households in South Africa, and explore available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive design was used for the purpose. The sample consisted of children heading households and those living in the households that are headed by children; government departments responsible for child welfare, such as, the Departments of Social Development, Health, Education and Agriculture; non-profit organisations and communities where these households are predominant. From the data collected, it was found that the rights of the affected children were compromised. Those heading the households were often not at school and were responsible for domestic chores. The households needed food, clothes, money, shelter, and education. Government in attempting to address these needs required clear policies which will provide a distinction between orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households.The study recommended a collaborative approach as it was shown that there was no single model of best practice to appropriately and effectively address the needs of child-headed households.

  9. A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mogotlane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aftermath of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has resulted in great suffering in terms of loss of income, poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality, with children being destitute and orphaned at an alarming rapid rate. Families and communities are currently unable to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS with special emphasis on the care and support of the affected orphans and vulnerable children, who as a result have been compelled to look after themselves giving rise to a new type of family, the child-headed household. The emergence of this type of family requires government’s response in terms of care and support. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad picture of the location, prevalence, composition, functions, needs and challenges of child-headed households in South Africa, and explore available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive design was used for the purpose. The sample consisted of children heading households and those living in the households that are headed by children; government departments responsible for child welfare, such as, the Departments of Social Development, Health, Education and Agriculture; non-profit organisations and communities where these households are predominant.From the data collected, it was found that the rights of the affected children were compromised. Those heading the households were often not at school and were responsible for domestic chores. The households needed food, clothes, money, shelter, and education. Government in attempting to address these needs required clear policies which will provide a distinction between orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households.The study recommended a collaborative approach as it was shown that there was no single model of best practice to appropriately and effectively address the needs of child-headed households.

  10. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  11. Grandmothers, fathers and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186

  12. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  13. Measuring intra-household health inequality: explorations using the body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, David E; Younger, Stephen D

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines the relationship between level of well-being and inequality at inter-country and intra-household levels, using individuals' body mass index (BMI) rather than income as the indicator of well-being. BMI is useful for these purposes because (1) it is measured at the individual rather than household level; (2) it reflects command over food, but also non-food resources that affect health status like sanitary conditions and labour-saving technologies; (3) it accounts for caloric consumption relative to needs; (4) it is easily measured; and (5) any measurement error is likely to be random. We do not find any evidence to support the idea of an intra-household or inter-country Kuznets curve. We study the correlations between average household well-being, still measured by BMI, and differences in the BMIs of males and females, parents and children. Here, we find a tendency to protect the BMI of young children when living standards are very low. We find no clear patterns by gender. Perhaps the most striking finding in the paper is that about half of total BMI inequality at the country level is within households. Thus, standard measures of inequality that use household-level data may drastically understate true inequality.

  14. CAPTURED Ghana Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefa Dei, G.J.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Ghana Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the University of Development Studies has been able to achieve commendable results. It can be confirmed that the conte

  15. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  17. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  18. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Known as the " food of grain",chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime,its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties( districts) of Anhui Province as samples,the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research shows that farmers applying fertilizer are generally older in age with relatively lower degree of education,inveterate farming habits and small area of cultivation. Besides,the farmer households wish to receive training and guidance on techniques of fertilization,but very few of them have attended the trainings on agricultural technology. Moreover,the individual characteristics and family factors of farmer households have a significant impact on their fertilizer application behaviors. And the degrees of impact are also different for the fertilizer applying behaviors in different stages. Therefore,improving the educational level of farmer households,strengthening the training and promotion of agricultural techniques and accelerating land transfer among farmer households will play a fundamental role in regularizing the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households and improving the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  19. 1991 annual report of the Karlsruhe Federal Food Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Food Research Institute does research in the field of nutrition, food and household sciences as well as in related special fields. Among its working priorities are the determination of foreign matter and radionuclides in food as well as food preservation by means of irradiation including dosimetry. The results of those priorities are represented. (orig./MG)

