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Sample records for capture household food

  1. Annotated receipts capture household food purchases from a broad range of sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimotsu Scott T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of household food purchase behavior (HFPB is important for understanding its association with household characteristics, individual dietary intake and neighborhood food retail outlets. However, little research has been done to develop measures of HFPB. The main objective of this paper is to describe the development of a measure of HFPB using annotated food purchase receipts. Methods Households collected and annotated food purchase receipts for a four-week period as part of the baseline assessment of a household nutrition intervention. Receipts were collected from all food sources, including grocery stores and restaurants. Households (n = 90 were recruited from the community as part of an obesity prevention intervention conducted in 2007–2008 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Household primary shoppers were trained to follow a standardized receipt collection and annotation protocol. Annotated receipts were mailed weekly to research staff. Staff coded the receipt data and entered it into a database. Total food dollars, proportion of food dollars, and ounces of food purchased were examined for different food sources and food categories. Descriptive statistics and correlations are presented. Results A total of 2,483 receipts were returned by 90 households. Home sources comprised 45% of receipts and eating-out sources 55%. Eating-out entrees were proportionally the largest single food category based on counts (16.6% and dollars ($106 per month. Two-week expenditures were highly correlated (r = 0.83 with four-week expenditures. Conclusion Receipt data provided important quantitative information about HFPB from a wide range of sources and food categories. Two weeks may be adequate to reliably characterize HFPB using annotated receipts.

  2. Household food security, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetebo, R

    1997-12-01

    Two major projects incorporating household food security components have been implemented since the ICN. The first is a UNICEF-funded project that addresses community participation in development. The second is a FAO-funded project: "Promoting Household Food Security and Improving Nutrition through Nutrition Education and Training." This project examines the effects of processing and storage procedures on the nutrient quality of traditional and indigenous fruits and vegetables. It is a young project, but much is being learned from it. Other projects aim to minimize food wastage during processing and storage by developing new processing machinery for use by rural households. Women's issues have become central since the ICN and there is increased support from both government and nongovernment sources to help women with food production and processing.

  3. Household food wastage in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlock, R W; Buss, D H; Derry, B J

    1980-01-01

    1. The total food and drink available for human consumption in the United Kingdom would provide approximately 13 MJ (3100 kcal)/person per d, while the energy intake recommended for the population is approximately 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/person per d. A proportion of this substantial difference must be due to wastage in the home as well as in catering establishments and during the storage, distribution and processing of food. 2. As part of a general investigation of this problem, a representative sample of 100 British households was asked to collect all the potentially-edible food wasted in their homes during 1 week, and to keep a record of the food, other than commercial pet food, which they gave to pets and wild birds. A total of 672 households co-operated fully, 338 in summer and 334 in winter. Each food sample received was weighed, and its energy content was determined calorimetrically. 3. Significantly more waste food was collected in summer than in winter, equivalent to 9.3 MJ (2220 kcal)/household per week and 7.1 MJ (1700 kcal)/household per week respectively. In terms of energy, cereals, fat and meat wastage predominated, while in terms of weight, milk was more important and fat less so. 4. Considerable quantities of otherwise edible food were also given to pets and birds, accounting on average for a further 2.4 MJ (570 kcal) and 3.0 MJ (710 kcal)/household per week in summer and winter respectively. The energy content of all food wasted in the home therefore averaged 11.7 MJ (2790 kcal)/household per week in summer and 10.1 MJ (2410 kcal)/households per week in winter, equivalent to 0.6 MJ (150 kcal) and 0.5 MJ (130 kcal)/person per d respectively. This is less than one-quarter of the gap between food supplies and the amount of food thought to be eaten in the UK. 5. Food wastage was significantly influenced by the composition of the family, with adults wasting more in absolute terms than children, and larger households wasting less per person than smaller

  4. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  5. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...... such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...

  7. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  8. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Cunnyngham; Beth Brown

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 21.3 million people received food stamps each month in 2003. A little more than half of all food stamp households contained children, and most of these households were headed by a single parent. About 18 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $195 per household. Compared with 2002, the number of pr...

  9. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste....

  10. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  11. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  12. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  13. Rising Food Insecurity: Dimensions in Farm Households

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    Okezie C. Austin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nigeria runs the risk of slowing further progress toward the achievement of MDG-1 to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty; the fourth goal, to reduce child mortality since over 30% of child deaths are attributable to malnutrition and the fifth goal relating to reduction in maternal mortality. This study evaluated the manifestation of food insecurity in households in Abia State, Nigeria. Approach: Systematic sampling was adopted in selecting households from the three geopolitical zones in the state. Primary and secondary data were used in the study. Data collection involved the use of structured questionnaires. Food intake, height and weight measures of children were taken Data analysis in involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Domestic food production is increasing but demand remained above production. The shortfall along with food import is on the increase. The composite consumer price index for food has continued to rise over the years. Logistic results show that income significantly reduced exposure to food insecurity while household size was an important determinant of food security. Children were more exposed to the incidence of growth retardation and stunting with increasing household size. Birth order increases the incidence of stunting. As more children come into the family there is increasing marginalization of the subsequent ones. Conclusion: Food insecurity is a developmental challenge in Nigeria. The country is characterized by high food imports and declining productivity of agriculture. Malnutrition is widespread especially among children in rural Nigeria. The study recommends family planning education to stern the over bloated population.

  14. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...... also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than...

  15. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  16. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002 (Professional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso; Daisy Ewell

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  17. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  18. Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén; Wikström, Fredrik; Otterbring, Tobias; Löfgren, Martin; Gustafsson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world’s limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during sev...

  19. Household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct.

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    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    A large body of research has found that household food insecurity can interfere with the healthy development of children. The link between household food insecurity during childhood and misbehaviors during adolescence, however, is not commonly explored. The objective of the current study is to assess whether household food insecurity across childhood predicts four different forms of misconduct during early adolescence. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of U.S. children, were employed in the present study. Associations between household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct were examined using Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression. Analyses were performed separately for males and females. The results revealed that household food insecurity and food insecurity persistence were predictive of most forms of misconduct for males, and were consistently predictive of engagement in multiple forms of misconduct and a greater variety of forms of misconduct for males. For females, however, household food insecurity generally failed to predict adolescent misconduct. The behavioral development of males during adolescence appears to be sensitive to the presence and persistence of household food insecurity during childhood. Future research should seek to replicate and extend the present findings to late adolescence and adulthood.

  20. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... significantly among the studies and differ from one country to another. Here, we provide a consistent methodology for characterization of household food waste, so that data comparability and source information are ensured. In this study, residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from more than...

  1. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

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    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households.

  2. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studie...

  3. Child food insecurity increases risks posed by household food insecurity to young children's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Food Security Scale (USFSS) measures household and child food insecurity (CFI) separately. Our goal was to determine whether CFI increases risks posed by household food insecurity (HFI) to child health and whether the Food Stamp Program (FSP) modifies these effects. From 1998 to 2004, 17,158 ...

  4. Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Zubieta, Ana C; MkNelly, Barbara; Nteziyaremye, Anastase; Gerardo, Maria Filipinas D; Dunford, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.

  5. The effect of household income and seasonal price changes on household food expenditure patterns. A case study of Vihiga District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritho, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of food price changes and relative household incomes on household food expenditure patterns in Kenya. Primary data on household budgets and monthly market prices for selected food items were collected in two agroecological zones of Vihiga

  6. Unwanted childbearing and household food insecurity in the United States.

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    Patel, Shivani A; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-04-01

    Household food insecurity is a population health concern disproportionately affecting families with children in the United States. Unwanted childbearing may place unanticipated strain on families to meet basic needs, heightening the risk for household food insecurity. We investigated the association between mother's and father's report of unwanted childbearing and exposure to household food insecurity among children residing in two-parent households in the United States. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort, a nationally representative cohort of US children (n ∼ 6150), were used to estimate the odds of household food insecurity when children were aged 9 months and 2 years, separately, based on parental report of unwanted childbearing. The majority of children were reported as wanted by both parents (74.4%). Of the sample, report of unwanted childbearing by father-only was 20.0%, mother-only was 3.4% and joint mother and father was 2.2%. Household food insecurity was higher when children were 9 months compared with 2 years. In adjusted models accounting for confounders, children born to mothers and fathers who jointly reported unwanted childbearing were at higher odds of exposure to household food insecurity at 9 months [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97, 5.57] and 2 years (AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.68). In two-parent households, we found that children raised by parents reporting unwanted childbearing were more likely to be exposed to food insecurity and potentially related stressors. Further studies that prospectively measure wantedness before the child's birth will aid in confirming the direction of this association.

  7. The costs of household food waste in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem; Oelofse, Suzan; Godfrey, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. This paper quantifies the household food waste stream in South Africa, in order to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem. In addition, it estimates the economic (monetary) value of the wasted food, as well as the costs associated with disposing putrescible food waste to landfill, in order to highlight the associated costs to society. Costs associated with the loss of a potentially valuable food source are valued using a weighted average market price of the wasted food. Costs associated with the disposal of food waste to landfill are quantified based on estimates of the financial and external costs associated with landfilling. For household food waste alone, the costs to society associated with these two food-waste related problems are estimated at approximately R21.7 billion (approximately US$2.7 billion) per annum, or 0.82% of South Africa's annual GDP. These costs are therefore significant, particularly considering that household food waste accounts for less than 4% of total food losses across the food supply chain.

  8. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  9. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Wesley R; Sharkey Joseph R; Johnson Cassandra M; John Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of tech...

  10. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household.

  11. Household food diversity and nutritional status among adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a diversity of healthy foods in a household would decrease the availability of unhealthy foods and to evaluate the association between a healthy dietary diversity score (DDS and nutritional status among adults. Methods Data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey were used. This nationwide survey used a two-stage sampling technique: households were selected after selection of primary sample units (PSUs. Analyses were based on 3,393 PSUs, evaluating 659,816 records of food items purchased by 35,237 households. The DDS was based on the healthy food groups according to Brazilian food guidelines. Per capita acquisition of sugar, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and crackers, cookies and cakes (unhealthy food groups in PSUs was also calculated. Individual weight and height were measured at household. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of underweight and overweight and obesity (excess weight with the PSUs' DDS. Results Greater acquisition of unhealthy food groups was associated with higher DDS. A high PSU's DDS was negatively associated with underweight (β = -0.38; p-value = 0.04 and positively associated with excess weight (β = 0.98; p-value = 0.05 after adjustment for availability of unhealthy food groups and socioeconomic variables. Conclusions Our data indicate that there was no replacement of unhealthy food groups by healthy food groups, therefore a healthy diet message for obesity prevention should be combined with a message focused on eating less.

  12. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Gjerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B explanations for food waste at household level; (C a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives need to be developed to establish cultural habits replacing a focus on affluence and individual choice with a focus on participatory embeddedness in a more-than-human lifeworld.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1786

  13. Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Magana-Lemus, David; Ishdorj, Ariun; Rosson, C. Parr III

    2013-01-01

    Food security is defined as the situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy and active life (FAO 1996). According to official figures, 24.8% of Mexican population experienced moderate or severe food insecurity in 2010. This represents an increase of 3.1 percentage points with respect to 21.7% in 2008. In other words, this represents an increase of 4.1 million in...

  14. Food Price Change and its Welfare Impact on Iranian Households

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    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV.The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricultural products increased during the entire survey period of 2004 to 2012. Based on our estimates, the food groups of cereals, dairy products, vegetable and pulses, Potables and Spices are necessary goods, as their budget elasticity is positive and below one at the same time. Meat, edible oils, fruits and dried fruits and Sugary products are luxury goods, with income elasticity above one. We find that the remarkable increases in food prices resulted in severe erosion of purchasing power for the Iranian urban households and they need to be compensated on average about 48% of their initial income for the food price changes they faced during the 2004 and 2012. In addition the high share of cereals in year 2012 implies that urban households shift their consumption to cheaper calorie source. This figure is confirmed with the decline in the share of meat, dairy Products, fruits and dried fruits, vegetables and pulses and potables expenditure.

  15. Predicting percentage of individuals consuming foods from percentage of households purchasing foods to improve the use of household budget surveys in estimating food chemical intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambe, J.; Kearney, J.; Becker, W.; Hulshof, K.; Dunne, A.; Gibney, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the hypothesis that there is sufficient agreement between percentage of households purchasing selected foods using household budget surveys and percentage of individuals consuming these foods as determined in individual-based surveys to allow the former to act as a surrogate fo

  16. Economic abuse and intra-household inequities in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M

    2006-01-01

    Food insecurity affected over 2.3 million Canadians in 2004. To date, the food security literature has not considered the potential impact of economic abuse on food security, but there are three ways in which these two important public health issues may be related: 1) victims of economic abuse are at risk of food insecurity when they are denied access to adequate financial resources; 2) the conditions that give rise to food insecurity may also precipitate intimate partner violence in all its forms; 3) women who leave economically abusive intimate heterosexual relationships are more likely to live in poverty and thus are at risk of food insecurity. This paper presents a case of one woman who, during a qualitative research interview, spontaneously reported economic abuse and heterosexual interpersonal violence. The economic abuse suffered by this participant appears to have affected her food security and that of her children, while her husband's was apparently unaffected. There is an urgent need to better understand the nature of intra-household food distribution in food-insecure households and the impact of economic abuse on its victims' food security. Such an understanding may lead to improved food security measurement tools and social policies to reduce food insecurity.

  17. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  18. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

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    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  19. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  20. Do the School Nutrition Programs Supplement Household Food Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs (a sample of 5,977 students) were used to develop estimates that somewhat less than half of each additional dollar of National School Lunch Program benefits is used by households to supplement food expenditures, and all of each additional dollar of School Breakfast Program benefits is…

  1. Coping strategies and attitudes to food in budget constrained households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature primarily from English speaking countries has made it very clear that there is a higher risk of obesity among individuals who live under economic constraints, especially if they live in so-called food insecure households. The reason for this association, however, is not well...

  2. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  3. Attitudes and behaviour of Greek households regarding food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Lasaridi, Katia; Chroni, Christina

    2014-03-01

    Food waste is a waste stream with serious economic, environmental and social implications. The emphasis of the reported research is on the food waste generated by households in Greece. A structured questionnaire was utilised in order to identify the attitudes of the respondents and investigate the prevalence of certain behavioural good practices that can prevent the generation of food waste. The research, to our knowledge the first of its kind in Greece, took place in February and March 2012. Face-to-face interviews were employed, resulting to a total of 231 consumers fully completing the questionnaire. Results indicate that, based on self-reported behaviour, people in Greece have positive attitudes towards food waste prevention and that their habits are close to the good practices suggested in the literature for reducing food waste. For instance, most respondents do plan their food shopping in a multitude of ways and are very careful in their purchases of fresh food supplies. However, about 40% misunderstand the meaning of food date labels. The positive findings are strongly influenced by the severe recession experienced in the country, which makes consumers more conscious of their spending. Results may serve as a yardstick to further promote and establish food waste prevention behaviour at the household level on an environmental and social awareness basis that may outlast the economic crisis.

  4. Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data

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    Vasconcellos ABPA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on food intake at the individual level and its statistical distribution in population groups defined by age, gender, or geographic areas are important in planning public health and nutrition programs. However, individual-based surveys in representative population samples are expensive to perform. Methods/Design In Brazil, an individual based survey is under consideration to be conducted alongside the household budget survey (HBS, which will be carried out in 2008–2009. This paper presents the methodological framework of dietary data collection and indicates the directions to combining both sources of data. The 2008–2009 Brazilian HBS sample will include 60,000 households. Of the selected HBS households, 30% will be randomly sampled to gather data on individual food intake. Therefore, individual dietary intake data is expected to be gathered for 70,000 individuals. Data collection procedures will comprise: completion of a diary with information regarding food purchases during a seven-day period; registration of all items consumed during two non-consecutive days for all 10 year-old or older members of the household. The sample will be large enough to capture the variation between individuals, and the two records will assure the estimation of the variation within individuals for food groups, energy and nutrients. Data on individual dietary intake and food family budget will be stratified by the five regions of the country and by rural or urban. A pilot study has been conducted in two states, and it indicated that combining individual and budgetary data in a survey is feasible. Discussion This kind of study will allow us to estimate correlations between individual intake and household purchases, overcoming the limitations of individual dietary surveys, and enhancing the HBS with information on eating out and intra-familiar distribution of food.

  5. Household food waste recycling in Hong Kong : issues and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-man; 陳懿雯

    2014-01-01

    The food waste problem has recently been put in the spotlight in Hong Kong and around the world. Food waste is the largest part of the municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, which accounts for more than a third of all solid waste. In 2011, there was approximately 3,600 tonnes of food waste generated everyday, with two-thirds coming from households and one-third from the commercial and industrial sector. The capacities of the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong are going to be exhausted soon. ...

  6. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  7. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Food Expenditures of Rural Households in Iran

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    Alireza Karbasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of climate change on food expenditure in rural household of Iran. Food expenditure is investigated as a function of average income of rural households, retail food price index and food expenditure for rural households, agricultural sown area and climate change. Here, the Stata11 software is used and data are from 26 provinces of the country for 10 years. Precipitation, temperature and relative humidity are considered as indicators for climate variables. The results indicated a positive and significant effect of average income of rural households, retail food prices, food expenditure of rural households with a lag and precipitation on the food expenditure of rural households. Agricultural sown area and relative humidity had no effect on the food expenditure of rural households and temperature had a significant and negative effect on the food expenditure of rural households. In the end, due to the impact that each of these variables explicitly have on food expenditure of rural households and implicitly on food security of rural households, suggestions for maintaining and improving food security of rural households is presented.

  9. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  10. Use of food expenditure data to estimate household nutrient accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T; Patterson, A W

    1996-03-01

    The nutritional status of at-risk groups is usually monitored using health statistics. This approach has limitations as individuals are identified only after they have been afflicted by morbidity. In Jamaica, national surveys are carried out in which expenditure data on all consumption items are collected. We used these data to monitor food accessibility in at-risk groups. The identification of decreases in accessibility levels relative to requirements would enable timely intervention before there is a deterioration in nutritional status. We analysed the data from the survey of 3861 households conducted by Statistical and Planning Institutes of Jamaica in 1989. Using the food expenditure data, per capita energy and protein accessibility levels were determined. The mean energy and protein accessibility levels for the sample were 2170 Cals and 64 g, respectively. The results showed that the per capita accessibility levels of 20% and 9% of the households were less than half of requirements for energy and protein, respectively. The situation was worse in rural areas than in urban centres. However, the accessibility levels may have been underestimated as the data did not include meals bought and consumed away from the home, which may be significant to some households. We believe that the use of data from these surveys is a cost-effective way to monitor nutrient accessibility in Jamaica.

  11. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less sev

  12. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya: a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food availability of

  13. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  14. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

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    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  15. Household food availability in Pelotas, Brazil: An approach to assess the obesogenic environment

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    Ana Luiza Gonçalves Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify household food availability according to socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil to determine household food availability in the 30 days that preceded the interview. Availability was considered high when food was "always" or "usually" available at home. The independent variables were: age and education level of the household head, number of household members, presence of children or adolescents, National Wealth Score, and family income. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1,555 households. A high availability of fruits and vegetables (80% was more prevalent than that of soft drinks, processed meats, and sweets (40%. Whole grains and frozen foods were never available in half of the households. High-sugar and high-fat foods were positively related and fruits and whole grains were negatively related to the presence of children or adolescents in the household. National Wealth Score, family income, and age and education level of the household head were associated with household food availability. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors and demographic characteristics were associated with household food availability. High household availability of fruits and vegetables, together with sweets, processed meats, and soft drinks suggests the complex eating practices of a household, impairing classifying the environment as obesogenic.

  16. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

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    Seydou Zakari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests, labor supply, flooding, poverty, access to market, the distance away from the main road and food aid are significant factors influencing the odds ratio of a household having enough daily rations. Another important finding is that female headed households are more vulnerable to food insecurity compared to male headed households. The findings of this study provide evidence that food insecurity continues to affect the Nigerien population.

  17. Home transport and wastage: environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Ulf; Anteson, Frida; Davis, Jennifer; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest.

  18. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EASTERN AND WESTERN INDONESIA

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    Puspi Eko Wiranthi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Food Security Council in 2009 issued a Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA which stated that there were 100 districts in Indonesia which were most vulnerable to food insecurity and 79% of which were located in eastern region. By using Susenas regular data in 2008, this study aimed to analyze determinants of household food security in eastern compared to western region. The ordered logistic regression model was employed to investigate the determinants of household food security. The result showed that most of households in Indonesia were vulnerable to food insecurity (41.76%. The percentage in eastern region (48.56% was higher than that in western region (41.76%. Increase in expenditure equivalent, age and education level of household head, female household head, small household size, household head’s occupation in non-agriculture and urban household would increase the probability of a household to become food secure in both regions. The difference was in the factor of access to electricity in eastern and access to safe drinking water and loan in western region. Policies which aim to increase education, credit access, and intensive family planning have big roles in improving household food security.

  20. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  1. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  2. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P crisis.

  3. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p food expenditure (p food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.

  4. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; p<0.05) and non-working mothers (OR=6.15; p<0.05), did not own any land (OR=3.18; p<0.05) and adopted the strategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; p<0.05). However, mothers who reported to borrow money to purchase food (OR=0.84; p<0.05) and households with higher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; p<0.05) were more likely to be food secure. Understanding the factors that contribute to household food insecurity is imperative so that

  5. Household Food Expenditure Patterns, Food Nutrient Consumption and Nutritional Vulnerability in Nigeria: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerele, Dare

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the patterns of food spending, food nutrient consumption, and nutrient deficiency profiles of households in Nigeria using a cross-sectional nationwide household survey data. Food nutrients were estimated from food expenditure data while the nutrient deficiency profiles were assessed adapting Foster et al. (1984) poverty index. The study established widespread nutritional deficiencies with low-income household cohorts bearing a greater burden of the deficiencies. Protein-protein deficiency appears to be much more prevalent in urban than rural areas. However, the deficiency of micro-nutrients seems to diffuse across urban-rural divides of the country with deficiency of calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C appearing to be more pronounced in rural areas while phosphorous, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin B3 deficiencies seem to be higher in urban settings. Pro-poor income growth strategies and sensitively guided urban-rural food and nutrition interventions are advocated for improved food consumption and nutritional deficiency reduction.

  6. Correlates of household food insecurity and low dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; McLean, Judy; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng Province, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity (HDDSfood insecurity were 33%, 37%, and 12%; and 23% of households had an HDDSfood security status, although the latter association lost its significance in models that adjusted for household income. Similarly, although ownership of agricultural and homestead land was initially associated with poorer dietary diversity, income mitigated these associations. The presence of electricity and vegetable production were the only other variables that were significantly associated with both outcomes. In this rural area of Cambodia, the prevalence of any degree of household food insecurity was very high and dietary diversity was generally low. Interventions to improve food security and dietary diversity should encompass income-generating activities and be targeted toward the poorest households.

  7. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have established a relationship between poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about the acute changes within households that lead to changes in food insecurity. This study examined how changes in income, employment status, and receipt of welfare related to change in severity of food insecurity during 1 y among low-income families. In 2005-2007, 501 families living in market and subsidized rental housing were recruited through door-to-door sampling in high-poverty neighborhoods in Toronto. One year later, families were re-interviewed. The final longitudinal analytic sample included 331 families. Within-household change in income, employment, and welfare receipt were examined in relation to change in severity of food insecurity. Severity was denoted by the aggregate raw score on the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Analyses were stratified by housing subsidy status owing to differences in characteristics between households. Food insecurity was a persistent problem among families; 68% were food insecure at both interviews. Severity was dynamic, however, as 73.4% answered more or fewer questions affirmatively on the HFFSM between baseline and follow-up. Among market-rent families, a $2000 gain in income during the year and gain of full-time employment were associated with a 0.29 and 1.33 decrease in raw score, respectively (P income and employment are related to improvements in families' experiences of food insecurity, highlighting the potential for income- and employment-based policy interventions to affect the severity of household food insecurity for low-income families.

  8. Food Security: Indicators, Measurement, and the Impact of Household Behavior on Food Acquisition and Allocation, Experimental Evidence from Tibet, China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuan-lin; Li, Xiang-mei

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the magnitude of food insecurity and its determinants in rural households of Tibet, China. In this paper, a community based cross-sectional study was conducted from 2002 to 2013, whole about Tibet (this survey program was founded by Tibet Government Founding). In the study, household heads were recruited using a multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tool after ...

  9. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  10. Utilization of Selected Vitality Staple Foods by Low Income Households in Ebonyi State

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    Igba, Chimezie Elizabeth; Okoro, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the utilization of selected vitality foods among low income household in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study aimed at identifying vitality foods that are available, accessible and utilized by low income household in state. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study is 2,173,501 households…

  11. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  12. Household food insecurity, mother′s feeding practices, and the early childhood′s iron status

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    Nahid Salarkia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  13. Household Food Insecurity: Serious Concerns for Child Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gundersen, Craig; Koester, Brenda; Washington, LaTesha

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 14.7% of households were food insecure at some time during the year. In other words, members of those households did not have access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. This is arguably the most serious nutrition-related public health problem facing the U.S. today. The serious developmental consequences of food…

  14. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients.

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY SITUATION AMONG NIGERIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS: EVIDENCE FROM LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

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    Bolarin Titus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented the food security situation among urban households in Nigeria. Primary data were used in this study and these were obtained with a structured questionnaire. The households were randomly selected from 7 locations with the number selected proportionate to the size of each location. The analytical tools used include tables, percentages and food security incidence. The food insecurity incidence for the study area is 0.49. Food insecurity incidence increases with increase in age of household heads. It is highest when household heads are within the range of 61 – 70 years at 0.58 and least within range 21 –30 years at 0.30. Food insecurity incidence is higher in femaleheaded households at 0.49 than in male-headed households at 0.38. Food insecurity incidence decreases with increase in level of education. Food insecurity incidence is relatively low for those engaged in professional occupation and highest for traders. Food insecurity incidence is highest at 0.48 and lowest at 0.33 for the traders and unemployed respectively. Food insecurity incidence increases with increase in household size. This ranges between 0.27 and 1.00 for those households made up of 1-4 and greater than 12 members respectively. There is a decline in food insecurity incidence as income increases from 0.41 for the low-income group to 0.20 for the high-income group. On the basis of dependence ratio, food insecurity incidence increases with increase in dependency ratio. This increases from 0.30 for households with no dependence to 0.50 for households with greater than 1 dependency ratio.

  16. Assessment of Farm Household Food Security and Consumption Indices in Nigeria

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    Ojeleye, O. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess farm households’ food security and consumption indices. The study was conducted in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of 244 farm households with the use of structured questionnaire using a multistage random and purposive sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and food security index. The study shows that about one third of the rural farm households sampled was food insecure and that the average farm size of the farm households was 2.05ha as food secure and insecure households cultivate 2.09ha and 1.96ha respectively. Average farm and non-farm income were $1,130.7 and $810.3 per annum respectively as household daily calorie consumed was found to exceed household daily calorie requirement. The food security indices for the food secure and insecure households were found to be 1.462 and 0.852 respectively. Large family size was found to lower available calorie intake of households. The study recommends the need for family planning education and policy frames to increase household farm size.

  17. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  18. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

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    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs have increased awareness about food and nutrition insecurity in the court of public opinion. Thus, it's important to understand the potential that EBFSSs have for improving food and nutrition security governance within and across countries. The case of Brazil illustrates the strong likelihood that EBFSSs do have a strong potential to influence food and governance from the national to the municipal level. A recent Gallup World Poll data analysis on the influence of the '2008 food crisis' on food hardship illustrates how even a single item from EBFSSs can help examine if food security governance in different world regions modifies the impact of crises on household food insecurity. Systematic research that bridges across economics, political science, ethics, public health and program evaluation is needed to better understand if and how measurement in general and EBFSSs in particular affect food security governance.

  19. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

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    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  20. PREDICTION OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF HOUSEHOLDS FOOD SECURITY IN THE LAKE VICTORIA REGION OF KENYA

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    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.

  1. Seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquey, Elodie; Delpeuch, Francis; Konaté, Amadou M; Delsol, Hervé; Lange, Matthias; Zoungrana, Mahama; Martin-Prevel, Yves

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is affecting an increasing number of urban poor in the developing world. Yet seasonal characteristics of food intakes have rarely been studied in West African cities. The objective of the present study was to assess the seasonality of the dietary dimension of household food security in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). In 2007, two sets of data were collected during the lean and post-harvest seasons, respectively, on a representative sample of 1056 households. At each season, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls were performed at the household level. Food prices were also recorded. Household food security was assessed by the household's mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for energy and eleven micronutrients. Changes in the MAR according to the season were analysed by mixed multivariate linear regression. Results showed that intakes of energy and of ten micronutrients were significantly lower during the lean season than during the post-harvest season, leading to a lower MAR in the lean season (49·61 v. 53·57, P foods prepared at home. Food security relied heavily on food expenses (P economically dependent adults (P = 0·021) and larger households (P food security. To achieve food security in Ouagadougou, access to micronutrient-dense foods needs to be ensured in all seasons.

  2. The impact of food allergy on household level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food can be caused by food hypersensitivity. Prominent examples include food allergy or food intolerance. Patients suffering from food hypersensitivity have inappropriate autoimmune system reactions to potentially harmless food components. Symptoms can vary from uncomfortable sk

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

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    Hala Ghattas

    Full Text Available Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501 was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43 of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22 severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86 while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84. Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97 and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66, as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38 and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13. Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001 and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001 or welfare (p<0.001. They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102. Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  4. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

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    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  5. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

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    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  6. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  7. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; Pfood purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  8. Is Household Food Insecurity Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Women?

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    Fatemeh Mohammadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite reports on association between overweight/obesity among women and household food insecurity (FI in developed countries, such association is not evident in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between household FI and weight status in adult females in Tehran, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 households were selected through systematic cluster sampling from 6 districts of Tehran. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Socio-economic status of the household was assessed by a questionnaire. Three consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were completed. FI was measured using adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of SES and food security on weight status, simultaneously. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM potential causal relationships between FI and weight status was explored.Results: Only 1.0% of women were underweight, while 40.3% were overweight and 33% were obese, respectively. Severe, moderate, and mild food insecurity was observed in 11.5, 14.7, and 17.8%, respectively. Among women in moderately food insecure households, the possibility of overweight was lower than those of food secure households (OR 0.41; CI95%:0.17-0.99, while in severely food insecure households, the risk of abdominal obesity for women was 2.82 times higher than food secures (CI95%:1.12-7.08 (P<0.05. SEM detected no causal relationship between FI and weight status.Conclusion: Association of severe food insecurity with abdominal obesity in adult females of households may indicate their vulnerability and the need for tailoring programs to prevent further health problems in this group.

  9. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

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    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity.

  10. Demographic and socioeconomic conditions associated with food insecurity in households in Campinas, SP, Brazil

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    Bruna Fernanda do Nascimento Jacinto de SOUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of food insecurity with demographic and socioeconomic conditions in households in Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample of the urban population of the Southern, Southwestern, and Northwestern Health Districts of Campinas, between 2011-2012. Characteristics of the head of household, family history and household patterns were investigated. The dependent variable was food security condition, categorized as food security, mild food insecurity, and moderate/severe food insecurity. All independent variables with p-value <0.20 in the bivariate multinomial logistic regression were included in the final model of multiple multinomial logistic regression, adjusted to household head age; the remaining variables had p-value <0.05. Results: In the 691 households analyzed, there was 65% of food security, 27.9% of mild food insecurity, and 7.1% of moderate/severe food insecurity. The conditions associated with mild food insecurity were monthly per capita income less than the minimum wage, household head unemployed for more than six months between 2004-2010, living in properties given to the family/occupied/other, and density higher than two people per bedroon. The moderate/severe food insecurity was associated with informal employment condition of the household head and the presence of a beneficiary of the Bolsa Família (Family Allowance Program, a cash transfer-type program, in the household. The higher the score of the consumer goods, the lower the probability of mild food insecurity or moderate/severe food insecurity. There was a higher probability of mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity in unfinished masonry-built houses/other. Conclusion: More than one third of the households investigated experienced some form of food insecurity. Mild food insecurity was associated with demographic conditions, while moderate

  11. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

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    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status.

  12. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

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    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  13. Measuring household food security: the global experience A medida da segurança alimentar: a experiência mundial

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    Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring household food insecurity represents a challenge due to the complexity and wide array of factors associated with this phenomenon. For over one decade, researchers and agencies throughout the world have been using and assessing the validity of variations of the United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Supplemental Module. Thanks to numerous studies of diverse design, size, and purpose, the Household Food Security Supplemental Module has shown its suitability to directly evaluate the perceptions of individuals on their food security status. In addition, challenges and limitations are becoming clearer and new research questions are emerging as the process advances. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, validation procedures, and use of the Household Food Security Supplemental Module in very diverse settings. The most common Household Food Security Supplemental Module related studies have been conducted using criterion validity, Rasch modeling and Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient. It is critical that researchers, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental agencies intensify their efforts to further develop tools that provide valid and reliable measures of food security in diverse population groups. Additional work is needed to synthesize a universally applicable tool able to capture the global human phenomenon of food insecurity.Medir a insegurança alimentar domiciliar representa um desafio devido à complexidade e ao vasto número de fatores associados a este fenômeno. Por mais de uma década, pesquisadores e agências em todo o mundo têm usado o Módulo Suplementar da Segurança Alimentar Domiciliar , do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos (Household Food Security Supplemental Module, e avaliado suas variações. Graças a numerosos estudos com diversos formatos, extensões e propósitos, a adequação do Household Food Security Supplemental Module para avaliar diretamente a

  14. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    . Such strategies may take various forms. Time buying may entail a) investing into additional household equipment (microwave ovens, dishwashers), b) buy food products which have a higher degree of convenience, c) eating out, and d) hiring paid help. Time saving may entail a) increasing productivity in household...... products by their degree of convenience. To this end, foods were classified on two dimensions: non-convenience/semi-convenience/convenience, and main meals/accessory stuff/lunch-breakfast, resulting in 9 food categories. In addition, snacks were used as a 10th category. 6. The results show that of all...... household expenses for main meals, about two thirds are in the non-convenience category. For lunch-breakfast, semi-convenient and convenient products account for 40% of the total expenses. Snacks account for 18% of the total food budget. There is considerable variation between households. 7. Relating...

  15. Associations Between Household Food Insecurity in Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Markowitz, Anna J

    2017-03-21

    Using nationally representative data on a recent birth cohort of U.S.-born children in low-income households (n = 2,800-3,700), this study investigates associations between the timing and intensity of early childhood food insecurity and children's kindergarten reading, math, and social-emotional outcomes. Descriptive patterns reveal that approximately 20% of low-income 0- to 5-year-old children reside in food-insecure households. Food insecurity experienced during early childhood is unfavorably associated with social-emotional outcomes in kindergarten, controlling for household income and prior assessments of child social-emotional skills. Results are less consistent for cognitive outcomes but similar in magnitude. If replicated, findings may inform policy efforts to reduce disparities in early skills for approximately 15 million U.S. children in food-insecure households.

  16. High Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Hunger in Households in the Rural Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuff, Janice E.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Connell, Carol; Ryan, Donna; Zaghloul, Sahar; Thornton, Alma; Simpson, Pippa; Gossett, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi are at risk for food insecurity since a high proportion of the population live in households with incomes below the poverty level and have reduced access to food and decreased availability of a variety of foods. However, the magnitude of the problem is unknown because…

  17. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  18. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  19. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  20. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  1. The impact of food allergy on household level

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, J.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food can be caused by food hypersensitivity. Prominent examples include food allergy or food intolerance. Patients suffering from food hypersensitivity have inappropriate autoimmune system reactions to potentially harmless food components. Symptoms can vary from uncomfortable skin rashes to cardiovascular problems such as anaphylactic shock. To date, no general cure is available. As a consequence, the management of food allergy consists of allergen avoidance, which may ca...

  2. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are

  3. Development of a food security measurement tool for New Zealand households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Winsome R; Gray, Andrew R

    2014-10-28

    To determine the prevalence of household food insecurity in New Zealand (NZ), eight food security statements were included in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey of adults. Rasch model analysis was performed to determine whether each food security statement (addressing a food security attribute) was discrete and could be ranked on a unidimensional scale. The NZ model had marginal 'household' reliability (0·60-0·66), good item separation (17·20-17·77) and item infit/outfit values between 0·8 and 1·25. Indices could be ranked by level of severity and represent the experience of household food insecurity in NZ. Categories of food security were assigned and used to predict food choice, and energy and nutrient intakes. Compared with fully secure/almost fully secure households, those that were moderately secure or of low security were less likely to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and more likely to consume fatty meats. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, lactose and vitamin B12 increased with lower levels of food security. Intakes of glucose, fructose and vitamin C were highest in the fully secure/almost fully secure category. This unique eight-component food security measurement tool has less respondent burden than the US Core Food Security Measure. The relationships between the level of food insecurity and food choice and nutrient intakes illustrate that the most food-insecure households have less healthy diets. This relatively brief population-specific measurement tool is suitable to monitor population food security status, and is a useful marker of nutritional status.

  4. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  5. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial f...

  6. Contribution of Selected Indigenous Fruits on Household Income and Food Security in Mwingi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mwema

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors that influence consumption of indigenous fruits during periods of food shortage among the Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL and then assess the contribution of the indigenous fruits to household income and food security. The study was carried out in Nuu division, Mwingi District where a sample size of 120 households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Multi stage sampling method was used. The logit, Gross Margin Analysis, Pearson’s correlations and t-tests were used for analysis. The results of the logit model indicated household size, education and income to be significant variables in influencing household decision to consume indigenous fruits in order to cope with food shortage with income and education having a negative influence and household size a positive influence. Utilization of indigenous fruits for consumption and sale was found to be higher among the low income earners and contributed to total household food insecurity coping strategies.

  7. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  8. CHOICE OPTIONS TO MEET HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN THE CATTLE CORRIDOR OF UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mbolanyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the major options adopted by households in the rangelands of Uganda to meet their food needs, the factors that affect their choices and barriers to making use of various choices. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered among 180 pastoral households in selected rangeland area of Uganda. The options identified include restocking animals, changing planting dates, soil conservation, harnessing new technologies, planting trees and buying food stuffs. Analysis of results from the multinomial logistic model indicated that age, level of education, size of household, years in current location, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership, access to extension services and climate and weather information were key determinants of farmers’ choice of options to realize household food security. The major perceived barriers to choice options were lack of information on alternative options, poor technologies, climate variability, inadequate land, high food prices and low income. The analysis of choice of options to meet household food security suggests a number of different policy options such as strengthening production facilitation options available to pastoral communities including among others access to affordable credit, investing in yield-increasing technologies, introduction of livestock species that are better suited to drier conditions, raising awareness on climate related variations, creating opportunities for off-farm employment, encouraging pastoralists to grow more crops, and investing in irrigation.

  9. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households: Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Frazao, Elizabeth; Andrews, Margaret S.; Smallwood, David M.; Prell, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp Program provides benefits that low-income households can use to purchase food in grocery stores. The rise in obesity has raised the question of whether food stamp participants would purchase more healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, if food stamp benefits were higher. This report examines household food spending patterns and how they differ across income levels to provide insight into how participants might change their food spending in response to additional income.

  10. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Houcine Boughanmi; Ahmed Al Shamakhi; Msafiri Mbaga; Hemesiri Kotagama

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV) methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural). Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. ...

  11. Low-income Children's participation in the National School Lunch Program and household food insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on household food insufficiency is critical to improve the implementation of public food assistance and to improve the nutrition intake of low-income children and their families. To examine the association of receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP with household food insufficiency among low-income children and their families in the United States, the study used data from four longitudinal panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008), which collected information on household food insufficiency covering both summer and non-summer months. The sample included 15, 241 households with at least one child (aged 5-18) receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP. A dichotomous measure describes whether households have sufficient food to eat in the observed months. Fixed-effects regression analysis suggests that the food insufficiency rate is .7 (95%CI: .1, 1.2) percentage points higher in summer months among NSLP recipients. Since low-income families cannot participate in the NSLP in summer when the school is not in session, the result indicates the NSLP participation is associated with a reduction of food insufficiency risk by nearly 14%. The NSLP plays a significant role to protect low-income children and their families from food insufficiency. It is important to increase access to school meal programs among children at risk of food insufficiency in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to mitigate the health problems associated with malnourishment among children.

  12. Financial management skills are associated with food insecurity in a sample of households with children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig G; Garasky, Steven B

    2012-10-01

    Food insecurity is one of the leading public health challenges facing children in the United States today. Reducing food insecurity and its attendant consequences requires an understanding of the determinants of food insecurity. Although previous work has greatly advanced our understanding of these determinants, the role of one of the oft-speculated important determinants of food insecurity, household financial management skills, has not been considered. To address this research lacuna, we use a recently conducted survey, the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity, that has information on specific financial management practices, impressions of financial management skills, and households' food insecurity. The sample included 904 households with children. Within this sample, 19.3% were food insecure and, for our central financial management skill variable, the mean value was 3.55 on a 5-point scale. Probit regression models estimated the probability of a household being food insecure as conditional on financial management skills and other covariates. We found a large and significant inverse relationship between a respondent's use of specific financial management practices and food insecurity and between a respondent's confidence in his or her financial management skills and food insecurity. That is, households with greater financial management abilities are less likely to be food insecure. This finding also holds when the sample is restricted to households with incomes poverty line. These results suggest that improving households' financial management skills has the potential to reduce food insecurity in the United States.

  13. Effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sulaiman A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important tool for reducing the effects of household food insecurity, unemployment and poverty which are major problems in urban areas in Nigeria. Food insecurity continues to worsen in some urban areas of the country and many households resulted into urban farming as a means of coping. The study investigated the effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data was collected for the study using structured questionnaire. Two-stage sampling technique was employed for this study. The first stage involved the random selection of two urban local government areas from Ibadan metropolis. This was followed with the selection of 110 urban farming households from these local government areas. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and probit regression. Results showed that sex, years of schooling, marital status, household size, access to extension agent, hired labour and type of farming enterprises are determinants of food security. The study recommends the policies that make extension services accessible to urban farmers and also skills development among others.

  14. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

  15. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L Humphries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. OBJECTIVE: To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. METHODS: The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750 from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. RESULTS: Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively. Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures

  16. Food supply versus household survey data: nutrient consumption trends for Spain, 1958-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Banegas, J R; Graciani, A; Hernández-Vecino, R; del Rey-Calero, J

    1996-08-01

    Various methods of estimating food consumption, such as food balance sheets (FBS) and household surveys (HS), have been developed over the years and have been used to inform, monitor and evaluate nutrition policies. Because these methods vary in their objectives and data collection procedures, the objective of this study has been to elaborate FBS data for Spain and to study the consistency of fat, carbohydrate and protein intake trends, as measured by FBS and HS, for the period 1958 to 1988. Food balance sheets were elaborated by the authors according to the methodology of FAO using all available data sources for the 1958-1988 period. This data considered every major food item contributing to the total energy intake of the spanish population. Household survey data were taken from three similar national household budget surveys carried out on a representative sample of the Spanish population in 1958, 1964-1965, and 1980-1981. Estimates of food consumption were transformed into macronutrient intake by applying standard food tables. When macronutrient intake were expressed in absolute amounts, an unexpected finding was the tendency of the household surveys to overestimate food balance sheet data for fat, and to a lesser extent protein and carbohydrate, intake during the first years in the series. Also, the slopes of the trends of macronutrient intake were significantly (p energy, differences between the two types of data tended to diminish and heterogeneity of slopes disappeared. We conclude that household survey and food supply data provide partially different information on macronutrient intake trends in the Spanish population for the period 1958-1988. The discrepancy is particularly noticeable for fat intake and when data are expressed in absolute amounts.

  17. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Megan Ann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82% were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6% but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26, low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92, and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27, while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social

  18. FOOD CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS AMONG FARMER HOUSEHOLDS IN SUBANG, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Sufiani Suhanda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The objectives of this study were : 1 to analyze the consumption of various types of foods (meat, milk, fish, fruit, and others and the methods of getting the foods among farmer households, 2 To analyze the nutritional status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households, and 3 To analyze the health status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households. This research was of a retrospective and cross sectional design. This research was conducted in Subang Farming Regency, West Java. There are two types of population (farmer households, namely, those of horticultural region and those of rice field region. The sample size at each location was 261 households, so the total sample was 522 households.  The results of this research show that in general the frequency and quantity of food consumed by the non poor households are relatively better than those of the poor households. Further, as the centers of agricultural production, both regions (rice and horticulture will produce certain foods in abundance and will affect the patterns of food consumption among the local community and households.  Children’s nutritional status is in general of good category (based on W/A and H/A. Husband’s and wives’ nutritional status is normal. The length of upper respiratory tract infection on wives and children is quite low (. Key words: Farmer, food consumption, nutritional and health status

  19. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (pnutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community-based interventions should be designed and implemented to address the problems of food insecurity and possible health and nutritional outcomes.

  20. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

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    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  1. AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICY, CONSUMER DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

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    Kassim Adekunle Akanni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is persistent instability of consumer prices for most agricultural commodities in Nigeria. This is occasioned by factors such as season, input price changes, production and marketing technologies and consumer taste, among others. The market price variations often affect the level of consumer demand and food security status of the households. This study therefore examined the synergy between the agricultural commodity prices, consumer demand and food security status of the consuming households in Nigeria. A total of 360 foodgrains consumers were randomly sampled for this study from the 6 geo-political zones in the country. Results indicated that despite the various policies on agricultural prices, the market prices of foodgrains remain unstable. Specifically, the level of consumer demand and satisfaction got reduced while a large proportion of the consumers were food insecure. Major factors that are responsible for unstable consumer demand and household insecurity in the consumption of foodgrains among Nigerians include insufficient household income, increasing household size, consumer preference, market price and lack of standard measurement. With increased discipline in the style of implementation of the various price policies on agricultural commodities, it is hoped that the level of consumer demand and foodgrains security status of Nigerians will improve.

  2. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.

  3. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  4. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  5. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Canella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity and obesity in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata, geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products. Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. RESULTS: The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile to 39.4% (upper quartile. Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. CONCLUSION: Greater

  6. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  7. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  8. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

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    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  9. Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-06-01

    An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem.

  10. A model for predicting food security status among households in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbukwa, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food security prediction has been challenging aspects in developing countries particularly in African countries such as Tanzania. Consequently, government lack proper stimulated information that is necessary in making decision on efforts required for stabilizing food situation and status in their countries. Scientifically it has been observed in research and practical that this is caused by lack of proper mechanisms, tools and approach suitable for modeling and predicting food status among households. This paper proposes a logistic regression based model for analysis and prediction of food security status. The proposed model is empirically test using practical data collected from one district in Tanzania.

  11. The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security an

  12. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  13. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  14. Household consumption of food: An analysis for Midwest Region of Brazil

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    Madalena Maria Schlindwein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Midwest has been increasing over time as an important food production area, both for domestic consumption and for export. However, it has been discussing in a little way about the dietary patterns of the population that live in this region. Meanwhile, the central objective of this study was to characterize the food consumption of households of people that live in the Brazilian Midwest region, as well as a comparison among the data for the Federative Units of that region. This study has na exploratory and descriptive feature, because it tried to describe the pattern characteristics household food consumption. Data from the Household Budget Surveys were used (POF from the period of 2002-03 and 2008-09, published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The results show that in the analyzed period, there has been a downward trend in the consumption of staple foods such as rice, beans and flour, while the rapid preparation of goods such as bread, soft drinks and juices, yoghurts and prepared food showed an increase in consumption.

  15. Household food insecurity is associated with childhood malaria in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dessalines, Michael; Finnigan, Mousson; Pachón, Helena; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Gupta, Nishang

    2009-11-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and is heavily affected by food insecurity and malaria. To find out if these 2 conditions are associated with each other, we studied a convenience sample of 153 women with children 1-5 y old in Camp Perrin, South Haiti. Household food insecurity was assessed with the 16-item Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria (ELCSA) scale previously validated in the target communities. ELCSA's reference time period was the 3 mo preceding the survey and it was answered by the mother. Households were categorized as either food secure (2%; ELCSA score = 0), food insecure/very food insecure (42.7%; ELCSA score range: 1-10), or severely food insecure (57.3%; ELCSA score range: 11-16). A total of 34.0% of women reported that their children had malaria during the 2 mo preceding the survey. Multivariate analyses showed that severe food insecure was a risk factor for perceived clinical malaria (odds ratio: 5.97; 95% CI: 2.06-17.28). Additional risk factors for perceived clinical malaria were as follows: not receiving colostrum, poor child health (via maternal self-report), a child BMI <17 kg/m(2), and child vitamin A supplementation more than once since birth. Findings suggest that policies and programs that address food insecurity are also likely to reduce the risk of malaria in Haiti.

  16. Food provisioning experiences of ultra poor female heads of household living in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Hatfield, Jennifer; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Huda, Syed Nazmul

    2011-03-01

    Ultra poor women in Bangladesh are especially vulnerable to poverty and food insecurity, and they have generally been excluded from recent improvements in hunger and poverty rates in the country. An examination of the food provisioning narratives of 43 ultra poor female heads of household in Bangladesh was conducted in order to deepen understanding of this obstacle to the country's achievement of the First Millennium Development Goal. All participants were the household's sole income provider, had dependent children, and earned less than $1 USD per day. Women were purposively selected based on occupational group, context, and personal characteristics. Ethnographic interviews were conducted in January and February, 2008. Analysis of women's accounts of their daily food routine revealed chronic and pervasive food insecurity punctuated by acute episodes of absolute food deprivation that resulted from seasonal fluctuations in earnings, rising food prices, illness disrupting work, and healthcare costs. Women's accounts of their daily food provisioning experiences suggested compromises in, and trade-offs between, multiple basic needs as a result of inadequate income. Women were further constrained by social norms and gender roles that influenced their ability to work outside the home. Our method of inquiry led us to construct an organizing framework that extends knowledge of ultra poor women in Bangladesh's complex and multi-sphered experience of poverty and food insecurity. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy called whole person development (WPD), which seeks small adjustments to services, programs, and policies based on leverage points identified through in-depth narratives.

  17. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security; conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the

  18. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  19. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gichunge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  20. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. This is the second report on a study investigating how demand for food products with varying degrees of convenience depends on disposable income and disposable time. 2. Both absolute and relative expenditures on convenient food decrease with disposable time and increase...... with disposable income, indicating rational economic behaviour. Expenditure on non-convenient food (preparation food), however, increases in absolute terms with increasing income, contrary to expectations may be explained by the fact that all categories of expenses increase with disposable income......; this is supported by the fact that the relative expense on preparation food indeed falls with increasing income. 3. More children in the household generally mean less per-unit expenditure on both convenient and non-convenient food. This may be explained by economies of scale and by buying cheaper products...

  1. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  2. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  3. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  4. Dietary quality and household food insecurity among Mexican children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis A; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-11-14

    Seventy percent of Mexican households experience some level of food insecurity (FI). Studies have shown positive associations between FI and poor dietary quality. As far as it is known, this is the first time the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) has been used to assess dietary quality of children and adolescents in Mexico, and to examine if FI is related to it. The objective of this research is to assess dietary quality and its association with FI among Mexican children and adolescents from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample. We analyzed data from 4635 2-19-year-old Mexican children and adolescents participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012). FI was measured using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and dietary quality with the HEI-2010. We examined the association between FI and dietary quality using multivariate linear regressions. Dietary quality was worst as FI became more severe among children and adolescents compared with their counterparts living in households with food security. Specifically, FI had a negative association with fruits, vegetables, and protein foods, and a positive association with refined grains consumption. Dairy intake was negatively associated with FI among older children and adolescents. Added sugars were not associated with FI, but intake was excessive across the population at 15% of total daily energy intake. Decreasing FI may help improve dietary quality of Mexican children and adolescents.

  5. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  6. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  7. Food Security Index and Socio-Economic Effects of Climate Change on Rural Farming Households in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the food security status and the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in Delta State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to determine the food security status of the rural farming households in the state while the specific objective was to determine the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of local government, communities and rural households for the research study. The data for the study were obtained with the aids of structured questionnaire survey randomly administered to rural farming households in the state. Food security index was used to determine the level of food insecurity (food security status among the rural households in communities that have been affected by flood and or other climate hazardswhile descriptive statistics was used to summarize the socio-economic effects and their food security status of the rural farming households in the state. Most respondents (65.10% were married with low annual income of N54,702 ($353 which is less than the poverty line of less than $1 (one dollar a day. Most rural farming households witnessed loss of investment on farm lands, lives and income respectively in the state. The study also reveals that rural farming households suffered ill health, such as malaria, water borne diseases and skin infections that were on the increase in the state. The study also revealed that majority of respondents was moderately food insecure. The study also recommends that Government planning agencies and policy makers should put into consideration these food insecurity situations in their planning and policy implementation to prevent future chronic food insecurity situation in the state.

  8. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

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    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  9. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

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    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  10. The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify trends and assess changes in food insecurity among subgroups differentiated by main source of income and housing tenure. Models were run against overall food insecurity, moderate and severe food insecurity, and severe food insecurity to explore whether the impact of policy changes differed by severity of food insecurity. Overall food insecurity rose significantly among households in BC between 2005 and 2012. Following the increase in social assistance benefits, overall food insecurity and moderate and severe food insecurity declined among households on social assistance, but severe food insecurity remained unchanged. We could discern no effect of the RAP on any measure of food insecurity among renter households. Our findings indicate the sensitivity of food insecurity among social assistance recipients to improvements in income and highlight the importance of examining severity of food insecurity when assessing the effects of policy interventions.

  11. Reliability and validity of a short form household food security scale in a Caribbean community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Deepak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the reliability and validity of the short form household food security scale in a different setting from the one in which it was developed. Methods The scale was interview administered to 531 subjects from 286 households in north central Trinidad in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. We evaluated the six items by fitting item response theory models to estimate item thresholds, estimating agreement among respondents in the same households and estimating the slope index of income-related inequality (SII after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. Results Item-score correlations ranged from 0.52 to 0.79 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. Item responses gave within-household correlation coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.78. Estimated item thresholds (standard errors from the Rasch model ranged from -2.027 (0.063 for the 'balanced meal' item to 2.251 (0.116 for the 'hungry' item. The 'balanced meal' item had the lowest threshold in each ethnic group even though there was evidence of differential functioning for this item by ethnicity. Relative thresholds of other items were generally consistent with US data. Estimation of the SII, comparing those at the bottom with those at the top of the income scale, gave relative odds for an affirmative response of 3.77 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 10.2 for the lowest severity item, and 20.8 (2.67 to 162.5 for highest severity item. Food insecurity was associated with reduced consumption of green vegetables after additionally adjusting for income and education (0.52, 0.28 to 0.96. Conclusions The household food security scale gives reliable and valid responses in this setting. Differing relative item thresholds compared with US data do not require alteration to the cut-points for classification of 'food insecurity without hunger' or 'food insecurity with hunger'. The data provide further evidence that re-evaluation of the 'balanced meal' item is required.

  12. Effects of Family Size on Household Food Security in Osun State, Nigeria

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    Adebayo Oyefunke Olayemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated effects of family size on household food security in Osun state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select 110 respondents for the study. A well structured questionnaire was used in collecting information from the respondents. The data were subjected to descriptive and Tobit regression analysis. The results of the study indicated that about 60.9% had family size of 5and 8 members. Only 24.5% were food secure. Coping strategies employed include borrowing money, relying on less preferred and expensive food. The constraints faced includes, poor access to credit (84.5%, and lack of input (81.8%. The study concludes that family size has negative impact on house food security. The study recommended that government and non government agency should intensified effort on importance of family planning and advocate small family size in rural area.

  13. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P fish (P Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  14. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  16. The 18 Household Food Security Survey items provide valid food security classifications for adults and children in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cheryl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We tested the properties of the 18 Household Food Security Survey (HFSS items, and the validity of the resulting food security classifications, in an English-speaking middle-income country. Methods Survey of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Parents completed the HFSS. Responses were analysed for the 10 adult-referenced items and the eight child-referenced items. Item response theory models were fitted. Item calibrations and subject scores from a one-parameter logistic (1PL model were compared with those from either two-parameter logistic model (2PL or a model for differential item functioning (DIF by ethnicity. Results There were 5219 eligible with 3858 (74% completing at least one food security item. Adult item calibrations (standard error in the 1PL model ranged from -4.082 (0.019 for the 'worried food would run out' item to 3.023 (0.042 for 'adults often do not eat for a whole day'. Child item calibrations ranged from -3.715 (0.025 for 'relied on a few kinds of low cost food' to 3.088 (0.039 for 'child didn't eat for a whole day'. Fitting either a 2PL model, which allowed discrimination parameters to vary between items, or a differential item functioning model, which allowed item calibrations to vary between ethnic groups, had little influence on interpretation. The classification based on the adult-referenced items showed that there were 19% of respondents who were food insecure without hunger, 10% food insecure with moderate hunger and 6% food insecure with severe hunger. The classification based on the child-referenced items showed that there were 23% of children who were food insecure without hunger and 9% food insecure with hunger. In both children and adults food insecurity showed a strong, graded association with lower monthly household income (P Conclusion These results support the use of 18 HFSS items to classify food security status of adults or children in an English-speaking country where food

  17. Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS): its importance for health, food safety, sustainability and security in diverse localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS) could contribute to the resolution of outstanding nutritionally-related health problems. The 1995 Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) have been customized in regions and nations, encouraging integrated food systems and culturally-sensitive food-health relationships with economic development. Climate change and diminishing fuel and food affordability have made their role in promoting food security critical. Localities with their eco-systems, communities and households, could apply FBDGs to correct mismatches between food systems, individual health needs, and environmental integrity. Improved infrastructure should allow communities and households to be usefully connected and operate with CCH-FBSs.

  18. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  19. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources.

  20. Feeding her children, but risking her health: the intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of childrearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999-2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty.

  1. Determinants of food insecurity among farming households in Katsina State, north western Nigeria: An ordinal logit regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hussaini Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the determinants of food insecurity among farming households in Katsina State, north western Nigeria. A cross sectional sample survey design was used to select a total of 150 small-holder farmers from 15 communities across 10 Local Government Areas of the state. A structured questionnaire, Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interview were used for data collection. The coping strategy index was used to determine the food security status of the household and the ordered logit regression was used to identify the determinants of food insecurity among the households. The majority (73% were found to be food insecure. In terms of food insecurity status, 44% of the respondents were less food insecure, while 17% and 12% were moderately food insecure and severely food insecure respectively. Eating the less preferred meal, purchasing food on credit and reducing the quantity of food consumed were the major coping strategies adopted by the food insecure households. The result of the ordered logit model shows that the total quantity of cereal saved, number of income sources and dependency ratio were significant for both the moderately and severely food insecure groups at p<0.05 while access to credit was also significant for the two groups but at p<0.01. The output of other crops was significant at p=0.10 but only for the severely food insecure group. The study concluded that food insecurity was high in the study area and therefore recommended that the farming households be provided with opportunities to diversify their livelihood activities.

  2. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (Prefugees living in Lebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  3. Why do you shop there? A mixed methods study mapping household food shopping patterns onto weekly routines of black women

    OpenAIRE

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy; Holaday, Rio; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of initiatives to increase healthy food access may be affected by where people decide to shop. People with poor neighborhood access to large grocery stores develop shopping patterns that require traveling to other areas, and some people who do have neighborhood access also travel elsewhere for food shopping. We sought to gain an understanding of household food shopping patterns in a sample of Black women in terms of where they shopped and why. Methods All food sho...

  4. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents’ food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits. PMID:27441687

  5. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyi Qi

    Full Text Available We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents' food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits.

  6. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Boughanmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural. Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. On average, Omani households need to be compensated about 10.3% of their income for the price increase they experienced during the 2006–2008 period. Rural households are more affected than urban households with a required compensation of 12.4% and 9.87%, respectively. In all cases most of the impact is felt on the first round where no consumption adjustment is made; the second round effect is comparatively small compared to the first-order effect. Total compensation required to compensate all households amounts to O.R. 266 M, that is, a 1.14% of GDP, whereas a compensation targeted to the low-income quartile amounts only to O.R. 26.7 M representing 0.1% of GDP.

  7. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs hav...

  8. Food or medicine? The food-medicine interface in households in Sylhet.

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, H. M.; Merrell, J.; Thompson, J. L.; Heinrich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has a rich traditional plant-medicine use, drawing on Ayurveda and Unami medicine. How these practices translate into people׳s homes and lives vary. Furthermore, the overlap between food and medicine is blurred and context-specific. This paper explores the food-medicine interface as experienced by Bengali women in their homes, in the context of transnational and generational changes.

  9. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, Van P.J.A.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributi

  10. Coping with household food insecurity: a longitudinal and seasonal study among the Otammari in North-Western Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal and seasonal study was designed to examine the relationships between, at one hand, coping with food insecurity and socio-economic characteristics at household level and, at the other hand, food consumption, time allocation and nutritional status at individual level in a unimodal clima

  11. Home garden: a potential strategy for food and nutrition security in HIV households : a case study in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Home garden, HIV and AIDS, dietary diversity, plant species diversity, coping strategy index, food security, Ghana. The aim of this thesis was to explore how rural households with HIV and AIDS in Ghana are employing home garden management strategies to enhance food and nutrition security

  12. Food patterns characterization for Mexico and Sonora’s households, 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borbón-Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a descriptive analysis about the characterization of the consumption’s pattern in Mexico and Sonora, by determining how much money is spent in households and the proportion that those intended to consume on goods and services. Income level is considered to account for such classification. A comparison between the patterns of consumption is made for Mexico and Sonora in 2005, by emphasizing on food expenditures and some specific food products such as vegetables; including tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. The study also performs a look into the spending behavior in Mexico from 2000 to 2006, by contrasting the hypothesis of Modigliani and Friedman (Dornbusch, 2004; Camacho, 2000 and the mathematical formulation of Campbell and Mankiw (1989 on the assumption of the society’s consumption. It finally outlines a series of proposals for future studies.

  13. Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessema Fasil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900 in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Intra-household allocation of food and health care: current findings and understandings--introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, E

    1997-06-01

    This work offers an anthropological analysis of intra-household processes underlying gender- and age-specific differences in individual nutritional and health care allocations and outcomes in particular cultures. Based on recent ethnographic studies in India, Nepal, Madagascar, Mexico, and Peru, correspondences are analyzed between local cultural ("emic") and scientist-policy maker practitioner ("etic") understandings of nutrition, health, and human development, and the relative "values" of females, males, and children of different ages. The data and analyses clarify specific epidemiological and demographic findings on age and gender bias in nutrition and health and highlight the multiple cultural, economic, and biological factors that contribute to gender- or age-based discrimination or neglect. Recent advances in nutrition policy have argued for a broader concept of nutritional security, one that incorporates both food quantity and quality, and of nutrition as "food, health and care" (International Conference on Nutrition, World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition, FAO/WHO, Rome, 1992). These ethnographic findings; lend strong support for such broader nutrition concepts and associated nutrition policies. The studies also suggest ways in which anthropological questions, methods, and data and community-based research can help predict or identify the nutritionally vulnerable within households and help other social and medical scientists design more effective interventions.

  15. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-08

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age.

  16. Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Motarjemi, Y.; Nout, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of the food-safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level was carried out during a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop held in Pretoria, South Africa, in December 1995. In particular, lactic acid fermentation was evaluated as a part of food preparation processes involving other operations such as soaking, cooking, and the germination of cereal grains. The use of germinated cereals is of particular interest since they can...

  17. Agroecology and healthy food systems in semi-humid tropical Africa: Participatory research with vulnerable farming households in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Kangmennaang, Joseph; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Dakishoni, Laifolo; Lupafya, Esther; Shumba, Lizzie; Katundu, Mangani

    2016-10-29

    This paper assesses the relationship between agroecology, food security, and human health. Specifically, we ask if agroecology can lead to improved food security and human health among vulnerable smallholder farmers in semi-humid tropical Africa. The empirical evidence comes from a cross-sectional household survey (n=1000) in two districts in Malawi, a small country in semi-humid, tropical Africa. The survey consisted of 571 agroecology-adoption and 429 non-agroecology-adoption households. Ordered logistics regression and average treatment effects models were used to determine the effect of agroecology adoption on self-reported health. Our results show that agroecology-adoption households (OR=1.37, p=0.05) were more likely to report optimal health status, and the average treatment effect shows that adopters were 12% more likely to be in optimal health. Furthermore, being moderately food insecure (OR=0.59, p=0.05) and severely food insecure (OR=0.89, p=0.10) were associated with less likelihood of reporting optimal health status. The paper concludes that with the adoption of agroecology in the semi-humid tropics, it is possible for households to diversify their crops and diets, a condition that has strong implications for improved food security, good nutrition and human health.

  18. The Household Economy Approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have severe effects on the populations of developing countries because many of these depend heavily on agriculture for income, have large impoverished rural populations which rely on agriculture for subsistence, and are financially and technically least equipped to adapt to changing conditions. Planning to target measures to support adaptation to reduce the impact of climate change on poverty and food insecurity requires methods of identifying vulnerable households. This paper describes an established approach to vulnerability assessment, the ‘Household Economy Approach’ (HEA and its potential application to the management of climate change in developing countries. The HEA is widely used by Governments and others, chiefly in Africa, for the assessment of household vulnerability to poverty and food security. HEA uses a model based on Amartya Sen’s entitlement theory and detailed social and economic data to simulate the impact of weather related, price, policy and other shocks on household income and food access, to provide information for decision making. In developing countries climate change will be experienced in terms of increased climate variability and an increased frequency of extreme events. HEA provides a way of managing the effects of year to year shocks to prevent impoverishment and the erosion of household resilience. It also provides the information needed to develop scenarios to support the design of policies to support longer term adaptation. HEA data has already been collected for large areas of Africa.

  19. Removal of Putrescine from a Food-Based Synthetic Attractant and Capture of Sterile Medflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted in Guatemala and in Florida to compare capture of sterile tsl medfly males in traps baited with ammonium acetate, trimethylamine and putrescine with capture in traps baited with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine (i.e., putrescine deleted from three component food-based ...

  20. The influence of flow velocity and food concentration on Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) zooplankton capture rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purser, A.; Larsson, A.I.; Thomsen, L.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the most significant framework building scleractinian coral in European seas, yet the reproductive strategy, longevity, growth and food capture rates for the species remain poorly understood. In this study an experimental investigation into the ability of L. pertusa to capture zo

  1. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006?2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-01-12

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  2. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  3. Relationship Between Dietary Diversity and Perceived Food Security Status in Indonesia : A Case of Households in The North Luwu of South Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pipi, Diansari; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the relationship between the objective and subjective measurement of household food security status in North Luwu in Indonesia. The objective measurement is done by means of the composite Dietary Diversity Score (DDS_) consisted of nine food groups, while the subjective measurement is done using the Subjective Food Security Score (SFSS). Specifically, this study estimated the probability of household for being more food secure due to their dietary diversity...

  4. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  5. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry.

  6. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  7. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (Pfood had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (Pfood insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; Pfood insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (Pfood insecurity.

  8. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA. PMID:18500988

  9. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  10. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  11. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  12. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; la Cour Jansen, J

    2012-05-01

    Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4kg NO(3)(-)eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0kg SO(2)(-)eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960kg CO(2)(-)eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidence of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidence of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The hot spot identification shows that losses of organic matter in mechanical pretreatment as well as tank connected food waste disposal systems and energy in drying and vacuum systems reply to the largest impact on the results in each system respectively.

  13. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages.

  14. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  15. Rural resident household food consumption patterns in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city:an analysis based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Demand for food plays an important role in the adjustment of prices for agricultural products and for adjusting agricultural structure.By using the extended linear expenditure system(ELES),we analyzed the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city,and determined the basic food-consumption demand,the marginal propensity of consumption,the income elasticities of demand,and the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents,all of which illustrate the influencing factors on food consumption of rural residents and for forecasting the food-consumption structure.Those analyses show the following:the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7,050.35 Yuan;the marginal propensities of consumption of fruits and vegetables are relatively high(0.062 and 0.106,respectively),followed by meat(0.044);the demands for various foods are increasing as income increases,with the largest income elasticity of demand corresponding to fruits(1.354) and the lowest to cereal(0.310);fruits and vegetables have relatively high own-price elasticities(respectively-0.879 and-0.442),with the cereal having the lowest one(-0.184).An increase in cereal prices would greatly affect demand for other products;with the rising size of rural households,the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas it is increasing for cereal.The improvement of household education levels will lead to the increase of fruit consumption(E = 0.297),which indicates that people will pay more attention to diet and nutrition structure with the improvement of education.Further,although the amount of cereal expenditure is continually growing,the share will be declining with the increase of household income in 2006-2012.For all these reasons,therefore,the government should encourage the cultivation of economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding to ensure the stability of cereal output.In order to attain the balance between

  16. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  17. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, Anm Shamsul; Amin, Km Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-12-01

    Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; Pfood and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh.

  18. Dietary Diversity and Vegetable and Fruit Consumption of Households in a Resource-Poor Peri-Urban South Africa Community Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Laurie, Sunette M

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic, living standard measure, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and dietary diversity in relation to household food security were assessed. Using a hunger score, households were categorized as food secure (n = 125) or food insecure (n = 273). Food secure respondents had a higher mean dietary diversity score (3.98; 95%CI [3.79, 4.18] versus 3.65; 95% [CI 3.53, 3.77]), were more likely to eat vitamin A-rich foods (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.05, 1.26]), a more varied diet (DDS ≥ 4, OR 1.90; 95% CI [1.19, 3.13]), and vegetables daily (OR 3.37; 95% CI [2.00, 5.76]). Cost limited daily vegetable/fruit consumption in food insecure households. Respondents with ≥ 8 years of schooling were more likely (OR 2.07; 95% CI [1.22, 3.53]) and households receiving social grants were less likely (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19, 0.72]) to be food secure. Results highlight the association between dietary diversity and household food security.

  19. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  20. Use of vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos o amigos (neighbors or friends) as alternative sources of food for purchase among Mexican-origin households in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies acknowledging the existence of alternative food sources, and factors associated with food purchasing from three common alternative sources: vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos/amigos (neighbors/friends). This analysis aims to examine the use of alternative food sources by Mexican-origin women from Texas-border colonias and determine factors associated with their use. The design was cross-sectional. Promotora-researchers (promotoras de salud trained in research methods) recruited 610 Mexican-origin women from 44 colonias and conducted in-person surveys. Surveys included participant characteristics and measures of food environment use and household food security. Statistical analyses included separate logistic regressions, modeled for food purchase from mobile food vendors, pulgas, or neighbors/friends. Child food insecurity was associated with purchasing food from mobile food vendors, while household food security was associated with using pulgas or neighbors/friends. School nutrition program participants were more likely to live in households that depend on alternative food sources. Efforts to increase healthful food consumption such as fruits and vegetables should acknowledge all potential food sources (traditional, convenience, nontraditional, and alternative), especially those preferred by colonia residents. Current findings support the conceptual broadening of the retail food environment, and the importance of linking use with spatial access (proximity) to more accurately depict access to food sources.

  1. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  2. The prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among households with children in Head Start programs in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured food security and hunger of households enrolled in Head Start in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama and assessed factors that could affect food security. Interviewers collected data from primary caregivers on demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and the six-item US f...

  3. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years.

  4. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  5. The Effect of Household Income on Land Requirements for Food : an International Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter de, Henri

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The production of food has major consequences for the appropriation of land. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that 38% of the total arable land is currently used for the production of food. This share is expected to increas

  6. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1, mental health (MHI-5, blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  7. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:27752266

  8. Water flows in the Spanish economy: agri-food sectors, trade and households diets in an input-output framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-06-19

    Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating.

  9. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor...

  10. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods: The study was based on a cohort organized to monit...

  11. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  12. A Monoclonal Antibody Based Capture ELISA for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B: Toxin Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalytic disease, caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A–H have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We report here a group of serotype B specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs capable of binding toxin under physiological conditions. Thus, they serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture ELISA. The antibodies were generated using recombinant peptide fragments corresponding to the receptor-binding domain of the toxin heavy chain as immunogen. Their binding properties suggest that they bind a complex epitope with dissociation constants (KD’s for individual antibodies ranging from 10 to 48 × 10−11 M. Assay performance for all possible combinations of capture-detector antibody pairs was evaluated and the antibody pair resulting in the lowest level of detection (L.O.D., ~20 pg/mL was determined. Toxin was detected in spiked dairy samples with good recoveries at concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL and in ground beef samples at levels as low as 2 ng/g. Thus, the sandwich ELISA described here uses mAb for both the capture and detector antibodies (binding different epitopes on the toxin molecule and readily detects toxin in those food samples tested.

  13. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged.

  14. A Latent Class Model to discover Household Food Waste Patterns in Lisbon City in Support of Food Security, Public Health and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R.S. Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the middle of a great world financial crisis that also affects food security, it is important to characterize the habits of households concerning the buying and wasting food. With this study we intend (1 to uncover the patterns of Portuguese citizens concerning food waste by using a mixed research approach and (2 to identify demographic factors that can influence the production of food waste and that may support initiatives towards the education of society on food waste. We used a random sample of 542 Portuguese citizens to identify consumer profiles and 18 in-depth interviews for better understanding the uncovered profiles in a mixed method research approach. Through a two-latent class model two clusters of consumers were identified: cluster 1, the Non food waste citizens with 65% of respondents, mainly 24 years or more, female and married or divorced and cluster 2, the Food waste citizens  with 35% of respondents, mainly up to 23 years old, male and single. Our findings may impact in two distinct ways: they may be used to educate Portuguese citizens concerning the issue of food waste and they may be useful in contributing to a less polluted world. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  15. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  16. Household Food Insufficiency, Financial Strain, Work–Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms in the Working Class: The Work, Family, and Health Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayadi, Alison M.; Tamers, Sara L.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association of household-level stressors with depressive symptoms among low-wage nursing home employees. Methods. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 452 multiethnic primary and nonprimary wage earners in 4 facilities in Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of depressive symptoms with household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover (preoccupation with work-related concerns while at home and vice versa). Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with household financial strain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 3.21) and food insufficiency (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.10, 4.18). Among primary earners, stratified analyses showed that food insufficiency was associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 9.11) but financial strain was not. Among nonprimary wage earners, depressive symptoms correlated with financial strain (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.48, 9.01) and work–family spillover (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.11, 9.35). Conclusions. Household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover are pervasive problems for working populations, but associations vary by primary wage earner status. The prevalence of food insufficiency among full-time employees was striking and might have a detrimental influence on depressive symptoms and the health of working-class families. PMID:22095360

  17. Household food insecurity and childhood overweight in Jamaica and Québec: a gender-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Strachan Georgiana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood overweight is not restricted to developed countries: a number of lower- and middle-income countries are struggling with the double burden of underweight and overweight. Another public health problem that concerns both developing and, to a lesser extent, developed countries is food insecurity. This study presents a comparative gender-based analysis of the association between household food insecurity and overweight among 10-to-11-year-old children living in the Canadian province of Québec and in the country of Jamaica. Methods Analyses were performed using data from the 2008 round of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development and the Jamaica Youth Risk and Resiliency Behaviour Survey of 2007. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1190 10-year old children in Québec and 1674 10-11-year-old children in Jamaica. Body mass index was derived using anthropometric measurements and overweight was defined using Cole's age- and sex-specific criteria. Questionnaires were used to collect data on food insecurity. The associations were examined using chi-square tests and multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results The prevalence of overweight was 26% and 11% (p Conclusions Public health interventions which aim to stem the epidemic of overweight/obesity should consider gender differences and other family factors associated with overweight/obesity in both developed and developing countries.

  18. Analyzing nutritional impacts of price and income related shocks in Malawi: Simulating household entitlements to food

    OpenAIRE

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Rischke, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    The 2007/2008 food price crisis and the following global economic recession has (temporarily) increased the number of people to suffer from hunger. While the impacts can be measured with precision only ex post, for policy makers it is critical to get a sense of likely impacts ex ante in order to plan approaches to mitigate these impacts. In this paper we adopt a very simple micro-based simulation approach to analyze how changes in prices of specific food groups, such as maize prices or prices...

  19. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  20. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tockich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced

  1. Does Acculturation Matter?: Food Insecurity and Child Problem Behavior among Low-Income, Working Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S.; Zearley, Karli Kondo; Favasuli, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature has noted that in some cases, less acculturation may be protective against adverse outcomes. This study sought to clarify the relationships between acculturation, food insecurity, and child outcomes. A sample of 339 low-income participants, comprised of non-Hispanic Whites (n = 171), English-speaking Hispanics (n = 89), and…

  2. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  3. Fecal contamination of food, water, hands, and kitchen utensils at the household level in rural areas of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Padilla, Beatriz; Ochoa, Theresa J; Lozada, Michelle; Pineda, Ines; Verastegui, Hector

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article evaluated sources of contamination of children's food and drinking water in rural households in the highlands of Peru. Samples from children's meals, drinking water, kitchen utensils, and caregivers' and children's hands were analyzed for total coliforms and E. coli counts using Petrifilm EC. Thermotolerant coliforms in water were measured using DelAgua test kits while diarrheagenic E. coli was identified using polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR). Thermotolerant coliforms were found in 48% of all water samples. E. coli was found on 23% of hands, 16% of utensils, and 4% of meals. Kitchen cloths were the item most frequently contaminated with total coliforms (89%) and E. coli (42%). Diarrheagenic E. coli was found in 33% of drinking water, 27% of meals, and on 23% of kitchen utensils. These findings indicate a need to develop hygiene interventions that focus on specific kitchen utensils and hand washing practices, to reduce the contamination of food, water, and the kitchen environment in these rural settings.

  4. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  5. 'Vagabondic' and 'touristic' paths to saving money on household food budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    .g. more secure life circumstances, cooking skills, and a supporting social network. We proposed to apply Zygmunt Bauman's metaphors of the tourist and the vagabond to improve our understanding of different experiences of restrained food budgets, while discussion the use and relevance of applying Bauman...... strategies to either positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of cooking with more filling ingredients, reducing eating out, and using left overs, expressed some kind of extra resources in comparison to the interviewees with negative experiences in the shape of e...

  6. Impact of household food insecurity on the nutritional status and the response to therapeutic feeding of people living with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahwere P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paluku Bahwere1,2,*, Hedwig Deconinck3,*, Theresa Banda1,*, Angella Mtimuni1,*, Steve Collins1,* 1Valid International, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Center of Research in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; 3Save the Children, Westport, CT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The role of household food security (HFS in the occurrence of wasting and the response to food-based intervention in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, especially adults, is still controversial and needs investigation.Methods: Face-to-face interviews to collect data for Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score estimation were conducted during a noncontrolled and nonrandomized study assessing the effectiveness of ready-to-use therapeutic food in the treatment of wasting in adults with HIV. Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score were used to determine HFS, and the participants and tertiles of Coping Strategies Index score were used to categorize HFS.Results: The study showed that most participants were from food insecure households at admission, only 2.7% (5/187 ate food from six different food groups the day before enrolment, and 93% (180/194 were applying forms of coping strategy. Acute malnutrition was rare among <5-year-old children from participants’ households, but the average (standard deviation mid-upper arm circumference of other adults in the same households were 272.7 (42.1 mm, 254.8 (33.8 mm, and 249.8 (31.7 mm for those from the best, middle, and worst tertile of HFS, respectively (P = 0.021. Median weight gain was lower in participants from the worst HFS tertile than in those from the other two tertiles combined during therapeutic feeding phase (0.0 [–2.1 to 2.6] kg versus 1.9 [–1.7 to 6.0] kg; P = 0.052 and after ready-to-use therapeutic food discontinuation (–1.9 [–5.2 to 4.2] kg

  7. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-01

    At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m3/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  8. Comparison of synthetic food-based lures and liquid protein baits for capture of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests that were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or NuLure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two component (ammonium acetate, putrescine...

  9. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  10. The Synergy between Scuba Diving and Household Behaviour: Testing Plastic and Food Waste "The use of natural habitats for tourism education"

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Mota, Luís Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The activity of scuba diving is used for studying behaviours of U.S. visitors to a popular tourist destination in Mexico. The impact created by human activity can produce marine debris and therefore affect the marine environment. The subpopulation of 181 divers was tested for their current household practices regarding discarding plastic and food waste, providing quantitative statistics for divers’ referential behaviour. Prior to partaking in scuba diving, certified, trainee, and “one-day-exp...

  11. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tokich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus

    2015-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which inc...

  12. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tockich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which inc...

  13. Rapid determination of acrylamide contaminant in conventional fried foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Dong, Yi; Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Ying

    2006-05-26

    Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was successfully developed and applied for the rapid determination of acrylamide in conventional fried foods, such as potato crisps, potato chips, and fried chicken wings. The method included defatting with n-hexane, extraction with aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO3) and potassium bromide (KBr), and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The final acrylamide extract was analyzed by GC-ECD for quantification and by GC-MS for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis was performed on the HP-INNOWax capillary column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide were achieved under the optimal conditions (numbers of theoretical plates N = 83,815). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.1 microg kg(-1) on the basis of ECD technique. Recoveries of acrylamide from conventional samples spiked at levels of 150, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) (n = 4 for each level) ranged between 87 and 97% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 4%. Furthermore, the GC-ECD method showed that no clean-up steps of acrylamide derivative would be performed prior to injection and was slightly more sensitive than the MS/MS-based methods. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  14. Validación de escala de la seguridad alimentaria doméstica en Antioquia, Colombia Validation of a household food security scale in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecilia Álvarez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Adaptar y validar en hogares de Antioquia, Colombia, una escala de seguridad alimentaria anteriormente aplicada en hogares de Caracas, Venezuela. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en 44 municipios del departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, durante los años 2003 y 2004, en una muestra representativa de los hogares rurales y urbanos del departamento de Antioquia, constituida por 1 624 hogares con niños menores de 10 años; los hogares fueron seleccionados de manera aleatoria, con un índice de confianza de 95% y un error de 3%. Se validó la escala de seguridad alimentaria doméstica utilizada por Paulina Lorenzana en Venezuela, y se determinó la consistencia interna de la escala mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. La validez del constructo se estableció mediante el método de componentes principales para datos categóricos. Se utilizaron el procedimiento de Prinqual y el modelo de Rasch para definir los componentes y los ��tems de la escala. RESULTADOS: El análisis factorial arrojó dos componentes: 1 las variables relacionadas con "inseguridad alimentaria sin hambre" que lo explican en 95% y 2 las relacionadas con "inseguridad alimentaria con hambre" que lo explican en 89.4%. El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach para el primer componente fue de de 0.95 y para el segundo de 0.89. Al ser analizados con el modelo Rasch, todos los ítems presentaron valores infit en un rango de 0.8 a 1.2. La escala se correlacionó significativamente con la disponibilidad de alimentos, el recurso de la limosna, el trabajo infantil, el tamaño del hogar y la ocupación del jefe de familia (pOBJETIVE: To adapt and validate in households of Antioquia, Colombia, a food security scale previously applied in households of Caracas, Venezuela. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 44 municipalities in the department of Antioquia, Colombia, in 2003 and 2004, with a randomly selected sample

  15. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population.

  16. Do Not “Let Them Eat Cake”: Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Terry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks. Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours.

  17. Do Not "Let Them Eat Cake": Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Daniel; Ervin, Kaye; Soutter, Erin; Spiller, Renata; Dalle Nogare, Nicole; Hamilton, Andrew John

    2016-12-28

    Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman's rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water) as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks). Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours.

  18. Decomposing the Household Food Insecurity Gap for Children of U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Hispanics: Evidence from 1998 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Potochnick, Stephanie; Parsons, Sarah

    2017-03-13

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-K, multivariate analysis, state fixed effects, and regression decomposition, we examine changes in food insecurity for Hispanic kindergarteners between 1998 and 2011, a time period of rapid immigration and political/socio-economic changes. During this time the household food insecurity gap between children of U.S.-born and foreign-born mothers increased by almost 7 percentage points. The factors-child, family, and state-that contributed to the nativity gap differed over time. In both periods, lower familial resources among immigrant families, i.e. endowment effects, contributed to the gap; this was the main component of the gap in 2011 but only one component in 1998. In 1998, heterogeneity in state effects was positively associated with the nativity food insecurity gap. This means that children of foreign-born mothers experience higher household food insecurity than do children of U.S.-born mothers in the same state, even after controlling for child and family characteristics. In 2011, almost half of the gap remained unexplained. This unexplained portion could be driven by differential effects of the Great Recession, growing anti-immigrant sentiment, and/or the relatively large share of unauthorized immigrants in 2011.

  19. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.

  20. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  1. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  2. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  3. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-03-16

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap.

  4. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  5. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  6. Maize food group in the energy diets structure of mothers of native maize producers households in two communities in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra E. Moreno-Flores

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To analyse the importance of Maize Food Group (MFG consumption by mothers of native maize households producers.Material and methods: It is the case of a descriptive, comparative, transversal and prospective study of two communities of the State of Mexico. Santa María Nativitas (SMN is a mestizo and peri-urban community and San Jerónimo Mavatí (SJM is an indigenous community. The selection of mothers to be studied was by convenience (40 women in SMN and 40 women in SJM. Interviews were used for application of food frequency questionnaires to record 24 hours food intake. Descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normal distribution of the data was performed. Data were analysed using parametric statistics (Student’s t distribution and principal component analysis.Results: Mothers from SMN consume 3,999.93 Kcal/day from which 20% are from the MFG; while Mothers from SJM consume 2,566.67 Kcal from which 33.8% are from the MFG. There is not a significant difference between SMN and SJM regarding MFG consumption, but there is with respect to other food products like cereals, sweeteners, legumes and fruits.Conclusions: In both communities there was a change on mothers´ diet; more carbohydrates from cereals and sweet drinks are consumed. This change on diet has health consequences and impacts on maize diversity conservation, as the main source of food in rural communities, and foremost, on food security for agricultural communities.

  7. Sensory capabilities and food capture of two small copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Saiz, Enric; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Detection, handling, and selection of prey are key features of suspension-feeding copepods. Using high-speed video, we determined detection distances and durations of all elements of the food gathering process in two small calanoid copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp. Animals were f...

  8. Novel strategies for capturing health-protective mango phytochemicals in shelf stable food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Ivette; Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Cost-effective methods for concentration and stabilization of otherwise perishable mango fruit phytoactives into shelf stable high protein ingredients were developed to combat stunting (malnutrition) in rural Africa. Mango juices complexed with sunflower oil and protein-rich legume flours yielded carotenoid-enriched oils and pelleted polyphenol-enriched flour matrices. Carotenoids from juices were concentrated 9-10 times in the fortified sunflower oil. Protein-rich soy and peanut flours captured 2.2-3.2 mg/g polyphenols from the juices. Alternatively, mango juice was sorbed and co-dried with flours, which stably bound the polyphenols, carotenoids, and natural sugars in soy or peanut protein-rich matrices. The concentration of provitamin A carotenoids was almost doubled and total polyphenols were enriched 4-5 times higher in the matrices compared to fresh pureed juice. Both strategies require minimal instrumentation, are compatible with rural village dietary practices; and capture the benefits of otherwise perishable seasonal resources by complexing healthful proteins together with phytoactive compounds.

  9. Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Serge M; Rosenberg, Andrew A

    2010-09-27

    World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges.

  10. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults.

  11. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  12. Gender Division of Labour in Food Production and Decision Making Power and Impact on Household Food Security and Child Nutrition in Rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoo, Tiransia Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Background Food insecurity which is the one of the causes of child malnutrition is still prevalent in Tanzania. One of the causes of food insecurity as it has been reported by other scholars is gender inequality. Women, especially in developing countries have been reported to have very high workload in food production compared to men and in decision making power they are often subordinate to men. Other studies have showed that gender roles are dynamic and they change over time with economi...

  13. 江苏省城镇家庭食物消费温室气体排放研究%Research on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Household Food Consumption in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单伟

    2016-01-01

    家庭食物消费带来的温室气体排放对家庭低碳消费有重要影响。文章基于江苏省2005—2013年城镇家庭食物消费统计数据,对江苏省城镇家庭食物消费生命周期过程的温室气体排放进行评估。结果显示,2005—2013年期间,江苏省城镇家庭人均食物消费导致的温室气体排放增长约5.5%。其中,肉类和水产品类食物消费带来的温室气体增长占据主导作用。另外,随着江苏省城镇家庭食物消费结构的变化,植物性食物消费导致的温室气体排放比例呈逐渐下降趋势,而动物性食物消费的隐含排放比重则逐步增加。为促进家庭低碳消费,江苏省未来的食物消费应适当控制动物性食物消费。%Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household food consumption have profound impacts on household low-carbon consumption. Based on urban household food consumption data in Jiangsu province from 2005 to 2013, this paper evaluates the life-cycle GHG emissions from urban household food consumption in Jiangsu province from 2005 to 2013. Results indicate that, GHG emissions from urban household food consumption have increased about 5.5% from 2005 to 2013, which was dominated by the rise of emissions from household consumption on meat and aquatic products. Moreover, with the shift to a more animal-based westernized diet, the ratio of emissions from plant-sourced food to total food related emissions has decreased, while the proportion of emissions from animal-sourced food to total emissions has increased. To impel household low-carbon consumption, the rational control of animal-based food consumption deserves policy intervention.

  14. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  15. Food Access and Perceptions of the Community and Household Food Environment as Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Rural Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Cassandra M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption to health has been well established, few studies have focused on access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas; even fewer examined the relationship between food access and fruit and vegetable consumption among seniors. Methods To examine the spatial challenges to good nutrition faced by seniors who reside in rural areas and how spatial access influences fruit and vegetable intake. A cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Health Assessment (mailsurvey for 582 rural seniors (60-90 years, who were recruited by random digit dialing; food store data from the 2006-2007 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project that used ground-truthed methods to identify, geocode, and inventory fruit and vegetables in all food stores. Results Few of the BVHA seniors consumed the recommended intakes of fruits or vegetables; women consumed more servings of fruit (1.49 ± 0.05 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07, p = 0.02, similar servings of vegetables (2.18 ± 0.04 vs. 2.09 ± 0.07, p = 0.28, and more combined fruit and vegetables (3.67 ± 0.08 vs. 3.38 ± 0.12, p = 0.04 than men. The median distances to fresh fruit and vegetables were 5.5 miles and 6.4 miles, respectively. When canned and frozen fruit and vegetables were included in the measurement of overall fruit or vegetables, the median distance for a good selection of fruit or vegetables decreased to 3.4 miles for overall fruit and 3.2 miles for overall vegetables. Almost 14% reported that food supplies did not last and there was not enough money to buy more. Our analyses revealed that objective and perceived measures of food store access - increased distance to the nearest supermarket, food store with a good variety of fresh and processed fruit, or food store with a good variety of fresh and processed vegetables - were associated with decreased daily consumption of fruit, vegetables, and combined fruit and vegetables, after

  16. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  17. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods: Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005-2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n=20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of brea...

  18. 粮食作物生产结构与农户粮食消费的演变%The Development of Food Crop Production and Farmer Household Food Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯璐; 武功文; 张焱; 吴春梅

    2015-01-01

    利用效用理论的无差异曲线研究方法,基于云南南部山区陆稻改良技术推广的农户调查,分析陆稻改良技术对主要粮食作物生产结构以及农户粮食消费偏好的影响。研究发现,云南南部山区陆稻增产种植面积大幅度下降,释放了玉米作为饲料粮的生产空间,加深了粮食的市场化消费程度,经济发展步入初级小康阶段。但是,粮食消费偏好显示陆稻作为口粮消费的收入效应高于替代效应,反映出云南南部山区在与市场接轨中的政策效力不足或者发展方式滞后。因此,云南南部山区农业经济发展不仅需要依托科技,更需要结合粮食消费需求加强市场发展,保障粮食安全。%Using the indifference curve of utility theory , based on the household survey of improved up-land rice technology ( IURT) promotion in southern upland of Yunnan , this paper analyzes the influence of IURT on the production structure of main grain crops and household food consumption preference .The results indicate that there is a significant decrease of planting area of upland rice releasing the planting zone of maize as feed grain , which deepens the marketization of food consumption , and promotes the e-conomy onto a stage of relatively primary well-off society .However , food consumption preference shows that, upland rice as staple food , its income effect is higher than its substitution effect , which reflects an insufficiency or lag of policies in the market-oriented development in southern upland of Yunnan .There-fore, the agricultural economy development should not only depend on science and technology , but also combine with the food consumption demand to promote the market-oriented development and food securi-ty.

  19. Toward Improved Understanding of Food Security: A Methodological Examination Based in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tracy; Kemp, Robert S; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne S

    2013-03-01

    Accurate measurement of household food security is essential to generate adequate information on the proportion of households experiencing food insecurity, especially in areas or regions vulnerable to food shortages and famine. This manuscript offers a methodological examination of three commonly used indicators of household food security - experience of hunger, dietary diversity, and coping strategies. Making use of data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, we examine the association between the indicators themselves to improve understanding of the different insight offered by each food security "lens." We also examine how the choice of indicator shapes the profile of vulnerable households, with results suggesting that dietary diversity scores may not adequately capture broader food insecurity. Concluding discussion explores programmatic and policy implications as related to methodological choices.

  20. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  1. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  2. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once...

  3. Poverty and household consumption patterns in Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper, statistical analysis of poverty and household consumption patterns in rural areas and urban areas Ecuador - considers consumer expenditure on basic food requirements and housing; outlines regional disparities, rural urban disparities and disparities associated with family size, men or female headed households, occupational structure, educational level, age, etc. References, statistical tables.

  4. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  5. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha F. Aflague

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63 captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63 returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%; willingness to use the mFR again (87%; and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%. Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%; Time 2 (49/63, 78%; and at both times (47/63, 75%. This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR.

  6. Proposta metodológica para o módulo de consumo alimentar pessoal na pesquisa brasileira de orçamentos familiares Methodological proposal for the individual food intake module of the Brazilian household budget survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Massae Yokoo

    2008-12-01

    Expenditure Study done from 1974 to 1975. Although useful, national food consumption studies are expensive and only a few countries can conduct them regularly. Nonetheless, household budget surveys are important sources of data on the availability of food at home determined by records of foods purchased. Recent changes in consumption habits, particularly eating out, limit the use of data from household budget surveys to estimate food intake. Thus, the Brazilian government suggested that the next household budget survey to be done in 2008-2009 include a module on individual food consumption. Information on individual food intake will be used to supplement the data regarding food purchases. The objective of this study is to report the development of the methodology to be used in the module of individual food consumption of the household budget survey of 2008-2009. Budget data will be combined with intake data to estimate the usual individual food consumption.

  7. Does Financial Literacy Contribute to Food Security?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members, is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity.

  8. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and

  9. Exploring the association between household food insecurity, parental self-efficacy, and fruit and vegetable parenting practices among parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity may negatively impact children’s nutritional status by affecting parenting quality. Because parents have a strong influence on their children’s eating and food choices, examining the effects of food insecurity on parenting may provide important insights into obesity prevention effort...

  10. There’s no such thing as a free lunch : altruistic parents and the response of household food expenditures to nutrition program reforms

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Many countries provide extensive in-kind public transfers for specific needs of particular client groups such as the elderly, the disabled, and children. However, this may crowd out private expenditures on the goods in question and, to some extent, undermine the case for not simply giving cash. If the target group belongs to a larger household the mechanism behind this crowding out could be either altruism or agency. This paper is concerned with three nutrition programmes for children in UK h...

  11. Nejayote produced at household level by Mayan women in Guatemala : is it a threat to aquatic ecosystems or a resource for food security?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes de Gramajo, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if nejayote produced at household level in Guatemala represents a threat to aquatic ecosystems and, if so, propose sustainable processing, reuse and disposal methods. First, all aspects related to nejayote production were explored. This study presents combined results from literature study on corn consumption and Guatemalan demography, a survey to Guatemalan women of all ethnical groups, nixtamalization replica and solids removal experiments and laborator...

  12. Targeting cyclone relief within the village: kinship, sharing, and capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the targeting of cyclone relief within villages in Fiji. It focuses on how relief allocation is linked with informal risk sharing and elite capture, both of which are directly related to kinship. The results are as follows. First, food aid is initially targeted toward kin groups according to their aggregate shocks and then shared among group members. Right after the cyclone, when aid is scarce, households with damage to their housing and with greater crop damage are allocated less aid within the group. Instead, they receive greater net private transfers in other forms, especially in labor sharing. Consistent patterns are found in village, cropping, and housing rehabilitations. Second, there is no elite capture of food aid in the kin group, and instead, traditional kin leaders share food with others; however, non-kin-based community leaders capture aid when it is allocated across kin groups. Third, distinct from food aid demanded by all, tarpaulins demanded by victims only strongly target individual housing damage at the village level—not the kin group—independent of social status. As with food aid, victims with greater crop damage are given a lower priority. Implications for relief policies are discussed.

  13. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production.

  14. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  15. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  16. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  17. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  18. Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households.%基于农户尺度的陕北退耕区粮食安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 谢永生

    2011-01-01

    对陕北退耕区米脂县(人口高密度区)和吴起县(低密度区)农户尺度粮食生产能力进行分析,应用最小人均耕地面积和生产函数方法研究了该区粮食安全状况及影响因素.结果表明:人口低密度区的粮食生产能力可基本保障其粮食安全,而人151高密度区不能确保粮食安全;基本农田面积和农业科技投入是影响农户粮食安全的主要因素,劳动力投入、素质和粮食补贴也有正向影响,但目前的农业科技水平和劳动力素质未达到粮食生产能力的囤蓄要求.应加大基本农田和农业科学技术的囤蓄力度,达到最小人均基本农田0.14 hm2,重视农业劳动力的技术培训,并制定合理的退耕后续政策.%This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population ( Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi. and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the mimmum standard of 0.14 hm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  19. Small scale integrated agriculture: a tool of poverty alleviation, gender equality promotion and improving food security at household level in coastal region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Begum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  20. Research of Urban Households' Food consumption:Based on AIDS Model%我国城镇居民食品消费研究——基于 AIDS 模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辰; 穆月英

    2015-01-01

    The paper collected urban households' food consumption and price data between 2005 and 2012 of 31 provinces in China.The expenditure elasticity and price elasticity were computed using AIDS model.Based on the results, we discussed food consumption trend and the relationships of different foods.Compared with dietary goal, food consumption of urban households was evaluated and the varying trend was analyzed.Some conclusions were made after research:the influence of cereal and oil consumption was very limited and their share tended to re-duce in future.Outdoor dining, milk and egg consumption would be the main growth points of food consumption. The shares of these foods would increase.Meat, vegetable, fruit and egg consumption would also maintain a compa-rably rapid growth.Price had a small impact to almost of food consumption except aquatic product, milk and egg. There is a certain deviation between food consumption at present and the goal of dietary nutrition.Comparing the e-lasticity of different time, we found that the influence of expenditure was gradually becoming weak.The price re-sponse was also becoming insignificant.%依据2005~2012年我国31个省份城镇居民食品消费支出和价格数据,运用AIDS模型测算了食品消费支出和价格弹性系数,并基于所得结果讨论了居民食品消费需求的影响因素以及食品消费变动态势. 在对各类食品消费的相互关系进行分析的同时,结合膳食营养发展目标对我国城镇居民食品消费进行了评价,分析了食品消费弹性的变化趋势. 研究的主要结论是:未来粮食、油脂消费受支出影响有限,消费份额趋于减少;在外用餐、奶及奶制品、水产品消费是今后食品消费主要增长点,消费份额趋于增加;肉禽及制品、蔬果、蛋类消费将保持较快增速. 除水产品、奶及奶制品和蛋类自价格弹性较大外,多数食品受自身价格的影响较小. 目前食品消费发展方向与未来居民

  1. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household fo...

  2. Heterogeneity analysis on household food demand among different regions by QUAIDS model%不同地区家庭食品需求的异质性分析--基于QUAIDS模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菲; 于冷

    2016-01-01

    消费是推动国家经济发展的三驾马车之一,而食品消费则是消费问题中最基本同时也是最重要的问题。基于实地调研,分析城镇和农村地区家庭食品需求和外出就餐情况,采用QUAIDS模型,探讨家庭食品需求的异质性。结果表明,东南地区家庭食品支出金额最高,为2469.62元/月,江南地区次之,西北地区最低,为1588.95元/月;其外出就餐支出与在家就餐支出之比分别为0.35、0.42和0.78。人均外出就餐已经占到全部就餐次数的1/5-1/4,并且每增加1次中式快餐消费,肉食类食品支出份额将增加0.19%,蔬果类食品支出份额将减少0.14%。各个地区横向比较结果表明,随着地理位置的南移,肉食类食品支出份额逐渐增加,蔬果类支出份额则减少:东南地区肉食类支出份额最高,为0.58,蔬果类支出份额最低,仅0.21;西北地区的肉食类支出份额最低,为0.36,蔬果类支出份额最高,为0.37。支出和价格变动对于各类食品需求的影响也存在和地理位置一致的趋势性,因此在决定生产和制定政策时应该考虑到地区差异性。%Food consumption is a critical component in consumption while consumption is one of the three main boosting forces for economic development. Based on the survey data in urban and rural areas, this paper examined the dining-out and household food demand situations and also analyzed the heterogeneity of household food demand among different regions by the QUAIDS model. Results show that 1) households in the southeast areas spend most on food at home with 2 469.62 yuan per month, followed by households in the south of the Yangtze River and northwest regions; while the ratios of expenditure on food-away-from-home and food-at-home are 0.35, 0.42 and 0.78 respectively; 2) the average number of dining-out accounts for 1/5-1/4 in total dining number; 3) the budget share of meat increases by 0

  3. From global economic modelling to household level analyses of food security and sustainability: how big is the gap and can we bridge it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Policy and decision makers have to make difficult choices to improve the food security of local people against the background of drastic global and local changes. Ex-ante impact assessment using integrated models can help them with these decisions. This review analyses the state of affairs of the mu

  4. First-Year Evaluation of Mexico's Tax on Nonessential Energy-Dense Foods: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Batis

    2016-07-01

    urban areas, we only have 2 y of data prior to the tax, and, as with any consumer panel survey, we did not capture all foods purchased by the household.Household purchases of nonessential energy-dense foods declined in the first year after the implementation of Mexico's SSB and nonessential foods taxes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of the taxes on overall energy intake, dietary quality, and food purchase patterns (see S1 Abstract in Spanish.

  5. Top Level Results of a Study of Czech Households´ Awareness of the Food Advertising Industry’s Self-Regulation Related to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Lhotáková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily focused on analyses of the research undertaken to understand the awareness of food advertising’s self-regulation authority (Council for Advertising and of the Czech Code of Conduct in the context of the growing issue of child obesity. The objective is to find out the perception of food advertising to children and awareness of regulation and industry self-regulation amongst Czech mothers. Our theoretical framework presumes dependence between the awareness levels and selected demographic variables. We conclude several actions to overcome low awareness of the Council of Advertising and its Code of Conduct and to transfer the industry’s self-regulation into an efficient and recognized tool of shaping the culture of responsible advertising in the Czech Republic. The conclusions lead towards stronger protection of children.

  6. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. ...

  7. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  8. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  9. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  10. Insegurança alimentar das famílias residentes em municípios do interior do estado da Paraíba, Brasil Household food insecurity in municipalities of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de segurança alimentar e dos diferentes graus de insegurança alimentar entre famílias residentes em 14 municípios da Paraíba e a relacionar com o perfil social, demográfico e econômico destas famílias. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito populacional no qual 4.533 famílias foram entrevistadas. Utilizou-se questionário para avaliar as características sócio-demográficas, juntamente com a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Foram calculadas medidas de prevalência e verificada a associação entre as variáveis do estudo pelo teste qui-quadrado. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística para examinar a associação dos fatores de risco à segurança e à insegurança alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de 11,3% de insegurança alimentar grave, 17,6% de insegurança moderada, 23,6% de insegurança leve; 47,5% da população foi classificada em situação de segurança alimentar. As áreas rurais apresentaram pior situação. O principal motivo referido para insegurança alimentar foi a falta de dinheiro para aquisição de comida. A regressão logística final foi composta por três variáveis: baixa renda familiar per capita (R$25,00 versus R$300,00, Odds Ratio=19,10, moradia precária (Odds Ratio=1,98 e falta de água permanente (Odds Ratio=1,38. As famílias do menor estrato de renda apresentaram menor prevalência de insegurança alimentar grave, quando incluídas em programas sociais. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de insegurança alimentar foi elevada. O instrumento utilizado demonstrou ser uma ferramenta importante de avaliação da situação de segurança alimentar e útil para o monitoramento de políticas públicas, como é o caso dos programas sociais que integram a estratégia Fome Zero do Governo Federal.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of household food security in 14 municipalities of Paraiba State and examine its association with

  11. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  12. Influence of Seasonal On-Farm Diversity on Dietary Diversity: A Case Study of Smallholder Farming Households in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'endo, Mary; Bhagwat, Shonil; Keding, Gudrun B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the associations between dietary patterns and farm diversity as well as socioeconomic variables during two seasons in rural Western Kenya. As a mean of two surveys, the average dietary diversity scores (DDS) of households and women were low, implying low household economic access to food and low women's dietary quality. The Food Consumption Score (FCS) showed that acceptable levels of food consumption were realized over seven consecutive days in the 2014 survey by the majority of households (83%) and women (90%). While there was no strong association between the food scores and seven farm diversity indicators, both food scores were significantly associated with the household's wealth status, ethnicity of both the household head and the spouse, and the education level of the spouse. For holistic household food and nutrition security approaches, we suggest a shift from a focus on farm production factors to incorporating easily overlooked socioeconomic factors such as household decision-making power and ethnicity.

  13. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  14. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and ...

  15. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  16. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  17. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  18. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a significant component of household income. For these households, labour is the main input in both farm and off-farm activities. This study was motivated by three reasons: Firstly, there are contra...

  19. Food: Too Good to Waste Implementation Guide and Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food: Too Good to Waste (FTGTW) Implementation Guide and Toolkit is designed for community organizations, local governments, households and others interested in reducing wasteful household food management practices.

  20. First-Year Evaluation of Mexico’s Tax on Nonessential Energy-Dense Foods: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2016-01-01

    ), our sample is only representative of urban areas, we only have 2 y of data prior to the tax, and, as with any consumer panel survey, we did not capture all foods purchased by the household. Conclusions Household purchases of nonessential energy-dense foods declined in the first year after the implementation of Mexico’s SSB and nonessential foods taxes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of the taxes on overall energy intake, dietary quality, and food purchase patterns (see S1 Abstract in Spanish). PMID:27379797

  1. Reconstructing Pompeian Households

    CERN Document Server

    Mimno, David

    2012-01-01

    A database of objects discovered in houses in the Roman city of Pompeii provides a unique view of ordinary life in an ancient city. Experts have used this collection to study the structure of Roman households, exploring the distribution and variability of tasks in architectural spaces, but such approaches are necessarily affected by modern cultural assumptions. In this study we present a data-driven approach to household archeology, treating it as an unsupervised labeling problem. This approach scales to large data sets and provides a more objective complement to human interpretation.

  2. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  3. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discus

  4. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  5. U.S. Food Insecurity Status: Toward a Refined Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Jensen, Alisha Judith

    2010-01-01

    United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecure as answering affirmatively to three or more food insecurity questions describing a household's ability to acquire enough food. Households indicating low levels of food insecurity (one or two affirmative responses) are considered food secure. This paper compares the characteristics of…

  6. Household Metabolism in the Five Cities. Swedish National Report - Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Karlsson, Rebecka [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group; Moll, Henri; Kok, Rixt [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). IVEM; Wadeskog, Anders [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The study present results from a European project, ToolSust, in which direct and indirect energy use of household consumption is quantified. The focus is on households in Stockholm and how their spending contributes to energy use. A Dutch energy analyses programme, EAP, was modified to portray Swedish conditions, and analyses of more than 300 consumer goods were performed. These data were matched with information about family expenditure patterns from 1996. Six households were analysed, Swedish average, Stockholm City average and four households from Stockholm City. The results show that it is possible to portray households' total energy use, even the indirect one, with the help of the EAP programme and Swedish statistics. Further, indirect energy use may account for more than half of households total energy use and therefore it needs to be considered in policy making. The total primary energy use for the average households varied from 240 to 260 GJ during 1996. Heating, food and transportation were large contributors. The energy efficiency of total household spending varied from 8.8 MJ per Euro 13 MJ per Euro. Information about the energy efficiency on spending is valuable but cannot be presented and used without considering basic needs and quality of life. The total energy use per person varied from 50 to 350 GJ per year, a difference of factor seven. The analyses of energy efficiency of spending, MJ per SEK, indicate important opportunities for less energy demanding spending patterns, but those with low incomes have fewer opportunities than those with high incomes. The energy profiles for different households show that the individual ones may differ a lot from the average picture. There is a need for individual household advice about how to find more energy efficient spending patterns. Large cuts in household energy use means substantial changes in both energy intensity of goods and services and expenditure profiles. Expenditure levels should also be

  7. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  8. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  9. The Relation Between Financial and Housing Wealth of Dutch Households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze households' joint investment decisions for financial wealth and homes.In our bivariate censored regression model with endogenous switching, fixed costs or transaction costs are captured by a threshold that has to be passed before the purchase.The model allows for spill-over effects of a b

  10. So exactly what is a "household"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D

    2000-07-01

    The huge increase in HIV/AIDS in southern Africa has disrupted family life and the means of making a living. This has made Oxfam examine its definitions of a ¿household¿ and changed the kind of support it had given people affected by HIV/AIDS. It is shown that there are more than 23 million HIV-positive people living in southern Africa; nearly 70% of global cases in a region which has only 10% of the global population. When chronic illness and death strikes, the composition of a household change dramatically and affects the roles of household members. It is usually the women who have to cope with the increased burden of caring for the sick, and take the greater responsibility of earning money and providing food. Also, girls often take over the roles of their sick mothers and care for other family members and are taken out of school to save money on school expenses so that they can provide care for the sick. In view of this, Oxfam has been working to incorporate a gender analysis and pays more attention to gender roles in both male- and female-headed households.

  11. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  12. Estimating individual and household reproduction numbers in an emerging epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fraser

    Full Text Available Reproduction numbers, defined as averages of the number of people infected by a typical case, play a central role in tracking infectious disease outbreaks. The aim of this paper is to develop methods for estimating reproduction numbers which are simple enough that they could be applied with limited data or in real time during an outbreak. I present a new estimator for the individual reproduction number, which describes the state of the epidemic at a point in time rather than tracking individuals over time, and discuss some potential benefits. Then, to capture more of the detail that micro-simulations have shown is important in outbreak dynamics, I analyse a model of transmission within and between households, and develop a method to estimate the household reproduction number, defined as the number of households infected by each infected household. This method is validated by numerical simulations of the spread of influenza and measles using historical data, and estimates are obtained for would-be emerging epidemics of these viruses. I argue that the household reproduction number is useful in assessing the impact of measures that target the household for isolation, quarantine, vaccination or prophylactic treatment, and measures such as social distancing and school or workplace closures which limit between-household transmission, all of which play a key role in current thinking on future infectious disease mitigation.

  13. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization......In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...

  14. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  15. 北京海淀区户籍与流动儿童少年家庭食物选购及消费教育情况调查%Survey on Food Purchase and Consumption Education of Children and Adolescents with and without Householder Register in Haidian District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To obtain the information of food purchase and consumption education in children and adolescents with and without householder register in Haidian District of Beijing, and to provide a basis for developing intervention measures. Methods A total of 969 primary and secondary school students were selected from Haidian District by two - stage stratified random cluster sampling. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Results Parents gave pocket money for their good performance in 25.3% of the investigated children and adolescents (the rate was lower in children and adolescents with Haidian householder register than in those without, P<0.05). 14.1 % of the investigated parents gave pocket money to their children when they realized that the children needed it, and 2.3% of them gave pocket money as much as the children asked for. Mothers were mainly responsible for food purchase in 76. 9% of the investigated families. Children and parents were both responsible for food purchase in 31.8% families, while 19.7% children often purchased food by themselves (the rate was significantly lower in children and adolescents with Haidian householder register than in those without, P<0.05). The top four influencing factors of food purchase were "food hygiene", "food freshness", "food taste" and "food quality", which were same in children and adolescents with and without Haidian householder register. 22.5% of children and adolescents investigated often asked their parents to purchase certain kind of food (the rate was significantly higher in children and adolescents with Haidian householder register than in those without, P<0.01). As for the children's requirements for food purchase, the parents satisfied the requests of their children whatever they wanted in 5.6% of the investigated families (the rate was significantly higher in children and adolescents with Haidian householder register than in those without, P<0.001), while in 14.0% of the families, food purchase depended on

  16. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Ren Yiping [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhao Hangmei [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang Ying [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China)]. E-mail: y_zhang@zju.edu.cn

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Hangmei; Zhang, Ying

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 microg kg(-1) for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 microg kg(-1) in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 microg kg(-1) detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  18. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  19. Nearly Four Million Californians Are Food Insecure

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, M. Pia; Langellier, Brent; Birnbach, Kerry; Sharp, Kerry; Harrison, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity has increased significantly among low-income Californians over the last decade. According to data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, 3.8 million adults in households with incomes at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) could not afford enough food at least once in the previous year. Low-income households with children and Spanish-speaking households suffered from the worst levels of food insecurity. Expanding nutrition assistance programs, such as th...

  20. 陕西果业发展对农户粮食生产和粮食安全影响的调查%Influence of fruit industry on farmers' household grain production and food security in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 上官周平

    2011-01-01

    A random survey was carried out to 1430 farm households in three representational counties (Luochuan county, Changwu county and Baishui county) located in the apple-producing region of Shaanxi. The results indicate that in the fruit-producing area, the development of fruit industry not only promotes the development of the rural economy, but also improves the farmers' living standard, while the grain production is greatly hampered and food security seriously threatened; The grain self-sufficiency rate of the three counties is low and the grain production is insufficient; Significant changes take place in the structure of grain-growing, and the maize proportion in the total yield increases largely; The proportion of grain ration reduces gradually, meanwhile the proportion of feed grain increases rapidly; The farmers have no sense of storing grain, thus the fruit-producing area is still short of grain supply and demand. Therefore, to ensure food security in fruit-grain areas, we should strengthen the construction of food distribution channels and change the concept of the farmers for storing grain and do the work of food reserves, while the government should increase agricultural subsidies and technological input to reduce grain production costs and risks, and mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers for grain production.%通过对陕西渭北旱塬3个代表性的苹果生产基地县(长武县、白水县和洛川县)Ⅰ 340户农户的调查发现,渭北旱塬果粮交错区果业产业的发展不仅促进了农村经济的发展,而且提高了农民的生活水平,但对粮食生产带来了限制,对区域粮食安全构成潜在的威胁;3县粮食均不能自给,粮食自给率低;粮食种植结构发生较大变化,玉米比重增大;粮食构成中口粮比例逐渐缩小,饲料用粮比例增加迅速;农户无储粮观念,果区仍然存在区域性粮食供需短缺.因此,要确保果粮区粮食安全,应加强粮食流通渠道建设,改变农民储粮观

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  2. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  3. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  4. Toward a Hierarchical Bayesian Framework for Modelling the Effect of Regional Diversity on Household Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodjol Sutijo Supri Ulama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Household expenditure analysis was highly demanding for government in order to formulate its policy. Since household data was viewed as hierarchical structure with household nested in its regional residence which varies inter region, the contextual welfare analysis was needed. This study proposed to develop a hierarchical model for estimating household expenditure in an attempt to measure the effect of regional diversity by taking into account district characteristics and household attributes using a Bayesian approach. Approach: Due to the variation of household expenditure data which was captured by the three parameters of Log-Normal (LN3 distribution, the model was developed based on LN3 distribution. Data used in this study was household expenditure data in Central Java, Indonesia. Since, data were unbalanced and hierarchical models using a classical approach work well for balanced data, thus the estimation process was done by using Bayesian method with MCMC and Gibbs sampling. Results: The hierarchical Bayesian model based on LN3 distribution could be implemented to explain the variation of household expenditure using district characteristics and household attributes. Conclusion: The model shows that districts characteristics which include demographic and economic conditions of districts and the availability of public facilities which are strongly associated with a dimension of human development index, i.e., economic, education and health, do affect to household expenditure through its household attributes."

  5. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...... valid alternative to the IGT; 2) participants in the current study were not highly potential risk-takers; and finally 3) that eye tracking during an IGT/ HPG can provide useful information about potential risk-seeking cues...

  6. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity...... consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process....... The average electricity saving in participating households is estimated to 8.1%, compared with a 0.8% saving in the control group. The qualitative interviews revealed that the feedback made household electricity consumption more visible and salient, and empowered electricity consumers to take action...

  7. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context.

  8. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  9. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    , lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  10. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  11. Gender and food, a study of attitudes in the USA towards organic, local, U.S. grown, and GM-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Anne C; Alcaraz V, Gabriela; Hallman, William K

    2010-12-01

    Food choice is influenced by consumer attitudes towards food attributes. This U.S.-based study (n = 601) simultaneously compares attitudes towards selected food attributes of organic, locally grown, U.S. grown, and GM-free food in relation to other food attributes. Exploratory factor analysis identifies underlying constructs that determine, together and separately, female and male food choice decisions. Gendered analysis of the value of food in life and food behaviours (cooking and shopping) support the investigation of the highlighted food attributes. Respondents generally assigned greater importance to the U.S. grown, followed by GM-free, locally grown, and organically produced food attributes in deciding what to eat. Analysis of the female and male subsamples yielded similar factor results. All four main attributes were captured in a single factor, associated with respondents in both the female and male subsamples who are older, have lower incomes, and who are religiously observant. Additionally, among females, this factor was associated with higher education; and among males, living in households with children and/or with partners. Additional studies should further explore the interaction of food attributes now becoming increasingly important and prevalent in current food products.

  12. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  13. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  14. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  15. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe G Davies

    Full Text Available Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities. House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more

  16. FOOD Insecurity and Stochastic Aspects of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jock; Roumasset, James

    1996-01-01

    Most works on food security have a macroeconomic orientation, whereas most discussions of famine are rather microeconomic. The intention here is to seek a more unified approach to the economic issues in food insecurity among low-income rural households.

  17. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations acrylamide spiked at levels of 1, 20, 50 and 100ngg(-1)). Furthermore, the method proposed requires no clean-up step of the acrylamide derivative to be performed prior to injection. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine acrylamide in different commercial cereal-based foods (including French fries and potato chips).

  18. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste....... Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data...... gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control...

  19. Quantifying the economic contribution of wild food harvests to rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, Gordon M.; Pouliot, Mariève; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies and analyses (i) the economic contribution of wild foods to rural households, (ii) the household socio-economic, demographic, and geographical correlates of wild food income, and (iii) how wild foods can be better incorporated into integrative food security...... regional variation in determinants and the direction of significant relationships indicate there is no one-size-fits-all approach to integrating wild foods into food and forest policies. However, our results reveal potential to increase household food security by integrating wild foods into national food...... policies. We used household income data from 7975 households in 24 developing countries across three continents collected by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). We found 77% of households to be engaged in wild food collection from forest and non-forest environments even though the share of wild food...

  20. Matching Food with Mouths: A Statistical Explanation to the Abnormal Decline of Per Capita Food Consumption in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an alternative explanation for the unusual apparent decline in food consumption in rural China after 2000. We find that it is mainly attributable to significant measurement errors in the Chinese Rural Household Survey and the calculation of per capita food consumption. In a household survey, total consumption for a household in a certain period is often well recorded, and per capita consumption is obtained by dividing total consumption by household size. Such a calculation...

  1. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  2. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  3. Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy and meat foods by combination of capture with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaoli; Gan, Min; Xu, Feng; He, Lihua; Yang, Dong; Xu, Hengyi; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens in dairy and meat products; therefore, developing a highly sensitive and rapid method for its detection is necessary. In this study, a quantitative detection method for Staph. aureus was developed using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. First, genomic DNA was extracted from lysed bacteria using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and amplified using thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. After adding the nucleic-acid dye SYBR Green I to the amplicons, the fluorescence intensity was observed using a UV lamp or recorded using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. This detection system had a detection limit of 5×10(0) cfu/mL in pure culture and milk-powder samples and 5×10(1) cfu/mL in pork samples using a UV light in less than 2h. In addition, a good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence intensity and bacterial concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(4) cfu/mL under optimal conditions. Furthermore, the results from contaminated milk powder and pork samples suggested that the detection system could be used for the quantitative analysis of Staph. aureus and applied potentially to the food industry for the detection of this pathogen.

  4. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2016-04-15

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield.

  5. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic…

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  7. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  8. 食品价格上涨对城镇家庭消费与福利影响研究——基于EASI模型%The Effects of the Increase in Food Prices on Urban Households'Consumption and Welfare:Based on EASI Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕东; 王小叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on EASI demand system which shares the same origin with the 2015 Nobel Prize owner Deaton's AIDS ,this paper employs CHNS data and EASI demand sys-tem to empirically analyze the effects of the increase in food prices on consumption and welfare of urban households at different income levels ,and compares the different effects of income-based subsidies and price-based .It comes to the results as follows :firstly ,the ani-mal food expenditure of urban residents accounts for the largest proportion of total food expenditure ,followed by grain and vegetables ,and the food consumption structure of urban residents is composed of animal food ,grain and vegetables ,showing that the increase in an-imal food prices has relatively greater effect on daily diet consumption of urban residents ;secondly ,food prices have the greatest effects on the welfare of poor households and fami-lies with the lowest income ,and the prices of animal food have the greatest effect on the welfare of families with lower income ;thirdly ,as for families with low income ,when the prices of animal food increase ,the effect of income-based subsidy policy is superior to the one of price-based subsidy policy ;when the food prices increase ,the effect of price-based subsidy policy is superior to the one of income-based subsidy policy. It finally provides poli-cy suggestions from the perspectives of production ,subsidy policy and distribution system .%文章基于与2015年度诺贝尔经济学奖得主迪顿的接近理想需求系统 AIDS 来源相同的EASI需求系统 ,采用CHNS调查数据 ,运用 EASI需求系统实证分析了各类食品价格上涨对不同收入等级城镇家庭消费与福利的影响 ,并比较了收入补贴与价格补贴的经济效果.研究发现:(1)我国城镇居民动物性食品消费支出占食品总支出的比重最大 ,其次是粮食和蔬菜 ,城镇居民的食品消费结构为"动物性食品+粮食+蔬菜" ,这说明动物性食品价格上涨对我

  9. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  10. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  11. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Deborah A. Cohen; Davis, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...

  12. THE IMPACT OF “ONE VILLAGE ONE PRODUCT (OVOP)” ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME – IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF BVUMBWE OPERATION AREA, THYOLO DISTRICT, MALAWI

    OpenAIRE

    Chidumu, Juliana Immaculate

    2007-01-01

    Malawi is among the most poor and food insecure countries in the world according to UNDP’s Human Development Report (2004). Agriculture is the driving force of the economy of Malawi and the backbone to food security. The government of Malawi introduced a program called One Village One Product (OVOP) in 2003 whose major objective is poverty reduction by bringing economic independence into the communities. However, no effort had been made to evaluate the program and its activities hence creatin...

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  14. Minority and poor households: patterns of travel and transportation fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M.; Morrison, R.; Vyas, A.

    1986-05-01

    This report documents the travel behavior and transportation fuel use of minority and poor households in the US, using information from numerous national-level sources. The resulting data base reveals distinctive patterns of household vehicle availability and use, travel, and fuel use and enables us to relate observed differences between population groups to differences in their demographic characteristics and in the attributes of their household vehicles. When income and residence location are controlled, black (and to a lesser extent, Hispanic and poor) households have fewer vehicles regularly available than do comparable white or nonpoor households; moreover, these vehicles are older and larger and thus have significantly lower fuel economy. The net result is that average black, Hispanic, and poor households travel fewer miles per year but use more fuel than do average white and nonpoor households. Certain other findings - notably, that of significant racial differences in vehicle availability and use by low-income households - challenge the conventional wisdom that such racial variations arise solely because of differences in income and residence location. Results of the study suggest important differences - primarily in the yearly fluctuation of income - between black and white low-income households even when residence location is controlled. These variables are not captured by cross-sectional data sets (either the national surveys used in our analysis or the local data sets that are widely used for urban transportation planning).

  15. A holistic approach to the environmental evaluation of food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Font Vivanco, David; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J

    2017-01-01

    The environmental evaluation of food waste prevention is considered a challenging task due to the globalised nature of the food supply chain and the limitations of existing evaluation tools. The most significant of these is the rebound effect: the associated environmental burdens of substitutive consumption that arises as a result of economic savings made from food waste prevention. This study introduces a holistic approach to addressing these challenges, with a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household food waste in the UK. It uses a hybrid life-cycle assessment model coupled with a highly detailed multi-regional environmentally extended input output analysis to capture environmental impacts across the global food supply chain. The study also takes into consideration the rebound effect, which was modelled using a linear specification of an almost ideal demand system. The study finds that food waste prevention could lead to substantial reductions in GHG emissions in the order of 706-896kg CO2-eq. per tonne of food waste, with most of these savings (78%) occurring as a result of avoided food production overseas. The rebound effect may however reduce such GHG savings by up to 60%. These findings provide a deeper insight into our understanding of the environmental impacts of food waste prevention: the study demonstrates the need to adopt a holistic approach when developing food waste prevention policies in order to mitigate the rebound effect and highlight the importance of increasing efficiency across the global food supply chain, particularly in developing countries.

  16. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  17. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  18. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  19. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  20. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    de Mato Grosso y raza/color (negro del adolescente. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de acciones para la mejoría del acceso al saneamiento básico, la cualificación de recursos humanos con el objeto de generar empleo y renta y las acciones educativas que amplíen la comprensión sobre la inseguridad alimentaria y sus determinantes en los municipios.This cross-sectional population-based study in 2007 focused on prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors in households with adolescents in four towns in the Legal Amazonia located along highway BR-163, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, to Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. The study applied the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to a sample of 363 households. Anthropometric assessment was performed on 534 adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age. A Poisson model was used in the multiple regression analysis. The results showed 23.1% prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, suggesting association with the following: low income, poor sanitation, head of household born in Mato Grosso State, and the adolescent's race (black. The results emphasize the need for improved access to basic sanitation, training of human resources to generate employment/income, and educational activities to improve understanding of food insecurity and its determinants.

  1. Factors Affecting Nonfarm Income Diversification among Rural Farm Households in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Ghimire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonfarm activities play an important role in the determination of rural household income, consumption expenditure, and household food security. However, much less studies have been devoted to the factors that influence nonfarm income diversification by farm household in developing countries. Using cross-sectional data and a probit model, this study attempts to determine the factors influencing nonfarm income diversification decisions by farm households in Central Nepal. The result reveals that household characteristics such as age, gender and education of the household head, and family size play a significant role in nonfarm work decisions. The households with larger farm size are less likely to participate in nonfarm work than their counterpart. Additionally, for those remains in the rural households, distance to road and market hinders the opportunities for nonfarm work. Finally, regional differences also exist in participating nonfarm activities among farm households. This study suggests that government policy should pay more attention on education, gender and infrastructures such as road and markets, to reduce the entry barriers and facilitate easier access to nonfarm activities. Also, nonfarm activities need to be promoted and incorporated in governmental plans and policies for balanced development between hills and terai areas.

  2. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  3. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample.

  4. Informal Labor and Social Relations in Northern Malawi: The Theoretical Challenges and Implications of Ganyu Labor for Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Food insecurity is a problem faced by smallholder farmers in Malawi. In any given year between 70 and 85 percent of households run out of food stocks several months prior to the next harvest. Once food stocks are depleted many households obtain food by doing ganyu. This paper uses qualitative data to examine ganyu in relation to food security in…

  5. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  6. Economic impact of maternal death on households in rural china: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1-3 months after maternal death or childbirth and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID, linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. FINDINGS: The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse" during the follow-up period (adjusted OR = 6.04, p<0.001. During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001. Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p = 0.024. Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p = 0.037, clothes and commodity (p = 0.003, traffic and communication (p = 0.022 and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse

  7. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  8. Joint Project in Wisconsin, New York: Measuring Hunger and Food Insecurity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judi; Dunifon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Food security--access to enough food for a healthy, active life--is vital to the well-being of children. Yet, almost 17% of households with children experience food insecurity, considerably higher than the rate among childless households. Food insecurity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes in children, related to health, behavior,…

  9. Sexual Bias and Household Consumption : A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Zhang, P.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze Engel curves for nuclear households in rural China. The sample includes more than 5000 nuclear families covering nineteen out of thirty Chinese provinces. We consider expenditures on food, also subdivided into several food subcategories such as cereals, or meat and fish, and other consump

  10. Exploring Farm Business and Household Expenditure Patterns and Community Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Dayton M.; Sullivan, Patrick; Wojan, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Farm operators are an integral part of some rural economies. The businesses they operate often hire seasonal and full-time employees and purchase goods and services from local farm implement dealers, input suppliers, and financial institutions. Farm household spending on food, furniture and appliances, trucks and automobiles, and a range of consumer goods also support local jobs and retail businesses in some communities. Based on the 2002 agricultural census and the 2004 Agricultural Resource...

  11. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of househo

  12. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  13. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  14. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  15. Food Insecurity and Food Access in U.S. Metro Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Household food insecurity in the United States has reached its highest levels to date. As public and private initiatives have emerged to help improve diets by fostering access to food, the availability of more food stores may result in lower levels of food insecurity. In this article, we assess the

  16. Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Drought Prone Regions of Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Erenstein, Olaf; Kassie, Girma Tesfahun; Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Mwangi, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture in eastern Africa is predominantly rainfed and maize is a major food crop,primarily produced for home consumption and the market by small-scale family farms. The study characterized farm households in the drought prone maize growing areas of eastern Africa synthesizing data from parallel household surveys in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The study provides a comparative analysis of the farm households’ assets, livelihood strategies and crop management practices, with an em...

  17. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  18. Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-05-01

    Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity.

  19. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  20. Food stress in Adelaide: the relationship between low income and the affordability of healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  1. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  2. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  3. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  6. Does food insecurity compromise maternal dietary Zinc or energy intake in favor of her child, in rural poor Mexican households? ¿En hogares rurales pobres de México, la inseguridad alimentaria compromete el consumo de zinc y energía de las madres en favor de sus hijos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Moreno-Tamayo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze quantitative indicators of food insecurity (FI, and estimate if FI modifies the association between maternal and child Zinc and energy intake as evidence for maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study (n=2 563, data derived from baseline impact evaluation of the Mexican Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Quantitative indicators of FI were:Household food storage, maize and/or bean production, food expenditure, and spatial access to food markets. We evaluated percentage adequacy of energy (PAE and Zinc (PAZn intake. Multiple linear regression model was fitted to estimate the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. RESULTS: Child PAE and PAZn were positively associated with those of their mothers. None of the FI indicators modified the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child was observed using four quantitative indicators of FI in central-southern rural Mexican househods.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores cuantitativos de inseguridad alimentaria (IA y estimar si IA modifica la asociación del consumo de energía y zinc en madres e hijos como evidencia del compromiso de la dieta materna a favor de su hijo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal,información basal de la evaluación de impacto del Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Indicadores de IA: reserva de alimentos en hogar, autoproducción maíz y/o frijol, porcentaje del gasto en alimentos y acceso físico a mercados de alimentos.Se calculó el porcentaje de adecuación del consumo energético (PAE y Zinc (PAZn (n=2 563 pares. Se estimó un modelo de regresión lineal ajustado por covariables. RESULTADOS: El PAE y PAZn de madres e hijos se asoció positivamente. Ningún indicador de IA modificó la asociación entre PAE y PAZn materno con respecto a sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES: Los indicadores de IA estudiados no modifican la relaci

  7. Regional Differences in Food Consumption in Urban Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer

    A nationwide household survey for Mozambique is used to estimate a large censored food demand system with 12 food groups for the sample of urban households. Using the translog indirect utility approach, the censored nature of the data is addressed by estimating a system of Tobit equations...

  8. Regional Differences in Food Consumption in Urban Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer

    A nationwide household survey for Mozambique is used to estimate a large censored food demand system with 12 food groups for the sample of urban households. Using the translog indirect utility approach, the censored nature of the data is addressed by estimating a system of Tobit equations with a ...

  9. Food Recommendations in Domestic Education, Belgium 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of dissemination of nutritional knowledge in textbooks of household schools between 1890 and 1940. It starts by considering the nature of food recommendations in manuals that are used in Belgian household schools, and then deals with the sources that are referred to by those who give food advice, comparing the…

  10. Consumer agency and food retailer choice in an American urban neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonetheless something that is difficult to access for a large sector of the population. By examining both food secure and food insecure households, light is shed on some of the factors that lead to the relative ability of each group to successfully and reliably obtain food. In particular, this study focuses on the perception and behaviour of consumers in relation to the decision to shop, or not to shop, at various food retailers. Some theories of consumer behaviour tend to focus either on class related cultural elements which determine taste preferences while other theories focus on structural elements of the food system which force a limited selection onto various social groups. While certainly class culture influences taste preference to some extent, results from this study suggest that structural elements of the food system and economic differences between food secure and food insecure households have a larger influence on store choice than cultural preferences. In fact, both food secure and insecure households indicated similar sets of criteria used in determining store choices. However, in examination of actual shopping behaviours, this study found that food insecure households are more likely to shop at deep discounters and more likely to travel farther to obtain food. These results suggest that structural elements such as food retailer locations limit the range of shopping options of food insecure households when compared to food secure households. Keywords: food

  11. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  12. Distribuição regional e socioeconômica da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil em 2008-2009 Distribución regional y socioeconómica de la disponibilidad domiciliaria de alimentos en Brasil, 2008-2009 Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy

    2012-02-01

    transformadas en calorías y nutrientes con el auxilio de tablas de composición alimentaria. Indicadores de calidad de la dieta fueron construidos y analizados según estratos socioeconómicos y regionales de la población brasileña. RESULTADOS: La proporción proteica de la disponibilidad alimentaria se mostró adecuada en todos los estratos regionales y económicos. En contrapartida, se observó exceso de azúcares libres en todas las regiones y de grasas especialmente en las regiones Sur y Sureste. La proporción de grasas saturadas fue elevada en el medio urbano y consistente con la mayor participación de productos de origen animal. La presencia insuficiente de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue común en todas las regiones. Intensificación de la proporción de grasas y disminución de la proporción de carbohidratos de la dieta fueron observados con el aumento de la renta. CONCLUSIONES: Las características negativas de la calidad de dieta de la población brasileña observadas al final de la primera década del siglo XXI confieren alta prioridad para políticas públicas de promoción de la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. METHODS: Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. RESULTS: The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern

  13. At-Home Convenience Food Consumption and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of the household production theory was used to select relevant explanatory variables for the demand for convenience foods. A convenience food index was used to measure the convenience in food preparation. Because of the nature of the measure of convenience, the tobit regression technique was used to examine the importance of these explanatory variables to the demand for convenience foods. Results show that the presence of children in a household increases the demand for convenienc...

  14. Aspects of Household Cooling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzyglod, Matthias; Holzer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Actually available household cooling appliances in the highest efficiency class may consume less then 10W average electrical power. To achieve such power consumptions special challenges for the cooling system had to overcome. The related cooling system design has to consider several effects, which arise from the corresponding low cooling capacity demand, start/stop cycles and additional power consumptions by control accessories. The lecture provides symptomatic aspects of cooling technology, ...

  15. Factors Influencing Nutritional Adequacy among Rural Households in Nigeria: How Does Dietary Diversity Stand among Influencers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerele, D; Sanusi, R A; Fadare, O A; Ashaolu, O F

    2017-01-31

    This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients. While higher level of income, education and non-farm enterprise engagement may strongly stimulate adequate nutrient intakes, increases in the number of adolescents would substantially diminish it. Although our findings call for renewed attention on diet diverseness, we stress the complementary/synergistic roles of education and rural income improvement, especially through non-farm enterprise diversification in tackling multiple nutritional deficiencies in rural Nigeria.

  16. Determinants of Deprivation among Part–time Cassava Farming Households in the Humid Tropi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak-Abasi A Etim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As cost of living rises and people’s wages / salaries do not cover their basic food and dietary needs, interest in parttime farming has risen. Part-time farming activities are being practiced by different people as a food security strategy from vulnerable households. But these part-time farms have had limited success in providing food/nutrition security, increasing incomes and improving well-being. Understanding the factors underlying their persistent deprivation is imperative when designing policies and programmes to meet their needs and improve their welfare. Farm level survey data collected from 60 households with the aid of questionnaire were used to estimate the determinants of deprivation by Tobit regression model. Using the maximum likelihood approach, asymptotic parameters estimates were evaluated to describe determinants of deprivation. Sex, marital status, household size, education, farm income and labour were significant determinants of deprivation.

  17. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  18. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

  19. Eating together and eating alone: meal arrangements in British households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke; Warde, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Sociology traditionally accounts for eating in terms of the social organization of meals, their provision and consumption. A recurrent public concern is that the meal is being subverted. This paper examines meal arrangements in British households in 2012, drawing on an online survey in the format of a food diary administered to 2784 members of a supermarket consumer panel. It charts the organization of contemporary eating occasions, paying attention to socio-demographic variation in practice. Especially, it explores companionless meals, putting them in contexts of food provisioning and temporal rhythms. Findings show that eating alone is associated with simpler, quicker meals, and that it takes place most commonly in the morning and midday. Those living alone eat alone more often, but at similar meal times, and they take longer over their lone meals. Comparison with a similar study in 1955-6 suggests some fragmentation or relaxation in collective schedules. The implications are not straightforward, and the causes probably lie more in institutional shifts than personal preferences. Declining levels of commensality are, however, associated with a reduction in household size and, especially in households with children, difficulties of coordinating family members' schedules.

  20. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed.

  1. Financial Aspects of Food Safety in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Kateryna Bagatska; Yana Rozina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess the status, opportunities and prospects for external and internal financing of manufacturers of food products in the context of economic realities. The dynamics, the state and the level of human consumption of food in recent years are described. It emphases negative trend in household spending on food, that becomes a challenge to food security. The article reveals the main problems of financial support of food producers in crisis, and given the options to o...

  2. Relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Jose A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food insecurity and under-nutrition remain critically important in developing countries struggling to emerge from the scourge of poverty, where historically, improvements in economic conditions have benefited only certain privileged groups, causing growing inequality in health and healthcare among the population. Methods Utilizing information from 5,977 children aged 0-59 months included in the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey , this study examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition. A child is defined as being chronically undernourished or whose growth rate is adversely stunted, if his or her z-score of height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of international reference. Household wealth status is measured by an established index based on household ownership of durable assets. This study utilized multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the effect of household wealth status on adverse childhood growth rate. Results The results indicate that children in the poorest 20% of households are more than three time as likely to suffer from adverse growth rate stunting as children from the wealthiest 20% of households (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 3.0, 4.3. The effect of household wealth status remain significantly large when the analysis was adjusted for a child's multiple birth status, age, gender, antenatal care, delivery assistance, birth order, and duration that the child was breastfed; mother's age at childbirth, nutritional status, education; household access to safe drinking water, arsenic in drinking water, access to a hygienic toilet facility, cooking fuel cleanliness, residence, and geographic location (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.8, 3.2. Conclusion This study concludes that household wealth inequality is strongly associated with childhood adverse growth rate stunting. Reducing poverty and making services more available and accessible

  3. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson;

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  4. Food Assistance Programs and Outcomes in the Context of Welfare Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider how the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor force participation, and food insecurity status affect outcomes of low-income households under different program designs and economic co

  5. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  6. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Dual Challenge for Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    "Food insecurity," which is the lack of access to enough food to fully meet basic needs at all times because of economic constraints, afflicts 40.6% of low-income households with children. Research shows that living in a food-insecure household can lead to negative health and developmental consequences for young children, including obesity.…

  7. Measuring intra-household health inequality: explorations using the body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, David E; Younger, Stephen D

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines the relationship between level of well-being and inequality at inter-country and intra-household levels, using individuals' body mass index (BMI) rather than income as the indicator of well-being. BMI is useful for these purposes because (1) it is measured at the individual rather than household level; (2) it reflects command over food, but also non-food resources that affect health status like sanitary conditions and labour-saving technologies; (3) it accounts for caloric consumption relative to needs; (4) it is easily measured; and (5) any measurement error is likely to be random. We do not find any evidence to support the idea of an intra-household or inter-country Kuznets curve. We study the correlations between average household well-being, still measured by BMI, and differences in the BMIs of males and females, parents and children. Here, we find a tendency to protect the BMI of young children when living standards are very low. We find no clear patterns by gender. Perhaps the most striking finding in the paper is that about half of total BMI inequality at the country level is within households. Thus, standard measures of inequality that use household-level data may drastically understate true inequality.

  8. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  9. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  10. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  11. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  12. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Known as the " food of grain",chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime,its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties( districts) of Anhui Province as samples,the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research shows that farmers applying fertilizer are generally older in age with relatively lower degree of education,inveterate farming habits and small area of cultivation. Besides,the farmer households wish to receive training and guidance on techniques of fertilization,but very few of them have attended the trainings on agricultural technology. Moreover,the individual characteristics and family factors of farmer households have a significant impact on their fertilizer application behaviors. And the degrees of impact are also different for the fertilizer applying behaviors in different stages. Therefore,improving the educational level of farmer households,strengthening the training and promotion of agricultural techniques and accelerating land transfer among farmer households will play a fundamental role in regularizing the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households and improving the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  13. Water supply in households and conditions for tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global structural change, together with "the green revolution", caused the economic growth to be based on the service sector today, instead on the traditional economic sectors. The main focus of this paper is on the factors that affect the decisions of households in Serbia to participate in the tourism industry in the context of the sustainable development. In particular, a significant portion of the analysis is devoted to the constraints that can be induced by inadequate drinking water supply and its quality in households. These factors can be considered the main limitations to those households that decide to provide accommodation and food services to the tourists in their local touristreceiver communities. The empirical analysis is based on survey data that describe conditions in the households, whereas the econometric framework is employed in order to determine structural relationships. The null hypothesis that drinking water supply and quality do not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry is tested and accepted based on the probit model estimates. The difference between the public urban and local water supply systems that provide drinking water to the households is statistically confirmed, but it does not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47009 i br. OI- 179015

  14. Grandmothers, fathers and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186

  15. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  16. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  17. Financial Satisfaction from Intra-Household Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; Victoria Ateca; Arantza Ugidos

    2007-01-01

    We address individuals’ financial satisfaction from the intra-household perspective. Our purpose is twofold. First, we want to contrast the hypothesis of relative income within the household. Does the income level of one individual relative to that of other members of the same household matter in his/her income satisfaction? Second, we want to test procedural utility hypothesis in that different sources of income may contribute differentially to individuals’ income satisfaction. In particular...

  18. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in urban households as risk factor of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; de Almeida, Andréa Sobral; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2016-01-01

    Urban occurrence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is linked to households with characteristics conducive to the presence of sand flies. This study proposes an ad hoc classification of households according to the environmental characteristics of receptivity to phlebotominae and an entomological study to validate the proposal. Here we describe the phlebotominae population found in intra- and peridomiciliary environments and analyse the spatiotemporal distribution of the VL vector Lutzomyia longipalpis of households receptive to VL. In the region, 153 households were classified into levels of receptivity to VL followed by entomological surveys in 40 of those properties. Kruskal-Wallis verified the relationship between the households’ classification and sand fly abundance and Kernel analysis evaluated L. longipalpis spatial distribution: of the 740 sand flies were captured, 91% were L. longipalpis; 82% were found peridomiciliary whilst the remaining 18% were found intradomiciliary. No statistically significant association was found between sandflies and households levels. L. longipalpis counts were concentrated in areas of high vulnerability and some specific households were responsible for the persistence of the infestation. L. longipalpis prevails over other sand fly species for urban VL transmission. The entomological study may help target the surveillance and vector control strategies to domiciles initiating and/or maintaining VL outbreaks. PMID:27223866

  19. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  20. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  1. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  2. [Citizen perception of food insecurity in the city of Santa Fe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, María Amalia; Wicky, Mariel Ivana; Nessier, María Celeste; Meyer, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research study was to describe the perceived level of food security in the households of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina, in 2011. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed, incorporating 592 homes included in the Panel of Households of the Social Observatory of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Households were characterized sociodemographically and classified according to the level of food security by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale. Association with sociodemographical factors was determined by odds ratios and logistic regression. It was found that 31.5% of households in Santa Fe show food insecurity: 21.7% is mild, 7.4% is moderate and 2.4% is severe, and insecurity is greater when children live in the household. Food insecurity is positively associated with lack of health coverage, lack of economic activity, inability to save, incomplete secondary level education and four or more people living in the household.

  3. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  4. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  5. Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabella, N.; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.

    2014-01-01

    The production of food waste covers all the food life cycle: from agriculture, up to industrial manufacturing and processing, retail and household consumption. In developed countries, 42% of food waste is produced by households, while 39% losses occur in the food manufacturing industry, 14% in food service sector and remaining 5% in retail and distribution. Increasingly, industrial ecology concepts such as cradle to cradle and circular economy are considered leading principle for eco-innovati...

  6. The impact of cumulative family risks on various levels of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2015-03-01

    The study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=2025) to examine the relationship between four cumulative family risk indices and refined measures of food hardship: marginal food security, low food security, and very low food security. Regression analyses indicate that cumulative family risk indices are useful in differentiating various levels of food insecurity. Specifically, the maternal poor health and risky health behaviors index is pertinent for distinguishing (1) food insecure from marginal food secure households and (2) very low food secure from low food secure households. In addition, the financial strain index is pertinent for differentiating between marginal food secure families from food secure families among non-poor households. Connecting food assistance programs with established social services may decrease the negative impact that cumulative family-level risk factors have on families' varying levels of food insecurity.

  7. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to fee

  8. Interventions to reduce household food insecurity: a synthesis of current concepts and approaches for Latin America Intervenções para reduzir a insegurança alimentar: uma síntese dos atuais conceitos e abordagens para a América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Diego Rose

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity has been documented in countries throughout the range of national incomes. Most Latin American countries, including Brazil, fall in the middle of this range. Although responses to problems of food insecurity need to be developed for specific contexts, valuable lessons for successful interventions can be learned from both low- and high-income countries. This article begins by describing a continuum of country-level food security contexts. The basic elements of food security, including food availability, access, and utilization, are reviewed as are more recent developments in the field, including livelihood analysis, vulnerability, and risk management strategies. A selection of public sector food security interventions is described that focus on improving agricultural production, increasing employment and household income, developing human capital, and distributing food. Recent international experiences and insights are used to develop themes for orientation of these types of food security interventions in Latin America. These include: the importance of planning relief efforts to be synergistic with long-run development; the tailoring of interventions to the needs of specific contexts; and the related expansion of information systems to support these activities. The article also describes the need to improve food security without leading to over-consumption, a problem of increasing concern in Latin America and elsewhere. Finally, development of local capacity through community-based participatory actions is suggested as a means for improving program outcomes as well as promoting human rights.A insegurança alimentar tem sido documentada em países de toda a gama de rendas nacionais, desde os países de mais baixa até os de mais alta renda. A maioria dos países latino-americanos, incluindo o Brasil, está no meio deste espectro. Embora as ações direcionadas aos problemas de insegurança alimentar precisem ser desenvolvidas de

  9. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the intake of household salt and its contribution to the total salt intake in a Danish population. Methods: Eighty-seven healthy individuals (37 men and 50 women), aged 20-55 years, recruited from the area of Copenhagen, completed the study. Total salt intake was estimated...... from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...... of household salt was 1.0 g day(-1) in men and 0.5 g day(-1) in women, corresponding to 10.2 and 8.7% of total salt intake in men and women, respectively. A significant difference between sexes was found regarding total salt intake (P...

  10. Occurrence of Enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Reij, M.W.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Schothorst, van M.

    2004-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii occasionally causes illness in premature babies and neonates. Contamination of infant formulae during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Advice to health-care professionals focuses on bottle preparation, but the effectiveness of prevention depends on the d

  11. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  12. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  13. Education choices in Ethiopia: what determines whether poor households send their children to school?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Mekonnen, A.; Jones, N.

    2008-01-01

    The paper uses data from a 2002 survey of 1000 rural and urban households with eight-year old children sampled from food insecure communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Addis Ababa Regional States. Using a probit regression model, we investigated external factors associated with child enrol

  14. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspectives--Overview: Can Food Stamps Do More To Improve Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Joanne F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ver Ploeg, Michele; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The increased food purchasing power offered by the Food Stamp Program can promote food security and improve the overall economic well-being of low-income households. Now, as Americans struggle with obesity and other diet-related health problems, there is interest in whether the program can be more effective in encouraging participants to make healthy food choices. ERS has compiled economic research to provide decisionmakers with information on the likely effects of various proposed strategies...

  15. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  16. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  17. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on nee

  18. Fuzzy classification for farm household characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Most household classifications use hard classification procedures that limit a household to only one cluster. In this paper, fuzzy classification, in which individuals can belong totally, partially or not at all to a particular cluster, with membership showing how well they fit in each cluster, was

  19. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  20. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  1. Household income distribution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  2. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random coefficie

  3. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher fem

  4. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  5. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  6. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    . The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated......The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  7. Use and preference of advice on small children's food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey...... practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers’ peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households...... of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general...

  8. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  9. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  10. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. Does participation in a social security scheme improve household dietary diversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenuga Olajumoke M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social protection in the form of cash transfer is emerging as a policy objective to solve the problem of poverty and food insecurity in developing countries. However, the extent to which this is feasible is yet to be empirically examined. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effect of the Ekiti State Social Security Scheme (ESSSS on the dietary diversity of beneficiary households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study employed a three-stage random sampling technique to collect data from 200 respondents using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS in terciles and the Poisson Maximum Likelihood Estimator were the main analytical tools employed for the study. The result of the Poisson maximum likelihood estimator at p ≤ 0.05 showed that access to the Ekiti State Social Security Scheme (ESSSS, years of education and total monthly income were found to significantly influence household dietary diversity. The study concluded that the Ekiti State Social Security Scheme (ESSSS has a positive effect on household dietary diversity of beneficiaries. It was recommended that the government should endeavour to increase the number of beneficiaries of the programme and organize nutrition-oriented programmes for the elderly people to improve the food substitution knowledge of the households.

  12. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...... of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  14. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  15. The impact of food price increases on caloric intake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert T; Miller, Nolan H

    2008-12-08

    World food prices have increased dramatically in recent years. We use panel data from 2006 to examine the impact of these increases on the consumption and nutrition of poor households in two Chinese provinces. We find that households in Hunan suffered no nutrition declines. Households in Gansu experienced a small decline in calories, though the decline is on par with usual seasonal effects. The overall nutritional impact of the world price increase was small because households were able to substitute to cheaper foods and because the domestic prices of staple foods remained low due to government intervention in grain markets.

  16. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  17. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  18. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household......) or receives less consumption (which seems to indicate differing intrahousehold preferences). We develop a simple parametric structural model with household production that is tested on survey data. We find that relative wages have an impact on power. For leisure, this effect is dominated by a conventional...

  19. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  20. Toward unbiased assessment of treatment and prevention: modeling household transmission of pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Providing valid and reliable estimates of the transmissibility and severity of pandemic influenza in real time is key to guide public health policymaking. In particular, early estimates of the transmissibility are indispensable for determining the type and intensity of interventions. A recent study by House and colleagues in BMC Medicine devised a stochastic transmission model to estimate the unbiased risk of transmission within households, applying the method to datasets of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. Here, we discuss future challenges in household transmission studies and underscore the need to systematically collect epidemiological data to decipher the household transmission dynamics. We emphasize the need to consider three critical issues for future improvements: (i capturing age-dependent heterogeneity within households calls for intensive modeling efforts, (ii the timeline of observation during the course of an epidemic and the length of follow-up should be aligned with study objectives, and (iii the use of laboratory methods, especially molecular techniques, is encouraged to distinguish household transmissions from those arising in the community. See related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/117

  1. Preparedness of households and catering establishments for incidents involving radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, H

    2005-01-01

    This short paper describes a number of investigations carried out to ensure preparedness for crises involving radioactivity to catering operations and private households in Finland. The specific recommendations for catering kitchens during crises were published in 1994. A study to determine the level of adherence to these recommendations is summarised here, together with its findings and subsequent recommendations. Another study on the pre-planning of crisis menus is described. New challenges for the catering kitchens are touched upon. A crisis food preparation booklet for households is described and based on consumers' attitudes suggestions are made for how this can be improved in the future.

  2. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  3. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  4. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  5. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  6. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  7. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  8. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  9. Childhood Food Insecurity in the U.S.: Trends, Causes, and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, nearly 16 million U.S. children, or over one in five, lived in households that were food-insecure, which the U.S. Department of Agriculture defines as "a household-level economic and social condition of limited access to food." Even when we control for the effects of other factors correlated with poverty, these children are more…

  10. Policy Analytics, Household Informedness and the Collection of Household Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Wavde Kustini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper collection of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is an important action to support environmental sustainability. We investigate the role of household informedness, the degree to which households have the necessary information to make utility-maximizing decisions, as they relate to participation in HHW collection programs. We find two factors that influence household informedness: the provision of public education about HHW and environmental quality information. We conducted an empirical study on HHW collection in California to obtain statistical evidence on the effect of these factors on the amount of HHW collected. The findings of this policy analytics study improve our understanding of how household informedness influences household decision-making in participating in HHW collection programs. This study is useful in the guidance it offers to devise new information policies to maximize households’ participation in HHW collection program.

  11. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households

    OpenAIRE

    Viboud, Cécile; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Cauchemez, Simon; Lavenu, Audrey; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influenza transmission in households is a subject of renewed interest, as the vaccination of children is currently under debate and antiviral treatments have been approved for prophylactic use.

  12. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    by considering ICT in an energy perspective. In particular, the paper focuses on the integration of ICT in households and the energy impacts related to changing everyday practices. As this has not received much attention in previous research, the paper has an explorative character. Firstly, the paper reviews...... some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...... practices and the related energy impacts is presented, followed by descriptions of direct energy consumption related to household ICT, indirect energy consumption outside households, and derived impacts both within and outside households. The paper concludes with some remarks on political implications...

  13. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) collects data from a sample of families and individuals in selected communities across the...

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  16. Household Water Purification: Low-Cost Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, VK; Bhalwar, R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that improving the microbiological quality of household water by point-of-use treatment reduces diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases. The most promising and accessible of the technologies for household water treatment are filtration with ceramic filters, chlorination with storage in an improvised vessel, solar disinfection in clear bottles by the combined action of UV radiation and heat, thermal disinfection (pasteurization) in opaque vessels with sunlight from ...

  17. The World Distribution of Household Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Davies; Sandström, Susanna; Shorrocks, Anthony; Wolff, Edward N.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much recent research on the world distribution of income, but also growing recognition of the importance of other contributions to well-being, including those of household wealth. Wealth is important in providing security and opportunity, particularly in poorer countries that lack full social safety nets and adequate facilities for borrowing and lending. We find, however, that it is precisely in the latter countries where household wealth is the lowest, both in absolute and rel...

  18. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  19. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...

  20. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...

  1. Context and Sequelae of Food Insecurity in Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Melchior, Maria; Caspi, Avshalom

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of food insecurity in the etiology of children's cognitive and mental health problems. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of 1,116 United Kingdom families with twins (sample constructed in 1999–2000) were used to test associations among household food insecurity; income; maternal personality; household sensitivity to children's needs; and children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. Food-insecure children had lower IQs and higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems relative to their peers. After differences in household income, the personalities of children's mothers, and the sensitivity of household organization to children's needs were accounted for, food-insecure children had moderately higher levels of emotional problems relative to food-secure children (β = 0.22, P = 0.02). Differences in children's cognitive development were accounted for by household income, and differences in their behavioral development were accounted for by their mothers’ personalities and their households’ sensitivity to children's needs. Results suggest that food insecurity was associated with school-aged children's emotional problems but not with their cognitive or behavioral problems after accounting for differences in the home environments in which children were reared. Mothers’ personality and household sensitivity to children's needs may present challenges to improving outcomes of children with food insecurity. PMID:20716700

  2. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  3. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  4. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  5. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  6. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas int

  8. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits.

  9. Dual forms of malnutrition in the same households in Malaysia--a case study among Malay rural households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Sharif, Zalilah Mohd

    2003-01-01

    This report is a part of a multi-centre study in Asia on the problem of dual forms of malnutrition in the same households. In Malaysia, the prevalence of underweight and stunting persist among young children from poor rural areas. Overweight in adults, especially women from poor rural areas has been reported in recent years. Thus, this study was undertaken in order to assess the presence of the dual burden of underweight child-overweight mother pairs in a poor rural community. Out of 140 Malay households identified to have at least one child aged 1-6 years and mother aged above 20 years, 52.1% of the mothers were overweight, 15.7% of the children were underweight, 27.1% stunted and 5% wasted. Socio-economic background and food intake frequency data were collected from 54 underweight child/overweight mother pairs (UW/OW) and 41 normal weight child/normal weight mother pairs (NW/NW). Compared with the overweight mothers, a higher percentage of the normal weight mothers had received secondary education, were employed and with a higher household monthly income, although these differences were not significant. Patterns of food intake of the mothers and children appeared to have more similarities than differences between the UW/OW and NW/NW groups. Quantitative dietary intakes for 2 days using 24-hr recall and physical activity energy expenditure over the same period were assessed in a sub-group of UW/OW and NW/NW mothers and children. The NW/NW children showed significantly higher intake of total calories, fat and riboflavin than the UW/OW counterparts. Mean energy and nutrient intake of mothers from both groups were not significantly different, although the NW/NW mothers showed higher intake adequacy for total calories and most nutrients. While most of the mothers from both groups reported having no chronic illnesses, about half of the children in both groups had infections, especially gastrointestinal infections, over a 2-week period. Energy expenditure from physical

  10. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  11. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståle Navrud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and reduced well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods: We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results: The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion: Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters to households, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters.

  12. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretrovir

  13. The "dark side" of food banks? Exploring emotional responses of food bank receivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.; Pascucci, S.; Bol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address how food, social status as well as the interactions at the food bank induce emotions in receivers, such as shame, gratitude and anger. Since early 2000s a steadily growing number of low-income and/or over-indebted households in the Netherlands allevi

  14. AN ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF HOUSEHOLD ORGANIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneeta Dandotiya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The household organic wastes commonly include dust, food and kitchen waste, garden waste, paper waste etc. that is generated everyday from every house. This highly nutritive organic waste is the house of infectious bacteria, vector and insect. A study was conducted to explore the possibility of vermicomposting of household organic waste at home level. For this study household waste (HW and garden (leaves with soil-dust waste (GW were selected. They were mixed with dried dung powder (DDP and vermicompost (VC in different ratios. The mixture (20 Kg was subjected for pre-decomposting for a period of 15-20 days, followed by release of 50 earthworms (E. eugeniae. Regular sprinkling of water was made in the culture media to maintain moisture content to 50-60% and temperature in the range of 20-28̊C up to 80 days. At end of the experiment observations were made in terms of number and weight of earthworms, juveniles and cocoons. Analysis of vermicompost was also done for values of pH, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The best results of earthworm as well as vermicompost parameters were obtained in the mixture containing equal quantity of KW+DDP+GW+VC with a maximum increase in worm population and worm biomass. Maximum fertilizer values of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content were observed in this mixture. It can be concluded that organic waste generated from home and garden can easily be converted into high quality valuable compost at home level with fruitful outcome.

  15. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    a lot of energy into shopping and cooking, both of which are highly planned. These food consumers go after high quality natural product keep a watchful eye on prices. 9. The enthusiastic food consumers, followed by the rational food consumers, care most about ecology, animal welfare and genetic......Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...... food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only...

  16. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households.

  17. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  18. New Approaches to Capture High Frequency Agricultural Dynamics in Africa through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Attari, S.; Plale, B. A.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Crop failure early warning systems relying on remote sensing constitute a new critical resource to assess areas where food shortages may arise, but there is a disconnect between the patterns of crop production on the ground and the environmental and decision-making dynamics that led to a particular crop production outcome. In Africa many governments use mid-growing season household surveys to get an on-the-ground assessment of current agricultural conditions. But these efforts are cost prohibitive over large scales and only offer a one-time snapshot at a particular time point. They also rely on farmers to recall past decisions and farmer recall may be imperfect when answering retrospectively on a decision made several months back (e.g. quantity of seed planted). We introduce a novel mobile-phone based approach to acquire information from farmers over large spatial extents, at high frequency at relatively low-cost compared to household survey approaches. This system makes compromises in number of questions which can feasibly be asked of a respondent (compared to household interviews), but the benefit of capturing weekly data from farmers is very exciting. We present data gathered from farmers in Kenya and Zambia to understand key dimensions of agricultural decision making such as choice of seed variety/planting date, frequency and timing of weeding/fertilizing and coping strategies such as pursuing off-farm labor. A particularly novel aspect of this work is reporting from farmers of what their expectation of end-season harvest will be on a week-by-week basis. Farmer's themselves can serve as sentinels of crop failure in this system. And farmers responses to drought are as much driven by their expectations of looming crop failure that may be different from that gleaned from remote sensing based assessment. This work is one piece of a larger design to link farmers to high-density meteorological data in Africa as an additional tool to improve crop failure early warning

  19. Are food insecurity's health impacts underestimated in the U.S. population? Marginal food security also predicts adverse health outcomes in young U.S. children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John T; Black, Maureen; Chilton, Mariana; Cutts, Diana; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Heeren, Timothy C; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Coleman, Sharon; Weiss, Ingrid; Frank, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the US with marginal food security are more like food-insecure households than food-secure households. Similarities include socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial profiles, and patterns of disease and health risk. Building on existing knowledge, we present new research on associations of marginal food security with health and developmental risks in young children (food security is positively associated with adverse health outcomes compared with food security, but the strength of the associations is weaker than that for food insecurity as usually defined in the US. Nonoverlapping CIs, when comparing odds of marginally food-secure children's fair/poor health and developmental risk and caregivers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health with those in food-secure and -insecure families, indicate associations of marginal food security significantly and distinctly intermediate between those of food security and food insecurity. Evidence from reviewed research and the new research presented indicates that households with marginal food security should not be classified as food secure, as is the current practice, but should be reported in a separate discrete category. These findings highlight the potential underestimation of the prevalence of adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to lack of enough food for an active, healthy life in the US and indicate an even greater need for preventive action and policies to limit and reduce exposure among children and mothers.

  20. Food Insecurity and Overweight among Infants and Toddlers: New Insights into a Troubling Linkage. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2007-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha; Capps, Randolph; Horowitz, Allison

    2007-01-01

    Periodically not having enough to eat, having a diet that is inadequate, and worrying about being able to afford the amount and type of food that a household needs are all markers of food insecurity. Food insecurity persists across many households with young children and may have negative consequences for the health and well-being of infants and…