  20. Direct thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the direct-capture theory pertaining to primary electric dipole (E1) transitions following slow-neutron capture. For light nuclides that we have studied (including 9Be, 12C, 13C, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 32S, 33S, 34S, 40Ca, and 44Ca), estimates of direct-capture cross sections using optical-model potentials with physically realistic parameters, are in reasonable agreement with the data. Minor disagreements that exist are consistent with extrapolations to light nuclides of generally accepted formulations of compound-nucleus capture. We also discuss the channel-capture approximation which is, in general, a good representation of these cross sections in heavier nuclei particularly if the scattering lengths are not different from the corresponding potential radii. We also draw attention to cases where the use of this formula leads to inaccurate predictions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab

  1. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  2. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  3. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  4. Has Decentralization in Indonesia Led to Elite Capture or Reflection of Majority Preference?

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2010-01-01

    Elite capture in the context of decentralization and democratization is a general concern in public good provision in developing countries. In this paper, we have empirically examined this hypothesis using a large rural household survey conducted in Indonesia concerning access of households to road and electricity services. In Indonesia, prior to decentralization, local infrastructure was supplied by a centralized authority that had the potential to provide infrastructures that did not match ...

  5. Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mirabella; Castellani, V.; Sala, S

    2014-01-01

    The production of food waste covers all the food life cycle: from agriculture, up to industrial manufacturing and processing, retail and household consumption. In developed countries, 42% of food waste is produced by households, while 39% losses occur in the food manufacturing industry, 14% in food service sector and remaining 5% in retail and distribution. Increasingly, industrial ecology concepts such as cradle to cradle and circular economy are considered leading principle for eco-innovati...

  6. [Citizen perception of food insecurity in the city of Santa Fe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, María Amalia; Wicky, Mariel Ivana; Nessier, María Celeste; Meyer, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research study was to describe the perceived level of food security in the households of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina, in 2011. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed, incorporating 592 homes included in the Panel of Households of the Social Observatory of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Households were characterized sociodemographically and classified according to the level of food security by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale. Association with sociodemographical factors was determined by odds ratios and logistic regression. It was found that 31.5% of households in Santa Fe show food insecurity: 21.7% is mild, 7.4% is moderate and 2.4% is severe, and insecurity is greater when children live in the household. Food insecurity is positively associated with lack of health coverage, lack of economic activity, inability to save, incomplete secondary level education and four or more people living in the household. PMID:26172099

  7. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  8. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in urban households as risk factor of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2016-01-01

    Urban occurrence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is linked to households with characteristics conducive to the presence of sand flies. This study proposes an ad hoc classification of households according to the environmental characteristics of receptivity to phlebotominae and an entomological study to validate the proposal. Here we describe the phlebotominae population found in intra- and peridomiciliary environments and analyse the spatiotemporal distribution of the VL vector Lutzomyia longipalpis of households receptive to VL. In the region, 153 households were classified into levels of receptivity to VL followed by entomological surveys in 40 of those properties. Kruskal-Wallis verified the relationship between the households’ classification and sand fly abundance and Kernel analysis evaluated L. longipalpis spatial distribution: of the 740 sand flies were captured, 91% were L. longipalpis; 82% were found peridomiciliary whilst the remaining 18% were found intradomiciliary. No statistically significant association was found between sandflies and households levels. L. longipalpis counts were concentrated in areas of high vulnerability and some specific households were responsible for the persistence of the infestation. L. longipalpis prevails over other sand fly species for urban VL transmission. The entomological study may help target the surveillance and vector control strategies to domiciles initiating and/or maintaining VL outbreaks. PMID:27223866

  9. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to fee

  10. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  11. Impact of Weather Shocks on MENA Households

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Liverani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Do households living in climate affected areas in the MENA region believe that changes in climate patterns and their environment are taking place? Have households been affected by extreme weather events, and if so to what extent and which events have had the largest impact? What are the coping strategies that households declare having used, or could be using to cope with climate change and...

  12. GENERATION OF RECYCLABLES BY RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Tiller, Kelly; Park, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider ways to reduce the waste stream. Using survey data, models explaining the weight of recyclables generated by households are estimated for paper and glass. Results indicate that households respond to the time cost of recycling paper but not glass. The waste generation models imply total monthly willingness to pay for recycling is $5.78 per household. Waste managers may increase the weight of recycled waste stream with programs ...

  13. Spending time and money within the household

    OpenAIRE

    Martin BROWNING; Gørtz, Metter

    2006-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household) or receives less consumption (which seems to indicate differing intrahousehold preferences). We develop a simple parametric structural model with household production that is tested on survey data. We ...

  14. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The ...

  15. Carbon Dioxide, Energy Taxes and Household Income

    OpenAIRE

    Cathal O'Donoghue

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a carbon tax on the income distribution in Ireland using the 1987 Household Budget Survey. Previous studies have focused on the direct impact of the carbon tax on expenditures on domestic fuels. This study however, drawing on previous work expands the analysis to cover the indirect impact of carbon taxes on other household purchases> A direct and indirect tax would have a less regressive effect on the income distribution than a simple direct tax on household ...

  16. Financial Satisfaction from Intra-Household Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; Victoria Ateca; Arantza Ugidos

    2007-01-01

    We address individuals’ financial satisfaction from the intra-household perspective. Our purpose is twofold. First, we want to contrast the hypothesis of relative income within the household. Does the income level of one individual relative to that of other members of the same household matter in his/her income satisfaction? Second, we want to test procedural utility hypothesis in that different sources of income may contribute differentially to individuals’ income satisfaction. In particular...

  17. Interventions to reduce household food insecurity: a synthesis of current concepts and approaches for Latin America Intervenções para reduzir a insegurança alimentar: uma síntese dos atuais conceitos e abordagens para a América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Diego Rose

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity has been documented in countries throughout the range of national incomes. Most Latin American countries, including Brazil, fall in the middle of this range. Although responses to problems of food insecurity need to be developed for specific contexts, valuable lessons for successful interventions can be learned from both low- and high-income countries. This article begins by describing a continuum of country-level food security contexts. The basic elements of food security, including food availability, access, and utilization, are reviewed as are more recent developments in the field, including livelihood analysis, vulnerability, and risk management strategies. A selection of public sector food security interventions is described that focus on improving agricultural production, increasing employment and household income, developing human capital, and distributing food. Recent international experiences and insights are used to develop themes for orientation of these types of food security interventions in Latin America. These include: the importance of planning relief efforts to be synergistic with long-run development; the tailoring of interventions to the needs of specific contexts; and the related expansion of information systems to support these activities. The article also describes the need to improve food security without leading to over-consumption, a problem of increasing concern in Latin America and elsewhere. Finally, development of local capacity through community-based participatory actions is suggested as a means for improving program outcomes as well as promoting human rights.A insegurança alimentar tem sido documentada em países de toda a gama de rendas nacionais, desde os países de mais baixa até os de mais alta renda. A maioria dos países latino-americanos, incluindo o Brasil, está no meio deste espectro. Embora as ações direcionadas aos problemas de insegurança alimentar precisem ser desenvolvidas de

  18. Do Local Elites Capture Natural Disaster Reconstruction Funds?

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    Using original survey data with rich, direct measures of local elites in rural Fiji, this article examines potential elite capture in the allocation of natural disaster reconstruction funds. Allocations of housing construction materials – both receipt and amount received – across villages, clans, and households are strongly targeted on cyclone damage, and local elites do not receive larger benefits over time. As the supply of reconstruction funds is limited during early periods, more severely...

  19. Entitlement to food security approach explaining food security in the southern highlands of Tanzania more than other theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dorah H. Mende; Maulid W. Mwatawala; Kim A. Kayunze

    2015-01-01

    Data for this paper were collected in Mbeya and Makete Districts, Tanzania, in 2012 from 233 households with the specific objectives to determine proportions of food secure and food insecure households; rank some indicators of entitlements and those of Malthusians, Anti-Malthusians and Woldemeskel’s contentions with regard to their relationship with food security; and determine the impact of the above indicators on dietary energy consumed per adult equivalent per day, which was the dependent ...

  20. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide