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Sample records for capture enhanced fast

  1. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu

    2006-08-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm{sup 2} treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm {sup 10}B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm{sup 2} fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm{sup 2} collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm{sup 2} tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm {sup 10}B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The measured dose enhancement at 5.0-cm depth

  2. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  3. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using fast neutrons: Effects in two human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results demonstrate that the effect of fast neutrons on cell survival in cell culture can be enhanced by boron neutron capture reaction. Even with lower enhancement ratios, the concept of NCT assisted fast neutron therapy may successfully be applied for tumor treatment with the Essen cyclotron. (orig.)

  5. A Capture-gated Fast Neutron Detection Method

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Tai, Yang; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    To address the problem of the shortage of neutron detectors used in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), caused by the 3He supply crisis, research on a cadmium-based capture-gated fast neutron detector is presented in this paper. The detector is composed of many 1 cm * 1 cm * 20 cm plastic scintillator cuboids covered by 0.1 mm thick film of cadmium. The detector uses cadmium to absorb thermal neutrons and produce capture gamma-rays to indicate the detection of neutrons, and uses plastic scintillator to moderate neutrons and register gamma-rays. This design removes the volume competing relationship in traditional 3He counter-based fast neutron detectors, which hinders enhancement of the neutron detection efficiency. Detection efficiency of 21.66 +- 1.22% has been achieved with a 40.4 cm * 40.4 cm * 20 cm overall detector volume. This detector can measure both neutrons and gamma-rays simultaneously. A small detector (20.2 cm * 20.2 cm * 20 cm) demonstrated a 3.3 % false alarm rate for a 252Cf source with a neutro...

  6. A capture-gated fast neutron detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Yi-Gang; Tai, Yang; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    To address the problem of the shortage of neutron detectors used in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), caused by the 3He supply crisis, research on a cadmium-based capture-gated fast neutron detector is presented in this paper. The detector is composed of many 1 cm × 1 cm × 20 cm plastic scintillator cuboids covered by 0.1 mm thick film of cadmium. The detector uses cadmium to absorb thermal neutrons and produce capture γ-rays to indicate the detection of neutrons, and uses plastic scintillator to moderate neutrons and register γ-rays. This design removes the volume competing relationship in traditional 3He counter-based fast neutron detectors, which hinders enhancement of the neutron detection efficiency. Detection efficiency of 21.66% ± 1.22% has been achieved with a 40.4 cm × 40.4 cm × 20 cm overall detector volume. This detector can measure both neutrons and γ-rays simultaneously. A small detector (20.2 cm × 20.2 cm × 20 cm) demonstrated a 3.3 % false alarm rate for a 252Cf source with a neutron yield of 1841 n/s from 50 cm away within 15 s measurement time. It also demonstrated a very low (Natural Science Foundation of China (11175098, 11375095)

  7. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  8. The biomechanics of fast prey capture in aquatic bladderworts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2011-01-01

    Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 μs, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey. PMID:21389013

  9. Single electron capture in fast ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Single-electron capture cross sections in collisions between fast bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems are investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation. The prior and post transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of twodimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. The dielectronic interaction V12 = 1/r12 = 1/|r1 - r2| explicitly appears in the complete perturbation potential Vf of the post transition probability amplitude T+if. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p - He (prior and post form) and He2+, Li3+Be4+B5+C6+ - He (prior form) collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. We have also studied differential cross sections in prior and post form for single electron transfer from helium by protons. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  10. Fast neutron capture with a white neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure gamma-rays following fast neutron reactions. The neutron beam is produced by bombarding a thick tantalum target with the 800 MeV proton beam from the LAMPF accelerator. Incident neutron energies, from 1 to over 200 MeV, are determined by their times of flight over a 7.6-m flight path. The gamma-rays are detected in five 7.6 x 7.6-cm cylindrical bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors which span an angular range from 450 to 1450 in the reaction plane. With this system it is possible to simultaneously measure the cross section and angular distribution of gamma-rays as a function of neutron energy. The results for the cross section of the 12C(n,n'γ=4.44 MeV) reaction at 900 and 1250 show good agreement with previous measurements while the complete angular distributions show the need for a large a4 coefficient which was not previously observed. Preliminary results for the 12C(n,n'γ=15.1 MeV) reaction have also been obtained. The data obtained for the 40Ca(n,γ0) reaction in the region of the giant dipole resonance demonstrate the unique capabilities of this system. Future developments to the neutron source which will enhance the capabilities of the system are presented. 14 references

  11. Fast neutron capture in actinide isotopes: recent results from Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capture gamma-ray spectra of 241Am, 240Pu, 242Pu 238U and 197Au were calculated in the framework of the spherical optical model and the statistical model. These spectra were used to correct experimental data for the capture cross sections of 240242Pu and 241Am from relative measurements using a Moxon Rae-detector with graphite converter and 197Au as well as 238U as standards. This correction is required to take into account that the detector efficiency is not exactly proportional to gamma-ray energy. The resulting correction factors proved to be negligible for measurements relative to 238U, whereas they are approx. 3% if gold is used as a standard. The capture cross section of 243Am has been measured in the energy range 10 to 250 keV using kinematically collimated neutrons from the 7Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reaction. The samples are positioned at flight paths of 5 to 7 cm and gold was used as a standard. Capture events were detected by two Moxon-Rae detectors with graphite and bismuth-graphite converters shielded by 0.5 to 2 cm of lead. Fission events were detected by a NE213 liquid scintillator. The present status of the experiment and some preliminary results will be presented

  12. Enhancing the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons

  13. A fast Monte Carlo program for pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1992-02-01

    A fast model for the pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tool has been developed. It is believed that the program produce valid results even though some approximation have been introduced. A correct {gamma} photon transport simulation, which is under preparation, has for instance not yet been included. Simulations performed so far has shown that the model, with respect to computing time and accuracy, fully lives up to expectations with respect to computing time and accuracy. (au).

  14. A fast Monte Carlo program for pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J.

    1992-02-01

    A fast model for the pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tool has been developed. It is believed that the program produce valid results even though some approximation have been introduced. A correct [gamma] photon transport simulation, which is under preparation, has for instance not yet been included. Simulations performed so far has shown that the model, with respect to computing time and accuracy, fully lives up to expectations with respect to computing time and accuracy. (au).

  15. FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: NEEDS TO ENHANCE BIOAVAILABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumari; Chandel Priya; Kapoor Ankita

    2013-01-01

    Oral route is the most important and preferred route for drug administration due to the convenience, ease of administration and patient compliance. Tablet is the most preferred conventional oral unit dosage form. During tablet administration dysphasia is the main problem. Fast dissolving tablets can reduce this problem by dissolving and disintegrating rapidly within few seconds in mouth without water. Fast dissolving tablets become advantageous for those patients which have swallowing problem...

  16. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    processing. The act of time-stretching effectively boosts the performance of the back-end electronics and digital signal processors. The slowed down signals reach the back-end electronics with reduced bandwidth, and are therefore less affected by high-frequency roll-off and distortion. Time-stretching also increases the effective sampling rate of analog-to-digital converters and reduces aperture jitter, thereby improving resolution. Finally, the instantaneous throughputs of digital signal processors are enhanced by the stretch factor to otherwise unattainable speeds. Leveraging these unique capabilities, TiSER becomes the ideal tool for capturing high-speed signals and characterizing rare phenomena. For this thesis, I have developed techniques to improve the spectral efficiency, bandwidth, and resolution of TiSER using polarization multiplexing, all-optical modulation, and coherent dispersive Fourier transformation. To reduce the latency and improve the data handling capacity, I have also designed and implemented a real-time digital signal processing electronic backend, achieving 1.5 tera-bit per second instantaneous processing throughput. Finally, I will present results from experiments highlighting TiSER's impact in real-world applications. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is the most widely used method for unveiling the molecular composition of biological specimens. However, the weak optical emission of fluorescent probes and the tradeoff between imaging speed and sensitivity is problematic for acquiring blur-free images of fast phenomena and cells flowing at high speed. Here I introduce a new fluorescence imaging modality, which leverages techniques from wireless communication to reach record pixel and frame rates. Termed Fluorescence Imaging using Radio-frequency tagged Emission (FIRE), this new imaging modality is capable of resolving never before seen dynamics in living cells - such as action potentials in neurons and metabolic waves in astrocytes - as well as

  17. Parametric control of collision rates and capture rates in geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture (GEDI) microfluidic devices for rare cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Lannin, Timothy B; Syed, Yusef; Santana, Steven M; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-02-01

    The enrichment and isolation of rare cells from complex samples, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood, is an important engineering problem with widespread clinical applications. One approach uses a microfluidic obstacle array with an antibody surface functionalization to both guide cells into contact with the capture surface and to facilitate adhesion; geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture is a design strategy in which the array is designed to promote target cell–obstacle contact and minimize other interactions (Gleghorn et al. 2010; Kirby et al. 2012). We present a simulation that uses capture experiments in a simple Hele-Shaw geometry (Santana et al. 2012) to inform a target-cell-specific capture model that can predict capture probability in immunocapture microdevices of any arbitrary complex geometry. We show that capture performance is strongly dependent on the array geometry, and that it is possible to select an obstacle array geometry that maximizes capture efficiency (by creating combinations of frequent target cell–obstacle collisions and shear stress low enough to support capture), while simultaneously enhancing purity by minimizing nonspecific adhesion of both smaller contaminant cells (with infrequent cell–obstacle collisions) and larger contaminant cells (by focusing those collisions into regions of high shear stress).

  18. Role of the Tapiro Fast Research Reactor in Neutron Capture Therapy in Italy Calculations and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal-neutron research reactors are currently the most common source of neutron beams for both research and clinical trials of neutron capture therapy (NCT). Neutron spectra suitable for NCT are typically produced either by beam filtering or spectrum shifting techniques. However, fast-neutron reactors are also being considered for NCT application as it is recognized that they may allow for improved beam quality. TAPIRO is a low power, high flux, highly enriched (93.5% 235U) fast reactor. The power is 5 kW and the maximum neutron flux in the core is 3x1012 cm-2.s-1. Both a thermal and an epithermal column have been designed and constructed, aimed at dosimetry and animal experiments. The configurations of the columns have been designed by means of Monte Carlo calculations. The columns have been characterized by means of measurements performed with activation techniques and thermoluminescence and gel dosimeters. Experimental results have shown good consistency with calculations. Moreover, they have confirmed the good quality of the beams obtainable with such a reactor. An epithermal column for clinical trials of patients with brain gliomas has been designed and is under construction. The treatment planning figures-of-merit in an anthropomorphic phantom look very satisfactory. (author)

  19. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Couture A.; Mosby S.; Baramsai B.; Bredeweg T. A.; Jandel M.; Macon K.; O’Donnell J.M.; Rusev G.; Taddeucci T. N; Ullmann J.L.; Walker C.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detec...

  20. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2006-06-30

    Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was

  1. Fast Noise Compensation and Adaptive Enhancement for Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Rong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach to improve adaptive decorrelation filtering- (ADF- based speech source separation in diffuse noise. The effects of noise on system adaptation and separation outputs are handled separately. First, fast noise compensation (NC is developed for adaptation of separation filters, forcing ADF to focus on source separation; next, output noises are suppressed by speech enhancement. By tracking noise components in output cross-correlation functions, the bias effect of noise on the system adaptation objective function is compensated, and by adaptively estimating output noise autocorrelations, the speech separation output is enhanced. For fast noise compensation, a blockwise fast ADF (FADF is implemented. Experiments were conducted on real and simulated diffuse noises. Speech mixtures were generated by convolving TIMIT speech sources with acoustic path impulse responses measured in a real room with reverberation time  second. The proposed techniques significantly improved separation performance and phone recognition accuracy of ADF outputs.

  2. Laser irradiated enhancement of the atomic electron capture rate in search of new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron capture processes are important for new physics searches and therefore a high capture rate is inevitably desired. We investigate a possibility of enhancement of an atomic electron capture rate by irradiating laser beam to “an atom”. The possibility of the enhancement is shown as a consequence of an enhanced electron wave function at origin Ψ(0) through an effectively increased mass of the electron. We find that order of magnitude enhancement can be achieved using the laser with intensity 1010 W/mm2, and energy of photon, of O(10-3) eV. (author)

  3. An enhanced fast scanning algorithm for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed Naser; Yusof, Yuhanis binti

    2015-12-01

    Segmentation is an essential and important process that separates an image into regions that have similar characteristics or features. This will transform the image for a better image analysis and evaluation. An important benefit of segmentation is the identification of region of interest in a particular image. Various algorithms have been proposed for image segmentation and this includes the Fast Scanning algorithm which has been employed on food, sport and medical images. It scans all pixels in the image and cluster each pixel according to the upper and left neighbor pixels. The clustering process in Fast Scanning algorithm is performed by merging pixels with similar neighbor based on an identified threshold. Such an approach will lead to a weak reliability and shape matching of the produced segments. This paper proposes an adaptive threshold function to be used in the clustering process of the Fast Scanning algorithm. This function used the gray'value in the image's pixels and variance Also, the level of the image that is more the threshold are converted into intensity values between 0 and 1, and other values are converted into intensity values zero. The proposed enhanced Fast Scanning algorithm is realized on images of the public and private transportation in Iraq. Evaluation is later made by comparing the produced images of proposed algorithm and the standard Fast Scanning algorithm. The results showed that proposed algorithm is faster in terms the time from standard fast scanning.

  4. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  5. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  6. Accelerator-based neutron source for the neutron-capture and fast neutron therapy at hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanov, B. F.; Belov, V. P.; Bender, E. D.; Bokhovko, M. V.; Dimov, G. I.; Kononov, V. N.; Kononov, O. E.; Kuksanov, N. K.; Palchikov, V. E.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Salimov, R. A.; Silvestrov, G. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Soloviov, N. A.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    The proton accelerator complex for neutron production in lithium target discussed, which can operate in two modes. The first provides a neutron beam kinematically collimated with good forward direction in 25° and average energy of 30 keV, directly applicable for neutron-capture therapy with high efficiency of proton beam use. The proton energy in this mode is 1.883-1.890 MeV that is near the threshold of the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction. In the second mode, at proton energy of 2.5 MeV, the complex-produced neutron beam with maximum energy board of 790 keV which can be used directly for fast neutron therapy and for neutron-capture therapy after moderation. The project of such a neutron source is based on the 2.5 MeV original electrostatic accelerator tandem with vacuum insulation developed at BINP which is supplied with a high-voltage rectifier. The rectifier is produced in BINP as a part of ELV-type industrial accelerator. Design features of the tandem determining its high reliability in operation with a high-current (up to 40 mA) H - ion beam are discussed. They are: the absence of ceramic accelerator columns around the beam passage region, good conditions for pumping out of charge-exchange gaseous target region, strong focusing optics and high acceleration rate minimizing the space charge effects. The possibility of stabilization of protons energy with an accuracy level of 0.1% necessary for operation in the near threshold region is considered. The design description of H - continuous ion source with a current of 40 mA is also performed. To operate with a 100 kW proton beam it is proposed to use liquid-lithium targets. A thin lithium layer on the surface of a tungsten disk cooled intensively by a liquid metal heat carrier is proposed for use in case of the vertical beam, and a flat liquid lithium jet flowing through the narrow nozzle - for the horizontal beam.

  7. Fast Noise Compensation and Adaptive Enhancement for Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxin Zhao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach to improve adaptive decorrelation filtering- (ADF- based speech source separation in diffuse noise. The effects of noise on system adaptation and separation outputs are handled separately. First, fast noise compensation (NC is developed for adaptation of separation filters, forcing ADF to focus on source separation; next, output noises are suppressed by speech enhancement. By tracking noise components in output cross-correlation functions, the bias effect of noise on the system adaptation objective function is compensated, and by adaptively estimating output noise autocorrelations, the speech separation output is enhanced. For fast noise compensation, a blockwise fast ADF (FADF is implemented. Experiments were conducted on real and simulated diffuse noises. Speech mixtures were generated by convolving TIMIT speech sources with acoustic path impulse responses measured in a real room with reverberation time T60=0.3 second. The proposed techniques significantly improved separation performance and phone recognition accuracy of ADF outputs.

  8. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  9. Security-Enhanced Fast Mobile IPv6 Handover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Seop

    Motivated by the fact that the existing FMIPv6 security scheme has several weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency, we propose a security-enhanced fast mobile IPv6 in this letter. Based on the concept of a secret key-based CGA (Cryptographically Generated Address), we show how to establish a new security association between the MN and AR (Access Router) whenever a handover occurs. We also show that the proposed scheme is robust against several types of security attacks feasible with the existing scheme. Our scheme is more efficient in that it requires fewer public key operations.

  10. A graphene oxide/amidoxime hydrogel for enhanced uranium capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Li, Hongpeng; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhanshuang; Li, Rumin; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Lianhe; Emelchenko, G. A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The efficient development of selective materials for the recovery of uranium from nuclear waste and seawater is necessary for their potential application in nuclear fuel and the mitigation of nuclear pollution. In this work, a graphene oxide/amidoxime hydrogel (AGH) exhibits a promising adsorption performance for uranium from various aqueous solutions, including simulated seawater. We show high adsorption capacities (Qm = 398.4 mg g-1) and high % removals at ppm or ppb levels in aqueous solutions for uranium species. In the presence of high concentrations of competitive ions such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+ and Sr2+, AGH displays an enhanced selectivity for uranium. For low uranium concentrations in simulated seawater, AGH binds uranium efficiently and selectively. The results presented here reveal that the AGH is a potential adsorbent for remediating nuclear industrial effluent and adsorbing uranium from seawater.

  11. Neutron capture and total cross-section measurements on fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron capture and total cross-sections of a series of nuclides in the mass range 46 to 62 have been measured at Harwell by the time-of-flight method. The capture cross-sections were measured for incident neutron energies from a few eV to 800 keV using the neutron booster target of the 45 MeV electron linac. High resolution total cross-section measurements were made with the transmission facility on the 160 MeV proton synchrocyclotron. The results of preliminary analyses of the data are presented on the capture cross-sections of Fe, 47Ti, and 49Ti and the total cross-sections of 56Fe, 58Ni and 60Ni. (author)

  12. Radiative electron capture by fast highly stripped heavy ions channeled in a thin crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of moving ions with single crystals is known to be very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. We have shown that channeling conditions strongly modify the slowing down and the charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions. The reason is that channeled particles are prevented from approaching the target atoms, and then can interact only with loosely bound target electrons. This results not only in drastically reducing the electron density experienced by them, which lowers energy loss and electron loss, but also in inhibiting the radiationless capture of bound electrons, since most of the available electrons are quasi-free valence electrons. In an experiment where high energy Xeq+ ions, with q = 52, 53, 54, are directed onto a thin Si single crystal we observe that, whereas unchanneled ions reach charge equilibrium very rapidly, most channeled ions keep their incident charge state unchanged all along their passage through the crystal. On one hand the loss of their electron(s) (q = 52, 53) is impossible. On the other hand the only way that is left to them to capture quasi-free electrons is the radiative electron capture (REC). This process does occur also for unchanneled ions but is quite difficult to observe, particularly because of the overwhelming non radiative Mechanical Electron Capture(MEC). REC photons have been observed in channeling conditions and correspond to electron capture into the K, L and M shells of the projectiles. The shape of the REC photon lines reflects the momentum distribution of the electron encountered by channeled ions. Channeling offers a unique opportunity to study the radiative electron capture since it allows ions of well defined charge state to travel through a dense quasi-free electron target. This opportunity could be extended to other processes involving high energy heavy ions

  13. Fast and simple purification of chemically modified hammerhead ribozymes using a lipophilic capture tag.

    OpenAIRE

    Sproat, B S; Rupp, T; Menhardt, N; Keane, D.; Beijer, B

    1999-01-01

    A new type of 5'-lipophilic capture tag is described, enabling the facile reverse phase HPLC purification of chemically modified hammerhead ribozymes (oligozymes) whilst still carrying the 2'-O-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl protection of the essential riboses. In its most convenient form, the capture tag consists of a simple diol, such as hexan-1,6-diol, which at one end is attached via a silyl residue to a highly lipophilic entity such as tocopherol (vitamin E) or cholesterol, and the other end i...

  14. Immigration enhances fast growth of a newly established source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Simone; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Immigration and local recruitment play a central role in determining the growth rate of breeding populations. Unraveling these processes in newly established pop- ulations is of great importance to increase our understanding of how species change their distributions in response to global change. We studied the largest colony of glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in Western Europe (established in 1996 in Doñana, SW-Spain) by using capture-recapture methods, count estimates, and projection matrix modeling to: (1) test the effect of resource availability and competition on local recruitment dynamics, (2) investigate the contribution of local recruitment vs. immigration on population growth, and (3) assess the role of this population in source/sink dynamics. We found different dynamics before and after the establishment of satellite colonies in Doñana in 2004. Between 1996 and 2003, the population increased rapidly, fueled by immigrants (≈ 58 breeding females/ yr). Between 2003 and 2007, however, both colony size increase and immigration were negligible. Immigration played a major role in colony growth, but simultaneously this colony was a source population driving expansion of the species range as suggested by (1) absolute and relative estimates of the observed growth rate relative to that predicted by self-recruitment, and (2) numerous observations of Doñana-born individuals breeding elsewhere. Local recruitment, which was particularly high for first-year individuals (probability > 0.8 for the early study years), was not directly related to resource availability or previous-year breeding success. Local recruitment decreased rapidly at a threshold population size, however, when other satellite colonies became established at Dofiana. Our study suggests that even when recruitment at an early age and high productivity are observed, immigration can still play a pivotal role in promoting the fast growth of new populations at the edge of a species range, at

  15. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad

    2010-02-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  16. Fast contrast-enhanced MR whole-brain venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Schneider, Jacques; El-Koussy, Marwan; Guzman, Raphael; Heid, Oliver; Remonda, Luca; Schroth, Gerhard [Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Bassetti, Claudio [Department of Neurology, Inselspital, University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the value of a new fast contrast-enhanced MR venography (CE-MRV) sequence in the investigation of normal and diseased cerebral veins. Conventional time-of-flight (TOF) MRV is time consuming, with imaging for a single sequence taking many minutes. MRI was performed with a clinical 1.5-T scanner; conventional TOF MRV followed by CE-MRV was performed using a modified 3D first-pass MR angiography sequence. Ten control subjects without cerebral pathology were studied as well as ten patients with cerebral venous thrombosis for a total of 20 studies with both sequences. CE-MRV was able to provide a set of complete MRV images in a significantly shorter time than conventional MRV sequencing could. The field of view also provided greater coverage of the vessels of the head and neck. CE-MRV also provided more extensive small vein detail and provided a better demonstration of intraluminal defects, despite a slightly lower resolution. Both methods were equally suited for the demonstration of venous thrombosis and demonstrated all cases equally well; however, CE-MRV provided more detailed information by showing partially obstructed sinuses and by showing better the presence of cortical collateral venous drainage. (orig.)

  17. Startle auditory stimuli enhance the performance of fast dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Acero, Rafael M

    2014-01-01

    Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD) are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS); a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS); and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS). Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training.

  18. Enhanced surface acceleration of fast electrons by using sub-wavelength grating targets

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Guang-yue; Wang, Wen-tao; Wang, Jing-wei; Huang, Lin-gen; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yi; Liu, Jian-sheng; Shen, Bai-fei; Yu, Wei; Li, Ru-xin; Xu, Zhi-zhan

    2010-01-01

    Surface acceleration of fast electrons in intense laser-plasma interaction is improved by using sub-wavelength grating targets. The fast electron beam emitted along the target surface was enhanced by more than three times relative to that by using planar target. The total number of the fast electrons ejected from the front side of target was also increased by about one time. The method to enhance the surface acceleration of fast electron is effective for various targets with sub-wavelength structured surface, and can be applied widely in the cone-guided fast ignition, energetic ion acceleration, plasma device, and other high energy density physics experiments.

  19. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 . PMID:26367016

  20. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 .

  1. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, 238U and 232Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The 238U (n,γ) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the 238U-239Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the 238U (n,γ) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references

  2. CO2 capture enhancement in InOF-1 via the bottleneck effect of confined ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ricardo A; Campos-Reales-Pineda, Alberto; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Álvarez, J Raziel; Zárate, J Antonio; Balmaseda, Jorge; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Martínez, Ana; Martínez-Otero, Diego; Jancik, Vojtech; Ibarra, Ilich A

    2016-08-11

    CO2 capture of InOF-1 was enhanced 3.6-fold, at 1 bar and 30 °C, by confining EtOH within its pores. Direct visualisation by single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that EtOH divides InOF-1 channels in wide sections separated by "bottlenecks" caused by EtOH molecules bonded to the μ2-OH functional groups of InOF-1. PMID:27469274

  3. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the /sup 238/U-/sup 239/Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references.

  4. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori, E-mail: yosakura@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  5. The intermediate neutron-capture process and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hampel, Melanie; Lugaro, Maria; Meyer, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the Galactic Halo display enrichments in heavy elements associated with either the s (slow) or the r (rapid) neutron-capture process (e.g., barium and europium respectively), and in some cases they display evidence of both. The abundance patterns of these CEMP-s/r stars, which show both Ba and Eu enrichment, are particularly puzzling since the s and the r processes require neutron densities that are more than ten orders of magnitude apart, and hence are thought to occur in very different stellar sites with very different physical conditions. We investigate whether the abundance patterns of CEMP-s/r stars can arise from the nucleosynthesis of the intermediate neutron-capture process (the i process), which is characterised by neutron densities between those of the s and the r processes. Using nuclear network calculations, we study neutron capture nucleosynthesis at different constant neutron densities n ranging from $10^7$ to $10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$. With respect to the cl...

  6. Experimental determination of neutron capture cross sections of fast reactor structure materials integrated in intermediate energy spectra. Vol. 2: description of experimental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of technical documents is given concerning the experimental determination of the neutron capture cross-sections of fast reactor structural materials (Fe, Cr, Ni...) integrated over the intermediate energy spectra. The experimental structure project and modifications of the reactor RB2 for this experiment, together with criticality and safety calculations, are presented

  7. Electron correlations in single-electron capture into any state of fast projectiles from heliumlike atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    State-selective and total single-electron capture cross sections in fast collisions of a bare projectile with a heliumlike target are examined in the four-body formalism. A special emphasis is given to a proper inclusion of dynamic electron-electron correlation effects. For this purpose, the post form of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is utilized. With regard to our related previous study, where the prior version has been considered, in the present work an extensive analytical study of the post-transition amplitude for electron capture into the arbitrary final states nflfmf of the projectile is carried out. The post-transition amplitude for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions is derived in terms of five-dimensional integrals over real variables. The dielectronic interaction V12=1/r12≡1/|r⃗1-r⃗2| explicitly appears in the perturbation potential Vf of the post-transition probability amplitude Tif+, such that the CB1-4B method can provide information about the relative significance of the dynamic interelectron correlation in the collisions under study. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p-He collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. The so-called post-prior discrepancy, which plagues almost all the existing distorted wave approximations, is presently shown to be practically nonexistent in the CB1-4B method. The validity of our findings is critically assessed in comparisons with the available experimental data for both state-selective and total cross sections summed over all the discrete energy levels of the hydrogenlike atom formed with the projectile. Overall, excellent performance of the CB1-4B method is recorded, thus robustly establishing this formalism as the leading first-order description of high-energy single charge exchange, which is a collision of paramount theoretical and practical

  8. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  9. Environmental and thermodynamic evaluation of CO2 capture, transport and storage with and without enhanced resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the environmental and thermodynamic performance of six coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture and storage. The technologies examined are post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine, membrane separation, cryogenic fractionation and pressure swing adsorption, pre-combustion capture through coal gasification, and capture performing conventional oxy-fuel combustion. The incorporation of CO2 capture is evaluated both on its own and in combination with CO2 transport and geological storage, with and without beneficial use. Overall, we find that pre-combustion CO2 capture and post-combustion through membrane separation present relatively low life-cycle environmental impacts and high exergetic efficiencies. When accounting for transport and storage, the environmental impacts increase and the efficiencies decrease. However, a better environmental performance can be achieved for CO2 capture, transport and storage when incorporating beneficial use through enhanced oil recovery. The performance with enhanced coal-bed methane recovery, on the other hand, depends on the impact categories evaluated. The incorporation of methane recovery results in a better thermodynamic performance, when compared to the incorporation of oil recovery. The cumulative energy demand shows that the integration of enhanced resource recovery strategies is necessary to attain favourable life-cycle energy balances. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of six different CO2 capture technologies for coal-fired power plants. ► Calculation of life-cycle environmental impacts and exergetic efficiencies. ► Suitability of post-combustion capture with membrane separation. ► Suitability of pre-combustion capture through coal gasification. ► Improved performance when incorporating enhanced resource recovery

  10. Fast Diagnosis of Gonorrhea Witth Enhanced Luminescence Enzyme Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Heyi(郑和义); CAO Jingjiang(曹经江); SHAO Yanglin(邵燕玲)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the value of enhanced luminescence enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhea(NG) infection.Methods: Anti-catalase antibody for Neisseria gonorrheae combined with enhanced luminescence enzyme immunoassay were used to test for N. Gonorrhea.Results: A minimum of 1x104/CFU of GC in genital tract secretions or urine could be detected with the technique of luminescence enzyme immunoassay.Conclusion : The enhanced luninescence enzyme immunoassay has the advantage of high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing NG from genitourinary tract secretion and urine.

  11. CO{sub 2} capture and utilization for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilhelmsen, P.J.; Well, W. van; Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy Generation, Fredericia (Denmark); Harrar, W.; Reffstrup, J. [DONG Energy Exploration and Production, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    CO{sub 2} is an international theme and the cap-and-trade systems under implementation will lead to significant alterations in the energy market and in the energy system altogether. A possible technical step to reduce atmospheric emissions is CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). CO{sub 2} capture is to some extent a know technology but has not yet been optimised and commercialised for power plant utilisation. Correspondingly CO{sub 2} utilisation for EOR is a known method in other areas of the world where the reservoir conditions are different from those of the North Sea. For several years Elsam and Energi E2, part of DONG Energy, have worked on reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through increased efficiency at the coal-fired power plants, and this work has now been extended to also include capture and utilisation of CO{sub 2}. DONG E and P within DONG Energy has started work on the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for EOR at the company's fields in the North Sea. Based on DONG Energy's interest in working through the whole value chain from power plants to EOR utilisation in the North Sea, this paper describes our experience with CO{sub 2} capture at the trial plant CASTOR at Esbjerg power plant and the actual work of investigating and preparing the pilot test of CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. The paper also illustrates the perspectives of retrofitting the existing fleet of super critical coal-fired power plants close to the North Sea with CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. DONG Energy's perspective is that CO{sub 2} for EOR can contribute to materialising the vision that the central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The development work presented will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Technical University of Denmark (DTU), The Danish Geotechnical Institute (GEO) and Geological

  12. Enhanced and Fast Face Recognition by Hashing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a face hashing technique for fast face recognition. The proposed technique employs the twoexisting algorithms, i.e., 2-D discrete cosine transformation and K-means clustering. The image has to go throughdifferent pre-processing phases and the two above-mentioned algorithms must be used in order to obtain the hashvalue of the face image. The searching process is increased by introducing a modified form of binary search. A newdatabase architecture called Facebases has also been introduced to further speedup the searching process.

  13. Adsorption mechanism of graphene-like ZnO monolayer towards CO₂ molecules: enhanced CO₂ capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G S; Hussain, T; Islam, M S; Sagynbaeva, M; Gupta, D; Panigrahi, P; Ahuja, R

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to efficiently capture CO2 on two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures for effective cleaning of our atmosphere and purification of exhausts coming from fuel engines. Here, we have performed extensive first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the interaction of CO2 on a recently synthesized ZnO monolayer (ZnO-ML) in its pure, defected and functionalized form. A series of rigorous calculations yielded the most preferential binding configurations of the CO2 gas molecule on a ZnO-ML. It is observed that the substitution of one oxygen atom with boron, carbon and nitrogen on the ZnO monolayer resulted into enhanced CO2 adsorption. Our calculations show an enriched adsorption of CO2 on the ZnO-ML when substituting with foreign atoms like B, C and N. The improved adsorption energy of CO2 on ZnO suggests the ZnO-ML could be a promising candidate for future CO2 capture. PMID:26599020

  14. Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage - from pores to cores (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. C.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.; Gerlach, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the operation of Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and the injection of supercritical CO2 into underground formations, microbe-rock-fluid interactions occur. These interactions may be important for controlling the ultimate fate of the injected CO2, and may also be manipulated to enhance the storage of the CO2, via mineral-trapping, solubility trapping, formation trapping, and leakage reduction. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to supercritical CO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Ongoing microscopy and modelling studies aim to understand these processes at both the pore- and core-scale in order to facilitate larger scale understanding and potential manipulation for biologically based CCS engineering. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies, which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure around injection wells.

  15. Detecting Long-Range Enhancer-Promoter Interactions by Quantitative Chromosome Conformation Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wulan; Blobel, Gerd A

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and its derivatives are currently the primary methodologies measuring contacts among genomic elements. In fact, the lion share of what is currently known about chromosome folding is based on 3C-related approaches. For example, distal enhancers are commonly in physically proximity with their target genes, forming chromatin loops. Additional layers of chromatin organization have been described using 3C-based techniques, including topological domains (TADs) and sub-TADs. Finally, inter-chromosomal interactions have been reported although they are much less frequent. 3C is becoming increasingly widespread in its use for understanding genome organization. Here we provide a protocol for quantitative 3C using real-time PCR analysis, along with essential quality controls and normalization methods. PMID:27662870

  16. Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; He, Huanhuan; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing concerns for global climate change, a sustainable, efficient and renewable energy production from wastewater is imperative. In this study, a novel microbial carbon capture cell (MCC), is constructed for the first time by the introduction of immobilized microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) into the cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to fulfill the zero discharge of carbon dioxide. This process can achieve an 84.8% COD removal, and simultaneously the maximum power density can reach 2485.35 mW m-3 at a current density of 7.9 A m-3 and the Coulombic efficiency is 9.40%, which are 88% and 57.7% greater than that with suspended C. vulgaris, respectively. These enhancements in performance demonstrate the feasibility of an economical and effective approach for the simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biodiesel production from microalgae.

  17. Enhanced attention capture by emotional stimuli in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Kuusinen, Venla; Brause, Maarja; Peräkylä, Jari; Polvivaara, Markus; dos Santos Ribeiro, Rodolfo; Öhman, Juha; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2015-02-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may be associated with compromised executive functioning and altered emotional reactivity. Despite frequent affective and cognitive symptoms in mTBI, objective evidence for brain dysfunction is often lacking. Previously we have reported compromised performance in symptomatic mTBI patients in an executive reaction time (RT) test, a computer-based RT test engaging several executive functions simultaneously. Here, we investigated the cognitive control processes in mTBI in context of threat-related stimuli. We used behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate attentional capture by task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional stimuli during a Go-NoGo task requiring cognitive control. We also assessed subjective cognitive, somatic, and emotional symptoms with questionnaires. Twenty-seven subjects with previous mTBI and 17 controls with previous ankle injury participated in the study over 9 months post-injury. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while patients performed a modified executive RT-test. N2-P3 ERP component was used as a general measure of allocated attentional and executive processing resources. Although at the time of the testing, the mTBI and the control groups did not differ in symptom endorsement, mTBI patients reported having had more emotional symptoms overall since the injury than controls. The overall RT-test performance levels did not differ between groups. However, when threat-related emotional stimuli were used as Go-signals, the mTBI group was faster than the control group. In comparison to neutral stimuli, threat-related stimuli were associated with increased N2-P3 amplitude in all conditions. This threat-related enhancement of the N2-P3 complex was greater in mTBI patients than in controls in response to Go signals and NoGo signals, independent of relevance. We conclude that mTBI may be associated with enhanced attentional and executive resource allocation to threat-related stimuli

  18. Development of an Electronic Research Permissions Management System to Enhance Informed Consents and Capture Research Authorizations Data

    OpenAIRE

    Obeid, Jihad S; Gerken, Katherine; Madathil, Kapil Chalil; Rugg, Daniel; Alstad, Colin E; Fryar, Katrina; Alexander, Randall; Gramopadhye, Anand K; Moskowitz, Jay; Sanderson, Iain C

    2013-01-01

    Informed consents are a critical and essential component of the clinical research process. Currently, most consents and research privacy authorizations are being captured on paper. In this paper we describe a novel method of capturing this information electronically. The objective is to allow easier tracking of research participants’ intent for current and future research involvement, enhance consent comprehension and facilitate the research workflow. After multidisciplinary analysis in key h...

  19. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (amethane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. PMID:27420161

  20. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  1. Enhancing slow and fast light effects in quantum dot semiconductor waveguides through ultrafast dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We show that ultrafast carrier dynamics plays an important role on slow and fast light effects based on coherent population oscillations in quantum dot semiconductor waveguides. Fast light in the gain regime and slow light in the absorption regime are found to be enhanced at frequencies beyond th...... the usual limits of the carrier lifetime. The effects are investigated by a comprehensive model and shown to originate from non-equilibrium dynamics within the quantum dot carrier populations....

  2. Hardware Assisted Fast Volume Rendering with Boundary Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童欣; 唐泽圣

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,a new volume rendering method with boundary enhancement is presented.The boundary is extracted and represented by surfaces explicitly,Then,using 3D texture mapping and graphics acceleation hardware,the volume data can be rendered with controllable boundary shading effect almost in real time.Test shows that this method is 4-5 times faster than the previous methods.Moreover,it can also be extended to render the surfaces and the volumetric data together interactively.

  3. Fast-track surgery-an update on physiological care principles to enhance recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The concept of fast-track surgery (enhanced recovery programs) has been evolved and been documented to be successful by decreasing length of stay, morbidity and convalescence across procedures. FUTURE STRATEGIES: However, there are several possibilities for further improvement of mo...... of the components of fast-track surgery, where surgical stress, fluid and pain management are key factors. There is an urgent need for better design of studies, especially in minimal invasive surgery to achieve maximal outcome effects when integrated into the fast-track methodology....

  4. Sonoporation as an enhancing method for boron neutron capture therapy for squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiotherapy that is dependent on the accumulation of 10B compound in tumors. Low-intensity ultrasound produces a transient pore on cell membranes, sonoporation, which enables extracellular materials to enter cells. The effect of sonoporation on BNCT was examined in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) xenografts in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were administrated boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boronocaptate sodium (BSH) intraperitoneally. Two hours later, tumors were subjected to sonoporation using microbubbles followed by neutron irradiation. The 10B concentration was higher in tumors treated with sonoporation than in untreated tumors, although the difference was not significant in BPA. When tumors in mice that received BPA intraperitoneally were treated with sonoporation followed by exposure to thermal neutrons, tumor volume was markedly reduced and the survival rate was prolonged. Such enhancements by sonoporation were not observed in mice treated with BSH-mediated BNCT. These results indicate that sonoporation enhances the efficiency of BPA-mediated BNCT for oral SCC. Sonoporation may modulate the microlocalization of BPA and BSH in tumors and increase their intracellular levels

  5. Systematic Tuning and Multifunctionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers for Enhanced Carbon Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Mercado, Rocio; Huck, Johanna M; Wang, Hui; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Wenchuan; Cao, Dapeng; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2015-10-21

    Porous covalent polymers are attracting increasing interest in the fields of gas adsorption, gas separation, and catalysis due to their fertile synthetic polymer chemistry, large internal surface areas, and ultrahigh hydrothermal stabilities. While precisely manipulating the porosities of porous organic materials for targeted applications remains challenging, we show how a large degree of diversity can be achieved in covalent organic polymers by incorporating multiple functionalities into a single framework, as is done for crystalline porous materials. Here, we synthesized 17 novel porous covalent organic polymers (COPs) with finely tuned porosities, a wide range of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas of 430-3624 m(2) g(-1), and a broad range of pore volumes of 0.24-3.50 cm(3) g(-1), all achieved by tailoring the length and geometry of building blocks. Furthermore, we are the first to successfully incorporate more than three distinct functional groups into one phase for porous organic materials, which has been previously demonstrated in crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). COPs decorated with multiple functional groups in one phase can lead to enhanced properties that are not simply linear combinations of the pure component properties. For instance, in the dibromobenzene-lined frameworks, the bi- and multifunctionalized COPs exhibit selectivities for carbon dioxide over nitrogen twice as large as any of the singly functionalized COPs. These multifunctionalized frameworks also exhibit a lower parasitic energy cost for carbon capture at typical flue gas conditions than any of the singly functionalized frameworks. Despite the significant improvement, these frameworks do not yet outperform the current state-of-art technology for carbon capture. Nonetheless, the tuning strategy presented here opens up avenues for the design of novel catalysts, the synthesis of functional sensors from these materials, and the improvement in the performance of

  6. Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage by mineral-trapping and solubility-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew C; Dideriksen, Knud; Spangler, Lee H; Cunningham, Alfred B; Gerlach, Robin

    2010-07-01

    The potential of microorganisms for enhancing carbon capture and storage (CCS) via mineral-trapping (where dissolved CO(2) is precipitated in carbonate minerals) and solubility trapping (as dissolved carbonate species in solution) was investigated. The bacterial hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) was investigated in microcosms including synthetic brine (SB) mimicking a prospective deep subsurface CCS site with variable headspace pressures [p(CO(2))] of (13)C-CO(2). Dissolved Ca(2+) in the SB was completely precipitated as calcite during microbially induced hydrolysis of 5-20 g L(-1) urea. The incorporation of carbonate ions from (13)C-CO(2) ((13)C-CO(3)(2-)) into calcite increased with increasing p((13)CO(2)) and increasing urea concentrations: from 8.3% of total carbon in CaCO(3) at 1 g L(-1) to 31% at 5 g L(-1), and 37% at 20 g L(-1). This demonstrated that ureolysis was effective at precipitating initially gaseous [CO(2)(g)] originating from the headspace over the brine. Modeling the change in brine chemistry and carbonate precipitation after equilibration with the initial p(CO(2)) demonstrated that no net precipitation of CO(2)(g) via mineral-trapping occurred, since urea hydrolysis results in the production of dissolved inorganic carbon. However, the pH increase induced by bacterial ureolysis generated a net flux of CO(2)(g) into the brine. This reduced the headspace concentration of CO(2) by up to 32 mM per 100 mM urea hydrolyzed because the capacity of the brine for carbonate ions was increased, thus enhancing the solubility-trapping capacity of the brine. Together with the previously demonstrated permeability reduction of rock cores at high pressure by microbial biofilms and resilience of biofilms to supercritical CO(2), this suggests that engineered biomineralizing biofilms may enhance CCS via solubility-trapping, mineral formation, and CO(2)(g) leakage reduction.

  7. Fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics of enhanced CO2 capture in a minichannel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Enhanced CO2 capture using aqueous DEA in a microreactor. • Observed flow patterns and calculated interfacial area by high-speed visualization. • Achieved close to 100% absorption efficiency under certain operating conditions. • Compared pressure drop and Sherwood number with predictions from model. • Mass transfer coefficient 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional reactors. - Abstract: CO2 absorption using amine solvents can be significantly enhanced by the use of microscale reactors having high surface area to volume ratio. The present paper reports an experimental investigation of the fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics during reactive gas–liquid absorption in a minichannel reactor. Absorption of CO2 mixed with N2 into aqueous diethanolamine was studied in a channel having hydraulic diameter of 762 μm and a circular cross-sectional geometry. High-speed imaging of the two-phase flow was conducted to visualize the flow regimes. Image-processing analysis of the acquired flow patterns was performed to determine the interfacial area. The performance of the reactor was studied with respect to the absorption efficiency, pressure drop, mass transfer coefficient, interfacial area, enhancement factor, and Sherwood number. Parametric studies investigating the effects of phase superficial velocity, liquid reactant concentration, and CO2 concentration in the gas phase were performed and are discussed. High levels of absorption efficiency, close to 100%, were observed under certain operating conditions. An empirical model for the Sherwood number was developed and compared against experimental data. The mass transfer coefficient was found to be higher at reduced channel lengths, which was attributed to improved utilization of the absorption capacity of the amine solution for a given reactor volume. The presently achieved values of mass transfer coefficient and specific interfacial area are between 1 and 4 orders of magnitude

  8. Enhancing Protein Capture Using a Combination of Nanoyeast Single-Chain Fragment Affinity Reagents and Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamic Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Rauf, Sakandar; Grewal, Yadveer S; Spadafora, Lauren J; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Trau, Matt

    2015-12-01

    New high-performance detection technologies and more robust protein capture agents can be combined to both rapidly and specifically capture and detect protein biomarkers associated with disease in complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate the use of recently developed recombinant affinity reagents, namely nanoyeast-scFv, in combination with alternating current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD)-induced shear forces, to enhance capture performance during protein biomarker analysis. The use of ac-EHD significantly improves fluid transport across the capture domain, resulting in enhanced sensor-target interaction and simultaneous displacement of nonspecific molecules from the electrode surface. We demonstrate this simple proof-of-concept approach for the capture and detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigens from disinfected stool, within a span of 5 min using an ac-EHD microfluidic device. Under an ac-EHD field, antigens were captured on a nanoyeast-scFv immobilized device and subsequently detected using a quantum dot conjugated antibody. This immunosensor specifically detected antigen in disinfected stool with low background noise at concentrations down to 58.8 fM with an interassay reproducibility (%RSD of n = 3) gold electrodes in disinfected stool. We predict this rapid and sensitive approach using these stable affinity reagents may offer a new methodology to detect protein disease biomarkers from biological matrices. PMID:26551436

  9. Enhanced performance of a biomimetic membrane for Na2CO3 crystallization in the scenario of CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Jiuyang; Tækker Madsen, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Membrane assisted crystallization (MACr) offers an innovative platform for crystallizing Na2CO3, allowing its reuse after CO2 capture from flue gases by an alkaline solution (i.e., NaOH). In this study, the biomimetic aquaporin Inside™ membrane AIM60 was employed to enhance water removal, facilit......Membrane assisted crystallization (MACr) offers an innovative platform for crystallizing Na2CO3, allowing its reuse after CO2 capture from flue gases by an alkaline solution (i.e., NaOH). In this study, the biomimetic aquaporin Inside™ membrane AIM60 was employed to enhance water removal......, a proper control of the supersaturation level induces crystallization of Na2CO3·10H2O crystals with a purity of 99.94%. Hence, the aquaporin Inside™ FO membrane may be a promising alternative to existing methods for Na2CO3 crystallization for its application in a CO2 capture scenario....

  10. Fast-track evaluation of a compact chemically enhanced-trickling filter system

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. R. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    With the more Stringent legislations pertinent to the management of industrial effluents, it deemed necessary to develop an efficient compact, low cost treatment system that complies with applicable laws. Numerous versions of chemically enhanced - biological treatment schemes are commercially established. Chemically enhanced-trickling filter has been perceived as an efficient intervention scheme. This paper presents a fast-track approach for estimation of the minimum total annual treatment co...

  11. A Study of a Modified Histogram Based Fast Enhancement Algorithm (MHBFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany A. Kandeel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement is one of the most important issues in low-level image processing. The goal of image enhancement is to improve the quality of an image such that enhanced image is better than the original image. Conventional Histogram equalization (HE is one of the most algorithms used in the contrast enhancement of medical images, this due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, it causes the unnatural look and visual artefacts, where it tends to change the brightness of an images. The Histogram Based Fast Enhancement Algorithm (HBFE tries to enhance the CT head images, where it improves the water-washed effect caused by conventional histogram equalization algorithms with less complexity. It depends on using full gray levels to enhance the soft tissues ignoring other image details. We present a modification of this algorithm to be valid for most CT image types with keeping the degree of simplicity. Experimental results show that The Modified Histogram Based Fast Enhancement Algorithm (MHBFE enhances the results in term of PSNR, AMBE and entropy. We use also the Statistical analysis to ensure the improvement of the proposed modification that can be generalized. ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA is used as first to test whether or not all the results have the same average. Then we find the significant improvement of the modification.

  12. Enhanced Survival with Implantable Scaffolds That Capture Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shreyas S; Bushnell, Grace G; Azarin, Samira M; Spicer, Graham; Aguado, Brian A; Stoehr, Jenna R; Jiang, Eric J; Backman, Vadim; Shea, Lonnie D; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2016-09-15

    The onset of distant organ metastasis from primary breast cancer marks the transition to a stage IV diagnosis. Standard imaging modalities often detect distant metastasis when the burden of disease is high, underscoring the need for improved methods of detection to allow for interventions that would impede disease progression. Here, microporous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds were developed that capture early metastatic cells and thus serve as a sentinel for early detection. These scaffolds were used to characterize the dynamic immune response to the implant spanning the acute and chronic foreign body response. The immune cell composition had stabilized at the scaffold after approximately 1 month and changed dramatically within days to weeks after tumor inoculation, with CD11b(+)Gr1(hi)Ly6C(-) cells having the greatest increase in abundance. Implanted scaffolds recruited metastatic cancer cells that were inoculated into the mammary fat pad in vivo, which also significantly reduced tumor burden in the liver and brain. Additionally, cancer cells could be detected using a label-free imaging modality termed inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, and we tested the hypothesis that subsequent removal of the primary tumor after early detection would enhance survival. Surgical removal of the primary tumor following cancer cell detection in the scaffold significantly improved disease-specific survival. The enhanced disease-specific survival was associated with a systemic reduction in the CD11b(+)Gr1(hi)Ly6C(-) cells as a consequence of the implant, which was further supported by Gr-1 depletion studies. Implementation of the scaffold may provide diagnostic and therapeutic options for cancer patients in both the high-risk and adjuvant treatment settings. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5209-18. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27635043

  13. Imidazole tailored deep eutectic solvents for CO2 capture enhanced by hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingdi; Huang, Junhua; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhang, Suojiang; Gao, Jubao; Zeng, Shaojuan

    2015-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as promising alternative candidates for CO2 capture in recent years. In this work, several novel DESs were firstly prepared to enhance CO2 absorption. Structural and physical properties of DESs were investigated, as well as their absorption performance of CO2. A distinct depression in the melting point up to 80 K of DESs was observed compared with that of BMIMCl. The observed red shifts of the C2H group in an imidazolium ring and its chemical shifts downfield in NMR spectra are indicative of a hydrogen bond interaction between BMIMCl and MEA. In particular, CO2 uptake in MEA : ILs (4 : 1) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is up to 21.4 wt%, which is higher than that of 30 wt% MEA (13%). A hydrogen bond related mechanism was proposed in which ILs act as a medium to improve CO2 uptake through hydrogen bonds. Finally, the firstly reported overall heat of CO2 absorption is slightly higher than that of 30 wt% MEA, implying that the hydrogen bonds of DESs contribute to the overall heat of CO2 absorption. This study reveals that the heat of CO2 absorption can be tailored by the proper molar ratio of MEA and ILs. PMID:26435384

  14. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre...

  15. PIN diodes for measurement of the gamma dose rate produced by the fast burst reactor operating in the gamma enhancement mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Burst Reactor (FBR) is operated in the gamma enhancement mode to produce long pulses of gamma radiation for special test requirements. In this particular mode of operation, varying thickness of cadmium and dysprosium loaded polyethylene are used to enhance the gamma radiation environment of the FBR. In principle, the polyethylene thermalizes the fast neutron component of the FBR, the thermal and epithermal neutrons are captured by the cadmium and dysprosium which, in turn, results in a strong capture gamma ray environment. The enhanced gamma environment is used for selected nuclear survivability tests. In addition to the total ionizing dose (measured by thermoluminescent detectors), the gamma dose rate and rate profile is of prime importance. In fact, the peak gamma dose rate is most often the desired quantity. PIN diodes have proven a very useful method for measuring the instantaneous dose rates from the FBR gamma enhanced mode of operation. This presentation describes results and characteristics of these diodes for making such measurements along with calibration methods and long term stability of the diode calibration

  16. [Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture]. [Quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1993--January 2, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. This is aimed at utilization of relatively inexpensive coal fuels, thus realizing the primary benefit being sought by direct firing of coal in such gas turbine systems.

  17. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  18. Parametric Investigation of Rate Enhancement during fast Temperature Cycling of CO Oxidation in Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Hansen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    A new microreactor that allows investigation of the effects of temperature oscillations at frequencies 10 times higher than in previous systems is presented. As an example, we investigate CO oxidation over a supported Pt catalyst subjected to a fast forced oscillation of the reactor temperature...... and confirm earlier findings of reaction rate enhancements. The enhancement is shown to increase at high frequencies. Varying the conversion and temperature oscillation amplitude is shown to have a large effect on the rate enhancement, and a large interaction between the two parameters is detected...

  19. Kinetic energy release in CO fragmentation by electron loss and capture collisions of fast B''2''+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization and fragmentation of CO molecules have been investigated in charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ ions at v = 1.69 a.u.. Fragment ions from CO were measured by using a momentum 3D imaging technique in coincidence with outgoing projectile charge states. We deduced the kinetic energy release (KER) associated with charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ to B''3''+, B''1''+ and B''0''+. The KER spectra in the fragmentation to C''+ and O''+ ions are found to be different to some extent for these loss and capture collisions. It is concluded that the electron loss collision populates the intact CO molecule to highly excited states of (CO)''2''+''1 more effectively than electron capture collisions, resulting from different effective impact parameters associated with loss and capture collisions.

  20. Impact of a low-energy enhancement in the gamma-ray strength function on the radiative neutron-capture

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A.C.; Goriely, S.

    2012-01-01

    A low-energy enhancement of the gamma-ray strength function in several light and medium-mass nuclei has been observed recently in 3He-induced reactions. The effect of this enhancement on (n,gamma) cross-sections is investigated for stable and unstable neutron-rich Fe, Mo and Cd isotopes. Our results indicate that the radiative neutron capture cross sections may increase considerably due to the low-energy enhancement when approaching the neutron drip line. This could have non-negligible conseq...

  1. New opportunities for quality enhancing of images captured by passive THz camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2014-10-01

    As it is well-known, the passive THz camera allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Obviously, efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection for concealed object: minimal size of the object; maximal distance of the detection; image quality. Computer processing of the THz image may lead to many times improving of the image quality without any additional engineering efforts. Therefore, developing of modern computer code for its application to THz images is urgent problem. Using appropriate new methods one may expect such temperature resolution which will allow to see banknote in pocket of a person without any real contact. Modern algorithms for computer processing of THz images allow also to see object inside the human body using a temperature trace on the human skin. This circumstance enhances essentially opportunity of passive THz camera applications for counterterrorism problems. We demonstrate opportunities, achieved at present time, for the detection both of concealed objects and of clothes components due to using of computer processing of images captured by passive THz cameras, manufactured by various companies. Another important result discussed in the paper consists in observation of both THz radiation emitted by incandescent lamp and image reflected from ceramic floorplate. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China). All algorithms for computer processing of the THz images under consideration in this paper were developed by Russian part of author list. Keywords: THz wave, passive imaging camera, computer processing, security screening, concealed and forbidden objects, reflected image, hand seeing, banknote seeing, ceramic floorplate, incandescent lamp.

  2. Fasting improves static apnea performance in elite divers without enhanced risk of syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagatay, Erika; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    In competitive apnea divers, the nutritional demands may be essentially different from those of, for example, endurance athletes, where energy resources need to be maximised for successful performance. In competitive apnea, the goal is instead to limit metabolism, as the length of the sustainable apneic period will depend to a great extent on minimising oxygen consumption. Many but not all elite divers fast before performing static apnea in competition. This may increase oxygen consumption as mainly lipid stores are metabolised but could also have beneficial effects on apneic duration. Our aim was to determine the effect of over-night fasting on apnea performance. Six female and seven male divers performed a series of three apneas after eating and fasting, respectively. The series consisted of two 2-min apneas spaced by 3 min rest and, after 5 min rest, one maximal effort apnea. Apneas were performed at supine rest and preceded by normal respiration and maximal inspiration. Mean (± SD) time since eating was 13 h (± 2 h 43 min) for the fasting and 1 h 34 min (± 33 min) for the eating condition (P eating (Peating and ETCO2 was lower in the fasting condition (P eating conditions (P eating (P eating (P < 0.01). The 22% longer apnea duration after fasting with analogous end apnea SaO2 levels suggests that fasting is beneficial for static apnea performance in elite divers, likely via metabolism-limiting mechanisms. The oxygen-conserving effect of the more pronounced diving response and possibly other metabolism-limiting mechanisms related to fasting apparently outweigh the enhanced oxygen consumption caused by lipid metabolism. PMID:24444200

  3. Enhanced plasma availability of the metabolites of albendazole in fasted adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Mastromarino, M; Lanusse, C

    1997-04-01

    The influence of fasting prior to treatment and of dosing rate on the plasma availability and disposition kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) metabolites was studied in adult sheep grazing on pasture. A micronized suspension of ABZ was administered orally at either 7.5 mg/kg (group A) or 11.3 mg/kg (group C) to sheep fed ad libitum, and at 7.5 mg/kg to sheep subjected to a 24 h fasting period prior to treatment (group B). Blood samples were taken serially over 96 h after treatment, and the plasma was analysed for ABZ and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered from the plasma. Fasting induced marked modifications in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the ABZ metabolites in sheep. An extended absorption process, with a delayed peak concentration in the plasma, was observed for both metabolites in the fasted sheep. Significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) values were obtained for both metabolites in the fasted animals compared to those fed ad libitum. Delayed elimination with prolonged detection in plasma was also observed in the fasted sheep. Treatment with ABZ at 7.5 mg/kg in the starved animals resulted in bioequivalence to the administration of the compound at a 50% higher dose rate (11.3 mg/kg) in the fed animals. It is suggested that fasting enhances ABZ dissolution and absorption by delaying its passage down the digestive tract. PMID:9090047

  4. A modified approach to transient stability enhancement with fast valving and braking resistor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Ramnarayan [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India). Department of Electrical Engineering; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2006-12-15

    Fast valving and braking resistor are two important members of the family of the discrete supplementary controllers (DISCOS). Both of these are very effective and economic means of transient stability enhancement under extreme contingencies. Being stationed at the similar end of a power system the two schemes carry a very good potential of an effective coordination. Such a coordinated control is helpful not only in obtaining an improved gain in stability, but also in overcoming the limitations and avoiding excessive duty on the part of an individual controller. In this work, a detailed study has been carried out to evaluate the scope and limitations of fast valving and dynamic braking resistor controls in enhancing the transient stability of power systems. Improvements have been suggested over the conventional schemes of control so as to improve their adaptability under different conditions of fault and loading or with different types of generating units. (author)

  5. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  6. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  7. State-Selective and Total Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Collisions of Multiply Charged Ions with Helium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    The four-body boundary corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is used to calculate the single electron capture cross sections for collisions between fully stripped ions (He2+, Be4+, B5+ and C6+) and helium target at intermediate and high impact energies. The main goal of this study is to assess the usefulness of the CB1-4B method at intermediate and high impact energies for these collisions. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  8. Meniscal tears of the knee : diagnosis with fast spin-echo MR imaging and role of gadolinium-enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kyung Mi; Jee, Won Hee; Choe, Bo Young; Rhim, Soo A.; Lee, Jung Whee; Ku, Young Mi; Yoon, Young Hyun; Choi, Si Young; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Medical Coll.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of fast spin-echo MR imaging for the diagnosis of meniscal tear to the knee is a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis of meniscal tears by fast spin-echo MR imaging and the role of gadolinium enhancement. In 68 cases of arthroscopically-proven meniscal tears, MR sensitivity to tear was 93% (63/68) for spin-echo alone and 96% (40/41) for combined fast spin-echo and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. MR sensitivity to medial meniscus tear was 98% (40/41) for fast spin-echo alone and 98% (40/41) for combined fast spin-echo and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. MR sensitivity to lateral meniscus tear was 85 % (23/27) for fast spin-echo alone and 93% (25/27) for combined fast spin-echo and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. Fast spin-echo MR imaging with adequate imaging parameters is suitable for the diagnosis of meniscal tears, and additional fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging may increase diagnostic sensitivity to such tears. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. Target-specific capture enhances sensitivity of electrochemical detection of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayank; Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Halford, Colin; Lewinski, Michael A; Landaw, Elliot M; Churchill, Bernard M; Haake, David A

    2011-12-01

    We report the concentration and purification of bacterial 16S rRNA by the use of a biotinylated DNA target-specific capture (TSC) probe. For both cultivated bacterial and urine specimens from urinary tract infection patients, TSC resulted in a 5- to 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of bacterial detection in a 16S rRNA electrochemical sensor assay.

  10. Passive magnetic separator integrated with microfluidic mixer: Demonstration of enhanced capture efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present two results: (1) a new method for quantifying the efficiency of magnetic bead separators by magnetic measurements, and (2) a new idea for designing efficient magnetic bead separators. For microfluidic magnetic separators, a limiting factor for the capture of magnetic bea...

  11. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Assisted by Radical Capturer for Tracking of Plasmon-Driven Redox Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Tan, Xianjun; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    The deep understanding about the photocatalytic reaction induced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect is desirable but remains a considerable challenge due to the ultrafast relaxation of hole-electron exciton from SPR process and a lack of an efficient monitoring system. Here, using the p-aminothiophenol (PATP) oxidation SPR-catalyzed by Ag nanoparticle as a model reaction, a radical-capturer-assisted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used as an in-situ tracking technique to explore the primary active species determining the reaction path. Hole is revealed to be directly responsible for the oxidation of PATP to p, p‧-dimercaptoazobenzene (4, 4‧-DMAB) and O2 functions as an electron capturer to form isolated hole. The oxidation degree of PATP can be further enhanced through a joint utilization of electron capturers of AgNO3 and atmospheric O2, producing p-nitrothiophenol (PNTP) within 10 s due to the improved hole-electron separation efficiency.

  12. Geosynchronous magnetic field responses to fast solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements: MHD field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed global MHD simulations of the geosynchronous magnetic field in response to fast solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd enhancements. Taking three Pd enhancement events in 2000 as examples, we found that the main features of the total field B and the dominant component Bz can be efficiently predicted by the MHD model. The predicted B and Bz varies with local time, with the highest level near noon and a slightly lower level around mid-night. However, it is more challenging to accurately predict the responses of the smaller component at the geosynchronous orbit (i.e., Bx and By. In contrast, the limitations of T01 model in predicting responses to fast Pd enhancements are presented.

  13. Analysis of an effective optical filtering technique to enhance microwave phase shifts based on slow and fast light effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Xue, Weiqi;

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically analyze and interpret an effective mechanism, which employs optical filtering to enhance the microwave phase shift that can be achieved in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on slow and fast light effects.......We theoretically analyze and interpret an effective mechanism, which employs optical filtering to enhance the microwave phase shift that can be achieved in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on slow and fast light effects....

  14. Summary Report of the Technical Meeting on Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, tight target uncertainties on the capture and inelastic scattering data for major actinides were derived from advanced reactor sensitivity studies. A Technical Meeting on 'Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region' was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria to review the status of nuclear data libraries for these cross sections, the status of the experimental results by which these can be tested and to evaluate what advances in nuclear modeling and measurement technique may bring to improve the knowledge of these cross sections. The participants compared recent evaluations with various modeling approaches that have not yet been adopted in data libraries. Several points of interest were found. First, different evaluations may show very similar performance for macroscopic benchmarks. Second, recent modeling improvements from different communities and using different codes tend to converge on the principles in the case of coupled channel calculations. In particular, it was shown that meaningful results require convergence with respect to the number of coupled channels and the use of the dispersive coupled channels potential based with an isospin dependent term to treat neutrons and protons in a coherent manner appears to be uncontested. Also, the issue regarding the use of transmission coefficients from coupled channels calculations in the Hauser Feshbach model was tackled. Recent and ongoing experimental efforts were presented for capture and inelastic scattering on the major actinides. Results from these are likely to become available in a period from 2 to 5 years. A discussion on the representation of the data in EXFOR revealed that care must be taken interpreting the numbers given in the case of inelastic scattering. It has been a long time since capture data were obtained for fissile nuclei and it is exciting to find new efforts are being considered at LANL, CERN and CENBG/IRMM. It was finally

  15. Enhanced passive safety features against ATWS of fast breeder reactors with capabilities of MA incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninokata, Hisashi; Sawada, Tetsuo; Sato, Manabu [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    The paper gives an outline of the general and simple reactivity correlation method to identify the region of the major design parameters that assures power stabilization and passive shutdown of sodium-cooled large fast reactors under ATWS conditions. Based on the model developed, general design guidelines are shown that enhance passive capabilities being aimed at preventing sodium boiling and fuel failures in the events of ULOF and UTOP. Discussions extend to the influences of minor actinides loading in the core onto the passive safety features. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Enhanced Multiple Routing Configurations For Fast IP Network Recovery From Multiple Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Anji Kumar & Dr MHM Krishna Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions,online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergenceof routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple RoutingConfigurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not supportnetwork from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], tosupport multiple node/link failures during data transmission in IP networks without frequent globalre-convergence. By recovering these failures, data transmission in network will become fast.

  17. Enhanced Multiple Routing Configurations for Fast IP Network Recovery from Multiple Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anji Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions, online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple Routing Configurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not support network from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], to support multiple node/link failures during data transmission in IP networks without frequent global re-convergence. By recovering these failures, data transmission in network will become fast.

  18. Fast Ignition Thermonuclear Fusion: Enhancement of the Pellet Gain by the Colossal-Magnetic-Field Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The fast ignition fusion pellet gain can be enhanced by a laser generated B-field shell. The B-field shell, (similar to Earth's B-field, but with the alternating B-poles), follows the pellet compression in a frozen-in B-field regime. A properly designed laser-pellet coupling can lead to the generation of a B-field shell, (up to 100 MG), which inhibits electron thermal transport and confines the alpha-particles. In principle, a pellet gain of few-100s can be achieved in this manner. Supported in part by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University, 1010 Pearl, La Jolla, CA 92038-1007.

  19. Comparison between fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography and DSA in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and clinical value of fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) with elliptic centric phase-encoding in spinal cord vascular malformations. Methods Fast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography with elliptic centric phase-encoding and superconducting 1.5T system was applied prospectively in twenty-five consecutive patients with clinically suspected of spinal cord vascular malformations. All cases were performed with selective spinal digital subtraction angiography, including 18 cases treated by surgery and 2 of them with embolization before surgery, MR angiography follow up were undertaken in ten patients after surgery. Comparing fast contrast-enhanced MR angiography with DSA in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations included the origin of feeding artery, the feeding artery, the fistula or the nidus, the draining vein, and the vessel image quality based on the gold standard of selective spinal digital subtraction angiography. Results: Surgically proven diseases included spinal arteriovenous malformations(3 cases), spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (5 cases), spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (8 cases), paravertebral arteriovenous fistulas (1 case), and spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (2 eases). Comparing with DSA, the accuracy of MR angiography in diagnosing spinal cord vascular malformations; and detecting the origin of the feeding artery, the feeding artery, the shunt or the nidus and the draining vein were 93.8%, 92%, 96.2%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Overall the degree vascular enhencement were judged to be similar(P>0.05), but the vessel continuity of MRA was inferior to DSA (P<0.05). However, 9 cases of MRA showed no abnormal vascular malformation coinciding with those of surgery. Posttreatment MR angiography did not depict any abnormal vessels again. Conclusions: Fast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography with elliptic centric phase-encoding may provide

  20. Measurement of the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th with 232ThO2 irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Thorium-Uranium cycle plays an important role in the future's power production technology. Nuclear data involved are urgently needed for engineering design and other purposes since there are obvious differences between the existing evaluated data. Macroscopic neutron integral experiment can be used as a good tool to survey the confusion. Purpose: Macroscopic neutron integral experiment based on radioactive method was carried out to measure the generation ratio of 233U nuclide and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th while a ThO2 sample was irradiated by fast neutrons leakage from a fast critical facility. We expect that these data can be used as a reference for the research of Th-U cycle. Methods: Radiation capture reactions of 232Th nuclides occur when the nuclides are irradiated by neutrons. 233U nuclides will be generated after two cascade decays by emitting beta rays from the activation products, which are 233Th nuclides. The ThO2 sample was prepared as a slice of 20 mm×10 mm from 0.743 36-g ThO2 powders of 99.9% enriched. The neutron flux was measured by activation method which was 4.07x109 cm-2·s-1 at the sample's irradiation position while the facility worked at the power level of 180 watts. The leakage neutrons' energy distribution was calculated by MC method and it is very close to the fission spectrum with the averaged energy of 1.42 MeV. After irradiation and then a period of cooling time the gamma rays emitted from the sample were measured by an HPGe spectrometer which had been pre-calibrated. From these data the activity of 233Pa was calculated and then the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th were calculated. The measured average radiation capture cross section was compared with the cross sections calculated based on the ENDFB-VH.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND2.2 databases. Results: The measured generation ratio of 233U was 4.01×10-12 with an uncertainty of 6

  1. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  2. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) in patients with epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S.H.; Symms, M.R.; Woermann, F.G.; Kendall, B.; Stevens, J.M. [National Society for Epilepsy and Epilepsy Research Group, Chalfont St Peter, Bucks, (United Kingdom); Stepney, A.; Barker, G.J. [Dept. of Clinical Neurology, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Niendorf, T. [GE Medical Systems, Cardiac- and Neuro-optimized, Leipzig (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    MRI is an important diagnostic tool in patients with epilepsy, but patient motion during long scans may result in image artefacts. We studied the utility of an ultra-fast MR sequence in patients with epilepsy. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) images were acquired for 100 consecutive patients and nine control subjects. Scans were compared with routine T2-weighted spin echo images for signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and conspicuity, followed by a blind review of lesion detectability. UFLARE scans were also acquired for 15 patients who moved during conventional scans. All UFLARE scans had lower signal-to-noise ratios and lower contrast than the T2-weighted images. Compared with T1- and T2-weighted, PD and FLAIR images, 86% of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), 92% of large but only 24% of small white-matter lesions were detected on the blind review of the UFLARE images. Reduced motion artefacts were seen on the UFLARE images in all 15 patients who moved during the conventional scans, and in three patients UFLARE was the only sequence we were able to obtain. Despite the lower lesion detectability for smaller lesions, the use of an ultra-fast MRI sequence such as UFLARE may be very useful in patients who are not able to co-operate during conventional MRI examinations, if a general anaesthetic is to be avoided. (orig.)

  3. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI is an important diagnostic tool in patients with epilepsy, but patient motion during long scans may result in image artefacts. We studied the utility of an ultra-fast MR sequence in patients with epilepsy. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) images were acquired for 100 consecutive patients and nine control subjects. Scans were compared with routine T2-weighted spin echo images for signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and conspicuity, followed by a blind review of lesion detectability. UFLARE scans were also acquired for 15 patients who moved during conventional scans. All UFLARE scans had lower signal-to-noise ratios and lower contrast than the T2-weighted images. Compared with T1- and T2-weighted, PD and FLAIR images, 86% of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), 92% of large but only 24% of small white-matter lesions were detected on the blind review of the UFLARE images. Reduced motion artefacts were seen on the UFLARE images in all 15 patients who moved during the conventional scans, and in three patients UFLARE was the only sequence we were able to obtain. Despite the lower lesion detectability for smaller lesions, the use of an ultra-fast MRI sequence such as UFLARE may be very useful in patients who are not able to co-operate during conventional MRI examinations, if a general anaesthetic is to be avoided. (orig.)

  4. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  5. Dust capture and long-lived density enhancements triggered by vortices in 2D protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Surville, Clément; Lin, Douglas N C

    2016-01-01

    We study dust capture by vortices and its long-term consequences in global two-fluid inviscid disk simulations using a new polar grid code RoSSBi. We perform the longest integrations so far, several hundred disk orbits, at the highest resolution attainable in global simulations of disks with dust, namely 2048x4096 grid points. This allows to study the dust evolution well beyond vortex dissipation. We vary a wide range of parameters, most notably the dust-to-gas ratio in the initial setup varies in the range $10^{-3}$ to $0.1$. Irrespective of the initial dust-to-gas ratio we find rapid concentration of the dust inside vortices, reaching dust-to-gas ratios of order unity inside the vortex. We present an analytical model that describes very well the dust capture process inside vortices, finding consistent results for all dust-to-gas ratios. A vortex streaming instability develops which causes invariably vortex destruction. After vortex dissipation large-scale dust-rings encompassing a disk annulus form in most ...

  6. Energy and charge state dependences of transfer ionization to single capture ratio for fast multiply charged ions on helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ridvan

    The charge state and energy dependences of Transfer Ionization (TI) and Single Capture (SC) processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with He from intermediate to high velocities are investigated using coincident recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The collision chamber is commissioned on the 15-degree port of a switching magnet, which allows the delivery of a beam with very little impurity. The target was provided from a supersonic He jet with a two-stage collimation. The two-stage, geometrically cooled, supersonic He jet has significantly reduced background contribution to the spectrum compared to a single stage He jet. In the case of a differentially pumped gas cell complex calculations based on assumptions for the correction due to the collisions with the contaminant beam led to corrections, which were up to 50%. The new setup allows one to make a direct separation of contaminant processes in the experimental data using the longitudinal momentum spectra. Furthermore, this correction is much smaller (about 8.8%) yielding better overall precision. The collision systems reported here are 1 MeV/u O(4--8)+ , 0.5--2.5 MeV/u F(4--9)+, 2.0 MeV/u Ti 15,17,18+, 1.6--1.75 MeV/u Cu18,20+ and 0.25--0.5 MeV/u I(15--25)+ ions interacting with helium. We have determined the sTIsSC ratio for high velocity highly charged ions on He at velocities in the range of 6 to 10 au and observed that the ratio is monotonically decreasing with velocity. Furthermore, we see a ratio that follows a q2 dependence up to approximately q = 9. Above q = 9 the experimental values exceed the q2 dependence prediction due to antiscreening. C. D. Lin and H. C. Tseng have performed coupled channel calculations for the energy dependence of TI and SC for F9+ + He and find values slightly higher than our measured values, but with approximately the same energy dependence. The new data, Si, Ti and Cu, go up only to q = 20 and show a smooth monotonically increasing TI/SC ratio. The TI/SC ratio for I (15

  7. Signal enhancement of lead and arsenic in soil using laser ablation combined with fast electric discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kexue, L.I. [Institute of Information Optics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004 (China); Zhou Weidong, E-mail: wdzhou@zjnu.c [Institute of Information Optics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004 (China); Shen Qinmei; Shao Jie; Qian Huiguo [Institute of Information Optics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004 (China)

    2010-05-15

    In comparison to the traditional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS), a significant enhancement of atomic emission of lead and arsenic from laser plasma of soil has been demonstrated by the use of a laser ablation and fast pulse discharge plasma spectroscopy technique (LA-FPDPS). In this technique, a specifically designed high voltage and rapid discharge circuit was used to reheat the laser plasma and to enhance the plasma emission. A rapid and time damped alternating discharge current was observed with a short oscillating period {approx} 0.6 {mu}s and sustained for about 6 {mu}s. The peak intensities of Pb (283.31 nm) and As (286.04 nm) lines from soil plasma emission were greatly enhanced when compare to the traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS system. In addition, the precision of measurements in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the signal to noise (S/N) ratios were also improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the laser ablation regions indicated that the plasma reheating by the discharge spark was presumably the main mechanism for observed signal enhancement in the LA-FPDPS technique.

  8. Fast and sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in red wine by nanoparticle-enhanced SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Hageneder, Simone; Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Dostálek, Jakub; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-21

    Herein, we present a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in a red wine that utilizes gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By combining an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay and signal enhancement by secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), highly sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds (such as OTA) was achieved. The reported biosensor allowed for OTA detection at concentrations as low as 0.75 ng mL(-1) and its limit of detection was improved by more than one order of magnitude to 0.068 ng mL(-1) by applying AuNPs as a signal enhancer. The study investigates the interplay of size of AuNPs and affinity of recognition elements affecting the efficiency of the signal amplification strategy based on AuNP. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of polyphenolic compounds in wine samples strongly interferes with the affinity binding on the surface. To overcome this limitation, a simple pre-treatment of the wine sample with the binding agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was successfully applied. PMID:27590556

  9. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes, while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%, as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%. These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to

  10. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars. Osmium and Iridium Abundances in the Neutron-Capture-Enhanced Subgiants CS31062-050 and LP625-44

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, W; Gallino, R; Beers, T C; Norris, J E; Ryan, S G; Tsangarides, S A; Aoki, Wako; Bisterzo, Sara; Gallino, Roberto; Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Ryan, Sean G.; Tsangarides, Stelios

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements, including osmium (Os) and iridium (Ir), in the two Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) subgiants CS31062-050 and LP625-44. CS31062-050 is known to be a so-called CEMP-r/s star, which exhibits large excesses of s-process elements such as barium (Ba) and lead (Pb), as well as a significant enhancement of europium (Eu) that cannot be explained by conventional s-process production in Asymptotic Giant Branch star models. Our analysis of the high-resolution spectrum for this object has determined, for the first time, the abundances of Ir and Os, elements in the third peak of the r-process nucleosynthesis. They also exhibit significant excesses relative to the predictions of standard s-process calculations. These two elements are not detected in a similar-quality spectrum of LP625-44; the derived upper limits on their abundances are lower than the abundances in CS31062-050. We compare the observed abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements, inc...

  11. MUSIC. a fast T2* - sensitive MRI technique with enhanced volume coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast imaging method based on gradient-recalled echoes and echo time inter-leaved multi-slice excitation is presented. This method maintains the sensitivity of T2* by using a long echo time of at least 35 milliseconds. Bipolar gradients are used to shift the gradient echoes in order to ensure constant TE for each slab and prevent ghost-artefacts within the images caused by spin- or stimulated echoes. This method enhances the total imaging time of a conventional multi-slice gradient echo technique, while maintaining the high volume coverage. Thus, stimulated human cortical activation maps can be detected on standard clinical MR instruments at several planes within measuring times of a few seconds. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated in the detection of temporary changes in T2* in functional MRI experiments of the human visual cortex at a magnetic field strength of 2 tesla. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  12. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  13. Functionalized arrays of Raman-enhancing nanoparticles for capture and culture-free analysis of bacteria in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Yu; Tsai, Kun-Tong; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Chen, Yu; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chao, Yuan-Chun; Chang, Hsuan-Hao; Lin, Chi-Hung; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-11-01

    Detecting bacteria in clinical samples without using time-consuming culture processes would allow rapid diagnoses. Such a culture-free detection method requires the capture and analysis of bacteria from a body fluid, which are usually of complicated composition. Here we show that coating Ag-nanoparticle arrays with vancomycin (Van) can provide label-free analysis of bacteria via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), leading to a ~1,000-fold increase in bacteria capture, without introducing significant spectral interference. Bacteria from human blood can be concentrated onto a microscopic Van-coated area while blood cells are excluded. Furthermore, a Van-coated substrate provides distinctly different SERS spectra of Van-susceptible and Van-resistant Enterococcus, indicating its potential use for drug-resistance tests. Our results represent a critical step towards the creation of SERS-based multifunctional biochips for rapid culture- and label-free detection and drug-resistant testing of microorganisms in clinical samples.

  14. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  15. Adsorption mechanism of graphene-like ZnO monolayer towards CO2 molecules: enhanced CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. S.; Hussain, T.; Islam, M. S.; Sagynbaeva, M.; Gupta, D.; Panigrahi, P.; Ahuja, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to efficiently capture CO2 on two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures for effective cleaning of our atmosphere and purification of exhausts coming from fuel engines. Here, we have performed extensive first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the interaction of CO2 on a recently synthesized ZnO monolayer (ZnO-ML) in its pure, defected and functionalized form. A series of rigorous calculations yielded the most preferential binding configurations of the CO2 gas molecule on a ZnO-ML. It is observed that the substitution of one oxygen atom with boron, carbon and nitrogen on the ZnO monolayer resulted into enhanced CO2 adsorption. Our calculations show an enriched adsorption of CO2 on the ZnO-ML when substituting with foreign atoms like B, C and N. The improved adsorption energy of CO2 on ZnO suggests the ZnO-ML could be a promising candidate for future CO2 capture.

  16. Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Capture from Landfill Gas Using Bifunctionalized Benzimidazole-Linked Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamoglu, Timur; Behera, Swayamprabha; Kahveci, Zafer; Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Jena, Puru; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2016-06-15

    Tuning the binding affinity of small gases and their selective uptake by porous adsorbents are vital for effective CO2 removal from gas mixtures for environmental protection and fuel upgrading. In this study, an amine-functionalized benzimidazole-linked polymer (BILP-6-NH2) was synthesized by a combination of pre- and postsynthetic modification techniques in two steps. Presynthetic incorporation of nitro groups resulted in stoichiometric functionalization (1 nitro/phenyl) in addition to noninvasive functionalization, where more than 80% of the surface area maintained compared to BILP-6. Experimental studies presented enhanced CO2 uptake and CO2/CH4 selectivity in BILP-6-NH2 compared to BILP-6, which are governed by the synergetic effect of benzimidazole and amine moieties. DFT calculations were used to understand the interaction modes of CO2 with BILP-6-NH2 and confirmed the efficacy of amine groups. Encouraged by the enhanced uptake and selectivity in BILP-6-NH2, we have evaluated its performance in landfill gas separation under vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) settings, which resulted in very promising working capacity and sorbent selection parameters outperforming most of the best solid adsorbent in the literature. PMID:27228220

  17. Image capture and fast moving objects detection based on FPGA%基于FPGA的图像采集和快速移动物体检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔翔

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种图像采集和快速移动物体检测的设计,即通过FPGA实现对摄像头的初始化及数据采集,并通过自定义的传输协议将FPGA缓存中的数据传输给ARM7处理器,实现图像数据的快速传输。根据适用范围,本文提出了自适应二值化阀值及相关的检测算法改进。这对于小型的、低功耗实用型的监控系统具有一定的实用价值。%This paper mentions a design of image capture and fast moving objects detection. The first of this design is init camera and data acquisition through FPGA. Then, the data is transported from buffer of FPGA to ARM7 by custom transmission protocol. It puts forward adaptive threshold of changing image to two value and relevant detection algorithm to detect moving objects quickly. The research of this paper is useful to design a small, low power consumption and practical monitoring system.

  18. Engineering the Cyanobacterial Carbon Concentrating Mechanism for Enhanced CO2 Capture and Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandh, Gustaf; Cai, Fei; Shih, Patrick; Kinney, James; Axen, Seth; Salmeen, Annette; Zarzycki, Jan; Sutter, Markus; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2011-06-02

    In cyanobacteria CO2 fixation is localized in a special proteinaceous organelle, the carboxysome. The CO2 fixation enzymes are encapsulated by a selectively permeable protein shell. By structurally and functionally characterizing subunits of the carboxysome shell and the encapsulated proteins, we hope to understand what regulates the shape, assembly and permeability of the shell, as well as the targeting mechanism and organization of the encapsulated proteins. This knowledge will be used to enhance CO2 fixation in both cyanobacteria and plants through synthetic biology. The same strategy can also serve as a template for the production of modular synthetic bacterial organelles. Our research is conducted using a variety of techniques such as genomic sequencing and analysis, transcriptional regulation, DNA synthesis, synthetic biology, protein crystallization, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), protein-protein interaction assays and phenotypic characterization using various types of cellular imaging, e.g. fluorescence microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Soft X-ray Tomography (SXT).

  19. Fast Hue-Preserving Histogram Equalization Methods For Color Image Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menotti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we formalize a generic fast hue-preserving histogram equalization method based on the RGBcolor space for image contrast enhancement and two versions of that generic process. The first methodestimates a RGB 3D histogram to be equalized using R-red, G-green, and B-blue 1D histograms, while thesecond method employs RG, RB, and GB 2D histograms. The histogram equalization is performed usingshift hue-preserving transformations, avoiding unrealistic colors. Our methods have linear time and spacecomplexities with respect to the size of the image and do not need to apply conversions from a color spaceto another in order to perform the image enhancement. Such design complies with real-time applicationsrequirements. An objective assessment comparing our methods and others is performed using a contrastmeasure and a color image quality measure, where the quality is established as a weighting of thenaturalness and colorfulness indexes. We analyze 300 images from the dataset of the University ofBerkeley. Experiments show that the value of the image contrast produced by our methods is in average50% greater than the original image value, keeping the quality of the produced images close to the originalone.

  20. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  1. A fast and simple method for the visual enhancement of microcalcifications in digital mammograms based on mathematical morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Tomislav M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast and simple method for the visual enhancement of small bright details in digital mam- mograms based on mathematical morphology is proposed. By a proper choice of the shape and size of the structuring element, an algorithm for a particular processing task - in this case, for the visual enhancement of microcalcifications in digital mammograms - was designed. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was tested on publicly available mammograms from the mammographic image analysis society database. In all tested cases (23 mammograms, the proposed method successfully segmented and enhanced the existing microcalcifications, in- dependently verified by medical experts. The proposed procedure may be used both as a visual aid in clinical mammogram analysis or as a preprocessing step for further processing, such as segmentation, classification and detection of microcalcifications. Moreover, the algorithm is very fast and robust, thus applicable to real-time mammogram processing.

  2. Evidence for field enhanced electron capture by EL2 centers in semi-insulating GaAs and the effect on GaAs radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of Schottky contact semiconductor radiation detectors fabricated from semi-insulating GaAs is highly sensitive to charged impurities and defects in the material. The observed behavior of semi-insulating GaAs Schottky barrier alpha particle detectors does not match well with models that treat the semi-insulating material as either perfectly intrinsic or as material with deep donors (EL2) of constant capture cross section compensated with shallow acceptors. We propose an explanation for the discrepancy based on enhanced capture of electrons by EL2 centers at high electric fields and the resulting formation of a quasineutral region in the GaAs. Presented is a simple model including field enhanced electron capture which shows good agreement with experimental alpha particle pulse height measurements

  3. Solubility enhancement, physicochemical characterization and formulation of fast-dissolving tablet of nifedipine-betacyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Changdeo Jagdale

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine, a poorly water soluble drug by betacyclodextrin complexation and to study the effect of the preparation method on the in vitro dissolution profile. The stoichiometric ratio determined by phase solubility analysis for inclusion complexation of nifedipine with β-cyclodextrin was 1:1. Binary complex was prepared by different methods and was further characterized using XRD, DSC and FT-IR. A saturation solubility study was carried out to evaluate the increase in solubility of nifedipine. The optimized complex was formulated into fast-dissolving tablets by using the superdisintegrants Doshion P544, pregelatinized starch, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium by direct compression. Tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Tablets showed an enhanced dissolution rate compared to pure nifedipine.Este estudo teve por objetivo principal incrementar a dissolução do nifedipino, fármaco pouco solúvel em água, por meio de sua complexação com β-ciclodextrina e estudar o efeito do método de preparação sobre o perfil de dissolução in vitro. A razão estequiométrica, determinada por ensaio de solubilidade de fase, para a complexação de nifedipino por inclusão em β-ciclodextrina foi 1:1. O complexo binário foi preparado por diferentes métodos, sendo caracterizado utilizando-se difratometria de raios X (XRD, calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FT-IR. Realizou-se estudo de solubilidade de saturação para avaliar o incremento da solubilidade do nifedipino. O complexo otimizado foi formulado em comprimidos de dissolução rápida preparados por compressão direta, nos quais se utilizaram os superdesintegrantes Doshion P544, amido pré-gelatinizado, crospovidona, amidoglicolato de sódio e croscarmelose s

  4. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  5. A New Enhanced Fast Handover Algorithm in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kai; JI Hong; YUE Guang-xin

    2004-01-01

    Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) can reduce the delay and the amount of signaling during handover compared with the basic mobile IPv6. However, the protocol still cannot meet the requirement for traffic that is delay sensitive, such as voice, especially in macro mobility handover. Duplicate address detection and the transmission time for the handover operation could cause high handover delay. This paper proposes a new mechanism to improve the fast handover algorithms efficiency in HMIPv6 network. And we present and analyze the performance testing for our proposal by comparing it with the traditional HMIPv6 fast handover algorithm. The results of simulation show that our scheme can reduce the handover delay much more than the traditional fast handover method for HMIPv6 network.

  6. A Study of a Modified Histogram Based Fast Enhancement Algorithm (MHBFE)

    OpenAIRE

    Amany A. Kandeel; Alaa M. Abbas; Mohiy M. Hadhoud; Zeiad El-Saghir

    2014-01-01

    Image enhancement is one of the most important issues in low-level image processing. The goal of image enhancement is to improve the quality of an image such that enhanced image is better than the original image. Conventional Histogram equalization (HE) is one of the most algorithms used in the contrast enhancement of medical images, this due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, it causes the unnatural look and visual artefacts, where it tends to change the brightness of ...

  7. Surface modification of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymer as a stent coating for enhanced capture of endothelial progenitor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Aaron; Farhatnia, Yasmin; Goh, Debbie; Natasha, G; de Mel, Achala; Lim, Jing; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Chawla, Reema; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Cousins, Brian G; Michael R Hamblin; Alavijeh, Mohammad S; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    An unmet need exists for the development of next-generation multifunctional nanocomposite materials for biomedical applications, particularly in the field of cardiovascular regenerative biology. Herein, we describe the preparation and characterization of a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymer with covalently attached anti-CD34 antibodies to enhance capture of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). This material may ...

  8. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhanced Solid-State NMR for Paramagnetic Systems and Biomolecules under Very Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    KAUST Repository

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar

    2013-09-17

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of at least 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in (1)H and (13)C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (∼ms/scan) with short (1)H T1 values, we can perform (1)H SSNMR microanalysis of paramagnetic systems on the microgram scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that observed for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ∼40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of (13)C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power (1)H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for (13)C SSNMR by nominal (1)H RF irradiation at ∼10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach with enhanced (1)H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping, we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments with (13)C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine (13)C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary (13)C SSNMR data of Aβ amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at (1)H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and ultrahigh fields could allow for routine multidimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the

  9. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  10. Enhancing slow- and fast-light effects in quantum dot semiconductor waveguides through ultrafast dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review our theoretical work on slow and fast light effects in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD SOAs), in particular we investigate the carrier dynamical contributions to the dynamic gain grating and cross gain modulation induced by unique ultrafast inter-subband c...

  11. Theory of Optical-Filtering Enhanced Slow and Fast Light Effects in Semiconductor Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip;

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on coherent population oscillations and including the influence of optical filtering is presented. Optical filtering is shown to enable a significant increase of the controllable phase shift experienced...

  12. Rate enhancement in microfabricated chemical reactors under fast forced temperature oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heine Anton; Olsen, Jakob L.; Jensen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation of CO under fast forced temperature oscillations shows increased reaction rate compared to steady state. A maximum increase of 40% is observed relative to steady state. The reaction rate is investigated for varying mean temperature, amplitude and frequency. As function of mean temperatu...

  13. Enhanced carbon dioxide capture upon incorporation of N,N '-dimethylethylenediamine in the metal-organic framework CuBTTri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. McDonald; D.M. D'Alessandro; R. Krishna; J.R. Long

    2011-01-01

    High capacity, high selectivity, and low-cost regeneration conditions are the most important criteria by which new adsorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture will be judged. The incorporation of N,N′-dimethylethylenediamine (mmen) into H3[(Cu4Cl)3(BTTri)8 (CuBTTri; H3BTTri = 1,3,5-tri(1H-

  14. Early Progressive Strength Training to Enhance Recovery After Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with or without progressive strength training (PST) commenced early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on functional performance. METHODS: In total, 82 patients with a unilateral primary TKA were randomized to 2...... different interventions: 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with PST (PST group) and without PST (CON group) commenced early after fast-track TKA. The primary outcome was the maximal distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test). Secondary outcomes were lower extremity strength and power......, knee joint effusion and range of motion, knee pain, and self-reported disability and quality of life. All outcome measures were assessed before TKA (baseline) and 4, 8, and 26 weeks after TKA. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the PST and CON groups in the change score...

  15. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving pullulan films containing BCS class II drug nanoparticles for bioavailability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Scott M; Ma, Zhelun; Li, Meng; Davé, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess pullulan as a novel steric stabilizer during the wet-stirred media milling (WSMM) of griseofulvin, a model poorly water-soluble drug, and as a film-former in the preparation of strip films via casting-drying the wet-milled drug suspensions for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement. To this end, pullulan films, with xanthan gum (XG) as thickening agent and glycerin as plasticizer, were loaded with griseofulvin nanoparticles prepared by WSMM using pullulan in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic stabilizer. The effects of drug loading and milling time on the particle size and suspension stability were investigated, as well as XG concentration and casting thickness on film properties and dissolution rate. The nanosuspensions prepared with pullulan-SDS combination were relatively stable over 7 days; hence, this combination was used for the film preparation. All pullulan-based strip films exhibited excellent content uniformity (most 5000 cP viscosity. USP IV dissolution tests revealed fast/immediate drug release (t80 < 30 min) from films <120 μm thick. Thinner films, films with lower XG loading, or smaller drug particles led to faster drug dissolution, while drug loading had no discernible effect. Overall, these results suggest that pullulan may serve as an acceptable stabilizer for media milling in combination with surfactant as well as a fast-dissolving film former for the fast release of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. PMID:26567632

  16. Activated carbon enhancement with covalent organic polymers: An innovative material for application in water purification and carbon dioxide capture

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil; Hwang, Yuhoon; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2015-01-01

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) have emerged as one of the leading advanced materials for environmental applications, such as the capture and recovery of carbon dioxide and the removal of contaminants from polluted water.1–4 COPs exhibit many remarkable properties that other leading advanced materials do not all-encompassing possess. Moreover, COPs have proven to be extremely stable in a wide variety of conditions, i.e. extremely high temperatures and boiling water for weeks at a time, which...

  17. Enhancement of Capture Sensitivity for Circulating Tumor Cells in a Breast Cancer Patient's Blood by Silicon Nanowire Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Choi, Mun-Ki; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Han-Byoel; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients with high sensitivity is an essential technique for selecting chemotherapeutic agents at a patient-by-patient level. Recently, various research groups have reported a nanostructure-based platform for rare cell capture due to its high surface area and 3D nanotopographic features. However, evaluation of capture sensitivity based on chemical modification of the nanostructure surface has not yet been performed. Here, we evaluated the capture sensitivity for CTCs from the blood of three patients diagnosed with stage IV metastatic breast cancer by using the following three platforms: streptavidin-conjugated silicon nanowire (STR-SiNW), poly-l-lysine-coated silicon nanowire (PLL-SiNW), and poly-l-lysine-coated glass (PLL-glass). The number of evaluated CTCs on STR-SiNW, PLL-SiNW, and PLL-glass were 16.2 ± 5.5 cells, 7.3 ± 2.9 cells, and 4.7 ± 1.5 cells, respectively, per 0.5 ml. Therefore, we suggest that the STR-SiNW platform is highly adaptable for the quantitative evaluation of CTCs from the blood of cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  18. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  19. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A Waszczuk

    Full Text Available Attentional control theory (ACT proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41 reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color and emotional (facial expressions distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.

  20. High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Efficiency Enhancement and Current Drive at Longer Wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Phillips, Cynthia [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Valeo, Dr Ernest [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics; Levinton, F. [Fusion Physics and Technology; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Tritz, K. [Johns Hopkins University; Parker, J. [Cornell University; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA

    2008-01-01

    High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive CD are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 2001 for supporting startup and sustainment of the spherical torus plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna strap-to-strap = 90 , k= 8 m 1 by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation nonsetBk 2 / away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. Radio frequency RF waves propagating close to the wall at lower B and k can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability PDI and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations.

  1. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns and picosecond (ps lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS using He ambient gas.

  2. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, Hery; Pardede, Marincan; Hedwig, Rinda; Marpaung, Alion Mangasi; Ramli, Muliadi; Lie, Tjung Jie; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Tjia, May On; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2016-08-01

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  3. Cisplatin enhances the cytotoxicity of fast neutrons in a murine lymphoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.; Benzina, S.; Ganansia-Leymarie, V. [Hopitaux Universitaires, Lab. de Cancerologie Experimentale et de Radiobiologie, Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Denis, J.M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL-RBNT), Lab. de Radiobiologie et de Radioprotection, Faculte de Medecine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Bergerat, J.P.; Dufour, P. [Hopitaux Universitaires, Lab. de Cancerologie Experimentale et de Radiobiologie, Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Gueulette, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL-RBNT), Lab. de Radiobiologie et de Radioprotection, Faculte de Medecine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Bischoff, P. [Hopitaux Universitaires, Lab. de Cancerologie Experimentale et de Radiobiologie, Strasbourg CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: Pierre.Bischoff@ircad.u-strasbg.fr

    2004-02-01

    The utilization of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as fast neutrons or carbon ions (hadrontherapy), offers promising perspectives in radiotherapy. While it is well known that by combining radiotherapy and chemotherapy, important therapeutic advantages can be obtained to cure cancer, there have been, so far, very few investigations on the effects of treatments combining an irradiation with high-LET particles and cancer drugs. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the effects of exposure to 65 MeV fast neutrons combined with cisplatin in a murine T cell lymphoma (RDM4) in vitro. The cells were irradiated at doses ranging from 2 to 8 Gy without or with addition of cisplatin shortly before the irradiation, at concentrations between 0.3 and 12.5 {mu}M. These treatments were applied concomitantly. Proliferation and apoptosis were assessed at different time intervals thereafter. The combination of irradiation with cisplatin was found to be more cytotoxic than either treatment alone. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity induced by this cotreatment resulted not only from apoptosis but also from other forms of cell death. (author)

  4. An Enhanced Two-Stage Impulse Noise Removal Technique based on Fast ANFIS and Fuzzy Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saradhadevi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement plays a vital role in various applications. There are many techniques to remove the noise from the image and produce the clear visual of the image. Moreover, there are several filters and image smoothing techniques available in the literature. All these available techniques have certain limitations. Recently, neural networks are found to be a very efficient tool for image enhancement. A novel two-stage noise removal technique for image enhancement and noise removal is proposed in this paper. In noise removal stage, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS with a Modified Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm was used to eliminate the impulse noise. The usage of Modified Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm will reduce the execution time. In the image enhancement stage, the fuzzy decision rules inspired by the Human Visual System (HVS are used to categorize the image pixels into human perception sensitive class and nonsensitive class, and to enhance the quality of the image. The Hyper trapezoidal fuzzy membership function is used in the proposed technique. In order to improve the sensitive regions with higher visual quality, a Neural Network (NN is proposed. The experiment is conducted with standard image. It is observed from the experimental result that the proposed FANFIS shows significant performance when compared to existing methods.

  5. Two effects relevant for the study of astrophysical reaction rates: gamma transitions in capture reactions and Coulomb suppression of the stellar enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, T

    2008-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis processes involve reactions on several thousand nuclei, both close to and far off stability. The preparation of reaction rates to be used in astrophysical investigations requires experimental and theoretical input. In this context, two interesting aspects are discussed: (i) the relevant gamma transition energies in astrophysical capture reactions, and (ii) the newly discovered Coulomb suppression of the stellar enhancement factor. The latter makes a number of reactions with negative Q value more favorable for experimental investigation than their inverse reactions, contrary to common belief.

  6. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  8. Design of a Novel Fluidized Bed Reactor To Enhance Sorbent Performance in CO2 Capture Systems Using CaO

    OpenAIRE

    Diego de Paz, María Elena; Arias Rozada, Borja; Grasa, Gemma; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the modeling and design of a novel bubbling fluidized bed reactor that aims to improve the CO2 carrying capacity of CaO particles in CO2 capture systems by calcium looping (CaL). Inside the new reactor (the recarbonator) the particles that arrive from the carbonator of the CaL system react with a concentrated stream of CO2, thereby increasing their carbonate content up to a certain value, which can be predicted by means of the model proposed. The recarbonator model presen...

  9. Fast microcalcification detection in ultrasound images using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Baek Hwan; Chang, Chuho; Lee, Jong-Ha; Ko, Eun Young; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2013-02-01

    The existence of microcalcifications (MCs) is an important marker of malignancy in breast cancer. In spite of the benefits in mass detection for dense breasts, ultrasonography is believed that it might not reliably detect MCs. For computer aided diagnosis systems, however, accurate detection of MCs has the possibility of improving the performance in both Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon description for calcifications and malignancy classification. We propose a new efficient and effective method for MC detection using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics (TAS). The main idea of TAS is to threshold an image and to count the number of white pixels with a given number of adjacent white pixels. Our contribution is to adopt TAS features and apply image enhancement to facilitate MC detection in ultrasound images. We employed fuzzy logic, tophat filter, and texture filter to enhance images for MCs. Using a total of 591 images, the classification accuracy of the proposed method in MC detection showed 82.75%, which is comparable to that of Haralick texture features (81.38%). When combined, the performance was as high as 85.11%. In addition, our method also showed the ability in mass classification when combined with existing features. In conclusion, the proposed method exploiting image enhancement and TAS features has the potential to deal with MC detection in ultrasound images efficiently and extend to the real-time localization and visualization of MCs.

  10. Boundary-corrected four-body continuum-intermediate-state method: Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by fast nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2015-06-01

    Single charge exchange in collisions between bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems at intermediate and high incident energies is examined by using the four-body formalism of the first- and second-order theories. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the relative importance of the intermediate ionization continua of the captured electron compared to the usual direct path of the single electron transfer from a target to a projectile. In order to achieve this goal, comprehensive comparisons are made between the four-body boundary-corrected continuum-intermediate-states (BCIS-4B) method and the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) method. The perturbation potential is the same in the CB1-4B and BCIS-4B methods. Both methods satisfy the correct boundary conditions in the entrance and exit channels. However, unlike the CB1-4B method, the second-order BCIS-4B method takes into account the electronic Coulomb continuum-intermediate states in either the entrance or the exit channel depending on whether the post or the prior version of the transition amplitude is used. Hence, by comparing the results from these two theories, the relative importance of the intermediate ionization electronic continua can be assessed within the four-body formalism of scattering theory. The BCIS-4B method predicts the usual second-order effect through double scattering of the captured electron on two nuclei as a quantum-mechanical counterpart of the Thomas classical two-step, billiard-type collision. The physical mechanism for this effect in the BCIS-4B method is also comprised of two steps such that ionization occurs first. This is followed by capture of the electron by the projectile with both processes taking place on the energy shell. Moreover, the role of the second, noncaptured electron in a heliumlike target is revisited. To this end, the BCIS-4B method describes the effect of capture of one electron by the interaction of the projectile nucleus with

  11. Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon monoliths with incorporated metal-organic frameworks for enhancing volumetric based CO₂ capture capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dan; Lei, Cheng; Hao, Guang-Ping; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the structural features of hierarchical porous carbon monolith (HCM) by incorporating the advantages of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Cu₃(BTC)₂) to maximize the volumetric based CO₂ capture capability (CO₂ capacity in cm³ per cm³ adsorbent), which is seriously required for the practical application of CO₂ capture. The monolithic HCM was used as a matrix, in which Cu₃(BTC)₂ was in situ synthesized, to form HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites by a step-by-step impregnation and crystallization method. The resulted HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites, which retain the monolithic shape and exhibit unique hybrid structure features of both HCM and Cu₃(BTC)₂, show high CO₂ uptake of 22.7 cm³ cm⁻³ on a volumetric basis. This value is nearly as twice as the uptake of original HCM. The dynamic gas separation measurement of HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂, using 16% (v/v) CO₂ in N₂ as feedstock, illustrates that CO₂ can be easily separated from N₂ under the ambient conditions and achieves a high separation factor for CO₂ over N₂, ranging from 67 to 100, reflecting a strongly competitive CO₂ adsorption by the composite. A facile CO₂ release can be realized by purging an argon flow through the fixed-bed adsorber at 25 °C, indicating the good regeneration ability.

  12. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  13. Enhancement of asynchronous release from fast-spiking interneuron in human and rat epileptic neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Jiang

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of GABAergic inhibition may result in the generation of epileptiform activities. Besides spike-triggered synchronous GABA release, changes in asynchronous release (AR following high-frequency discharges may further regulate epileptiform activities. In brain slices obtained from surgically removed human neocortical tissues of patients with intractable epilepsy and brain tumor, we found that AR occurred at GABAergic output synapses of fast-spiking (FS neurons and its strength depended on the type of connections, with FS autapses showing the strongest AR. In addition, we found that AR depended on residual Ca²⁺ at presynaptic terminals but was independent of postsynaptic firing. Furthermore, AR at FS autapses was markedly elevated in human epileptic tissue as compared to non-epileptic tissue. In a rat model of epilepsy, we found similar elevation of AR at both FS autapses and synapses onto excitatory neurons. Further experiments and analysis showed that AR elevation in epileptic tissue may result from an increase in action potential amplitude in the FS neurons and elevation of residual Ca²⁺ concentration. Together, these results revealed that GABAergic AR occurred at both human and rat neocortex, and its elevation in epileptic tissue may contribute to the regulation of epileptiform activities.

  14. Valley-enhanced fast relaxation of gate-controlled donor qubits in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boross, Péter; Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2016-08-01

    Gate control of donor electrons near interfaces is a generic ingredient of donor-based quantum computing. Here, we address the question: how is the phonon-assisted qubit relaxation time T 1 affected as the electron is shuttled between the donor and the interface? We focus on the example of the 'flip-flop qubit' (Tosi et al arXiv:1509.08538v1), defined as a combination of the nuclear and electronic states of a phosphorus donor in silicon, promising fast electrical control and long dephasing times when the electron is halfway between the donor and the interface. We theoretically describe orbital relaxation, flip-flop relaxation, and electron spin relaxation. We estimate that the flip-flop qubit relaxation time can be of the order of 100 μs, 8 orders of magnitude shorter than the value for an on-donor electron in bulk silicon, and a few orders of magnitude shorter (longer) than the predicted inhomogeneous dephasing time (gate times). All three relaxation processes are boosted by (i) the nontrivial valley structure of the electron-phonon interaction, and (ii) the different valley compositions of the involved electronic states. PMID:27334425

  15. Valley-enhanced fast relaxation of gate-controlled donor qubits in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boross, Péter; Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2016-08-01

    Gate control of donor electrons near interfaces is a generic ingredient of donor-based quantum computing. Here, we address the question: how is the phonon-assisted qubit relaxation time T 1 affected as the electron is shuttled between the donor and the interface? We focus on the example of the ‘flip-flop qubit’ (Tosi et al arXiv:1509.08538v1), defined as a combination of the nuclear and electronic states of a phosphorus donor in silicon, promising fast electrical control and long dephasing times when the electron is halfway between the donor and the interface. We theoretically describe orbital relaxation, flip-flop relaxation, and electron spin relaxation. We estimate that the flip-flop qubit relaxation time can be of the order of 100 μs, 8 orders of magnitude shorter than the value for an on-donor electron in bulk silicon, and a few orders of magnitude shorter (longer) than the predicted inhomogeneous dephasing time (gate times). All three relaxation processes are boosted by (i) the nontrivial valley structure of the electron-phonon interaction, and (ii) the different valley compositions of the involved electronic states.

  16. Enhancement of critical current density in fast neutron irradiated melt-textured YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puźniak, R.; Wiśniewski, A.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, H.; Pingxiang, Zhang; Jingrong, Wang; Lian, Zhou; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    The critical current density in melt-textured samples obtained by the powder melting process was determined from magnetization measurements. Linear dependence between the width of the hysteresis loop and sample size was observed for both unirradiated and irradiated samples. This indicates that the critical current is circulating through the whole sample and is not disconnected by weak links, even when a magnetic field is applied in the irradiated sample. After fast neutron irradiation with fluences from 5 × 10 16 to 6 × 10 17 n cm -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV), significant enhancement of the critical current density, jc, was observed. Critical current density, determined from magnetization measurements, for magnetic field perpendicular to the a-b plane, jcab, reaches - 10 5 A cm 42 at 77 K in 1 T. For H parallel to the a-b plane, jcc along the c-axis reaches 5 × 10 3 A cm -2. An increase in the anisotropy of the critical current was observed after fast neutron irradiation in the temperature range 60 - 80 K.

  17. Metastable enhancement of C{sup +} and O{sup +} capture reactions. Final technical report, June 1987--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E.W.; Moran, T.F.

    1990-09-01

    Single electron capture by 10- to 500-eV singly charged C and O ions traversing targets of H{sub 2} and H was studied with emphasis on comparing cross sections for metastable species with those for the ground state. For an H{sub 2} target cross sections are of the order 10{Angstrom} and 20 to 30 times larger than for ground state species. Electron impact ion sources typically produce 5 to 30% of their output in the metastable state. Previous published work has largely ignored (or failed to detect) the presence of metastables and is incorrect by as much as an order of magnitude. Discrepancies between data sets have been resolved, and a reliable data set is provided for energies from 10 to 10{sup 5} eV. Similar experiments for an atomic H target are underway. It is proposed to extend the program to similar studies with multiply charged projectile species.

  18. Advance chromatin extraction enhances performance and productivity of cation exchange chromatography-based capture of Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Rui; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-07-01

    The impact of host cell-derived chromatin was investigated on the performance and productivity of cation exchange chromatography as a method for capture-purification of an IgG monoclonal antibody. Cell culture supernatant was prepared for loading by titration to pH 6.0, dilution with water to a conductivity of 4mS/cm, then microfiltration to remove solids. DNA content was reduced 99% to 30ppm, histone host cell protein content by 76% to 6300ppm, non-histone host cell protein content by 15% to 321,000ppm, and aggregates from 33% to 15%. IgG recovery was 83%. An alternative preparation was performed, adding octanoic acid, allantoin, and electropositive particles to the harvest at pH 5.3, then removing solids. DNA content was reduced to<1 ppb, histones became undetectable, non-histones were reduced to 24,000ppm, and aggregates were reduced to 2.4%. IgG recovery was 95%. This treatment increased dynamic capacity (DBC) of cation exchange capture to 173g/L and enabled the column to reduce non-histone host proteins to 671ppm. Step recovery was 99%. A single multimodal polishing step further reduced them to 15ppm and aggregates to <0.1%. Overall process recovery was 89%. Productivity at feed stream IgG concentrations of 5-10g/L was roughly double the productivity of a same-size protein A column with a DBC of 55g/L. PMID:27247214

  19. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  20. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior

  1. Enhanced visible light photocatalysis through fast crystallization of zinc oxide nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods have inherent crystalline defects primarily due to oxygen vacancies that enhance optical absorption in the visible spectrum, opening up possibilities for visible light photocatalysis. Comparison of photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods and nanoparticle films on a test contaminant methylene blue with visible light irradiation at 72 kilolux (klx showed that ZnO nanorods are 12–24% more active than ZnO nanoparticulate films. This can be directly attributed to the increased effective surface area for adsorption of target contaminant molecules. Defects, in the form of interstitials and vacancies, were intentionally created by faster growth of the nanorods by microwave activation. Visible light photocatalytic activity was observed to improve by ≈8% attributed to the availability of more electron deficient sites on the nanorod surfaces. Engineered defect creation in nanostructured photocatalysts could be an attractive solution for visible light photocatalysis.

  2. An assessment of water and steam reactivation of a fluidized bed spent sorbent for enhanced SO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnaro, F.; Salatino, P.; Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [University of Naples Federico 2, Naples (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Hydration-induced reactivation of spent sorbents from fluidized bed combustion has long been proven as an attractive method to achieve better sorbent exploitation so as to positively affect waste disposal, consumption of natural resources and CO{sub 2} emission issues. The present study addresses the reactivation of the sulphur capture ability of fluidized bed (FB) spent sorbent particles by either water or steam hydration. Sorbent particles are subjected to different treatments including calcination, sulphation, hydration by either water or steam, dehydration and resulphation. Processing of sorbents is accomplished by the combined use of a bench scale (40 mm ID) fluidized bed reactor (calcination, sulphation, steam hydration, dehydration and resulphation) and of a thermostated water hydrator (water hydration). Reactivation of the limestone-based sorbent is characterized in terms of hydration degree and extent/pattern of particle sulphation with a further focus on the analysis of the reactivation-induced modifications of particle microstructural/chemical properties and propensity to undergo attrition and elutriation. The effectiveness of the two processes is analyzed, with consideration on the influence of process parameters on the ultimate degree of sorbent utilization. The feasibility of sorbent reactivation is discussed in the light of the effectiveness of sorbent reactivation and of the likely operational issues associated with either process.

  3. Room temperature formaldehyde sensors with enhanced performance, fast response and recovery based on zinc oxide quantum dots/graphene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingwu; Zeng, Dawen; Li, Huayao; Xie, Changsheng

    2012-08-01

    Novel zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) decorated graphene nanocomposites were fabricated by a facile solution-processed method. ZnO QDs with a size ca. 5 nm are nucleated and grown on the surface of the graphene template, and its distribution density can be easily controlled by the reaction time and precursor concentration. The ZnO QDs/graphene nanocomposite materials enhance formaldehyde sensing properties by 4 times compared to pure graphene at room temperature. Moreover, the sensors based on the nanocomposites have fast response (ca. 30 seconds) and recovery (ca. 40 seconds) behavior, excellent room temperature selectivity and stability. The gas sensing enhancement is attributed to the synergistic effect of graphene and ZnO QDs. The electron transfer between the ZnO QDs and the graphene is due to oxidation process of the analyzed gas on the ZnO QDs' surface. This proposed gas sensing mechanism is experimentally proved by DRIFT spectra results. The ZnO QDs/graphene nanocomposites sensors have potential applications for monitoring air pollution, especially for harmful and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds).

  4. Fast-light Enhanced Brillouin Laser Based Active Fiber Optics Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Rotation and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Minchuan; Fouda, Mohamed; Condon, Nicholas; Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim M

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a conceptual design for an Active Fast Light Fiber Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS) that can perform simultaneously or separately as a gyroscope (differential mode effect) and a sensor for acceleration, strain, and other common mode effects. Two Brillouin lasers in opposite directions and separated in frequency by several free spectral ranges are used for this sensor. By coupling two auxiliary resonators to the primary fiber resonator, we produce superluminal effects for two laser modes. We develop a detailed theoretical model for optimizing the design of the AFLIFOS, and show that the enhancement factor of the sensitivity is $\\sim{187}$ and $\\sim{-187}$, respectively for the two Brillouin lasers under the optimized condition, when the effective change in perimeter of the primary fiber resonator is 0.1nm, corresponding to a rotation rate of 0.4 deg/sec for a ring resonator with radius 1m. It may be possible to get much higher enhancement by adjusting the parameters such as the perimeters and the coupl...

  5. Fat-suppressed MRI of musculoskeletal infection: fast T2-weighted techniques versus gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.T. [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center MHB 2-121, 177 Fort Washington Ave., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Randolph, D.A. Jr.; Staron, R.B.; Feldman, F.; Cushin, S. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center MHB 2-121, 177 Fort Washington Ave., New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Purpose. To investigate gadolinium`s role in imaging musculoskeletal infection by comparing the conspicuity and extent of inflammatory changes demonstrated on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images versus fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted sequences. Design. Eighteen patients with infection were imaged in a 1.5-T unit, using frequency-selective and/or inversion recovery fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted images (T2WI) and gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (T1WI). Thirty-four imaging planes with both a fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and a fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence were obtained. Comparison of the extent and conspicuity of signal intensity changes was made for both bone and soft tissue in each plane. Results. In bone, inflammatory change was equal in extent and conspicuity on fat-suppressed T2WI and fat-suppressed T1WI with gadolinium in 19 planes, more extensive or conspicuous on T2WI in three planes, and less so on T2WI in two planes. Marrow was normal on all three sequences in 10 cases. In soft tissue, inflammatory change was seen equally well in 20 instances, more extensively or conspicuously on the T2WI in 11 instances, and less so on T2WI in 2 instances. One case had no soft tissue involvement on any of the sequences. Five abscesses and three joint effusions were present, all more conspicuously delineated from surrounding inflammatory change on the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium. The average imaging time for the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium was 6.75 min, while that of the T2-weighted sequences was 5.75 min. Conclusion. Routine use of gadolinium is not warranted. Instead, gadolinium should be reserved for clinically suspected infection in or around a joint, and in cases refractory to medical or surgical treatment due to possible abscess formation. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  6. Enhanced performance of fast-response 3-hole wedge probes for transonic flows in axial turbomachinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, D.; Paniagua, G. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium); Fernandez Oro, J.M. [Universidad de Oviedo, Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Gijon (Spain); Denos, R. [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    The paper presents the development and application of a three-sensor wedge probe to measure unsteady aerodynamics in a transonic turbine. CFD has been used to perform a detailed uncertainty analysis related to probe-induced perturbations, in particular the separation zones appearing on the wedge apex. The effects of the Reynolds and Mach numbers are studied using both experimental data together with CFD simulations. The angular range of the probe and linearity of the calibration maps are enhanced with a novel zonal calibration technique, used for the first time in compressible flows. The data reduction methodology is explained and demonstrated with measurements performed in a single-stage high-pressure turbine mounted in the compression tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The turbine was operated at subsonic and transonic pressure ratios (2.4 and 5.1) for a Reynolds number of 10{sup 6}, representative of modern engine conditions. Complete maps of the unsteady flow angle and rotor outlet Mach number are documented. These data allow the study of secondary flows and rotor trailing edge shocks. (orig.)

  7. Acoustic power absorption and enhancement generated by slow and fast MHD waves

    CERN Document Server

    Simoniello, R; Garcia, R A; Salabert, D; Jimenez, A; Elsworth, Y; Schunker, H

    2010-01-01

    We used long duration, high quality, unresolved (Sun-as-a star) observations collected by the ground based network BiSON and by the instruments GOLF and VIRGO on board the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite to search for solar-cycle-related changes in mode characteristics in velocity and continuum intensity for the frequency range between 2.5mHz < nu < 6.8mHz. Over the ascending phase of solar cycle 23 we found a suppression in the p-mode amplitudes both in the velocity and intensity data between 2.5mHz enhancement in ...

  8. Dynamic strategy based fast decomposed GA coordinated with FACTS devices to enhance the optimal power flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdad, Belkacem, E-mail: bemahdad@yahoo.f [University of Biskra, Department of Electrical Engineering, Biskra 07000 (Algeria); Bouktir, T. [Oum El Bouaghi, Department of Electrical Engineering, Oum El Bouaghi 04000 (Algeria); Srairi, K. [University of Biskra, Department of Electrical Engineering, Biskra 07000 (Algeria); EL Benbouzid, M. [Laboratoire Brestois de Mecanique et des Systemes, University of Brest (France)

    2010-07-15

    Under critical situation the main preoccupation of expert engineers is to assure power system security and to deliver power to the consumer within the desired index power quality. The total generation cost taken as a secondary strategy. This paper presents an efficient decomposed GA to enhance the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF) with non-smooth cost function and under severe loading conditions. At the decomposed stage the length of the original chromosome is reduced successively and adapted to the topology of the new partition. Two sub problems are proposed to coordinate the OPF problem under different loading conditions: the first sub problem related to the active power planning under different loading factor to minimize the total fuel cost, and the second sub problem is a reactive power planning designed based in practical rules to make fine corrections to the voltage deviation and reactive power violation using a specified number of shunt dynamic compensators named Static Var Compensators (SVC). To validate the robustness of the proposed approach, the proposed algorithm tested on IEEE 30-Bus, 26-Bus and IEEE 118-Bus under different loading conditions and compared with global optimization methods (GA, EGA, FGA, PSO, MTS, MDE and ACO) and with two robust simulation packages: PSAT and MATPOWER. The results show that the proposed approach can converge to the near solution and obtain a competitive solution at critical situation and with a reasonable time.

  9. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  10. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bajón, Fernández Y; Soares, Ana; Villa, Raffaella; Vale, P; Cartmell, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9M fractions into batch ADs...

  11. Enhanced capture of healthcare-related harms and injuries in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Danielle A; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Harrison, James; Forster, Alan J; Moskal, Lori; Quan, Hude; Droesler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Colin, Cyrille; Gurevich, Yana; Brien, Susan E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to submit the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the World Health Assembly in 2018. The WHO is working toward a revised classification system that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that reflects current scientific evidence and that is compatible with contemporary information systems. In this paper, we present recommendations made to the WHO by the ICD revision's Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group (Q&S TAG) for a new conceptual approach to capturing healthcare-related harms and injuries in ICD-coded data. The Q&S TAG has grouped causes of healthcare-related harm and injuries into four categories that relate to the source of the event: (a) medications and substances, (b) procedures, (c) devices and (d) other aspects of care. Under the proposed multiple coding approach, one of these sources of harm must be coded as part of a cluster of three codes to depict, respectively, a healthcare activity as a 'source' of harm, a 'mode or mechanism' of harm and a consequence of the event summarized by these codes (i.e. injury or harm). Use of this framework depends on the implementation of a new and potentially powerful code-clustering mechanism in ICD-11. This new framework for coding healthcare-related harm has great potential to improve the clinical detail of adverse event descriptions, and the overall quality of coded health data. PMID:26660444

  12. Enhanced capture of healthcare-related harms and injuries in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Danielle A; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Harrison, James; Forster, Alan J; Moskal, Lori; Quan, Hude; Droesler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Colin, Cyrille; Gurevich, Yana; Brien, Susan E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to submit the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the World Health Assembly in 2018. The WHO is working toward a revised classification system that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that reflects current scientific evidence and that is compatible with contemporary information systems. In this paper, we present recommendations made to the WHO by the ICD revision's Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group (Q&S TAG) for a new conceptual approach to capturing healthcare-related harms and injuries in ICD-coded data. The Q&S TAG has grouped causes of healthcare-related harm and injuries into four categories that relate to the source of the event: (a) medications and substances, (b) procedures, (c) devices and (d) other aspects of care. Under the proposed multiple coding approach, one of these sources of harm must be coded as part of a cluster of three codes to depict, respectively, a healthcare activity as a 'source' of harm, a 'mode or mechanism' of harm and a consequence of the event summarized by these codes (i.e. injury or harm). Use of this framework depends on the implementation of a new and potentially powerful code-clustering mechanism in ICD-11. This new framework for coding healthcare-related harm has great potential to improve the clinical detail of adverse event descriptions, and the overall quality of coded health data.

  13. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  14. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production.

  15. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. PMID:24632434

  16. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  17. Enhanced kinetics for the clathrate process in a fixed bed reactor in the presence of liquid promoters for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present enhanced kinetics of hydrate formation for the clathrate process in the presence of two liquid promoters namely THF (tetrahydrofuran) and TBAB (tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide) in a FBR (fixed bed reactor) for pre-combustion capture of CO2. Silica sand was used as a medium to capture CO2 from CO2/H2 gas mixture by hydrate crystallisation. Experiments were performed at different temperatures (274.2 K and 279.2 K) and 6.0 MPa to determine the total gas uptake, induction time and rate of hydrate formation. The observed trends indicated that higher driving force resulted in higher gas consumption and significantly reduced induction time. For the same driving force, higher gas consumption and shorter induction time was achieved by THF as compared to TBAB. 5.53 mol% THF attained higher gas consumption than 1.0 mol% THF whereas 3.0 mol% TBAB attained lower gas consumption than 0.3 mol% TBAB. A highest gas uptake of 51.95 (±5.183) mmol of gas/mol of water and a highest rate of 51.21(±8.91) mol.min−1.m−3 were obtained for 5.53 mol% THF at 6.0 MPa and 279.2 K. Overall, this study indicated better hydrate formation kinetics with the use of THF in an FBR configuration for CO2 capture from a fuel gas mixture. - Highlights: • Better kinetic performance with THF compared to TBAB for CO2 capture in a fixed bed reactor. • Highest CO2 uptake (126.99 ± 12.67 mg of gas/g of water) was obtained for 5.53 mol% THF. • Highest growth rate (51.21 ± 8.91 mol min−1.m−3) for 30 min was obtained for 5.53 mol% THF. • Waste heat (ΔT = 20) is sufficient to recover all the hydrated gas

  18. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. PMID:27289007

  19. Nasolacrimal system: evaluation with gadolinium-enhanced MR dacryocystography with a three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-recalled technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient-recalled (FSPGR) MR dacryocystography in patients with epiphora. Bilateral nasolacrimal systems of 19 patients suspected of having nasolacrimal canal obstruction were evaluated with MR dacryocystography. A sterile 0.9% NaCl solution containing 1:100 diluted gadolinium chelate was instilled into the bilateral conjunctival sacs of the patients. The 3D FSPGR sequence was used with 1.0-T scanner with the following parameters: TR 9.3 ms; TE 2 ms; flip angle 20; 256 x 224 matrix; 13- or 26-cm field of view; and 1-mm slice thickness. Seventeen patients had digital dacryocystography for comparison which we considered standard of reference. Thirty-four nasolacrimal systems were evaluated with MR and digital dacryocystography. Discrepancies between the findings of both methods were detected in 2 patients. The overall sensitivity of MR in detecting the obstruction was 100%. Magnetic resonance helped to determine the canalicular and ductal obstruction in 100% of the patients and the saccular obstruction in 80% of the patients. We conclude that 3D FSGR technique for MR dacryocystography is a reliable and noninvasive method in the evaluation of the obstruction level in the lacrimal system in patients with epiphora. (orig.)

  20. The Use of Poly-L-Lysine as a Capture Agent to Enhance the Detection of Antinuclear Antibodies by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Nancy A; Zhou, Shuxia; Petri, Michelle; Binder, Steven R; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to nuclear antigens (antinuclear antibodies or ANAs) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies bind diverse nuclear antigens that include DNA, histones and non-histone proteins as well as complexes of proteins with DNA and RNA. Because of the frequency of ANA expression in SLE, testing is an important component of clinical evaluation as well as determination of eligibility for clinical trials or utilization of certain therapies. Immunofluorescence assays have been commonly used for this purpose although this approach can be limited by issues of throughput, variability and difficulty in determining positivity. ELISA and multiplex assays are also useful approaches although these assays may give an incomplete picture of antibodies present. To develop a sensitive and quantitative ANA assay, we have explored an ELISA platform in which plates are pre-coated with a positively charged nucleic acid binding polymer (NABP) to increase adherence of antigens containing DNA or RNA. As a source of antigens, we have used supernatants of Jurkat cells undergoing apoptosis in vitro. As results presented show, a poly-L-lysine (PLL) pre-coat significantly enhances detection of antibodies to DNA as well as antigens such as histones, SSA, SSB and RNP. Comparison of the ELISA assay with the PLL pre-coat with a multiplex assay using the BioPlex® 2200 system indicated good agreement in results for a panel of lupus sera. Together, these studies indicate that a pre-coat with a positively charged polymer can increase the sensitivity of an ANA ELISA using as antigens molecules released from dead and dying cells. This assay platform may facilitate ANA testing by providing an ensemble of antigens more similar in composition and structure with antigens present in vivo, with a NABP promoting adherence via charge-charge interactions. PMID:27611194

  1. The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES). I. Project description, and discovery of two stars with strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N; Barklem, P S; Bessell, M; Hill, V; Holmberg, J; Korn, A J; Marsteller, B; Mashonkina, L I; Qian, Y Z; Rossi, S; Wasserburg, G J; Zickgraf, F J; Kratz, K L; Nordström, B; Pfeiffer, B; Rhee, J; Ryan, S G

    2004-01-01

    We report on a dedicated effort to identify and study metal-poor stars strongly enhanced in r-process elements ([r/Fe] > 1 dex; hereafter r-II stars), the Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES). Moderate-resolution (~2A) follow-up spectroscopy has been obtained for metal-poor giant candidates selected from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) as well as the HK survey to identify sharp-lined stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5dex. For several hundred confirmed metal-poor giants brighter than B~16.5mag (most of them from the HES), ``snapshot'' spectra (R~20,000; S/N~30 per pixel) are being obtained with VLT/UVES, with the main aim of finding the 2-3% r-II stars expected to be among them. These are studied in detail by means of higher resolution and higher S/N spectra. In this paper we describe a pilot study based on a set of 35 stars, including 23 from the HK survey, 8 from the HES, and 4 comparison stars. We discovered two new r-II stars, CS29497-004 ([Eu/Fe] = 1.64 +/- 0.22) and CS29491-069 ([Eu/F...

  2. Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) imaging to the evaluation of cranial nerves (CN) in patients with cavernous sinus tumors. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA images were acquired from ten patients with cavernous sinus tumors with a 3-T unit. In all cases, the trigeminal nerve with tumor involvement was easily identified in the cavernous portions. Although oculomotor and abducens nerves were clearly visualized against the tumor area with intense contrast enhancement, they were hardly identifiable within the area lacking contrast enhancement. The trochlear nerve was visualized in part, but not delineated as a linear structure outside of the lesion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA can be useful in the assessment of cranial nerves in and around the cavernous sinus with tumor involvement. (orig.)

  3. Laser capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes detailed methods used for laser capture microdissection (LCM) of discrete subpopulations of cells. Topics covered include preparing tissue blocks, cryostat sectioning, processing slides, performing the LCM, and purification of RNA from LCM samples. Notes describe the fine points of each operation, which can often mean the difference between success and failure. PMID:22639264

  4. Promoting alkali and alkaline-earth metals on MgO for enhancing CO2 capture by first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Han, Jeong Woo; Lee, Kwang Soon; Lee, Won Bo

    2014-12-01

    Developing next-generation solid sorbents to improve the economy of pre- and post-combustion carbon capture processes has been challenging for many researchers. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising sorbent because of its moderate sorption-desorption temperature and low heat of sorption. However, its low sorption capacity and thermal instability need to be improved. Various metal-promoted MgO sorbents have been experimentally developed to enhance the CO2 sorption capacities. Nevertheless, rigorous computational studies to screen an optimal metal promoter have been limited to date. We conducted first-principles calculations to select metal promoters of MgO sorbents. Five alkali (Li-, Na-, K-, Rb-, and Cs-) and 4 alkaline earth metals (Be-, Ca-, Sr-, and Ba-) were chosen as a set of promoters. Compared with the CO2 adsorption energy on pure MgO, the adsorption energy on the metal-promoted MgO sorbents is higher, except for the Na-promoter, which indicates that metal promotion on MgO is an efficient approach to enhance the sorption capacities. Based on the stabilized binding of promoters on the MgO surface and the regenerability of sorbents, Li, Ca, and Sr were identified as adequate promoters among the 9 metals on the basis of PW91/GGA augmented with DFT+D2. The adsorption energies of CO2 on metal-promoted MgO sorbents for Li, Ca, and Sr atoms are -1.13, -1.68, and -1.48 eV, respectively. PMID:25319405

  5. Testing of hydrotalcite based sorbents for CO2 and H2S capture for use in sorption enhanced water gas shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Cobden, P.D.; Van den Brink, R.W. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The feasibility of the sorption enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process under sour conditions is shown. The sour-SEWGS process constitutes a second generation pre-combustion carbon capture technology for the application in an IGCC. As a first critical step, the suitability of a K2CO3 promoted hydrotalcite-based CO2 sorbent is demonstrated by means of adsorption and regeneration experiments in the presence of 2000 ppm H2S. In multiple cycle experiments at 400C and 5 bar, the sorbent displays reversible co-adsorption of CO2 and H2S. The CO2 sorption capacity is not significantly affected compared to sulphur-free conditions. A mechanistic model assuming two different sites for H2S interaction explains qualitatively the interactions of CO2 and H2S with the sorbent. On the type A sites, CO2 and H2S display competitive sorption where CO2 is favoured. The type B sites only allow H2S uptake and may involve the formation of metal sulphides. This material behaviour means that the sour-SEWGS process likely eliminates CO2 and H2S simultaneously from the syngas and that an almost CO2 and H2S-free H2 stream and a CO2 + H2S stream can be produced.

  6. Capture of atmospheric CO2 into (BiO)2CO3/graphene or graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendong; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembly of (BiO)2CO3 nanoflakes on graphene (Ge) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, as an effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic performance of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructured materials, were realized by a one-pot efficient capture of atmospheric CO2 at room temperature. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis DRS, Time-resolved ns-level PL and BET-BJH measurement. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples was evaluated by the removal of NO at the indoor air level under simulated solar-light irradiation. Compared with pure (BiO)2CO3, (BiO)2CO3/Ge and (BiO)2CO3/GO nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity due to their large surface areas and pore volume, and efficient charge separation and transfer. The present work could provide a simple method to construct 2D nanocomposites by efficient utilization of CO2 in green synthetic strategy.

  7. Self-reactivated mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite for enhanced high-temperature CO2 capture and carbonation/calcination cycles performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2015-03-25

    In this study, highly efficient high-temperature CO2 sorbents of calcium aluminate (Ca-Al-O) mesostructured composite were synthesized using presynthesized mesoporous alumina (MA) as a porous matrix to react with calcium nitrate through a microwave-assisted process. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable mesoporous structure composed of poorly crystalline Ca12Al14O33 phase and the CaO matrix was obtained. The Ca-Al-O mesostructured sorbents with a Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratio of 5:1 exhibit an enhanced increasing CO2 absorption kinetics in the CO2 capture capacity from 37.2 wt % to 48.3 wt % without apparent degradation with increasing carbonation/calcination cycling up to 50 at 700 °C due to the strong self-reactivation effect of the mesoporous Ca-Al-O microstructure. Remarkable improvements in the CaO-CaCO3 conversion attained from the mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite can be explained using the concept combined with available mesoporous structure and Ca12Al14O33 phase content. However, a high Ca(2+)/Al(3+) =8:1 Ca-Al-O composite causes degradation because the pores become blocked and partial sintering induces CaO agglomeration. PMID:25730384

  8. Real-time fast inverse dose optimization for image guided adaptive radiation therapy-Enhancements to fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S. P.; Turnbull, D.; Johnson, C.; Chen, J. Z.; Battista, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    A fast, accurate and stable optimization algorithm is very important for inverse planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and for implementing dose-adaptive radiotherapy in the future. Conventional numerical search algorithms with positive beam weight constraints generally require numerous iterations and may produce suboptimal dose results due to trapping in local minima regions of the objective function landscape. A direct solution of the inverse problem using conventional quadratic objective functions without positive beam constraints is more efficient but it will result in unrealistic negative beam weights. We review here a direct solution of the inverse problem that is efficient and does not yield unphysical negative beam weights. In fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO) method the objective function for the optimization of a large number of beamlets is reformulated such that the optimization problem is reducible to a linear set of equations. The optimal set of intensities is then found through a matrix inversion, and negative beamlet intensities are avoided without the need for externally imposed ad hoc conditions. In its original version [S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, in Proceedings of the XIVth International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, 2004, pp. 112-115; S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, Med. Phys. 32, 3007 (2005)], FIDO was tested on single two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) slices with sharp KERMA beams without scatter, in order to establish a proof of concept which demonstrated that FIDO could be a viable method for the optimization of cancer treatment plans. In this paper we introduce the latest advancements in FIDO that now include not only its application to three-dimensional volumes irradiated by beams with full scatter but include as well a complete implementation of clinical dose-volume constraints including maximum and minimum dose as well as equivalent uniform dose

  9. Integrated Health Monitoring and Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration Enhancement (IHM-FLARE) System for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop innovative algorithms for the integration of Health Monitoring (HM) subsystem with the existing FLARE (Fast on-Line Actuator...

  10. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  11. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  12. Life-cycle Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Capture for Enhanced Oil Recovery%为强化石油回采捕集CO2的全周期评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.G Hertwich; M.Aaberg; B.Singh; A.H.Strφmman

    2008-01-01

    The development and deployment of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is a cornerstone of the Norwegian government's climate strategy. A number of projects are currently evaluated/planned along the Norwegian West Coast, one at Tjeldbergodden. CO2 from this project will be utilized in part for enhanced oil recovery in the Halten oil field, in the Norwegian Sea. We study a potential design of such a system. A combined cycle power plant with a gross power output of 832 MW is combined with CO2 capture plant based on a post-combustion capture using amines as a solvent. The captured CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). We employ a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) method to assess the environmental impacts of the system. The study focuses on the modifications and operations of the platform during EOR. We allocate the impacts connected to the capture of CO2 to electricity production, and the impacts connected to the transport and storage of CO2 to the oil produced. Our study shows a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions from power production by 80% to 75g·(kW·h)-1. It also indicates a reduction of the emissions associated with oil production per unit oil produced, mostly due to the increased oil production. Reductions are especially significant if the additional power demand due to EOR leads to power supply from the land.

  13. Sequential SO{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} capture enhanced by steam reactivation of a CaO-based sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

    2008-07-15

    The steam hydration reactivation characteristics of three limestone samples after multiple CO{sub 2} looping cycles are presented here. The CO{sub 2} cycles were performed in a tube furnace (TF) and the resulting samples were hydrated by steam in a pressure reactor (PR). The reactivation was performed with spent samples after carbonation and calcination stages. The reactivation tests were done with a saturated steam pressure at 200{sup o}C and also at atmospheric pressure and 100 {sup o}C. The characteristics of the reactivation samples were examined using BET and BJH pore characterization (for the original and spent samples, and samples reactivated under different conditions) and also by means of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The levels of hydration achieved by the reactivated samples were determined as well as the conversions during sulphation and multiple carbonation cycles. It was found that the presence of a CaCO{sub 3} layer strongly hinders sorbent hydration and adversely affects the properties of the reactivated sorbent with regard to its behavior in sulphation and multiple carbonation cycles. Here, hydration of calcined samples under pressure is the most effective method to produce superior sulphur sorbents. However, reactivation of calcined samples under atmospheric conditions also produces sorbents with significantly better properties in comparison to those of the original sorbents. These results show that separate CO{sub 2} capture and SO{sub 2} retention in fluidized bed systems enhanced by steam reactivation is promising even for atmospheric conditions if the material for hydration is taken from the calciner. 49 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Enhanced reduction of fasting total homocysteine levels with supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, A J; Gohh, R Y; Han, H; Hakas, D; Jacques, P F; Selhub, J; Bostom, A G

    1999-12-01

    The mild fasting hyperhomocysteinemia commonly observed in chronic (ie, >/=6 months posttransplantation) renal transplant recipients (RTRs) can be effectively treated with combined B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid. There are no controlled data evaluating the comparative efficacy of supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in reducing fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) levels among RTRs. We block-randomized 60 chronic, stable RTRs on the basis of their screening fasting tHcy level to 3 groups of 20 subjects treated for 12 weeks with folic acid at either 2.4 (group 1), 0.4 (ie, standard multivitamin dose) (group 2), or 0.0 (group 3) mg/d. All 60 study participants also received 50 mg/d vitamin B(6) and 0.4 mg/d vitamin B(12). The mean percent reductions (+/-SEM) in fasting tHcy were as follows: group 1, 32.3+/-2.4%; group 2, 23.4+/-2.3%; and group 3, 19.1+/-2.3%. ANCOVA accounting for the pretreatment matching and adjusted for pretreatment levels of fasting tHcy, folate, and albumin; change in creatinine during the study; and cyclosporine A use revealed significant overall group differences (P=0.005) and significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (P=0. 038) and groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.153). Moreover, a chi(2) analysis of participants with pretreatment tHcy levels >/=15 micromol/L (n=29) indicated that a significantly greater proportion of those in group 1 achieved posttreatment levels test of trend P=0. 007). We conclude that a supraphysiological dose of folic acid is superior to standard multivitamin dosing for the reduction of fasting tHcy levels in chronic RTRs. PMID:10591669

  15. Differentiation between benign and malignant colon tumors using fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR colonography; a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M P; Andersen, L P H; Klein, M;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer will present itself as a bowel obstruction in 16-23% of all cases. However, not all obstructing tumors are malignant and the differentiation between a benign and a malignant tumor can be difficult. The purpose of our study was to determine whether fast dynamic gadolinium...

  16. Dopamine D4 receptor activation increases hippocampal gamma oscillations by enhancing synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andersson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gamma oscillations are electric activity patterns of the mammalian brain hypothesized to serve attention, sensory perception, working memory and memory encoding. They are disrupted or altered in schizophrenic patients with associated cognitive deficits, which persist in spite of treatment with antipsychotics. Because cognitive symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia it is relevant to explore signaling pathways that potentially regulate gamma oscillations. Dopamine has been reported to decrease gamma oscillation power via D1-like receptors. Based on the expression pattern of D4 receptors (D4R in hippocampus, and pharmacological effects of D4R ligands in animals, we hypothesize that they are in a position to regulate gamma oscillations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this hypothesis we use rat hippocampal slices and kainate-induced gamma oscillations. Local field potential recordings as well as intracellular recordings of pyramidal cells, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking interneurons were carried out. We show that D4R activation with the selective ligand PD168077 increases gamma oscillation power, which can be blocked by the D4R-specific antagonist L745,870 as well as by the antipsychotic drug Clozapine. Pyramidal cells did not exhibit changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic current amplitudes, but inhibitory currents became more coherent with the oscillations after application of PD168077. Fast-spiking, but not non-fast spiking, interneurons, increase their action potential phase-coupling and coherence with regard to ongoing gamma oscillations in response to D4R activation. Among several possible mechanisms we found that the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 also blocks the D4R mediated increase in gamma oscillation power. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that D4R activation affects fast-spiking interneuron synchronization and thereby increases gamma power by an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism. This

  17. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  18. Fast and simple acquisition of solid-state 14N NMR spectra with signal enhancement via population transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Luke A; Schurko, Robert W

    2009-05-20

    A new approach for the acquisition of static, wideline (14)N NMR powder patterns is outlined. The method involves the use of frequency-swept pulses which serve two simultaneous functions: (1) broad-band excitation of magnetization and (2) signal enhancement via population transfer. The signal enhancement mechanism is described using numerical simulations and confirmed experimentally. This approach, which we call DEISM (Direct Enhancement of Integer Spin Magnetization), allows high-quality (14)N spectra to be acquired at intermediate field strengths in an uncomplicated way and in a fraction of the time required for previously reported methods.

  19. Enhanced high-frequency membrane potential fluctuations control spike output in striatal fast-spiking interneurones in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jan M; Pitcher, Toni L; Savanthrapadian, Shakuntala; Wickens, Jeffery R; Oswald, Manfred J; Reynolds, John N J

    2011-09-01

    Fast-spiking interneurones (FSIs) constitute a prominent part of the inhibitory microcircuitry of the striatum; however, little is known about their recruitment by synaptic inputs in vivo. Here, we report that, in contrast to cholinergic interneurones (CINs), FSIs (n = 9) recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats exhibit Down-to-Up state transitions very similar to spiny projection neurones (SPNs). Compared to SPNs, the FSI Up state membrane potential was noisier and power spectra exhibited significantly larger power at frequencies in the gamma range (55-95 Hz). The membrane potential exhibited short and steep trajectories preceding spontaneous spike discharge, suggesting that fast input components controlled spike output in FSIs. Spontaneous spike data contained a high proportion (43.6 ± 32.8%) of small inter-spike intervals (ISIs) of ISIs (<30 ms; 4.3 ± 6.4%, n = 8). The gamma frequency content did not change in CINs (n = 8). These results indicate that FSIs are uniquely responsive to high-frequency input sequences. By controlling the spike output of SPNs, FSIs could serve gating of top-down signals and long-range synchronisation of gamma-oscillations during behaviour. PMID:21746788

  20. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David D; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of non-interacting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  1. Enhanced photoacoustic gas analyser response time and impact on accuracy at fast ventilation rates during multiple breath washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Horsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Innocor device contains a highly sensitive photoacoustic gas analyser that has been used to perform multiple breath washout (MBW measurements using very low concentrations of the tracer gas SF6. Use in smaller subjects has been restricted by the requirement for a gas analyser response time of <100 ms, in order to ensure accurate estimation of lung volumes at rapid ventilation rates. METHODS: A series of previously reported and novel enhancements were made to the gas analyser to produce a clinically practical system with a reduced response time. An enhanced lung model system, capable of delivering highly accurate ventilation rates and volumes, was used to assess in vitro accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC volume calculation and the effects of flow and gas signal alignment on this. RESULTS: 10-90% rise time was reduced from 154 to 88 ms. In an adult/child lung model, accuracy of volume calculation was -0.9 to 2.9% for all measurements, including those with ventilation rate of 30/min and FRC of 0.5 L; for the un-enhanced system, accuracy deteriorated at higher ventilation rates and smaller FRC. In a separate smaller lung model (ventilation rate 60/min, FRC 250 ml, tidal volume 100 ml, mean accuracy of FRC measurement for the enhanced system was minus 0.95% (range -3.8 to 2.0%. Error sensitivity to flow and gas signal alignment was increased by ventilation rate, smaller FRC and slower analyser response time. CONCLUSION: The Innocor analyser can be enhanced to reliably generate highly accurate FRC measurements down at volumes as low as those simulating infant lung settings. Signal alignment is a critical factor. With these enhancements, the Innocor analyser exceeds key technical component recommendations for MBW apparatus.

  2. Enhancement of image quality with a fast iterative scatter and beam hardening correction method for kV CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Irmtraud; Hesse, Bernd-Michael; Nill, Simeon; Tuecking, Thomas; Oelfke, Uwe [DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The problem of the enormous amount of scattered radiation in kV CBCT (kilo voltage cone beam computer tomography) is addressed. Scatter causes undesirable streak- and cup-artifacts and results in a quantitative inaccuracy of reconstructed CT numbers, so that an accurate dose calculation might be impossible. Image contrast is also significantly reduced. Therefore we checked whether an appropriate implementation of the fast iterative scatter correction algorithm we have developed for MV (mega voltage) CBCT reduces the scatter contribution in a kV CBCT as well. This scatter correction method is based on a superposition of pre-calculated Monte Carlo generated pencil beam scatter kernels. The algorithm requires only a system calibration by measuring homogeneous slab phantoms with known water-equivalent thicknesses. In this study we compare scatter corrected CBCT images of several phantoms to the fan beam CT images acquired with a reduced cone angle (a slice-thickness of 14 mm in the isocenter) at the same system. Additional measurements at a different CBCT system were made (different energy spectrum and phantom-to-detector distance) and a first order approach of a fast beam hardening correction will be introduced. The observed, image quality of the scatter corrected CBCT images is comparable concerning resolution, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio to the images acquired in fan beam geometry. Compared to the CBCT without any corrections the contrast of the contrast-and-resolution phantom with scatter correction and additional beam hardening correction is improved by a factor of about 1.5. The reconstructed attenuation coefficients and the CT numbers of the scatter corrected CBCT images are close to the values of the images acquired in fan beam geometry for the most pronounced tissue types. Only for extreme dense tissue types like cortical bone we see a difference in CT numbers of 5.2%, which can be improved to 4.4% with the additional beam hardening correction. Cupping

  3. Atomic thin titania nanosheet-coupled reduced graphene oxide 2D heterostructures for enhanced photocatalytic activity and fast lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Jun; Huang, Zhegang; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Narayan, Rekha; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-03-01

    Realizing practical high performance materials and devices using the properties of 2D materials is of key research interest in the materials science field. In particular, building well-defined heterostructures using more than two different 2D components in a rational way is highly desirable. In this paper, a 2D heterostructure consisting of atomic thin titania nanosheets densely grown on reduced graphene oxide surface is successfully prepared through incorporating polymer functionalized graphene oxide into the novel TiO2 nanosheets synthesis scheme. As a result of the synergistic combination of a highly accessible surface area and abundant interface, which can modulate the physicochemical properties, the resultant heterostructure can be used in high efficiency visible light photocatalysis as well as fast energy storage with a long lifecycle. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Darna Bikshapathi; Kandikonda Saikrishna; Uppuluru Ashok Kumar; Gade Sabitha; Bhupathi Saikumar

    2011-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets are dissolving rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Other ingredients to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Fast or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatri...

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Enhanced dc conductivity of low volume-fraction nano-particulate suspensions in silicone and perfluorinated oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Libor, Z.; Skordos, A. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-03-01

    The dc conductivities of several different types of nanoparticles (nickel, barium titanate and magnetite) suspended in both silicone and perfluorinated oils have been measured and contrasted. Enhanced dc conductivity through interaction between the particles and the fluid has been demonstrated, even at quite moderate fields, and different types of nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit different behavioural trends. Whilst the dc enhancement is partly related to the concentration (or spatial arrangement) of the particles as expected, there is clear evidence that energy-activated (electric field activated) processes also play a major role. It can be said that effective-medium theories based solely on the electrical properties and volume fractions of the component materials have limited applicability when assessing the dc conductivities of these nanoparticle-fluid combinations at low volume fractions.

  6. Enhanced Dopamine Release by Dopamine Transport Inhibitors Described by a Restricted Diffusion Model and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Spivak, Charles E; Lupica, Carl R

    2016-06-15

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple five-parameter, two-compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface. Using nonlinear regression, we demonstrate that our model precisely describes measured DA signals obtained in brain slice recordings. The parameters extracted from these curves were then validated using pharmacological manipulations that selectively alter vesicular release or DA transporter (DAT)-mediated uptake. Manipulation of DA release through altering the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio or adding tetrodotoxin reduced the release parameter with no effect on the uptake parameter. DAT inhibitors methylenedioxypyrovalerone, cocaine, and nomifensine significantly reduced uptake and increased vesicular DA release. In contrast, a low concentration of amphetamine reduced uptake but had no effect on DA release. Finally, the kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488 significantly reduced vesicular DA release but had no effect on uptake. Together, these data demonstrate a novel analytical approach to distinguish the effects of manipulations on DA release or uptake that can be used to interpret FSCV data. PMID:27018734

  7. Enhancement of critical current density in fast neutron irradiated melt-textured YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzniak, R.; Wisniewski, A.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, H. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Fizyki); Zhang Pingxiang; Wang Jingrong; Zhou Lian (Northwest Inst. for Nonferrous Metal Research, Baoji, SN (China)); Pytel, K.; Pytel, B. (Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The critical current density in melt-textured samples of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7]-x obtained by the powder melting process was determined from magnetization measurements. A linear dependence between the width of the hysteresis loop and sample size was observed for both unirradiated and irradiated samples. This indicates that the critical current is circulating through the whole sample and is not disconnected by weak links, even when a magnetic field is applied in the irradiated sample. After fast neutron irradiation with fluences form 5 x 10[sup 16] to 6 x 10[sup 17] n cm[sup -2] (E > 0.5 MeV), significant enhancement of the critical current density, j[sub c], was observed. Critical current density, determined from magnetization measurements, for magnetic field perpendicular to the a-b plane j[sub c][sup ab], reaches [approx] 10[sup 5] A cm[sup -2] at 77 K in 1 T. For H parallel to the a-b plane, j[sub c][sup c] along the c-axis reaches 5 x 10[sup 3] A cm[sup -2]. An increase in the anisotropy of the critical current was observed after fast neutron irradiation in the temperature range 60-80 K. (Author).

  8. Highly optimized CO2 capture by inexpensive nanoporous covalent organic polymers and their amine composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage and utilization requires effective capture strategies that limit energy penalties. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated covalent organic polymers (COPs) with a high CO2 adsorption capacity are successfully prepared in this study. A low cost COP with a high specific surface area is suitable for PEI loading to achieve high CO2 adsorption, and the optimal PEI loading is 36 wt%. Though the adsorbed amount of CO2 on amine impregnated COPs slightly decreased with increasing adsorption temperature, CO2/N2 selectivity is significantly improved at higher temperatures. The adsorption of CO2 on the sorbent is very fast, and a sorption equilibrium (10% wt) was achieved within 5 min at 313 K under the flow of simulated flue gas streams. The CO2 capture efficiency of this sorbent is not affected under repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles. The highest CO2 capture capacity of 75 mg g(-1) at 0.15 bar is achieved under dry CO2 capture however it is enhanced to 100 mg g(-1) in the mixed gas flow containing humid 15% CO2. Sorbents were found to be thermally stable up to at least 200 °C. TGA and FTIR studies confirmed the loading of PEIs on COPs. This sorbent with high and fast CO2 sorption exhibits a very promising application in direct CO2 capture from flue gas.

  9. Impact of Thorium Capture Cross Section Uncertainty on the Thorium Utilized ADS Reactivity Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the researches on fast neutron spectrum system utilized thorium fuel are widely conducted. However, the recent thorium cross section libraries are limited compared to uranium cross section libraries. The impact of thorium cross section uncertainty on thorium fuel utilized accelerator driven system (ADS reactivity calculation is estimated in this study. The uncertainty of the keff caused by 232Th capture cross section of JENDL-4.0 is about 1.3%. The uncertainty of JENDL-4.0 is needed to be enhanced to provide more reliable results on reactivity calculation for the fast system. The impact of uncertainty of  232Th capture cross section of ENDF/B-VII is small (0.1%. Therefore, it will cause no significant impact of the thorium cross section library on the thorium utilized ADS design calculation.

  10. Ultra-fast and sensitive detection of non-typhoidal Salmonella using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence ("MAMEF".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    Full Text Available Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc. in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF. We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in <30 seconds. Furthermore the assay is sensitive and specific: it can detect oriC from Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1:1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids.

  11. Construction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Peptide Magnetic Nanovesicles with Lipid Bilayers for Enhanced Capture of Liver Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Wang, Kai; Tang, Wen-Jie; Li, Dan; Wei, You-Zhen; Lu, Ying; Li, Zong-Hai; Liang, Xiao-Fei

    2016-09-20

    Highly effective targeted tumor recognition via vectors is crucial for cancer detection. In contrast to antibodies and proteins, peptides are direct targeting ligands with a low molecular weight. In the present study, a peptide magnetic nanovector platform containing a lipid bilayer was designed using a peptide amphiphile (PA) as a skeleton material in a controlled manner without surface modification. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) peptide nanoparticles (NPs) could specifically bind to EGFR-positive liver tumor cells. EGFR peptide magnetic vesicles (EPMVs) could efficiently recognize and separate hepatoma carcinoma cells from cell solutions and treated blood samples (ratio of magnetic EPMVs versus anti-EpCAM NPs: 3.5 ± 0.29). Analysis of the circulating tumor cell (CTC) count in blood samples from 32 patients with liver cancer showed that EPMVs could be effectively applied for CTC capture. Thus, this nanoscale, targeted cargo-packaging technology may be useful for designing cancer diagnostic systems.

  12. Booster immunization with a partially purified citrus tristeza virus (CTV) preparation after priming with recombinant CTV coat protein enhances the binding capacity of capture antibodies by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Joseph, M; Filatov, V; Gofman, R; Guang, Y; Hadjinicolis, A; Mawassi, M; Gootwine, E; Weisman, Y; Malkinson, M

    1997-08-01

    Groups of rabbits and young lambs were immunized subcutaneously and intramuscularly with a recombinant citrus tristeza virus (CTV) coat protein (rCTV-CP) antigen. Three weeks after primary immunization the animals were divided into two groups that were boosted either with rCTV-CP or with a partially purified preparation of CTV particles (ppCTV). Twelve and 15 days after the last injection, the animals were bled and the binding capacity of the antisera for CTV detection was examined for capture antibodies by the indirect ELISA. Considerably higher ELISA titers were obtained from animals that were boosted with ppCTV than with rCP. Boosting with partially purified native antigens after priming with recombinant antigens is expected to extend the applicability of the antisera for detecting other structural and non-structural viral antigens by trapping ELISA. PMID:9274814

  13. Fast assembling microarrays of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticle clusters as reproducible substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Min; Wei, Zewen; Hu, Fei; Wang, Jianxin; Ge, Guanglu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Shao, Mingwang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    It is currently a very active research area to develop new types of substrates which integrate various nanomaterials for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. Here we report a unique approach to prepare SERS substrates with reproducible performance. It features silicon mold-assisted magnetic assembling of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticle clusters (NCs) into arrayed microstructures on a wafer scale. This approach enables the fabrication of both silicon-based and hydrogel-based substrates in a sequential manner. We have demonstrated that strong SERS signals can be harvested from these substrates due to an efficient coupling effect between Fe3O4@Au NCs, with enhancement factors >106. These substrates have been confirmed to provide reproducible SERS signals, with low variations in different locations or batches of samples. We investigate the spatial distributions of electromagnetic field enhancement around Fe3O4@Au NCs assemblies using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The procedure to prepare the substrates is straightforward and fast. The silicon mold can be easily cleaned out and refilled with Fe3O4@Au NCs assisted by a magnet, therefore being re-useable for many cycles. Our approach has integrated microarray technologies and provided a platform for thousands of independently addressable SERS detection, in order to meet the requirements of a rapid, robust, and high throughput performance.It is currently a very active research area to develop new types of substrates which integrate various nanomaterials for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. Here we report a unique approach to prepare SERS substrates with reproducible performance. It features silicon mold-assisted magnetic assembling of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticle clusters (NCs) into arrayed microstructures on a wafer scale. This approach enables the fabrication of both silicon-based and hydrogel-based substrates in a sequential manner. We have

  14. Diverse role of fast growing rhizobia in growth promotion and enhancement of psoralen content in Psoralea corylifolia L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Bakuchi, a weed, which possesses a highly potent and medicinally important compound psoralen. P. corylifolia has been widely exploited since ages for its biological potential. Materials and Methods: Fifteen root nodulating bacteria as pure culture collection (PCC were isolated from P. corylifolia in India. Further, these strains were evaluated for their effect on the psoralen content in P. corylifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used for the estimation of psoralen in P. corylifolia seed extracts. The effectiveness of these rhizobial strains was assessed on the basis of screening of various plant growth promoting attributes. Results: The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis revealed the identity of two most effective rhizobial isolates PCC2 and PCC7 as Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sinorhizobium meliloti, respectively. The R. leguminosarum PCC2 (JN546144 and Ensifer meliloti PCC7 (JN546145 strains showed solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate, secreted indole acetic acid (IAA, produced siderophore, showed ACC deaminase activity, and were positive for nodulation and nitrogen fixing genes. Seeds of P. corylifolia were bacterized with combination of R. leguminosarum PCC2 and Ensifer meliloti PCC7 along with their individual application that resulted in enhancement of various early vegetative and late reproduction parameters of plants in two consecutive field trials in the year 2009 and 2010. The psoralen content in the seeds of P. corylifolia was observed to be increased in the field trials where the combination of rhizobial strains PCC2 and PCC7 was used (2.79% compared to control (1.91%. Conclusion: These findings indicate that rhizobial strains PCC2 and PCC7 showing good plant growth promoting attributes can be effective for increasing the psoralen content in the seeds of P. corylifolia to a certain level.

  15. No More HF: Teflon-Assisted Ultrafast Removal of Silica to Generate High-Surface-Area Mesostructured Carbon for Enhanced CO2 Capture and Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Krishna, Katla Sai; Harish, Srinivasan; Sampath, Srinivasan; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2016-02-01

    An innovative technique to obtain high-surface-area mesostructured carbon (2545 m(2)  g(-1)) with significant microporosity uses Teflon as the silica template removal agent. This method not only shortens synthesis time by combining silica removal and carbonization in a single step, but also assists in ultrafast removal of the template (in 10 min) with complete elimination of toxic HF usage. The obtained carbon material (JNC-1) displays excellent CO2 capture ability (ca. 26.2 wt % at 0 °C under 0.88 bar CO2 pressure), which is twice that of CMK-3 obtained by the HF etching method (13.0 wt %). JNC-1 demonstrated higher H2 adsorption capacity (2.8 wt %) compared to CMK-3 (1.2 wt %) at -196 °C under 1.0 bar H2 pressure. The bimodal pore architecture of JNC-1 led to superior supercapacitor performance, with a specific capacitance of 292 F g(-1) and 182 F g(-1) at a drain rate of 1 A g(-1) and 50 A g(-1) , respectively, in 1 m H2 SO4 compared to CMK-3 and activated carbon.

  16. CT Reconstruction from Simultaneous Projections: A Step towards Capturing CT in One Go

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sajib; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on minimizing the time requirement for CT capture through innovative simultaneous x-ray capture method. The state-of-the-art CT imaging methodology captures a sequence of projections during which the internal organ movements may lead to poor reconstruction due to motion artefacts. Traditional CT scanners' minimize such effect by taking more projections than necessary. In this work we focus on an innovative CT capture method that captures projections simultaneously, promising super fast scans along with possible radiation dose reductions. While the simultaneous CT capture model has already been proposed in our earlier work 'Multi-axial CT Reconstruction from Few View Projections' (in SPIE Optical Engineering and Applications, pp. 85000A-85000A. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012) and 'A New Imaging Method for Real-time 3D X-ray Reconstruction' (in SPIE Medical Imaging, pp. 86685G-86685G. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), in this work we enhance the mode...

  17. Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular follow-up is required in patients with previous intervention for coarctation of the aorta to detect recoarctation or aneurysm formation. In this study we describe the findings encountered on routine follow-up exams and we compare the use of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE MRA) with fast spin-echo MRI (FSE) to study the thoracic aorta after previous intervention. In 51 consecutive patients previously treated for aortic coarctation, 74 MR studies of the thoracic aorta were performed during a 2-year period using CE MRA and FSE MRI. The thoracic aorta was evaluated for abnormalities of course, caliber, shape, and pathology of side branches. The CE MRA and FSE MRI studies were evaluated side by side by consensus of two reviewers evaluating which MR technique depicted the abnormalities of the thoracic aorta the best. Of 74 exams, six clinically important abnormalities were found: four aneurysms and two restenoses. Two small pseudoaneurysms were missed on the FSE studies. Contrast-enhanced MRA was judged to visualize aortic abnormalities better than FSE (47 of 74 MR studies) especially for the transverse aortic arch, coarctation site, left subclavian artery, and aortic arch configuration. For the ascending aorta and distal descending aorta, CE MRA and FSE performed equally well. Aortic diameters measured at four levels in the first 18 MRI studies showed no significant differences in diameter when measured by FSE or CE MRA (p = not significant). Clinically important abnormalities, such as aneurysm formation and restenosis, can be present years after treatment for aortic coarctation. In the regular follow-up of these patients, CE MRA may provide additional diagnostic information compared with FSE and should be included as part of the routine exam. (orig.)

  18. Deep stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT over SE Europe: a complex case study captured by enhanced 7Be concentrations at the surface of a low topography region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ioannidou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a complex case study of a Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport (STT event down to the surface of a low topography region in Northern Greece, during the second fortnight of March 2000. During this event our surface station at Livadi (23°15 E/40°32 N, 850 m a.s.l., was influenced by very different synoptic systems developing over Eastern Europe, N. America and the N. Atlantic, the last one evolving to a cut-off low over France/Spain. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that presents a down to the surface STT event in the eastern Mediterranean. The intrusion is primarily captured with the use of the cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, which increased to 9.07 mBq m-3 and 9.37 mBq m-3 on 30 and 31 March 2000, respectively. A 7Be concentration of around 8 mBq m-3 recorded during parallel measurements at Thessaloniki (20 m a.s.l. gives strong evidence that air of stratospheric origins has even gone down to sea level. A rapid increase of 10–15 ppb is also observed in the surface ozone concentration on 31 March 2000. The relative increase of both tracers is consistent with a volume fraction of stratospheric air at the surface of about 5%, but the substantial increase in 7Be flags more clearly the event. Trajectory analyses, in conjunction with the evolution of the synoptic situation described by potential vorticity maps, are used for the exact identification of the different intrusions and the attribution of each intruding parcel of stratospheric air to a certain filament of high PV. Finally, the persistency of the stratospheric layers in the troposphere is another interesting point of this case study. The vast majority of the trajectories spent 7–10 days in the troposphere before reaching the surface at Livadi station.

  19. A fast algorithm for non-Newtonian flow. An enhanced particle-tracking finite element code for solving boundary-valve problems in viscoelastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, David S.

    1989-01-01

    This project concerned the development of a new fast finite element algorithm to solve flow problems of non-Newtonian fluids such as solutions or melts of polymers. Many constitutive theories for such materials involve single integrals over the deformation history of the particle at the stress evaluation point; examples are the Doi-Edwards and Curtiss-Bird molecular theories and the BKZ family derived from continuum arguments. These theories are believed to be among the most accurate in describing non-Newtonian effects important to polymer process design, effects such as stress relaxation, shear thinning, and normal stress effects. This research developed an optimized version of the algorithm which would run a factor of two faster than the pilot algorithm on scalar machines and would be able to take full advantage of vectorization on machines. Significant progress was made in code vectorization; code enhancement and streamlining; adaptive memory quadrature; model problems for the High Weissenberg Number Problem; exactly incompressible projection; development of multimesh extrapolation procedures; and solution of problems of physical interest. A portable version of the code is in the final stages of benchmarking and testing. It interfaces with the widely used FIDAP fluid dynamics package.

  20. Toward food analytics: fast estimation of lycopene and β-carotene content in tomatoes based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Andreea Ioana; Ryabchykov, Oleg; Bocklitz, Thomas Wilhelm; Huebner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-21

    Carotenoids are molecules that play important roles in both plant development and in the well-being of mammalian organisms. Therefore, various studies have been performed to characterize carotenoids' properties, distribution in nature and their health benefits upon ingestion. Nevertheless, there is a gap regarding a fast detection of them at the plant phase. Within this contribution we report the results obtained regarding the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) toward the differentiation of two carotenoid molecules (namely, lycopene and β-carotene) in tomato samples. To this end, an e-beam lithography (EBL) SERS-active substrate and a 488 nm excitation source were employed, and a relevant simulated matrix was prepared (by mixing the two carotenoids in defined percentages) and measured. Next, carotenoids were extracted from tomato plants and measured as well. Finally, a combination of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression (PCA-PLSR) was applied to process the data, and the obtained results were compared with HPLC measurements of the same extracts. A good agreement was obtained between the HPLC and the SERS results for most of the tomato samples. PMID:27200439

  1. Microwave-enhanced synthesis of magnetic porous covalent triazine-based framework composites for fast separation of organic dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A novel type of magnetic porous carbonaceous polymeric material, CTF/Fe2O3 composite (CTF = covalent triazine-based framework), has been synthesized by a facile microwave-enhanced high-temperature ionothermal method. By selecting ZnCl2 as a reaction medium and the Lewis acid catalyst, and choosing FeCl3.6H2O as an iron oxide precursor, a series of CTF/Fe2O3 composites with different γ-Fe2O3 contents has been prepared in 60 min. The resulting samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and N2 sorption-desorption isotherms. The obtained CTF/Fe2O3 composites exhibit high surface areas (930-1149 m2 g-1), and their saturation magnetizations at 300 K vary from 1.1 to 5.9 emu g-1, depending respectively on different Fe2O3 contents (6.43-12.43 wt%) in the CTF/Fe2O3 composites. The CTF/Fe2O3 composites were applied to remove organic dye from aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange as a model molecule, and both high adsorption capacity (291 mg g-1, corresponding to 0.889 mmol g-1) and fast adsorption kinetics (kads = 4.31 m2 mg-1 min-1) were observed.

  2. EVFDT: An Enhanced Very Fast Decision Tree Algorithm for Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attack in Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scattered nature of DDoS attacks and advancement of new technologies such as cloud-assisted WBAN, it becomes challenging to detect malicious activities by relying on conventional security mechanisms. The detection of such attacks demands an adaptive and incremental learning classifier capable of accurate decision making with less computation. Hence, the DDoS attack detection using existing machine learning techniques requires full data set to be stored in the memory and are not appropriate for real-time network traffic. To overcome these shortcomings, Very Fast Decision Tree (VFDT algorithm has been proposed in the past that can handle high speed streaming data efficiently. Whilst considering the data generated by WBAN sensors, noise is an obvious aspect that severely affects the accuracy and increases false alarms. In this paper, an enhanced VFDT (EVFDT is proposed to efficiently detect the occurrence of DDoS attack in cloud-assisted WBAN. EVFDT uses an adaptive tie-breaking threshold for node splitting. To resolve the tree size expansion under extreme noise, a lightweight iterative pruning technique is proposed. To analyze the performance of EVFDT, four metrics are evaluated: classification accuracy, tree size, time, and memory. Simulation results show that EVFDT attains significantly high detection accuracy with fewer false alarms.

  3. MoS2 Nanosheets Functionalized Composite Mixed Matrix Membrane for Enhanced CO2 Capture via Surface Drop-Coating Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yijia; Wang, Huixian; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yatao

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a graphene-like two-dimensional inorganic material, which has been used for the first time as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a composite mixed matrix membrane to separate CO2 and N2. Polysulfone (PSf) was used as a support substrate and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used as the gutter layer. The selective layer was prepared by mixing a CO2-philic copolymer Pebax 1657 with MoS2 nanosheets to enhance CO2 permeance. In addition, a simple drop-coating and evaporation method was developed to prepare the selective layer. Both permeability and selectivity of the MoS2-Pebax membrane have exceeded the pristine Pebax membrane. The permeability and selectivity reached to the maximum values of 64 Barrer and 93, respectively, at 0.15 wt % MoS2 nanosheets loadings. This result has been on the Robeson's upper bound line. The membrane also showed higher stability. The separation mechanism of the membrane is based on the well-known solution-diffusion mechanism. In addition, the stronger adsorption energy of MoS2 nanosheets to CO2 than N2 also provides the enhancement of gas selectivity. PMID:27541953

  4. MoS2 Nanosheets Functionalized Composite Mixed Matrix Membrane for Enhanced CO2 Capture via Surface Drop-Coating Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yijia; Wang, Huixian; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yatao

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a graphene-like two-dimensional inorganic material, which has been used for the first time as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a composite mixed matrix membrane to separate CO2 and N2. Polysulfone (PSf) was used as a support substrate and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used as the gutter layer. The selective layer was prepared by mixing a CO2-philic copolymer Pebax 1657 with MoS2 nanosheets to enhance CO2 permeance. In addition, a simple drop-coating and evaporation method was developed to prepare the selective layer. Both permeability and selectivity of the MoS2-Pebax membrane have exceeded the pristine Pebax membrane. The permeability and selectivity reached to the maximum values of 64 Barrer and 93, respectively, at 0.15 wt % MoS2 nanosheets loadings. This result has been on the Robeson's upper bound line. The membrane also showed higher stability. The separation mechanism of the membrane is based on the well-known solution-diffusion mechanism. In addition, the stronger adsorption energy of MoS2 nanosheets to CO2 than N2 also provides the enhancement of gas selectivity.

  5. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  6. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  7. The Domain II S4-S5 Linker in Nav1.9: A Missense Mutation Enhances Activation, Impairs Fast Inactivation, and Produces Human Painful Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Yang, Yang; de Greef, Bianca T A; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Gerrits, Monique M; Verhamme, Camiel; Qu, Jian; Lauria, Giuseppe; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-01

    Painful small fiber neuropathy is a challenging medical condition with no effective treatment. Non-genetic causes can be identified in one half of the subjects. Gain-of-function variants of sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 have recently been associated with painful small fiber neuropathy. More recently, mutations of sodium channel Nav1.9 have been linked to human pain disorders, with two gain-of-function mutations found in patients with painful small fiber neuropathy. Here we report a novel Nav1.9 mutation, a glycine 699 substitution by arginine (G699R) in the domain II S4-S5 linker, identified in a patient with painful small fiber neuropathy. In this study, we assayed the mutant channels by voltage-clamp in superior cervical ganglion neurons, which do not produce endogenous Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 currents, and provide a novel platform where Nav1.9 is expressed at relatively high levels. Voltage-clamp analysis showed that the mutation hyperpolarizes (-10.1 mV) channel activation, depolarizes (+6.3 mV) steady-state fast inactivation, slows deactivation, and enhances ramp responses compared with wild-type Nav1.9 channels. Current-clamp analysis showed that the G699R mutant channels render dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable, via depolarized resting membrane potential, reduced current threshold and increased evoked firing. These observations show that the domain II S4-S5 linker plays an important role in the gating of Nav1.9 and demonstrates that a mutation in this linker is linked to a common pain disorder.

  8. Microwave-enhanced synthesis of magnetic porous covalent triazine-based framework composites for fast separation of organic dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang; Liang Fei; Li Cun [Laboratory of Advanced Porous Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 3rd Feixi Road, Hefei 230039, Anhui Province (China); Qiu Lingguang, E-mail: lgqiu@ahu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Porous Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 3rd Feixi Road, Hefei 230039, Anhui Province (China); Yuan Yupeng; Peng Fumin; Jiang Xia; Xie Anjian; Shen Yuhua [Laboratory of Advanced Porous Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, 3rd Feixi Road, Hefei 230039, Anhui Province (China); Zhu Junfa [National Synchrocyclotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A novel type of magnetic porous carbonaceous polymeric material, CTF/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite (CTF = covalent triazine-based framework), has been synthesized by a facile microwave-enhanced high-temperature ionothermal method. By selecting ZnCl{sub 2} as a reaction medium and the Lewis acid catalyst, and choosing FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O as an iron oxide precursor, a series of CTF/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites with different {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents has been prepared in 60 min. The resulting samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and N{sub 2} sorption-desorption isotherms. The obtained CTF/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites exhibit high surface areas (930-1149 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and their saturation magnetizations at 300 K vary from 1.1 to 5.9 emu g{sup -1}, depending respectively on different Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents (6.43-12.43 wt%) in the CTF/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. The CTF/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were applied to remove organic dye from aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange as a model molecule, and both high adsorption capacity (291 mg g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.889 mmol g{sup -1}) and fast adsorption kinetics (k{sub ads} = 4.31 m{sup 2} mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) were observed.

  9. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  10. SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) using a quasi-random fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence and proton MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, André; Weick, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Beer, Meinrad; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge; Jakob, Peter M; Hahn, Dietbert; Bley, Thorsten; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Obtaining functional information on the human lung is of tremendous interest in the characterization of lung defects and pathologies. However, pulmonary ventilation and perfusion maps usually require contrast agents and the application of electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering and breath holds to generate datasets free of motion artifacts. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining highly resolved perfusion-weighted and ventilation-weighted images of the human lung using proton MRI and the SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) technique. The SENCEFUL technique utilizes a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with quasi-random sampling of phase-encoding (PE) steps for data acquisition. After every readout, a short additional acquisition of the non-phase-encoded direct current (DC) signal necessary for self-gating was added. By sorting the quasi-randomly acquired data according to respiratory and cardiac phase derived from the DC signal, datasets of representative respiratory and cardiac cycles could be accurately reconstructed. By application of the Fourier transform along the temporal dimension, functional maps (perfusion and ventilation) were obtained. These maps were compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE, perfusion) as well as standard Fourier decomposition (FD, ventilation) reference datasets. All datasets were additionally scored by two experienced radiologists to quantify image quality. In addition, one initial patient examination using SENCEFUL was performed. Functional images of healthy volunteers and a patient diagnosed with hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and left-sided pulmonary fibrosis were successfully obtained. Perfusion-weighted images corresponded well to DCE-MRI data; ventilation-weighted images offered a significantly better depiction of the lung periphery compared with standard FD. Furthermore, the SENCEFUL technique hints at a potential clinical relevance by successfully detecting

  11. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  12. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these resu...

  13. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  14. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  15. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  16. Sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations to probe inter-beta-sheet interactions using fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR in biological solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-08-10

    (14)N/(14)N correlations are vital for structural studies of solid samples, especially those in which (15)N isotopic enrichment is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Although (14)N nuclei have high isotopic abundance (99.6%), there are inherent difficulties in observing (14)N/(14)N correlations due to limited resolution and sensitivity related to: (i) low (14)N gyromagnetic ratio (γ), (ii) large (14)N quadrupolar couplings, (iii) integer (14)N spin quantum number (I = 1), and (iv) very weak (14)N-(14)N dipolar couplings. Previously, we demonstrated a proton-detected 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H correlation experiment at fast magic angle spinning (MAS) on l-histidine·HCl·H2O utilizing a through-bond (J) and residual dipolar-splitting (RDS) based heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (J-HMQC) sequence mediated through (1)H/(1)H radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR). As an extension of our previous work, in this study we show the utility of dipolar-based HMQC (D-HMQC) in combination with (1)H/(1)H RFDR mixing to obtain sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations in more complex biological solids such as a glycyl-l-alanine (Gly-l-Ala) dipeptide, and parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) β-strand alanine tripeptides (P-(Ala)3 and AP-(Ala)3, respectively). These systems highlight the mandatory necessity of 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H measurements to get (14)N/(14)N correlations when the amide proton resonances are overlapped. Moreover, the application of long selective (14)N pulses, instead of short hard ones, is shown to improve the sensitivity. Globally, we demonstrate that replacing J-scalar with dipolar interaction and hard- with selective-(14)N pulses allows gaining a factor of ca. 360 in experimental time. On the basis of intermolecular NH/NH distances and (14)N quadrupolar tensor orientations, (14)N/(14)N correlations are effectively utilized to make a clear distinction between the parallel and antiparallel arrangements of the β-strands in (Ala)3 through the

  17. CAPTURED Ghana Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefa Dei, G.J.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Ghana Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the University of Development Studies has been able to achieve commendable results. It can be confirmed that the conte

  18. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  20. Direct thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the direct-capture theory pertaining to primary electric dipole (E1) transitions following slow-neutron capture. For light nuclides that we have studied (including 9Be, 12C, 13C, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 32S, 33S, 34S, 40Ca, and 44Ca), estimates of direct-capture cross sections using optical-model potentials with physically realistic parameters, are in reasonable agreement with the data. Minor disagreements that exist are consistent with extrapolations to light nuclides of generally accepted formulations of compound-nucleus capture. We also discuss the channel-capture approximation which is, in general, a good representation of these cross sections in heavier nuclei particularly if the scattering lengths are not different from the corresponding potential radii. We also draw attention to cases where the use of this formula leads to inaccurate predictions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab

  1. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  2. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  3. Nickel Nanoparticles for Enhancing Carbon Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Ashok Bhaduri; Mohammed A. H. Alamiry; Lidija Šiller

    2015-01-01

    Hydration reaction of CO2 is one of the rate limiting steps for CO2 absorption (in aqueous solutions) and aqueous CO2 mineralization. The catalytic activity of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) for CO2 hydration is studied at different temperatures, pH, and low CO2 partial pressures to mimic the true flue gas conditions. Results show that NiNPs can work as active catalyst for hydration of CO2 in applications such as CO2 separation and CO2 mineralization. The NiNPs display optimum activity within 2...

  4. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  5. Pulse shape discrimination between (fast or thermal) neutrons and gamma rays with plastic scintillators: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We would like to present here with the eyes of the chemist the most recent developments of plastic scintillators (PS) for neutron detection. This review covers the period from 2000 to August 2014, and is fragmented in two main chapters. The first chapter deals with the chemical modifications for thermal neutron capture, whereas the second chapter presents the various strategies used to enhance the response to fast neutrons via pulse shape discrimination. For each chapter the theory is also explained

  6. Pulse shape discrimination between (fast or thermal) neutrons and gamma rays with plastic scintillators: State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, Guillaume H.V. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs & Architectures Électroniques, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Hamel, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.hamel@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs & Architectures Électroniques, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Normand, Stéphane [CEA, DAM, Le Ponant, 25 rue Leblanc, F-75015 Paris (France); Sguerra, Fabien [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs & Architectures Électroniques, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2015-03-11

    We would like to present here with the eyes of the chemist the most recent developments of plastic scintillators (PS) for neutron detection. This review covers the period from 2000 to August 2014, and is fragmented in two main chapters. The first chapter deals with the chemical modifications for thermal neutron capture, whereas the second chapter presents the various strategies used to enhance the response to fast neutrons via pulse shape discrimination. For each chapter the theory is also explained.

  7. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  8. Fast 3D coronary artery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with magnetization transfer contrast, fat suppression and parallel imaging as applied on an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwan, Roy; Russel, Inis K.; Sijens, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    A magnetic resonance sequence for high-resolution imaging of coronary arteries in a very short acquisition time is presented. The technique is based on fast low-angle shot and uses fat saturation and magnetization transfer contrast Prepulses to improve image contrast. GeneRalized Autocalibrating Par

  9. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  10. Neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Kotila, J; Iachello, F

    2015-01-01

    Direct determination of the neutrino mass is at the present time one of the most important aims of experimental and theoretical research in nuclear and particle physics. A possible way of detection is through neutrinoless double electron capture, $0\

  11. Localized fast neutron flux enhancement for damage experiments in a research reactor; Accroissement local du flux rapide pour des experiences de dommages dans un reacteur de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouch, F

    2003-06-01

    In irradiation experiments on materials in the core of the Osiris reactor (CEA-Saclay) we seek to increase damage in irradiated samples and to reduce the duration of their stay in the core. Damage is essentially caused by fast neutrons (E {>=} 1 MeV); we have therefore pursued the possibility of a localized increase of their level in an irradiation experiment by using a flux converter device made up of fissile material arranged according to a suitable geometry that allows the converter to receive experiments. We have studied several parameters that are influential in the increase of fast neutron flux within the converter. We have also considered the problem of the converter's cooling in the core and its effect on the operation of the reactor. We have carried out a specific neutron calculation scheme based on the modular 2D-transport code APOLLO2 using a two-level transport method. Experimental validation of the flux calculation scheme was carried out in the ISIS reactor, the mock-up of OSIRIS, by optimizing the loading of fuel elements in the core. The experimental results show that the neutron calculation scheme computes the fluxes in close agreement with the measurements especially the fast flux. This study allows us to master the essential physical parameters needed for the design of a flux converter in an MTR reactor. (author)

  12. Interfacial effects in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of increased resonance capture rates near zone interfaces in fast reactor media has been examined both theoretically and experimentally. An interface traversing assembly was designed, constructed and employed to measure U-238 capture rates near th blanket--reflector interface in the MIT Blanket Test Facility. Prior MIT experiments on a thorium--uranium interface in a blanket assembly were also reanalyzed. Extremely localized fertile capture rate increases of on the order of 50% were measured immediately at the interfaces relative to extrapolation of asymptotic interior traverses, and relative to state-of-the-art (LIB-IV, SPHINX, ANISN/2DB) calculations which employ infinite-medium self-shielding throughout a given zone. A method was developed to compute a spatially varying background scattering cross section per absorber nucleus which takes into account both homogeneous and heterogeneous effects on the interface flux transient

  13. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  14. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Development of solid adsorbent materials for CO₂capture

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbuka, Chidi Premie

    2013-01-01

    The application of solid adsorbents for gas separation in pre-combustion carbon capture from gasification processes has gained attention in recent times. This is due to the potential of the technology to reduce the overall energy penalty associated with the capture process. However, this requires the development of solid adsorbent materials with large selectivity, large adsorption capacity, fast adsorption kinetics for CO2 coupled with good mechanical strength and thermal stability. In this ...

  16. Enhanced production possibility of the therapeutic radionuclides 64Cu, 67Cu and 89Sr via (n,p) reactions induced by fast spectral neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Spahn, I.; Coenen, H. H.; Qaim, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Spectrum averaged cross sections for the Zn-64(n, p)Cu-64, Zn-67(n, p)Cu-67 and Y-89(n, p)Sr-89 reactions were measured using a 14 MeV d(Be) neutron source. In each case a clean radiochemical separation was performed and the radioactivity of the product was determined via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry or anticoincidence beta(-) counting. The cross sections are three to five times higher than with a fission neutron spectrum. It is postulated that at an intense fast spectral neutron so...

  17. Note: Light output enhanced fast response and low afterglow 6Li glass scintillator as potential down-scattered neutron diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of an APLF80+3Ce scintillator are presented. Its sufficiently fast decay profile, low afterglow, and an improved light output compared to the recently developed APLF80+3Pr, were experimentally demonstrated. This scintillator material holds promise for applications in neutron imaging diagnostics at the energy regions of 0.27 MeV of DD fusion down-scattered neutron peak at the world's largest inertial confinement fusion facilities such as the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule.

  18. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  19. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  20. Fast microwave-assisted preparation of a low-cost and recyclable carboxyl modified lignocellulose-biomass jute fiber for enhanced heavy metal removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaolin; Zheng, Tong; Wang, Peng; Hao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxia

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and recyclable biosorbent derived from jute fiber was developed for high efficient adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from water. The jute fiber was rapidly pretreated and grafted with metal binding groups (COOH) under microwave heating (MH). The adsorption behavior of carboxyl-modified jute fiber under MH treatment (CMJFMH) toward heavy metal ions followed Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)>0.99) with remarkably high adsorption capacity (157.21, 88.98 and 43.98mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively). Also, CMJFMH showed fast removal ability for heavy metals in a highly significant correlation with pseudo second-order kinetics model. Besides, CMJFMH can be easily regenerated with EDTA-2Na solution and reused up to at least four times with equivalent high adsorption capacity. Overall, cheap and abundant production, rapid and facile preparation, fast and efficient adsorption of heavy metals and high regeneration ability can make the CMJFMH a preferred biosorbent for heavy metal removal from water.

  1. Demonstration of control rod holding stability of the self actuated shutdown system in Joyo for enhancement of fast reactor inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self actuated shutdown system (SASS) with a Curie point electromagnet (CPEM) has been developed for use in a large-scale liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) in order to establish the passive shutdown capability against anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) events. The basic characteristics of SASS have already been investigated by various out-of-pile tests for material elements. As the final stage of the development, the stability of SASS needs to be confirmed under the actual reactor-operational environment with high temperature, high neutron flux, and flowing sodium to ensure the high plant availability factor. For this purpose, the demonstration test of holding stability using the reduced-scale experimental equipment of SASS was conducted in the 1st and 2nd operational cycles of the experimental fast reactor Joyo MK-III. The rod-holding stability and the rod-recovering functions of the driving system to re-connect and pull out the separated control rod were fully confirmed. The results also indicate there is no essential problem for the practical use of SASS about its operational trouble involving the unexpected drop during reactor operation. (author)

  2. Students Approach to Learning and Their Use of Lecture Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajoczki, Susan; Watt, Susan; Marquis, Nick; Liao, Rose; Vine, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined lecture capture as a way of enhancing university education, and explored how students with different learning approaches used lecture capturing (i.e., podcasts and vodcasts). Results indicate that both deep and surface learners report increased course satisfaction and better retention of knowledge in courses with traditional…

  3. Neutron capture of $^{26}Mg$ at thermonuclear energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, P J; Oberhummer, Heinz; Staudt, G

    1998-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 26Mg was measured relative to the known gold cross section at thermonuclear energies using the fast cyclic activation technique. The experiment was performed at the 3.75 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The experimental capture cross section is the sum of resonant and direct contributions. For the resonance at E(n,lab) = 220 keV our new results are in disagreement with the data from Weigmann et al. An improved Maxwellian averaged capture cross section is derived from the new experimental data taking into account s- and p-wave capture and resonant contributions. The properties of so-called potential resonances which influence the p-wave neutron capture of 26}Mg are discussed in detail.

  4. Capturing and storing CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising way to combat global warming is to capture CO2 produced by industry and bury it in deep geologic formations. The processes are technically complex and still expensive. Before it can be captured, CO2 must be separated from other components produced by industrial processes that burn oil, gas, coal or biomass, such as nitrogen and sulfur. The CO2 is then piped down vertically from the storage facility and injected at depths of at least 800 meters. There, it reaches a 'supercritical' state in which it becomes denser and less voluminous. Three types of underground reservoirs have been tested so far: 1 - Deep onshore or offshore saline aquifers: These brackish water-bearing layers constitute the biggest reservoir, with 10,000 billion metric tons of storage capacity. They are also the most evenly distributed geographically, making it easier to find one near the source of emission. 2 - Depleted oil and gas reservoirs: injecting pressurized CO2 helps to dissolve remaining oil and reduce its viscosity. This facilitates the enhanced recovery of oil or gas from nearly depleted reservoirs, adding a potential economic advantage to the operation. The disadvantage of these reservoirs is their distance from CO2-emitting industrial sites. 3 - Unexploited coal seams: the CO2 replaces the methane that is naturally present in the coal bed. The methane can be extracted and marketed by gas companies. There are two additional solutions. The first involves storing the CO2 in carbon 'lakes' in the ocean at a minimum depth of 1,500 meters, but this has been rejected due to concerns about the impacts on the marine ecosystem and how long the CO2 would be contained. The second solution, carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation, is of more interest. Here, CO2 reacts with naturally occurring subsurface calcium and magnesium to become a carbonated rock similar to limestone, which is insoluble and therefore perfectly stable over the long term. The entire CO2 capture, compression

  5. Laser capture microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, S.; McKay, J A; McLeod, H L; Murray, G I

    2000-01-01

    Human tissues are composed of complex admixtures of different cell types and their biologically meaningful analysis necessitates the procurement of pure samples of the cells of interest. Many approaches have been used in attempts to overcome this difficulty, including a variety of microdissection methods. This review concerns a recent advance in microdissection techniques, namely laser capture microdissection (LCM). The principle underlying this technique is outlined, and practical issues per...

  6. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  7. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  8. Enhancing product label effectiveness by increasing attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Fast moving consumer goods often carry product labels intended to guide and persuade consumers in their purchase decisions. However, past research indicates that these labels are rarely attended to during the consumer's decision process. In order to enhance the effectiveness of such labels...... are larger and more visually salient. The effect on attention also carries over into increased purchase likelihood. Both marketers and policy makers can benefit from the methodology and findings which provide directions for designing product labels that enhance attention capture and purchase decisions....

  9. Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

  10. Methods of Fast Exponentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Maitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modular exponentiation constitutes the basis of many well-known and widely used public key cryptosystems. Approach: A fast portable modular exponentiation algorithm considerably enhanced the speed and applicability of these systems, also an efficient implementation of this algorithm was the key to high performance of such system. Results: In this study, two main approaches for solving this problem were proposed. The proposed approaches involved calculations without usage of extra operational memory for saving constants and calculations with usage of preliminary calculated constants. Conclusion/Recommendations: The estimation of complexity of the speedup and effectiveness of proposed approaches for the data were presented.

  11. Enhancements to the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model and Recent High-Reynolds Number Testing in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Chan, David T.; Goodliff, Scott L.; Anders, Scott G.; Melton, Latunia P.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.; Capone, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model was equipped with four onboard flow control valves allowing independent control of the circulation control plenums, which were directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for low-speed high-lift testing with flap deflections of 30 and 60 degrees, along with the transonic cruise configuration with zero degree flap deflection. Testing was again conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers up to 0.88, and Reynolds numbers up to 30 million based on the mean chord. The first wind tunnel test had poor transonic force and moment data repeatability at mild cryogenic conditions due to inadequate thermal conditioning of the balance. The second test demonstrated that an improvement to the balance heating system significantly improved the transonic data repeatability, but also indicated further improvements are still needed. The low-speed highlift performance of the model was improved by testing various blowing slot heights, and the circulation control was again demonstrated to be effective in re-attaching the flow over the wing at off-design transonic conditions. A new tailored spanwise blowing technique was also demonstrated to be effective at transonic conditions with the benefit of reduced mass flow requirements.

  12. Fast 3D coronary artery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with magnetization transfer contrast, fat suppression and parallel imaging as applied on an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Roy; Rüssel, Iris K; Sijens, Paul E

    2006-09-01

    A magnetic resonance sequence for high-resolution imaging of coronary arteries in a very short acquisition time is presented. The technique is based on fast low-angle shot and uses fat saturation and magnetization transfer contrast prepulses to improve image contrast. GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is implemented to shorten acquisition time. The sequence was tested on a moving anthropomorphic silicone heart phantom where the coronary arteries were filled with a gadolinium contrast agent solution, and imaging was performed at varying heart rates using GRAPPA. The clinical relevance of the phantom was validated by comparing the myocardial relaxation times of the phantom's homogeneous silicone cardiac wall to those of humans. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were higher when parallel imaging was used, possibly benefiting from the acquisition of one partition per heartbeat. Another advantage of parallel imaging for visualizing the coronary arteries is that the entire heart can be imaged within a few breath-holds.

  13. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  14. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  15. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  16. Suspended particle capture by synthetic vegetation in a laboratory flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauria, Kristen E.; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Nover, Daniel; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    Vegetated floodplains and wetlands trap particles, a process that is important for water quality and wetland function and morphology. The rates of particle removal by vegetation remain poorly characterized, especially for small particles and vegetation coated with biofilm. In this study, we measured capture rates of road dust by arrays of grass-like synthetic vegetation in a laboratory flume. We performed 40 experiments in which stem density, flow velocity, the presence of biofilm, and initial particle concentration varied, and used an in situ particle size analyzer to measure the concentration of a continuous particle size distribution (1.25-250 µm diameter). We fit first-order decay models to the particle concentration measurements to determine particle capture rates and found that capture rates increased with particle size, stem density, and the presence of biofilm. Capture rates decreased with increasing flow velocity, which suggests that fast flows may resuspend particles from stems. We also calculated percent particle capture efficiencies and fit a new empirical model for capture efficiency to our results. We found that particle capture efficiency was highest for low stem density treatments and propose that stem density affects capture by altering turbulent kinetic energy.

  17. The CO2 capture and sequestration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CO2 capture and sequestration plan is officially one of the most relevant solution in the world control against the greenhouse gas releases. In spite of the multiplication of the pilot plans, this technology delays however to run up. At the moment, it is always the petroleum and natural gas industries, with the enhanced oil recovery process, which highlight this technology. But, without a modification of the support mechanisms, the chances of succeed of the sector could be compromised. (O.M.)

  18. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  19. Capturing lightness between contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Mark; van Lier, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneously coloured bars may exhibit lightness differences at the intersections. A well-known example is the Hermann grid illusion, where crossing white bars on a black background show dark patches at the crossings. Jung (1973, Handbook of Sensory Physiology volume VII/3, pp 1-152) found that the dark patches persist when thin outlines are drawn at the intersections, and are even visible in foveal vision. Recently, it has been shown that making distortions to the contours of a Hermann grid-like configuration results in the disappearance of the illusory dark spots (Geier et al, 2008 Perception 37 651 665). We show that thin outlines at the crossings of the distorted Hermann grid induce lightness differences in the same direction as in the original Hermann grid illusion, even in foveal vision and in displays consisting of two crossing bars. Our experiments reveal that the induced lightness differences are independent of the luminance polarity and shape of the contours at the intersection. We suggest that the effect results from lateral inhibition and an additional spreading and capturing of these differences between luminance contours. A similar capturing between collinear contours may play a role in peripheral vision in the original Hermann grid.

  20. Gadolinium as a Neutron Capture Therapy Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jing-Luen Allen

    The clinical results of treating brain tumors with boron neutron capture therapy are very encouraging and researchers around the world are once again making efforts to develop this therapeutic modality. Boron-10 is the agent receiving the most attention for neutron capture therapy but ^{157}Gd is a nuclide that also holds interesting properties of being a neutron capture therapy agent. The objective of this study is to evaluate ^{157}Gd as a neutron capture therapy agent. In this study it is determined that tumor concentrations of about 300 mug ^{157}Gd/g tumor can be achieved in brain tumors with some FDA approved MRI contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, and up to 628 mug ^{157 }Gd/g tumor can be established in bone tumors with Gd-EDTMP. Monte Carlo calculations show that with only 250 ppm of ^{157}Gd in tumor, neutron capture therapy can deliver 2,000 cGy to a tumor of 2 cm diameter or larger with 5 times 10^{12} n/cm ^2 fluence at the tumor. Dose measurements which were made with films and TLD's in phantoms verified these calculations. More extended Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate that neutron capture therapy with Gd possesses comparable dose distribution to B neutron capture therapy. With 5 times 10^{12 } n/cm^2 thermal neutrons at the tumor, Auger electrons from the Gd produced an optical density enhancement on the films that is similar to the effect caused by about 300 cGy of Gd prompt gamma dose which will further enhance the therapeutic effects. A technique that combines brachytherapy with Gd neutron capture therapy has been evaluated. Monte Carlo calculations show that 5,000 cGy of prompt gamma dose can be delivered to a treatment volume of 40 cm^3 with a 3-plane implant of a total of 9 Gd needles. The tumor to normal tissue advantage of this method is as good as ^{60} Co brachytherapy. Measurements of prompt gamma dose with films and TLD-700's in a lucite phantom verify the Monte Carlo evaluation. A technique which displays the Gd

  1. First measurement of low intensity fast neutron background from rock at the Boulby Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tziaferi, E; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lerner, R; Lightfoot, P K; Paling, S M; Robinson, M; Spooner, N J C

    2006-01-01

    A technique to measure low intensity fast neutron flux has been developed. The design, calibrations, procedure for data analysis and interpretation of the results are discussed in detail. The technique has been applied to measure the neutron background from rock at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, a site used for dark matter and other experiments, requiring shielding from cosmic ray muons. The experiment was performed using a liquid scintillation detector. A 6.1 litre volume stainless steel cell was filled with an in-house made liquid scintillator loaded with Gd to enhance neutron capture. A two-pulse signature (proton recoils followed by gammas from neutron capture) was used to identify the neutron events from much larger gamma background from PMTs. Suppression of gammas from the rock was achieved by surrounding the detector with high-purity lead and copper. Calibrations of the detector were performed with various gamma and neutron sources. Special care was taken to eliminate PMT afterpulses and correlated...

  2. FXR fast beam imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriera, T; Gilliam, R; Ong, M; Wargo, P; Zentler, J

    1999-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Flash X-ray (FXR) machine is being upgraded to produce two pulses. A very fast imaging system has been developed to characterize the electron beam diameter and shape. The system consists of a kapton target insertion mechanism and a framing camera. It has a fast gated imaging tube (500 ps) and CCD subsystem to capture and send the image to the control room. The beam diameter data provides insight on mechanisms that effect the x-ray spot size. These colorful beam measurements will be compared with our other diagnostics to form a more complete picture of beam behavior. A demonstration will be described where the image data was used to design a collimator to improve x-ray beam performance.

  3. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast determination of cadmium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; Lu, Ying; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Zhihui; Zhao, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    A novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (VSLLME-SFO) was developed for the fast, simple and efficient determination of cadmium (Cd) in water samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In the VSLLME-SFO process, the addition of surfactant (as an emulsifier), could enhance the mass transfer from the aqueous solution into the extraction solvent. The extraction solvent could be dispersed into the aqueous phase under vigorous shaking with the vortex. In this paper, we investigated the influences of analytical parameters, including pH, extraction solvent type and its volume, surfactant type and its volume, concentration of chelating agent, salt effect and vortex time, on the extraction efficiency of Cd. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection was 0.16 μg/L. The analyte enrichment factor was 37.68. The relative standard deviation was 3.2% (10 μg/L, n = 10) and the calibration graph was linear, ranging from 0.5 to 30 μg/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ultra-trace Cd in river water and wastewater samples. PMID:27232416

  4. Fast and low-cost synthesis of 1D ZnO–TiO2 core–shell nanoarrays: Characterization and enhanced photo-electrochemical performance for water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simple, fast and low-cost synthesis of 1-D ZnO–TiO2 core–shell heterostructures. • ZnO NWs completely covered with a shell of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals in only 3 min. • The TiO2 shell thickness depends on the impregnation time in the titania synthesis bath. • 2-fold enhancement of photo-electrochemical activity and better stability of ZnONWs. • Forty- times higher photocurrent densities than TiO2 nanoparticles film. - Abstract: We report on a simple, fast and low-cost synthesis procedure for the complete covering of zinc oxide (ZnO) 1D nanostructures with a protective shell of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles. ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on transparent F-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) conductive layer on glass by seed layer-assisted hydrothermal route in aqueous media, while the titania shell was deposited on the ZnO NWs through an in situ non-acid sol–gel synthesis. The nanowires impregnation time in the titania sol was varied from 3 to 10 min. The resulting core–shell ZnO–TiO2 structures were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–Vis spectroscopy, confirming the uniform coverage of the wurzite ZnO NWs with anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), with a shell thickness dependent on the impregnation time in the titania synthesis bath. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) tests of the ZnO–TiO2 material, used as anode for the water splitting reaction, confirmed the formation of the heterojunction by the enhanced photocurrent densities, reaching values of about 0.7 mA/cm2 under simulated solar light (AM1.5G, 100mW/cm2). The core–shell photo-anodes performance was about twice and forty- times better than the ones with a film of equivalent thickness of bare ZnO NWs and TiO2 NPs, respectively. Steady-state measures of the photocurrent over the time and FESEM analysis confirmed that this procedure could be effectively used to both protect the nanostructured ZnO from photo

  5. Fast and low-cost synthesis of 1D ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoarrays: Characterization and enhanced photo-electrochemical performance for water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Simelys, E-mail: simelys.hernandez@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics (IIT-POLITO), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Cauda, Valentina; Hidalgo, Diana; Farías Rivera, Vivian; Manfredi, Diego; Chiodoni, Angelica [Center for Space Human Robotics (IIT-POLITO), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pirri, Fabrizio C. [Center for Space Human Robotics (IIT-POLITO), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Simple, fast and low-cost synthesis of 1-D ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell heterostructures. • ZnO NWs completely covered with a shell of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals in only 3 min. • The TiO{sub 2} shell thickness depends on the impregnation time in the titania synthesis bath. • 2-fold enhancement of photo-electrochemical activity and better stability of ZnONWs. • Forty- times higher photocurrent densities than TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles film. - Abstract: We report on a simple, fast and low-cost synthesis procedure for the complete covering of zinc oxide (ZnO) 1D nanostructures with a protective shell of titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on transparent F-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) conductive layer on glass by seed layer-assisted hydrothermal route in aqueous media, while the titania shell was deposited on the ZnO NWs through an in situ non-acid sol–gel synthesis. The nanowires impregnation time in the titania sol was varied from 3 to 10 min. The resulting core–shell ZnO–TiO{sub 2} structures were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–Vis spectroscopy, confirming the uniform coverage of the wurzite ZnO NWs with anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), with a shell thickness dependent on the impregnation time in the titania synthesis bath. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) tests of the ZnO–TiO{sub 2} material, used as anode for the water splitting reaction, confirmed the formation of the heterojunction by the enhanced photocurrent densities, reaching values of about 0.7 mA/cm{sup 2} under simulated solar light (AM1.5G, 100mW/cm{sup 2}). The core–shell photo-anodes performance was about twice and forty- times better than the ones with a film of equivalent thickness of bare ZnO NWs and TiO{sub 2} NPs, respectively. Steady-state measures of the photocurrent over the time and FESEM analysis confirmed that this procedure could be

  6. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  7. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  8. Particle capture device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  9. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000105.htm Fast food tips To use the sharing features on this ... fast food. When You Go to a Fast Food Restaurant Knowing the amount of calories, fat, and ...

  10. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  11. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  12. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences.In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors.Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  13. Neutron Capture and Neutron Halos

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mengoni; Otsuka, T; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Ishihara, M.

    1996-01-01

    The connection between the neutron halo observed in light neutron rich nuclei and the neutron radiative capture process is outlined. We show how nuclear structure information such as spectroscopic factors and external components of the radial wave function of loosely bound states can be derived from the neutron capture cross section. The link between the direct radiative capture and the Coulomb dissociation process is elucidated.

  14. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  15. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  16. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Capturing the Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1, as seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft on June 21, 2005. It was taken using the clear filter of the spacecraft's medium resolution imager camera. The spacecraft was 11,564,081.7 kilometers (7,185,920 miles) away from the comet. Twelve images were combined together, and a logarithmic stretch was applied to enhance the coma of the comet.

  19. Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheid W.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

  20. Detector for advanced neutron capture experiments at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F. (Lloyd F.); O' Donnell, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A. (Todd A); Wilhelmy, J. B. (Jerry B.); Fowler, Malcolm M.; Vieira, D. J. (David J.); Wouters, J. M. (Jan Marc); Strottman, D.; Kaeppeler, F. (Franz K.); Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E. P. (Edwin P.)

    2002-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4x barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is bcing implemented

  1. Neutron Induced Capture and Fission Processes on 238U

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea Cristiana; Oprea Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear data on Uranium isotopes are of crucial interest for new generation of nuclear reactors. Processes of interest are the nuclear reactions induced by neutrons and in this work mainly the capture and the fission process on 238U will be analyzed in a wide energy interval. For slow and resonant neutrons the many levels Breit – Wigner formalism is necessary. In the case of fast and very fast neutrons up to 200 MeV the nuclear reaction mechanism implemented in Talys will be used. The present...

  2. On neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, E G

    2016-01-01

    We found the probability for the neutrinoless double electron capture in the case of $KK$ capture. We clarified the mechanism of the energy transfer from the nucleus to the bound electrons. This enabled us to obtain the equations for the probability of the $2EC0\

  3. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (> or approx.100 μg) and/or radioactive (241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data

  4. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  5. Fast Feedback System for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.P. Chowdhary; G.A. Krafft; H. Shoaee; W.A. Watson III

    1995-10-01

    A fast feedback system based on concepts of modern control theory has been implemented in the CEBAF Control System to stabilize various machine parameters. The continuous wave operation of CEBAF requires that parameters such as beam energy and position are stabilized against fast fluctuations. The beam energy must be stabilized against fast gradient and phase fluctuations in the RF accelerating system. This fast feedback system currently operates at 60 Hz rate and is integrated with EPICS. The mathematical model of the system for various feedback loops is expressed in state space formalism. The design of control law and simulation of closed-loop system response is performed using MatlabTM and SimulinkTM. This paper describes the process of designing control algorithms, implementation of the fast feedback system and operational experience with this system at CEBAF. The performance of this feedback system, while operating at much higher rates with high closed loop gain, can be enhanced by continually performing on-line identification of the system from the input and output data. System identification is the process of developing or improving an analytically derived mathematical representation of a physical system using experimental data. The current status of this feature is presented.

  6. Neutron Induced Capture and Fission Processes on 238U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data on Uranium isotopes are of crucial interest for new generation of nuclear reactors. Processes of interest are the nuclear reactions induced by neutrons and in this work mainly the capture and the fission process on 238U will be analyzed in a wide energy interval. For slow and resonant neutrons the many levels Breit – Wigner formalism is necessary. In the case of fast and very fast neutrons up to 200 MeV the nuclear reaction mechanism implemented in Talys will be used. The present evaluations are necessary in order to obtain the field of neutrons in the design of nuclear reactors and they are compared with experimental data from literature obtained from capture and (n,xn processes.

  7. Neutron Induced Capture and Fission Processes on 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Cristiana; Oprea, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear data on Uranium isotopes are of crucial interest for new generation of nuclear reactors. Processes of interest are the nuclear reactions induced by neutrons and in this work mainly the capture and the fission process on 238U will be analyzed in a wide energy interval. For slow and resonant neutrons the many levels Breit - Wigner formalism is necessary. In the case of fast and very fast neutrons up to 200 MeV the nuclear reaction mechanism implemented in Talys will be used. The present evaluations are necessary in order to obtain the field of neutrons in the design of nuclear reactors and they are compared with experimental data from literature obtained from capture and (n,xn) processes.

  8. Fast Flow Cavity Enhanced Ozone Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Naturally occurring in the stratosphere, ozone plays a significant role in many atmospheric reactions, cloud formation, and is the key player in shielding harmful...

  9. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  10. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, Igor [29, Res. Tivoli, Allee des Peupliers, 13090 Aix-en-Provence (France)], E-mail: igor.slessarev@free.fr

    2007-11-15

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: {center_dot}Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. {center_dot}Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total

  11. Neutrino Capture Reactions on $^{40}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in $^{40}$Ar is studied by shell-model calculations with monopole-based universal intearction, which has tensor components of $\\pi$\\rho$-meson exchanges. Calculated GT strength is found to be consistent with the experimental data obtained by recent ($p, n$) reactions. Neutrino capture cross sections on $^{40}$Ar for solar neutrinos from $^{8}$B are found to be enhanced compared with previous calculations. The reaction cross sections for multipoles other than $0^{+}$ and $1^{+}$ are obtained by random-phase approximation (RPA). Their contributions become important for neutrino energies larger than 50 MeV.

  12. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.)

  13. Fast-neutron interaction with niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a comprehensive study of the interaction of fast neutrons with niobium are presented, including measurement and interpretation of neutron total, differential-scattering and radiative-capture cross sections. The experimental results are interpreted in the context of the optical-statistical model, with attention to the Fermi-surface anomaly. Experimental results, physical interpretations and rigorous statistical methods are used to provide a comprehensive evaluated nuclear data file suitable for use in a wide range of applied neutronic calculations

  14. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  15. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  16. Value Capture for Transportation Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhirong (Jerry) Zhao; Michael Iacono; David Levinson

    2009-01-01

    As vehicles become more fuel-efficient and overall levels of travel stagnate in response to increases in fuel prices, conventional sources of revenue for transportation finance such as taxes on motor fuels have been put under increasing pressure. One potential replacement as a source of revenue is a set of policies collectively referred to as value capture policies. In contrast to fuel taxes and other instruments that impose charges on users of transportation networks, value capture policies ...

  17. Direct Capture at Low Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, W.; Bieber, R.; Oberhummer, H.; Rauscher, T.; Kratz, K.-L.; Mohr, P; Staudt, G.; Sharma, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of direct capture for (n,$\\gamma$)--reactions on intermediate-- and heavy--mass target nuclei occuring in the s-- and r--process is investigated. It is shown that the direct mechanism is non--negligible for magic and neutron rich target nuclei. For some double magic and neutron rich nuclei in the r--process direct capture is even the dominant reaction mechanism.

  18. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  19. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  20. Chromosome Conformation Capture in Primary Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Alice; Bodega, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    3D organization of the genome, its structural and regulatory function of cell identity, is acquiring prominent features in epigenetics studies; more efforts have been done to develop techniques that allow studying nuclear structure. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) has been set up in 2002 from Dekker and from that moment great investments were made to develop genomics variants of 3C technology (4C, 5C, Hi-C) providing new tools to investigate the shape of the genome in a more systematic and unbiased manner. 3C method allows scientists to fix dynamic and variable 3D interactions in nuclear space, and consequently to study which sequences interact, how a gene is regulated by different and distant enhancer, or how a set of enhancer could regulate transcriptional units; to follow the conformation that mediates regulation change in development; and to evaluate if this fine epigenetic mechanism is impaired in disease condition. PMID:27659988

  1. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  2. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  3. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  4. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  5. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...... month of Ramadan to a later period....

  6. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...

  7. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-01

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  8. Boron neutron capture irradiation: setting up a clinical programme in Nice; Irradiation par capture de neutrons: mise en place d`un programme clinique a Nice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, J.P.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Frenay, M.; Herault, J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Milano, G.; Demard, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Antoine Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Paquis, P.; Lonjon, M.; Lebrun-Frenay, C.; Grellier, P.; Chatel, M. [Hopital Pasteur, 06 - Nice (France); Nepveu, F.; Patau, J.P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Breteau, N. [Hopital de la Source, 45 - Orleans (France)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron capture irradiation aims to selectively destroy tumor tumor cell using {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reactions produced within themselves. Following the capture reaction, an {alpha} particle and a, {sup 7}Li ion are emitted. Carrying an energy of 2.79 MeV, they destroy all molecular structures along their path close to 10 {mu}m. These captures, used exclusively with a `slow` neutron irradiation, provide a neutron capture therapy (BNCT). If they are used in addition to a fast neutron beam irradiation, they provide a neutron capture potentiation (NCP). The Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice is actively involved in the European Demonstration project for BNCT of grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) after surgical excision and BSH administration. Taking into account the preliminary results obtained in Japan, work on an `epithermal` neutron target compatible with various cyclotron beams is in progress to facilitate further developments of this technique. For NCP, thermalized neutron yield has been measured in phantoms irradiated in the fast neutron beam of the biomedical cyclotron in Nice. A thermal peak appears after 5 cm depth in the tissues, delayed after the fast neutron peak at 1.8 cm depth. Thus, a physical overdosage of 10 % may be obtained if 100 ppm of {sup 10}B are assumed in the tissues. Our results using CAL 58 GBM cell line demonstrate a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.19 when 100 ppm of boric acid are added to the growth medium. Thus for the particles, issued from neutron capture, a biological efficiency at least twice that of fast neutrons can be derived. These results, compared with historical data on fast neutron irradiation of glioblastoma, suggest that a therapeutic window may be obtained for GBM. (author). 26 refs.

  9. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of 10B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared 10BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), 10BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The 10B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that 10B entrapped WOW emulsion could be

  10. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  11. Fast food: friendly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

    2007-06-01

    Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility.

  12. A Fast Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on Fusion of Different Color Spaces%基于不同色彩空间融合的快速图像增强算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖进胜; 单姗姗; 段鹏飞; 涂超平; 易本顺

    2014-01-01

    针对现有Retinex 算法中存在的色彩失真、噪声放大及光晕伪影现象等问题,本文提出了一种基于Retinex 理论的改进算法。该算法首先在HSV 空间对亮度分量V 通道进行增强处理,同时在拉伸得到的对数域反射分量至一定的动态范围时(本文是0∼255),引入增强调整因子,调整不同亮度值的增强程度来避免噪声放大及色彩失真现象;然后在RGB 空间,通过分析光晕产生的原因,提出一种改进的高斯滤波器来消除光晕现象,并在计算反射分量时,通过参数调整图像颜色的保真度。最后,对上述两种不同颜色空间的处理结果进行加权平均作为算法的最终输出。实验结果表明,针对不同光照条件下的图像,1)该算法可以明显地改善光晕伪影现象;2)无色彩失真、噪声放大等问题;3)效果和效率优于带色彩恢复的多尺度Retinex算法(Multi-scale retinex with color restoration, MSRCR)及其他对比算法。%A fast image enhancement algorithm based on fusion of different color spaces is proposed to overcome the problems of color distortion, noise amplification, and halo artifacts. Firstly, a single scale retinex is used in channel V of the HSV color space. An enhancement adjustment factor is introduced, when we stretch the calculated reflection in the logarithmic domain into a dynamic range, i.e., 0∼255. It is used to adjust the enhancement for different pixels. Thus noise amplification and color distortion can be effectively avoided. Then, the improved Gaussian filter is given in the RGB color space by analyzing the cause of the halo effect. This step can eliminate the halo artifact. And a parameter is adopted to keep the color natural of the image when the reflection is calculated. Finally, the weighted average of the outputs of the above two color spaces is taken as the final output of our algorithm. The experiment results show that for images with different lighting conditions, 1

  13. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps ∼10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an ∼35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the ∼4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  14. FAST User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  15. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10-5 - 10-3 found to be of the order of 10-28 - 10-26 cm2. For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10-4)sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  16. High Spatial Resolution Fast-Neutron Imaging Detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M B; Katz, D.; Sayag, E.; Shmueli, I.; Cohen, Y.; Tal, A; Vagish, Z.; Bromberger, B.; Dangendorf, V.; Mugai, D.; Tittelmeier, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1 - 10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several im...

  17. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  18. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  19. Fast wave current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  20. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. From FAST to E-FAST: an overview of the evolution of ultrasound-based traumatic injury assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J; Stawicki, S P; Evans, D C; Bahner, D P; Sparks, S; Sharpe, R P; Cipolla, J

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound is a ubiquitous and versatile diagnostic tool. In the setting of acute injury, ultrasound enhances the basic trauma evaluation, influences bedside decision-making, and helps determine whether or not an unstable patient requires emergent procedural intervention. Consequently, continued education of surgeons and other acute care practitioners in performing focused emergency ultrasound is of great importance. This article provides a synopsis of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and the extended FAST (E-FAST) that incorporates basic thoracic injury assessment. The authors also review key pitfalls, limitations, controversies, and advances related to FAST, E-FAST, and ultrasound education.

  2. The transcriptomic signature of fasting murine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilhuijs-Pederson Lisa A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of individual organs to the whole-body adaptive response to fasting has not been established. Hence, gene-expression profiling, pathway, network and gene-set enrichment analysis and immunohistochemistry were carried out on mouse liver after 0, 12, 24 and 72 hours of fasting. Results Liver wet weight had declined ~44, ~5, ~11 and ~10% per day after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fasting, respectively. Liver structure and metabolic zonation were preserved. Supervised hierarchical clustering showed separation between the fed, 12–24 h-fasted and 72 h-fasted conditions. Expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in amino-acid, lipid, carbohydrate and energy metabolism responded most significantly to fasting, that the response peaked at 24 hours, and had largely abated by 72 hours. The strong induction of the urea cycle, in combination with increased expression of enzymes of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, indicated a strong stimulation of amino-acid oxidation peaking at 24 hours. At this time point, fatty-acid oxidation and ketone-body formation were also induced. The induction of genes involved in the unfolded-protein response underscored the cell stress due to enhanced energy metabolism. The continuous high expression of enzymes of the urea cycle, malate-aspartate shuttle, and the gluconeogenic enzyme Pepck and the re-appearance of glycogen in the pericentral hepatocytes indicate that amino-acid oxidation yields to glucose and glycogen synthesis during prolonged fasting. Conclusion The changes in liver gene expression during fasting indicate that, in the mouse, energy production predominates during early fasting and that glucose production and glycogen synthesis become predominant during prolonged fasting.

  3. Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Topputo, Francesco; Belbruno, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial condit...

  4. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sneden, Christopher, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  5. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  6. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  7. Fast blood flow visualization of high-resolution laser speckle imaging data using graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2008-09-15

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a non-invasive, full-field optical technique that produces two-dimensional map of blood flow in biological tissue by analyzing speckle images captured by CCD camera. Due to the heavy computation required for speckle contrast analysis, video frame rate visualization of blood flow which is essentially important for medical usage is hardly achieved for the high-resolution image data by using the CPU (Central Processing Unit) of an ordinary PC (Personal Computer). In this paper, we introduced GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) into our data processing framework of laser speckle contrast imaging to achieve fast and high-resolution blood flow visualization on PCs by exploiting the high floating-point processing power of commodity graphics hardware. By using GPU, a 12-60 fold performance enhancement is obtained in comparison to the optimized CPU implementations.

  8. Molecular profiling of activated neurons by phosphorylated ribosome capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zachary A; Tan, Keith; Birsoy, Kivanc; Schmidt, Sarah; Garrison, Jennifer L; Wysocki, Robert W; Emiliano, Ana; Ekstrand, Mats I; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-21

    The mammalian brain is composed of thousands of interacting neural cell types. Systematic approaches to establish the molecular identity of functional populations of neurons would advance our understanding of neural mechanisms controlling behavior. Here, we show that ribosomal protein S6, a structural component of the ribosome, becomes phosphorylated in neurons activated by a wide range of stimuli. We show that these phosphorylated ribosomes can be captured from mouse brain homogenates, thereby enriching directly for the mRNAs expressed in discrete subpopulations of activated cells. We use this approach to identify neurons in the hypothalamus regulated by changes in salt balance or food availability. We show that galanin neurons are activated by fasting and that prodynorphin neurons restrain food intake during scheduled feeding. These studies identify elements of the neural circuit that controls food intake and illustrate how the activity-dependent capture of cell-type-specific transcripts can elucidate the functional organization of a complex tissue. PMID:23178128

  9. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  10. RFI Mitigation for FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Nan, Rendong; Gan, Hengqian; Yue, Youling; Wu, Mingchang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Chengjin; Peng, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

  11. Muon capture on 3H

    CERN Document Server

    Golak, J; Witala, H; Topolnicki, K; Kamada, H; Nogga, A; Marcucci, L E

    2016-01-01

    The muon capture on 3H leading to muonic neutrino and three neutrons in the final state is studied under full inclusion of final state interactions. Predictions for the three-body break-up of 3H are calculated with the AV18 potential, augmented by the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. Our results are based on the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections. This work is a natural extension of our investigations of the muon capture on 3He leading to 3H or n+d or n+n+p and muonic neutrino in the final state, presented in Phys. Rev. C90, 024001 (2014).

  12. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  13. Advanced Multiphysics Modeling of Fast Reactor Fuel Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of fast reactor fuel thermo-mechanical performance using fuel performance codes is a key aspect of advanced fast reactors designs. Those fuel performance codes capture the multiphysics nature of fuel behavior during irradiation where different, mostly interdependent, phenomena are taking place. Existing fuel performance codes do not fully capture those interdependencies and present the different phenomena through de-coupled models. Recent developments in multiphysics simulation capabilities and availability of advanced computing platforms led to advancements in simulation of nuclear fuel behavior. This paper presents current experiences in applying different multiphysics simulation platforms to evaluation of fast reactors metallic fuel behavior. Full 3D finite element simulation platforms that include capabilities to fully couple key fuel behavior models are discussed. Issues associated with coupling metallic fuels phenomena, such as fission gas models and constituent distribution models, with thermo-mechanical finite element platforms, as well as different coupling schemes are also discussed. (author)

  14. Final Report on Actinide Glass Scintillators for Fast Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-10-01

    This is the final report of an experimental investigation of actinide glass scintillators for fast-neutron detection. It covers work performed during FY2012. This supplements a previous report, PNNL-20854 “Initial Characterization of Thorium-loaded Glasses for Fast Neutron Detection” (October 2011). The work in FY2012 was done with funding remaining from FY2011. As noted in PNNL-20854, the glasses tested prior to July 2011 were erroneously identified as scintillators. The decision was then made to start from “scratch” with a literature survey and some test melts with a non-radioactive glass composition that could later be fabricated with select actinides, most likely thorium. The normal stand-in for thorium in radioactive waste glasses is cerium in the same oxidation state. Since cerium in the 3+ state is used as the light emitter in many scintillating glasses, the next most common substitute was used: hafnium. Three hafnium glasses were melted. Two melts were colored amber and a third was clear. It barely scintillated when exposed to alpha particles. The uses and applications for a scintillating fast neutron detector are important enough that the search for such a material should not be totally abandoned. This current effort focused on actinides that have very high neutron capture energy releases but low neutron capture cross sections. This results in very long counting times and poor signal to noise when working with sealed sources. These materials are best for high flux applications and access to neutron generators or reactors would enable better test scenarios. The total energy of the neutron capture reaction is not the only factor to focus on in isotope selection. Many neutron capture reactions result in energetic gamma rays that require large volumes or high densities to detect. If the scintillator is to separate neutrons from gamma rays, the capture reactions should produce heavy particles and few gamma rays. This would improve the detection of a

  15. Double-electron capture in relativistic U{sup 92+} collisions at the ESR gas-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, G. E-mail: d.sierpowski@gsi.deufsierpo@if.uj.edu.pl; Sierpowski, D.; Stoehlker, Th.; Warczak, A.; Beyer, H.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Braeuning, H.; Cai, X.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Ma, X.; Mokler, P.H.; Muthig, A.; Stachura, Z.; Toleikis, S

    2003-05-01

    Total cross-sections for radiative single- and double-electron capture are measured in collisions of fast highly charged ions with light target atoms. Cross-sections for non-correlated double capture are in accordance with theoretical predictions. No significant line structure at twice the single K-radiative electron capture (K-REC) photon energy was observed. Angular distributions single K-REC photons associated with single- and double-charge exchange exhibit the same pattern. The corresponding REC lines are almost by a factor of two broader for double-charge exchange than in the single capture case.

  16. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  17. A graphene oxide/amidoxime hydrogel for enhanced uranium capture

    OpenAIRE

    Feihong Wang; Hongpeng Li; Qi Liu; Zhanshuang Li; Rumin Li; Hongsen Zhang; Lianhe Liu; Emelchenko, G. A.; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The efficient development of selective materials for the recovery of uranium from nuclear waste and seawater is necessary for their potential application in nuclear fuel and the mitigation of nuclear pollution. In this work, a graphene oxide/amidoxime hydrogel (AGH) exhibits a promising adsorption performance for uranium from various aqueous solutions, including simulated seawater. We show high adsorption capacities (Qm = 398.4 mg g−1) and high % removals at ppm or ppb levels in aqueous solut...

  18. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2004-09-30

    Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted in the first quarter of 2004, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury oxidation and sorption for different forms of carbon. The current quarterly report provides a more extensive quantitative analysis of the data obtained from the CRTF experiments on different carbon types and carbocalcium mixtures than was presented in the last quarterly report. The procedure and basis for normalizing mercury removals, so that they could be compared on an equal residence time basis, is described. The chemisorption rate of mercury on carbon was found to be first order in mercury concentration and half order in HCl concentration, for the facility configuration investigated. The applicable temperature range of the kinetic rates obtained is from 300 F to 700 F, and the applicable chlorine concentration range is from 2 ppmv HCl to 250 ppmv HCl. The gas-sorbent contact time of 0.12 seconds used in this work was shown to be representative of gas-dust cake contact times in full-scale baghouses. All carbon types investigated behaved similarly with respect to Hg sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at sorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because the internal surface area of activated carbon is greater. The synergistic relationship between Ca and C is also discussed in the report.

  19. Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O' Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2007-08-04

    The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory

  20. Evaluation of commercial chromatographic adsorbents for the direct capture of polyclonal rabbit antibodies from clarified antiserum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Thomas, O.R.T.

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a rigorous evaluation of eight commercially available packed bed chromatography adsorbents for direct capture and purification of immumoglobulins from clarified rabbit antiserum. Three of these materials featured rProtein A (rProtein A Sepharose Fast Flow, Mabselect, Prosep r...

  1. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  3. Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants In China By Issuing Capture Options

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xi; Reiner, David; Gibbons, Jon; Jia LI

    2007-01-01

    ?Capture Ready? is a design concept enabling fossil fuel plants to be retrofitted more economically with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies, however financing the cost of capture ready can be problematic, especially in the developing world. We propose that fossil fuel plants issue tradable Capture Options to acquire financing. The Capture Option concept could move CCS forward politically in countries such as China, speed up CCS technology development, help Capture Ready inv...

  4. A bottleneck model of set-specific capture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sledge Moore

    Full Text Available Set-specific contingent attentional capture is a particularly strong form of capture that occurs when multiple attentional sets guide visual search (e.g., "search for green letters" and "search for orange letters". In this type of capture, a potential target that matches one attentional set (e.g. a green stimulus impairs the ability to identify a temporally proximal target that matches another attentional set (e.g. an orange stimulus. In the present study, we investigated whether set-specific capture stems from a bottleneck in working memory or from a depletion of limited resources that are distributed across multiple attentional sets. In each trial, participants searched a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP stream for up to three target letters (T1-T3 that could appear in any of three target colors (orange, green, or lavender. The most revealing findings came from trials in which T1 and T2 matched different attentional sets and were both identified. In these trials, T3 accuracy was lower when it did not match T1's set than when it did match, but only when participants failed to identify T2. These findings support a bottleneck model of set-specific capture in which a limited-capacity mechanism in working memory enhances only one attentional set at a time, rather than a resource model in which processing capacity is simultaneously distributed across multiple attentional sets.

  5. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  6. The role of magnocellular signals in oculomotor attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carly J; Luck, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    While it is known that salient distractors often capture covert and overt attention, it is unclear whether salience signals that stem from magnocellular visual input have a more dominant role in oculomotor capture than those that result from parvocellular input. Because of the direct anatomical connections between the magnocellular pathway and the superior colliculus, salience signals generated from the magnocellular pathway may produce greater oculomotor capture than those from the parvocellular pathway, which could be potentially harder to overcome with "top-down," goal-directed guidance. Although previous research has addressed this with regard to magnocellular transients, in the current research, we investigated whether a static singleton distractor defined along a dimension visible to the magnocellular pathway would also produce enhanced oculomotor capture. In two experiments, we addressed this possibility by comparing a parvo-biased singleton condition, in which the distractor was defined by isoluminant chromatic color contrast, with a magno + parvo singleton condition, in which the distractor also differed in luminance from the surrounding objects. In both experiments, magno + parvo singletons elicited faster eye movements than parvo-only singletons, presumably reflecting faster information transmission in the magnocellular pathway, but magno + parvo singletons were not significantly more likely to produce oculomotor capture. Thus, although magnocellular salience signals are available more rapidly, they have no sizable advantage over parvocellular salience signals in controlling oculomotor orienting when all stimuli have a common onset. PMID:22076486

  7. A bottleneck model of set-specific capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine Sledge; Weissman, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Set-specific contingent attentional capture is a particularly strong form of capture that occurs when multiple attentional sets guide visual search (e.g., "search for green letters" and "search for orange letters"). In this type of capture, a potential target that matches one attentional set (e.g. a green stimulus) impairs the ability to identify a temporally proximal target that matches another attentional set (e.g. an orange stimulus). In the present study, we investigated whether set-specific capture stems from a bottleneck in working memory or from a depletion of limited resources that are distributed across multiple attentional sets. In each trial, participants searched a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream for up to three target letters (T1-T3) that could appear in any of three target colors (orange, green, or lavender). The most revealing findings came from trials in which T1 and T2 matched different attentional sets and were both identified. In these trials, T3 accuracy was lower when it did not match T1's set than when it did match, but only when participants failed to identify T2. These findings support a bottleneck model of set-specific capture in which a limited-capacity mechanism in working memory enhances only one attentional set at a time, rather than a resource model in which processing capacity is simultaneously distributed across multiple attentional sets.

  8. Recent Advances in Carbon Capture with Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Queen, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    The escalating level of CO(2) in the atmosphere is one of the most critical environmental issues of our age. The carbon capture and storage from pilot test plants represents an option for reducing CO(2) emissions, however, the energy cost associated with post-combustion carbon capture process alone is ∼30% of the total energy generated by the power plant. Thus, the generation of carbon capture adsorbents with high uptake capacities, great separation performance and low cost is of paramount importance. Metal-organic frameworks are infinite networks of metal-containing nodes bridged by organic ligands through coordination bonds into porous extended structures and several reports have revealed that they are ideal candidates for the selective capture of CO(2). In this review we summarize recent advances related to the synthesis of porous MOFs and the latest strategies to enhance the CO(2) adsorption enthalpies and capacities at low-pressures, increase hydrolytic and mechanical stabilities, and improve the ease of regeneration. Although they show great promise for post-combustion carbon capture, there are still major challenges that must be overcome before they can be used for such a large-scale application.

  9. High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

    2013-03-13

    This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient air (“air capture”). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: • Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. • Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. • Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: • Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. • Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. • The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and

  10. Capture and Decay of Electroweak WIMPonium

    CERN Document Server

    Asadi, Pouya; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J; Krupczak, Emmett; Slatyer, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle (WIMP) dark matter generically possesses bound states when the WIMP mass becomes sufficiently large relative to the mass of the electroweak gauge bosons. The presence of these bound states enhances the annihilation rate via resonances in the Sommerfeld enhancement, but they can also be produced directly with the emission of a low-energy photon. In this work we compute the rate for SU(2) triplet dark matter (the wino) to bind into WIMPonium -- which is possible via single-photon emission for wino masses above 5 TeV for relative velocity v < O(10^{-2}) -- and study the subsequent decays of these bound states. We present results with applications beyond the wino case, e.g. for dark matter inhabiting a nonabelian dark sector; these include analytic capture and transition rates for general dark sectors in the limit of vanishing force carrier mass, efficient numerical routines for calculating positive and negative-energy eigenstates of a Hamiltonian containing ...

  11. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  12. Dynamic Operation and Simulation of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Gladis, Arne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp;

    2016-01-01

    Thermal power need to operate, on a daily basis, with frequent and fast load changes to balance the large variations of intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar energy. To make the integration of carbon capture to power plants economically and technically feasible, the carbon capture...... process has to be able to follow these fast and large load changes without decreasing the overall performance of the carbon capture plant. Therefore, dynamic models for simulation, optimization and control system design are essential. In this work, we compare the transient behavior of the model against...... sudden changes in the CO2 removal rate and to avoid increased heat demand of solvent regeneration. In addition, it shows how storage tanks (liquid hold-up of the system) can be designed to accommodate significant upstream changes in the power plant management. This flexibility is especially needed...

  13. FastStats: Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... Links Ambulatory Health Care Data National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Health Interview Survey National Home ...

  14. FastStats: Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... PDF - 241 KB] Related Links National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ...

  15. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  16. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 3500C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated

  17. Radiative kaon capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative kaons were stopped in liquid hydrogen to measure the radiative capture rates to Yγ final states. Branching ratios for the reactions K-p → Λγ and K-p → Σoγ provide information about the quark structure of the Λ(1404). Superior photon resolution is needed to distinguish the signal photons from the background of πo decay photons. Such resolution was provided by a NaI detector, which has a resolution of 1.3% (FWHM) near 300 MeV. A description of the experimental technique and data reduction is presented, along with preliminary branching ratio results

  18. Genetic selection for fast growth generates bone architecture characterised by enhanced periosteal expansion and limited consolidation of the cortices but a diminution in the early responses to mechanical loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlinson, S. C.; Murray, D. H.; Mosley, J. R.; Wright, C. D.; Bredl, J. C.; Saxon, L. K.; Loveridge, N; Leterrier, C.; Constantin, P.; Farquharson, C.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone strength is, in part, dependent on a mechanical input that regulates the (re)modelling of skeletal elements to an appropriate size and architecture to resist fracture during habitual use. The rate of longitudinal bone growth in juveniles can also affect fracture incidence in adulthood, suggesting an influence of growth rate on later bone quality. We have compared the effects of fast and slow growth on bone strength and architecture in the tibiotarsi of embryonic and juvenile birds. The l...

  19. FAST Maser Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    FAST, the Five-hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope, will become the largest operating single-dish telescope in the coming years. It has many advantages: much better sensitivity for its largest collecting area; large sky coverage due to its innovative design of the active primary surface; extremely radio quiet from its unique location, etc. In this work, I will highlight the future capabilities of FAST to discover and observe both galactic and extragalactic masers.

  20. Discovery with FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  1. Fast Statistical Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Robert K.; Adam Roberts; Michael Smoot; Sudeep Juvekar; Jaeyoung Do; Colin Dewey; Ian Holmes; Lior Pachter

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multi...

  2. Fast parametrized biorthogonal transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Puchala, Dariusz; Yatsymirsyy, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    W pracy zaproponowano schemat syntezy szybkich parametryzowanych przekształceń biortogonalnych oparty o diagramy przepływowe dla szybkich przekształceń ortonormalnych i dwupunktowe biortogonalne operatory motylkowe. In this paper the authors propose the technique ot synthesis of fast parametrised biorthogonal transforms that takes advantage of data-flow graphs for calculation of fast orthonormal transforms and two-point biorthogonal butterfly operators.

  3. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  4. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  5. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  6. Capturing the electromagnetic counterparts of binary neutron star mergers through low-latency gravitational wave triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Q.; Howell, E. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Gao, H.; Zhang, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Boër, M.; Wen, L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the prospects for joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). For BNS mergers associated with short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), we for the first time evaluate the feasibility of rapid EM follow-ups to capture the prompt emission, early engine activity, or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To achieve our goal, we first simulate a population of coalescing BNSs using realistic distributions of source parameters and estimate the detectability and localization efficiency at different times before merger. We then use a selection of facilities with GW follow-up agreements in place, from low-frequency radio to high-energy γ-ray to assess the prospects of prompt follow-up. We quantify our assessment using observational SGRB flux data extrapolated to be within the horizon distances of the advanced GW interferometric detectors LIGO and Virgo and to the prompt phase immediately following the binary merger. Our results illustrate that while challenging, breakthrough multimessenger science is possible with EM follow-up facilities with fast responses and wide fields-of-view. We demonstrate that the opportunity to catch the prompt stage (<5 s) of SGRBs can be enhanced by speeding up the detection pipelines of both GW observatories and EM follow-up facilities. We further show that the addition of an Australian instrument to the optimal detector network could possibly improve the angular resolution by a factor of 2 and thereby contribute significantly to GW-EM multimessenger astronomy.

  7. Media capture in a democracy : the role of wealth concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2005-01-01

    Since objective news coverage is vital to democracy, captured media can seriously distort collective decisions. The current paper develops a voting model where citizens are uncertain about the welfare effects induced by alternative policy options and derive information about those effects from the mass media. The media might however secretly collude with interest groups in order to influence the public opinion. In the case of voting over the level of a productivity-enhancing public bad, it is...

  8. Electron capture by highly charged low-velocity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a fast heavy ion beam to produce, by bombardment of gaseous targets, highly-charged low-velocity recoil ions, and the use of these secondary ions in turn as projectiles in studies of electron capture and ionization in low-energy collision systems. The interest in collisions involving low-energy highly-charged projectiles comes both from the somewhat simplifying aspects of the physics which attend the long-range capture and from applications to fusion plasmas, astrophysics and more speculative technology such as the production of X-ray lasers. The ions of interest in such applications should have both electronic excitation and center-of-mass energies in the keV range and cannot be produced by simply stripping fast heavy ion beams. Several novel types of ion source have been developed to produce low-energy highly-charged ions, of which the secondary ion recoil source discussed in this paper is one. (Auth.)

  9. Effect of dolomite decomposition under CO2 on its multicycle CO2 capture behaviour under calcium looping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle Martos, Antonio; Valverde, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E; Perejón, Antonio; García-Garrido, Cristina; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A

    2016-06-28

    One of the major drawbacks that hinder the industrial competitiveness of the calcium looping (CaL) process for CO2 capture is the high temperature (∼930-950 °C) needed in practice to attain full calcination of limestone in a high CO2 partial pressure environment for short residence times as required. In this work, the multicycle CO2 capture performance of dolomite and limestone is analysed under realistic CaL conditions and using a reduced calcination temperature of 900 °C, which would serve to mitigate the energy penalty caused by integration of the CaL process into fossil fuel fired power plants. The results show that the fundamental mechanism of dolomite decomposition under CO2 has a major influence on its superior performance compared to limestone. The inert MgO grains resulting from dolomite decomposition help preserve a nanocrystalline CaO structure wherein carbonation in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase is promoted. The major role played by the dolomite decomposition mechanism under CO2 is clearly demonstrated by the multicycle CaO conversion behaviour observed for samples decomposed at different preheating rates. Limestone decomposition at slow heating rates yields a highly crystalline and poorly reactive CaCO3 structure that requires long periods to fully decarbonate and shows a severely reduced capture capacity in subsequent cycles. On the other hand, the nascent CaCO3 produced after dolomite half-decomposition consists of nanosized crystals with a fast decarbonation kinetics regardless of the preheating rate, thus fully decomposing from the very first cycle at a reduced calcination temperature into a CaO skeleton with enhanced reactivity as compared to limestone derived CaO. PMID:27253328

  10. Degrading the Plutonium Produced in Fast Breeder Reactor Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Kuno, Yusuke [Tokyo University, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    enhance the production of {sup 238}Pu. However, using recycled uranium as blanket fuel may degrade the neutron economy (as two neutron-captures are required by produce {sup 238}Pu). Another option is to fuel the blanket with thorium and uranium (natural or depleted) oxide. The intent here is to facilitate a controlled production of denatured uranium with about 5% or 20% {sup 233}U in total uranium discharged from the breeder blanket by innovative fuel design. The outcome of this option is to produce 5%-enriched uranium (in {sup 233}U) which can be used as fuel for LWRs, or 20%-enriched uranium (in {sup 233}U) to be used as driver fuel in fast reactor cores. The challenge for this option is to deal with the presence of high radiation from {sup 232}U and its decay daughters which could complicate its use as fresh fuel for LWRs and fast reactors. This paper addresses the pros and cons of these options of degrading the breeder blanket plutonium, and discusses their effectiveness for proliferation resistance. References 1. M. Saito, H. Sagara, and Y. Peryoga, 'Development of Innovative Nuclear Technology to Produce Protected Plutonium with High Proliferation Resistance - Grand Design of Project', Trans. ANS Winter Meeting, Washington DC, Nov. 2004. 2. H. Sagara, M. Saito, Y. Peryoga, A. Ezoubtchenko, and A. Takivayev, 'Denaturing of Plutonium by Transmutation of Minor-Actinides for Enhancement of Proliferation Resistance', Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No.2, pp. 161-168, February 2005. 3. M. Saito, 'Multi-component Self-consistent Nuclear Energy System: Protected Plutonium Production (P3)', Int. J. Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, Vol.1, No. 2/3, 2005. (authors)

  11. FastKwic, an "Intelligent" Concordancer using FASTR

    OpenAIRE

    Lux-Pogodalla, Veronika; Besagni, Dominique; Fort, Karën

    2010-01-01

    6 p International audience In this paper, we introduce the FastKwic (Key Word In Context using FASTR), a new concordancer for French and English that does not require users to learn any particular request language. Built on FASTR, it shows them not only occurrences of the searched term but also of several morphological, morpho-syntactic and syntactic variants (for example, image enhancement, enhancement of image, enhancement of fingerprint image, image texture enhancement). Fastkwic is ...

  12. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  13. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. F.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  14. A semi-quantitative equivalence for abstracting from fast reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galpin, Vashti; Ciocchetta, Federica; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.5

    2011-01-01

    Semantic equivalences are used in process algebra to capture the notion of similar behaviour, and this paper proposes a semi-quantitative equivalence for a stochastic process algebra developed for biological modelling. We consider abstracting away from fast reactions as suggested by the Quasi-Steady-State Assumption. We define a fast-slow bisimilarity based on this idea. We also show congruence under an appropriate condition for the cooperation operator of Bio-PEPA. The condition requires that there is no synchronisation over fast actions, and this distinguishes fast-slow bisimilarity from weak bisimilarity. We also show congruence for an operator which extends the reactions available for a species. We characterise models for which it is only necessary to consider the matching of slow transitions and we illustrate the equivalence on two models of competitive inhibition.

  15. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  16. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 1400 loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω = O(10)] into a He+ plasma with n/sub e/approx. =4 x 1012 cm-3 and B = 4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the RF. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam

  17. Electron capture and fragmentation in Ar11+ + CO collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between 3, 10, and 50 keV/q Ar11+ ions and CO molecules have been studied using the Macdonald Lab CRYEBIS. Coincidence time of flight was used to detect all recoil ions and a position sensitive detector was used to determine final projectile charge states. Single- and double-electron capture are much larger than ionization at these collision energies. The dominant recoil channel associated with the Ar10+ final state is the CO+ molecular ion. The main ion-pair channel is the C+ + O+ dissociation of CO2+ while higher charge states of the transient COq+ fall off rapidly. Charge states up to CO4+ are formed in the collision indicating that many electrons are captured, but only one (and sometimes two) is retained by the projectile. This is due to autoionization of the highly excited states occupied by the captured electrons. In general, the fragmentation pattern of the CO molecule resembles the fragmentation associated with ionization caused by fast highly charged ions. This is as expected, since both processes happen at large impact parameters

  18. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Re-capturing cosmic information

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Takada, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of distant galaxies can be exploited to infer the convergence field as a function of angular position on the sky. The statistics of this field, much like that of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), can be studied to extract information about fundamental parameters in cosmology, most notably the dark energy in the Universe. Unlike the CMB, the distribution of matter in the Universe which determines the convergence field is highly non-Gaussian, reflecting the nonlinear processes which accompanied structure formation. Much of the cosmic information contained in the initial field is therefore unavailable to the standard power spectrum measurements. Here we propose a method for re-capturing cosmic information by using the power spectrum of a simple function of the observed (nonlinear) convergence field. We adapt the approach of Neyrinck et al. (2009) to lensing by using a modified logarithmic transform of the convergence field. The Fourier transform of the log-transformed field has modes t...

  20. Muon capture by helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the capture of a negative muon by He3 in the channel μ-+He3+V. Following Primakoff we use the V-A theory of the weak interactions. We include also first order relativistic terms. To describe the initial and final nuclei we have used the most general wave function allowed by the Paul is exclusion principle, assuming that these nuclei are a mixture of an isospin doublet and quadruplet. For the part of the wave function depending on the inter nucleonic distances, we have taken four different function without hard-core, a gaussian and three kinds of Irving type. We present in several tables the results obtained varying gp/gv and gA/gy as well as the amplitudes of the fourteen terms forming the nuclear wave function. (Author) 35 refs

  1. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  3. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  4. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  5. Fast charging of lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calasanzio, D. (FIAMM SpA, Montecchio Maggiore (Italy)); Maja, M. (Polytechnical Univ., Turin (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering); Spinelli, P. (Polytechnical Univ., Turin (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    A key point in the development of storage batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) is the possibility for fast recharging. It is widely recognized that the lead/acid system represents an excellent candidate for EVs because of the low cost, durability, and expectance of improvements in the near future. The viability of the lead/acid battery for EV applications would be greatly enhanced if fast recharging could be applied to the system without shortening its life. The present paper reports the results obtained by simulating the charging behaviour with a mathematical model that is capable of predicting the behaviour of nonconventional lead/acid cells both on discharge and recharge. The effects of important parameters such as plate dimensions, acid distribution, and porosity of the active mass are taken into account. The data obtained with the simulation are compared with results got from fast-recharge testing of commercial batteries. (orig.)

  6. Monte Carlo calculations of fast effects in uranium graphite lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given of the results of a series of computations of fast neutron effects in natural uranium metal/graphite cells. The computations were performed using the Monte Carlo code SPEC. It is shown that neutron capture in U238 is conveniently discussed in terms of a capture escape probability ζ as well as the conventional probability p. The latter is associated with the slowing down flux and has the classical exponential dependence on fuel-to-moderator volume ratio whilst the former is identified with the component of neutron flux above 1/E. (author)

  7. A fast friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡

    2010-01-01

    我们都知道fast food的意思是“快餐”。那fast friend能解释为“快速或速成的朋友”吗?也许你会说:“什么是速成朋友呀?It doesn’t make sense.”没错,交朋友怎么会有速成的呢?原来;fast还有一个意思是“忠实的、牢固的”,所以a fast friend的真正意思是“可靠、忠实的朋友”。

  8. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  9. An intelligent system for monitoring and diagnosis of the CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Chan, C.W.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. [University of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Amine-based carbon dioxide capture has been widely considered as a feasible ideal technology for reducing large-scale CO{sub 2} emissions and mitigating global warming. The operation of amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is a complicated task, which involves monitoring over 100 process parameters and careful manipulation of numerous valves and pumps. The current research in the field of CO{sub 2} capture has emphasized the need for improving CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and enhancing plant performance. In the present study, artificial intelligence techniques were applied for developing a knowledge-based expert system that aims at effectively monitoring and controlling the CO{sub 2} capture process and thereby enhancing CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In developing the system, the inferential modeling technique (IMT) was applied to analyze the domain knowledge and problem-solving techniques, and a knowledge base was developed on DeltaV Simulate. The expert system helps to enhance CO{sub 2} capture system performance and efficiency by reducing the time required for diagnosis and problem solving if abnormal conditions occur. The expert system can be used as a decision-support tool that helps inexperienced operators control the plant: it can be used also for training novice operators.

  10. Plasma spectroscopy in the presence of fast particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of monoenergetic fast charged particles present in a Maxwellian plasma on excitation and ionization processes is studied in the context of plasmas and fast particle diagnostics. It is shown that the influence can be significant for relative fast-particle densities as low as 10-4. On the other hand, the indirect influence through secondary electrons is found to be small in an approximate analytical calculation. Allowed transitions are significantly enhanced in the presence of fast particles while spin-forbidden excitations are hardly affected. Although the limiting conditions for LTE, partial LTE or corona equilibria are nearly unaltered, the populations of highly excited states are enhanced. Under partial-LTE conditions, this enhancement occurs without significantly influencing the relative populations of these upper levels. Illustrative calculations on the intensities and intensity ratios for outer and inner shell lines of diagnostic interest are presented

  11. Fast food in Tbilisi

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrica Soderlind

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the fast food establishments that can be found in Georgia's capital Tbilisi as of today. The article is divided into two sections, first interviews with the managers or the owners of the establishments and then we hear the voices of the costumers by a questionnaire that was left for the costumers to answer while they were visiting the establishments. The article and study should be seen as a first academic attempt to map out the fast food sphere in Tbilisi that is quit...

  12. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research concentrated on three major areas during the last twelve months: (1) investigations of energy fluence and absorbed dose measurements using crystalline and hot pressed TLD materials exposes to ultrasoft beams of photons, (2) fast neutron kerma factor measurements for several important elements as well as NE-213 scintillation material response function determinations at the intense ''white'' source available at the WNR facility at LAMPF, and (3) kerma factor ratio determinations for carbon and oxygen to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic at the clinical fast neutron radiation facility at Harper Hospital, Detroit, MI. Progress summary reports of these efforts are given in this report

  13. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karsten Köneke; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is recording data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV since the spring of 2010. The integrated luminosity has grown nearly exponentially since then and continues to rise fast. The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking). Hints of potentially interesting physics signals obtained this way are followed up by physics groups.

  14. Moms og fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af reguleringsforpligte......I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af...

  15. Fast Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A

    2002-12-30

    For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.

  16. Fast ejendom II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder,,......Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder,,...

  17. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André

    2011-04-28

    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'.

  18. Development Trends in Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bolisetty; Sreedhar, Inkollu; Suresh, Pathi; Raghavan, Kondapuram Vijaya

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere leading to global warming with undesirable climate changes has been a serious global concern. Major power generation in the world is from coal based power plants. Carbon capture through pre- and post- combustion technologies with various technical options like adsorption, absorption, membrane separations, and chemical looping combustion with and without oxygen uncoupling have received considerable attention of researchers, environmentalists and the stake holders. Carbon capture from flue gases can be achieved with micro and meso porous adsorbents. This review covers carbonaceous (organic and metal organic frameworks) and noncarbonaceous (inorganic) porous adsorbents for CO2 adsorption at different process conditions and pore sizes. Focus is also given to noncarbonaceous micro and meso porous adsorbents in chemical looping combustion involving insitu CO2 capture at high temperature (>400 °C). Adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods are discussed. Attention is given to isosteric heats and characterization techniques. The options to enhance the techno-economic viability of carbon capture techniques by integrating with CO2 utilization to produce industrially important chemicals like ammonia and urea are analyzed. From the reader's perspective, for different classes of materials, each section has been summarized in the form of tables or figures to get a quick glance of the developments. PMID:26422294

  19. Development Trends in Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bolisetty; Sreedhar, Inkollu; Suresh, Pathi; Raghavan, Kondapuram Vijaya

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere leading to global warming with undesirable climate changes has been a serious global concern. Major power generation in the world is from coal based power plants. Carbon capture through pre- and post- combustion technologies with various technical options like adsorption, absorption, membrane separations, and chemical looping combustion with and without oxygen uncoupling have received considerable attention of researchers, environmentalists and the stake holders. Carbon capture from flue gases can be achieved with micro and meso porous adsorbents. This review covers carbonaceous (organic and metal organic frameworks) and noncarbonaceous (inorganic) porous adsorbents for CO2 adsorption at different process conditions and pore sizes. Focus is also given to noncarbonaceous micro and meso porous adsorbents in chemical looping combustion involving insitu CO2 capture at high temperature (>400 °C). Adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods are discussed. Attention is given to isosteric heats and characterization techniques. The options to enhance the techno-economic viability of carbon capture techniques by integrating with CO2 utilization to produce industrially important chemicals like ammonia and urea are analyzed. From the reader's perspective, for different classes of materials, each section has been summarized in the form of tables or figures to get a quick glance of the developments.

  20. Fast-track surgery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Nagral, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Fast-track surgery or 'enhanced recovery after surgery' or 'multimodal rehabilitation after surgery' is a form of protocol-based perioperative care programme. It is an amalgamation of evidence-based practices that have been proven to improve patient outcome independently and exert a synergistic effect when applied together. The philosophy is to treat the patient's pathology with minimal disturbance to the physiology. Several surgical subspecialties have now adopted such protocols with good results. The role of fast-track surgery in colorectal procedures has been well demonstrated. Its application to other major abdominal surgical procedures is not as well defined but there are encouraging results in the few studies conducted. There has been resistance to several aspects of this programme among gastrointestinal and general surgeons. There is little data from India in the available literature on the application of fast-tracking in gastrointestinal surgery. In a country such as India the existing healthcare structure stands to gain the most by widespread adoption of fast-track methods. Early discharge, early ambulation, earlier return to work and increased hospital efficiency are some of the benefits. The cost gains derived from this programme stand to benefit the patient, doctor and government as well. The practice and implementation of fast-track surgery involves a multidisciplinary team approach. It requires policy formation at an institutional level and interdepartmental coordination. More research is required in areas like implementation of such protocols across India to derive the maximum benefit from them. PMID:25471759

  1. High spatial resolution fast-neutron imaging detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Katz, D; Sayag, E; Shmueli, I; Cohen, Y; Tal, A; Vagish, Z [Soreq NRC, 81800 Yavne (Israel); Bromberger, B; Dangendorf, V; Mugai, D; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: ilmor@soreq.gov.il

    2009-05-15

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1-10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Fast-Neutron Imaging Detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mor, I; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Katz, D; Sayag, E; Shmueli, I; Cohen, Y; Tal, A; Vagish, Z; Bromberger, B; Dangendorf, V; Mugai, D; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2009-01-01

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1 - 10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  3. Fast frequency tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko I. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of periodical signal frequency tracking by the frequency-locked loops is proposed. Increasing of frequency adjustment accuracy is achieved by using of a new fast frequency discriminator, based on estimates of an instantaneous frequency. Reasonability of an input signal pre-filtering in case of nonlinear distortions, harmonics interferences and strong noise is proved.

  4. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  5. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  6. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  7. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were implemente

  8. Viden om faste vendinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bjærge, Esben

    Ordbogen indeholder ca. 17.000 idiomer, ordsprog, bevingede ord og andre faste vendinger, som der oplyses mest muligt om. Hertil hører oplysninger om betydningen, grammatik, kollokationer, synonymer, stil, ordforbindelsestype, etymologiske angivelser og andre baggrundsoplysninger, links til relev...

  9. Viden om faste vendinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bjærge, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Ordbogen indeholder ca. 17.000 idiomer, ordsprog, bevingede ord og andre faste vendinger, som der oplyses mest muligt om. Hertil hører oplysninger om betydningen, grammatik, kollokationer, synonymer, stil, ordforbindelsestype, etymologiske angivelser og andre baggrundsoplysninger, links til relev...

  10. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  11. Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture

    CERN Document Server

    Topputo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a simple definition of stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of lower capture $\\Delta v$, moderate flight time, and flexibility of launch period from the Earth.

  12. A survey of the Carbon Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of carbon dioxide, one of the most important representatives of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continues to rise. Fossil fuels burned in thermal power plants currently represent 80% of total energy production around the world and are the largest point sources of CO2, accounting for approximately 40% of total CO2 emissions. There are several options for reducing CO2 emissions: reducing demand, improving production efficiency and carbon capture and storage (CCS, carbon capture and storage). Capture and storage of carbon dioxide is generally a three-step process: 1st Capture and compression of combustion products, 2nd transport (mostly pipeline) and 3rd utilization (eg. production of urea, beverage industry, production of dry ice, etc.). Technologies for CO2 capturing used in power plants burning fossil fuels can be divided into four groups, each of which requires a completely different approach to CO2 capture.

  13. Enhancement of the computational efficiency of the near-to-far field mapping in the finite-difference method and ray-by-ray method with the fast multi-pole plane wave expansion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanglin; Yang, Ping; Sun, Bingqiang; Panetta, R. Lee; Kattawar, George W.

    2016-06-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and ray-by-ray (RBR) methods are techniques used to calculate the optical properties of nonspherical particles for small-to-moderate and large size parameters, respectively. The former is a rigorous method, and the latter is an approximate geometric-physical optics-hybrid method that takes advantage of both high efficiency of the geometric optics approach and high accuracy of the physical optics approach. In these two methods, the far field is calculated by mapping the near field to the far field with consideration of the phase interference. The mapping computation is more time-consuming than the near-field simulation when multiple scattering directions are involved, particularly in the case of the RBR implementation. To overcome the difficulty, in this study the fast multi-pole method is applied to both FDTD and RBR towards accelerating the far-field calculation, without degrading the accuracy of the simulation results.

  14. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  15. Neutron capture cross section measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of currently-used techniques to measure neutron capture cross sections is presented. Measurements involving use of total absorption and Moxon-Rae detectors are based on low-resolution detection of the prompt γ-ray cascades following neutron captures. In certain energy ranges activation methods are convenient and useful. High resolution γ-ray measurements with germanium detectors can give information on the parameters of resonance capture states. The use of these techniques is described. (U.S.)

  16. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  17. Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is the measurement of neutron capture cross sections of importance to stewardship science and astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis, while at the same time helping to train the next generation of scientists with expertise relevant to U.S. national nuclear security missions and to stewardship science. A primary objective of this project is to study neutron capture cross sections for various stable and unstable isotopes that will contribute to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program by providing improved data for modeling and interpretation of nuclear device performance. Much of the information obtained will also be important in astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis. Measurements of these neutron capture cross sections are being conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility using the unique Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). In our early discussions with the DANCE group, decisions were made on the first cross sections to be measured and how our expertise in target preparation, radiochemical separations chemistry, and data analysis could best be applied. The initial emphasis of the project was on preparing suitable targets of both natural and separated stable europium isotopes in preparation for the ultimate goal of preparing a sufficiently large target of radioactive 155Eu (t1/2 = 4.7 years) and other radioactive and stable species for neutron cross-section measurements at DANCE. Our Annual Report, ''Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei'' by J. M. Schwantes, R. Sudowe, C. M. Folden III, H. Nitsche, and D. C. Hoffman, submitted to NNSA in December 2003, gives details about the initial considerations and scope of the project. During the current reporting period, electroplated targets of natural Eu together with valuable, stable, and isotopically pure 151Eu and 153Eu, and isotopically separated 154Sm were measured for

  18. Radioactive proton capture on {sup 6}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvan, E.; Marques, F.M. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysich Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) at 40 MeV. Capture into {sup 7}Li is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded that may be described by quasi-free capture on halo neutron, the {alpha} core and {sup 5}He. The possibility of describing such events by capture into the continuum of {sup 7}Li is also discussed. (authors)

  19. Media Capture and Wealth Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2003-01-01

    While objective news coverage is vital to democracy, media bias can seriously distort collective decisions. This Paper develops a voting model where citizens are uncertain about the welfare effects induced by alternative policy options and derive information about those effects from the mass media. The media might, however, secretly collude with interest groups in order to influence the public opinion. In case of voting over the level of a productivity-enhancing public bad, it is shown that a...

  20. Porous multi-component material for the capture and separation of species of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Li, Xiaohong S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2016-06-21

    A method and porous multi-component material for the capture, separation or chemical reaction of a species of interest is disclosed. The porous multi-component material includes a substrate and a composite thin film. The composite thin film is formed by combining a porous polymer with a nanostructured material. The nanostructured material may include a surface chemistry for the capture of chemicals or particles. The composite thin film is coupled to the support or device surface. The method and material provides a simple, fast, and chemically and physically benign way to integrate nanostructured materials into devices while preserving their chemical activity.

  1. Fast nastic motion of plants and bio-inspired structures

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Han, Xiaomin; Xie, Stephen; Chao, Eric; Chen, Zi

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients, and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behin...

  2. Fast nastic motion of plants and bioinspired structures

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Q.; Dai, E.; Han, X.; Xie, S.; Chao, E; Chen, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind...

  3. Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in bended crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in a bended monocrystal is considered. Face and volume mechanisms of capture in channels are taken into account simultaneously in the model presented. Functions of distribution in transverse energies (φ) of channeled and dechanneled particles are obtained. Charge-energy ''scale invariance'' in ion channeling with charge Z in a bended crystal determined by scale parameter W=pv/Z (p and v are pulse and velocity local to transverse planes) follows from the model presented

  4. Techno-Economic Study of Adsorption Processes for Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture at a Biomass CHP Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Oreggioni, Gabriel David; Friedrich, Daniel; Brandani, Stefano; Ahn, Hyungwoong

    2014-01-01

    An exemplary 10 MWth biomass CHP plant with a FICFB (Fast Internally Circulating Fluidised Bed) gasifier and Jenbacher type 6 gas engine was simulated to estimate the power and thermal outputs. The biomass-fuelled CHP plant was modified for carbon capture using either adsorption or amine process. It was found that a two-stage, two-bed PVSA (Pressure Vacuum Swing Adsorption) unit applied to syngas stream for pre-combustion capture spent less specific energy per captured CO2 than a conventional...

  5. Electron capture to the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second order Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers approximation is used to derive simple analytical formulae, evaluated to the lowest order in the fine-structure constant α in the numerator, for the differential cross section for electron capture to the continuum (ECC) by incident bare ions having velocity ν from target hydrogenic atomic systems. Relativistic as well as non-relativistic forms are derived. Comparison of the theory with the experimental data of Dahl and Andersen et al for H+, He2+ + He collisions is fairly satisfactory for energies >50 keV amu-1. However, although the velocity dependence obtained by Andersen et al is ν-11.3±0.2 in the range of impact energies 1-2.6 MeV amu-1, this does not imply that the asymptotic ν-11 velocity dependence given by the non-relativistic second-order OBK cross section is almost attained. It is shown that this cannot happen until an energy >500 MeV amu-1 is reached where allowance for relativity produces a considerable change in the energy fall off. A modification of the second-order OBK approximation may be expanded to first order in the atomic number ΖP of the projectile ion to get simple formulae for the yield of continuum electrons and the cusp asymmetry factor β. The agreement with the data of Andersen et al for β is fair at impact energies >0.5 MeV amu-1P-1 but the situation is unclear at energies -1 ΖP-1 where the data of different experimenters doe not agree with each other and CDW calculations produce low values of β. (author)

  6. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  7. Immobilized surfactant-nanotube complexes support selectin-mediated capture of viable circulating tumor cells in the absence of capture antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael J; Castellanos, Carlos A; King, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The metastatic spread of tumor cells from the primary site to anatomically distant organs leads to a poor patient prognosis. Increasing evidence has linked adhesive interactions between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and endothelial cells to metastatic dissemination. Microscale biomimetic flow devices hold promise as a diagnostic tool to isolate CTCs and develop metastatic therapies, utilizing E-selectin (ES) to trigger the initial rolling adhesion of tumor cells under flow. To trigger firm adhesion and capture under flow, such devices also typically require antibodies against biomarkers thought to be expressed on CTCs. This approach is challenged by the fact that CTCs are now known to exhibit heterogeneous expression of conventional biomarkers. Here, we describe surfactant-nanotube complexes to enhance ES-mediated capture and isolation of tumor cells without the use of capture antibodies. While the majority of tumor cells exhibited weaker rolling adhesion on halloysite nanotubes (HNT) coated with ES, HNT functionalization with the sodium dodecanoate (NaL) surfactant induced a switch to firm cellular adhesion under flow. Conversely, surfactant-nanotube complexes significantly reduced the number of primary human leukocytes captured via ES-mediated adhesion under flow. The switch in tumor cell adhesion was exploited to capture and isolate tumor cells in the absence of EpCAM antibodies, commonly utilized as the gold standard for CTC isolation. Additionally, HNT-NaL complexes were shown to capture tumor cells with low to negligible EpCAM expression, that are not efficiently captured using conventional approaches.

  8. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Gamow-Teller strength distributions and electron capture rates for 55Co and 56Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2011-01-01

    The Gamow-Teller strength (GT) distributions and electron capture rates on 55Co and 56Ni have been calculated using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. We calculate these weak interaction mediated rates over a wide temperature (0.01x109 - 30x109 K) and density (10 - 1011 g cm-3) domain. Electron capture process is one of the essential ingredients involved in the complex dynamics of supernova explosion. Our calculations of electron capture rates show differences with the reported shell model diagonalization approach calculations and are comparatively enhanced at presupernova temperatures. We note that the GT strength is fragmented over many final states.

  10. Simulation of the Capture and Acceleration Processes in HIAF-CRing

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Peng; Xia, Jia-wen; Yang, Jian-cheng; Qu, Guo-feng; Zheng, Wen-heng; Li, Zhong-shan; Ruan, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the longitudinal beam dynamics during the adiabatic capture and acceleration processes of the CRing in HIAF project, a simulation of both processes above is carried out with $U^{34+}$ ions. The ions will be captured into a bucket adiabatically and accelerated from 800 MeV/u to 1130 MeV/u . Simulation of these processes by tracking appropriate distributions with the longitudinal beam dynamics code ESME has been used to find optimum parameters such as RF phase, RF voltage and RF frequency etc. An enhanced capture and acceleration efficiency can be gotten from the simulation results, with the optimized RF voltage and RF phase program.

  11. FAST PYROLYSIS OF LIGNINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedat Beis; Saikrishna Mukkamala; Nathan Hill; Jincy Joseph; Cirila Baker; Bruce Jensen; Elizabeth Stemmler; Clayton Wheeler; Brian Frederick; Adriaan van Heiningen; Alex Berg; William Joseph DeSisto

    2010-01-01

    Three lignins: Indulin AT, LignoboostTM, and Acetocell lignin, were characterized and pyrolyzed in a continuous-fed fast pyrolysis process. The physical and chemical properties of the lignins included chemical composition, heat content, ash, and water content. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to describe the pyrolysis of each lignin. Activation energy distributions of each lignin were quite different and generally covered a broad range of energies, typically found in li...

  12. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Fast fission phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these lectures we have described two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions : neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. Neutron-proton asymmetry has provided us with an example of a fast collective motion. As a consequence quantum fluctuations can be observed. The observation of quantum or statistical fluctuations is directly connected to the comparison between the phonon energy and the temperature of the intrinsic system. This means that this mode might also provide a good example for the investigation of the transition between quantum and statistical fluctuations which might occur when the bombarding energy is raised above 10 MeV/A. However it is by no means sure that in this energy domain enough excitation energy can be put into the system in order to reach such high temperatures over the all system. The other interest in investigating neutron-proton asymmetry above 10 MeV/A is that the interaction time between the two incident nuclei will decrease. Consequently, if some collective motion should still be observed, it will be one of the last which can be seen. Fast fission corresponds on the contrary to long interaction times. The experimental indications are still rather weak and mainly consist of experimental data which cannot be understood in the framework of standard dissipative models. We have seen that a model which can describe both the entrance and the exit configuration gives this mechanism in a natural way and that the experimental data can, to a good extend, be explained. The nicest thing is probably that our old understanding of dissipative heavy ion collisions is not changed at all except for the problems that can now be understood in terms of fast fission. Nevertheless this area desserve further studies, especially on the experimental side to be sure that the consistent picture which we have on dissipative heavy ion collisions still remain coherent in the future.

  14. Experience machines : Capturing and retrieving personal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental to human existence is the ability to capture, memorise and retrieve personal experiences and to share them with others. Can systems help us to capture and retrieve experiences? After motors have supplemented our muscles and sensors have supplemented our senses, emerging computer systems

  15. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E; Marques, FM; Wilschut, HW; Orr, NA; Angelique, JC; Borcea, C; Catford, WN; Clarke, NM; Descouvemont, P; Diaz, J; Grevy, S; Kugler, A; Kravchuk, [No Value; Labiche, M; Le Brun, C; Lienard, E; Lohner, H; Mittig, W; Ostendorf, RW; Pietri, S; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Saint Laurent, MG; Savajols, H; Wagner, [No Value; Yahlali, N

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  16. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  17. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  18. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  19. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID

  20. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  1. Immobilization Techniques and Integrated Signal Enhancement for POC Nanocolor Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Schlauf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resonance enhanced absorption (REA nanocolor microfluidic devices are new promising bioassay platforms, which employ nanoparticle- (NP- protein conjugates for the immunodetection of medically relevant markers in biologic samples such as blood, urine, and saliva. The core component of a REA test device is a PET chip coated with aluminum and SiO2 thin layers, onto which biorecognitive molecules are immobilized. Upon addition of a sample containing the analyte of interest, a NP-protein-analyte complex is formed in the test device that is captured on the REA chip, for example, via streptavidin-biotin interaction. Thereby, a colored symbol is generated, which allows optical readout. Silver enhancement of the bound nanoparticles may be used to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Herein, we demonstrate that adsorptive immobilization via a cationic polymeric interlayer is a competitive and fast technique for the binding of the capture protein streptavidin onto planar SiO2 surfaces such as REA biochips. Moreover, we report the development of a silver enhancement technology that operates even in the presence of high chloride concentrations as may be encountered in biologic samples. The silver enhancement reagents may be integrated into the microfluidic assay platform to be released upon sample addition. Hereby, a highly sensitive one-step assay can be realized.

  2. Mechanical stability study of capture cavity II at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.W.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Problematic resonant conditions at both 18 Hz and 180 Hz were encountered and identified early during the commissioning of Capture Cavity II (CC2) at Fermilab. CC2 consists of an external vacuum vessel and a superconducting high gradient (close to 25 MV/m) 9-cell 1.3 GHz niobium cavity, transported from DESY for use in the A0 Photoinjector at Fermilab. An ANSYS modal finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to isolate the source of the resonance and directed the effort towards stabilization. Using a fast piezoelectric tuner to excite (or shake) the cavity at different frequencies (from 5 Hz to 250 Hz) at a low-range sweep for analysis purposes. Both warm (300 K) and cold (1.8 K) accelerometer measurements at the cavity were taken as the resonant ''fix'' was applied. FEA results, cultural and technical noise investigation, and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  3. Role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghasemi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition (FSI concept. The semi-analytical model indicates that the FSI target gain is a function of fast ignitor laser wavelength. If the energy of fast ignitor driver is and the laser wavelength is less than 0.53 micron, then with a fuel mass about 2 mg the FSI has a considerable advantage over pure shock ignition and the figure of merit is better than 1.2. When the wavelength of fast ignitor becomes shorter, the approaches , and for wavelengths shorter than 0.25 micron no additional is advantage is obtained.

  4. Fast reactors: potential for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed as follows: basic facts about conventional and fast reactors; uranium economy; plutonium and fast reactors; cooling systems; sodium coolant; safety engineering; handling and recycling plutonium; safeguards; development of fast reactors in Britain and abroad; future progress. (U.K.)

  5. Bright flares in supergiant fast X-ray transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2014-08-01

    At steady low-luminosity states, supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) can be at the stage of quasi-spherical settling accretion on to slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars from the OB-companion winds. At this stage, a hot quasi-static shell is formed above the magnetosphere, the plasma entry rate into magnetosphere is controlled by (inefficient) radiative plasma cooling, and the accretion rate on to the neutron star is suppressed by a factor of ˜30 relative to the Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton value. Changes in the local wind velocity and density due to, e.g. clumps, can only slightly increase the mass accretion rate (a factor of ˜10) bringing the system into the Compton-cooling-dominated regime and led to the production of moderately bright flares (Lx ≲ 1036 erg s-1). To interpret the brightest flares (Lx > 1036 erg s-1) displayed by the SFXTs within the quasi-spherical settling accretion regimes, we propose that a larger increase in the mass accretion rate can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time-scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass of the shell. This view is consistent with the energy released in SFXT bright flares (˜1038-1040 erg), their typical dynamic range (˜100) and with the observed dependence of these characteristics on the average unflaring X-ray luminosity of SFXTs. Thus, the flaring behaviour of SFXTs, as opposed to steady HMXBs, may be primarily related to their low X-ray luminosity allowing sporadic magnetic reconnection to occur during magnetized plasma entry into the magnetosphere.

  6. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  7. Development and Characterization of a High Sensitivity Segmented Fast Neutron Spectrometer (FaNS-2)

    OpenAIRE

    FaNS Collaboration; Langford, T. J.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Heimbach, C. R.; Ji, G; Nico, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a segmented fast neutron spectrometer (FaNS-2) based upon plastic scintillator and $^3$He proportional counters. It was designed to measure both the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons in the energy range of few MeV to 1 GeV. FaNS-2 utilizes capture-gated spectroscopy to identify neutron events and reject backgrounds. Neutrons deposit energy in the plastic scintillator before capturing on a $^3$He nucleus in the proportional counters. Segmentation improves neutron...

  8. The Role of Fast Carrier Dynamics in SOA Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup;

    2004-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated and the propert......We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated...... and the properties of schemes relying on cross-gain as well as cross-phase modulation are discussed. The possible benefits of using SOAs with quantum dot active regions are theoretically analyzed. The bandfilling characteristics and the presence of fast capture processes may allow to reach bitrates in excess of 100...

  9. Fast nastic motion of plants and bio-inspired structures

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qiaohang; Han, Xiaomin; Xie, Stephen; Chao, Eric; Chen, Zi

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients, and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements still are not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera, and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary stu...

  10. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material.

  11. Impact of Thorium Capture Cross Section Uncertainty on the Thorium Utilized ADS Reactivity Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Mai Vu; Takanori Kitada

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the researches on fast neutron spectrum system utilized thorium fuel are widely conducted. However, the recent thorium cross section libraries are limited compared to uranium cross section libraries. The impact of thorium cross section uncertainty on thorium fuel utilized accelerator driven system (ADS) reactivity calculation is estimated in this study. The uncertainty of the keff caused by 232Th capture cross section of JENDL-4.0 is about 1.3%. The uncertainty of JENDL-4.0 is neede...

  12. The Processing of Image Data Collected by Light UAV Systems for GIS Data Capture and Updating

    OpenAIRE

    N. Yastikli; I. Bagci; C. Beser

    2013-01-01

    The collection and updating of 3D data is the one of the important steps for GIS applications which require fast and efficient data collection methods. The photogrammetry has been used for many years as a data collection method for GIS application in larger areas. The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Systems gained increasing attraction in geosciences for cost effective data capture and updating at high spatial and temporal resolution during the last years. These autonomously flying UA...

  13. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  14. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10–8. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  15. Initial Report of the Fast Timing Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary set of results highlighting the unique capabilities of fast-timing for resolving information from individual collisions at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL- LHC) is presented. These results explore the possibilities made available by using fast timing to enhance the reconstruction and physics capabilities of the CMS detector in terms of pileup mitigation and searches for new physics. Fast timing applications in calorimetry, for electromagnetic showers, and for MIPs, to time-tag tracks, are demonstrated as are first examples of what is possible with their combination.

  16. Measurement of fast-neutron capture cross sections for 75As

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cross sections of the 75As(n,γ)76As reaction were measured in the neutron energy range from 0.50 to 1.50 MeV by using the activation technique. Neutrons were produced via the T(p,n)3He reaction and the cross sections of the 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction were used to determine the absolute neutron flux. Present results are compared with existing measurements and evaluations.

  17. Fast Capture­-Recapture Approach for Mitigating the Problem of Missing RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Fyhn; Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar;

    2012-01-01

    The technology of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) enables many applications that rely on passive, battery-less wireless devices. If a RFID reader needs to gather the ID from multiple tags in its range, then it needs to run an anticollision protocol. Due to errors on the wireless link...

  18. Relevance-based control over visual attention is fast and interdependent with stimulus-driven capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maria; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    or distractor) was a color singleton, but the probability that the singleton was a target was just the same as the probability that a nonsingleton was a target. Participants showed significant effects of both feature contrast and task relevance. The probability of correctly reporting a singleton target...

  19. RADIATIVE ELECTRON CAPTURE BY FAST HIGHLY STRIPPED HEAVY IONS CHANNELED IN A THIN CRYSTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamonje, S.; Chevallier, M.; C. Cohen; Dural, J.; Gaillard, M.; Genre, R.; Hage-Ali, M.; Kirsch, R.; L'Hoir, A.; Mazuy, B.; Mory, J.; Moulin, J.; Poizat, J. -C.; Remillieux, J.; Schmaus, Didier

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of moving ions with single crystals is known to be very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. We have shown that channeling conditions strongly modify the slowing down and the charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions. The reason is that channeled particles are prevented from approaching the target atoms, and then can interact only with loosely bound target electrons. This results not only in drastical...

  20. Capturing dynamics with Eiger, a fast-framing X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-frame-rate single-photon-counting pixel detector named Eiger and its suitability for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy are described. Eiger is the next-generation single-photon-counting pixel detector following the widely used Pilatus detector. Its smaller pixel size of 75 µm × 75 µm, higher frame rate of up to 22 kHz, and practically zero dead-time (∼4 µs) between exposures will further various measurement methods at synchrotron sources. In this article Eiger’s suitability for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is demonstrated. By exploiting its high frame rate, complementary small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and XPCS data are collected in parallel to determine both the structure factor and collective diffusion coefficient of a nano-colloid suspension. For the first time, correlation times on the submillisecond time scale are accessible with a large-area pixel detector

  1. Ultra-high Throughput Real-time Instruments for Capturing Fast Signals and Rare Events

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    2013-01-01

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials th...

  2. FastSIR Algorithm: A Fast Algorithm for simulation of epidemic spread in large networks by using SIR compartment model

    CERN Document Server

    Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Sikic, Mile

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic spreading on arbitrary complex networks is studied in SIR (Susceptible Infected Recovered) compartment model. We propose our implementation of a Naive SIR algorithm for epidemic simulation spreading on networks that uses data structures efficiently to reduce running time. The Naive SIR algorithm models full epidemic dynamics and can be easily upgraded to parallel version. We also propose novel algorithm for epidemic simulation spreading on networks called the FastSIR algorithm that has better average case running time than the Naive SIR algorithm. The FastSIR algorithm uses novel approach to reduce average case running time by constant factor by using probability distributions of the number of infected nodes. Moreover, the FastSIR algorithm does not follow epidemic dynamics in time, but still captures all infection transfers. Furthermore, we also propose an efficient recursive method for calculating probability distributions of the number of infected nodes. Average case running time of both algor...

  3. Fast neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  4. Fast Proton Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2009-01-01

    We consider proton decay in the testable flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X models with TeV-scale vector-like particles which can be realized in free fermionic string constructions and F-theory model building. We significantly improve upon the determination of light threshold effects from prior studies, and perform a fresh calculation of the second loop for the process p \\to e^+ \\pi^0 from the heavy gauge boson exchange. The cumulative result is comparatively fast proton decay, with a majority of the mos...

  5. Chemistry of fast electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Maximoff, Sergey N.; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    A chemicurrent is a flux of fast (kinetic energy ≳ 0.5−1.3 eV) metal electrons caused by moderately exothermic (1−3 eV) chemical reactions over high work function (4−6 eV) metal surfaces. In this report, the relation between chemicurrent and surface chemistry is elucidated with a combination of top-down phenomenology and bottom-up atomic-scale modeling. Examination of catalytic CO oxidation, an example which exhibits a chemicurrent, reveals 3 constituents of this relation: The localization of...

  6. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. Screen captures to support switching attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der, T.

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with a mixture of partial- and full-screen captures. The findings show that participants in all conditions looked up from the manual to the screen on about 97% of the cases in which such a switch was ca...

  8. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  9. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage, or CCS, can be achieved using geological means, an approach that differs in many ways from CO2 capture and storage in vegetation. Firstly, it differs because this latter approach enables CO2 to be stored only temporarily – for less than one year in annual plants or for several centuries in tree phytomass. Secondly, CO2 capture is associated with bioconversion of the sun’s energy which is then stored in biochemical form in the phytomass. As the t...

  10. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  11. New measurement of $\\theta_{13}$ via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J -H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, R P; Guo, X H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y -C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, J J; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Lv, Z; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Mooney, M; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H -R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Konstantin, T; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C -H; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an improved independent measurement of neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. Electron antineutrinos were identified by inverse $\\beta$-decays with the emitted neutron captured by hydrogen, yielding a data-set with principally distinct uncertainties from that with neutrons captured by gadolinium. With the final two of eight antineutrino detectors installed, this study used 621 days of data including the previously reported 217-day data set with six detectors. The dominant statistical uncertainty was reduced by 49%. Intensive studies of the cosmogenic muon-induced $^9$Li and fast neutron backgrounds and the neutron-capture energy selection efficiency, resulted in a reduction of the systematic uncertainty by 26%. The deficit in the detected number of antineutrinos at the far detectors relative to the expected number based on the near detectors yielded $\\sin^22\\theta_{13} = 0.071 \\pm 0.011$ in the three-neutrino-oscillation framework. The combination...

  12. CO2 Capture by Carbon Aerogel–Potassium Carbonate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various composites for reducing CO2 emissions have been extensively studied. Because of their high sorption capacity and low cost, alkali metal carbonates are recognized as a potential candidate to capture CO2 from flue gas under moist conditions. However, undesirable effects and characteristics such as high regeneration temperatures or the formation of byproducts lead to high energy costs associated with the desorption process and impede the application of these materials. In this study, we focused on the regeneration temperature of carbon aerogel–potassium carbonate (CA–KC nanocomposites, where KC nanocrystals were formed in the mesopores of the CAs. We observed that the nanopore size of the original CA plays an important role in decreasing the regeneration temperature and in enhancing the CO2 capture capacity. In particular, 7CA–KC, which was prepared from a CA with 7 nm pores, exhibited excellent performance, reducing the desorption temperature to 380 K and exhibiting a high CO2 capture capacity of 13.0 mmol/g-K2CO3, which is higher than the theoretical value for K2CO3 under moist conditions.

  13. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred

  14. Fast statistical alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Bradley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/.

  15. Fast separable nonlocal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Chaudhury, Kunal N.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple and fast algorithm called PatchLift for computing distances between patches (contiguous block of samples) extracted from a given one-dimensional signal. PatchLift is based on the observation that the patch distances can be efficiently computed from a matrix that is derived from the one-dimensional signal using lifting; importantly, the number of operations required to compute the patch distances using this approach does not scale with the patch length. We next demonstrate how PatchLift can be used for patch-based denoising of images corrupted with Gaussian noise. In particular, we propose a separable formulation of the classical nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that can be implemented using PatchLift. We demonstrate that the PatchLift-based implementation of separable NLM is a few orders faster than standard NLM and is competitive with existing fast implementations of NLM. Moreover, its denoising performance is shown to be consistently superior to that of NLM and some of its variants, both in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio/structural similarity index and visual quality.

  16. Fast statistical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert K; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

  17. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, A J; Debayle, A; Johzaki, T; Mori, W B; Patel, P K; Sentoku, Y; Silva, L O

    2013-01-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the compa...

  18. Measuring Fast Ion Losses in a Reversed Field Pinch Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglo, P. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Kim, J.; Clark, J.; Capecchi, W.; Sears, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) provides a unique environment to study fast ion confinement and transport. The RFP's weak toroidal field, strong magnetic shear, and ability to enter a 3D state provide a wide range of dynamics to study fast ions. Core-localized, 25 keV fast ions are sourced into MST by a tangentially injected hydrogen/deuterium neutral beam. Neutral particle analysis and measured fusion neutron flux indicate enhanced fast ion transport in the plasma core. Past experiments point to a dynamic loss of fast ions associated with the RFP's transition to a 3D state and with beam-driven, bursting magnetic modes. Consequently, fast ion transport and losses in the RFP have garnered recent attention. Valuable information on fast-ion loss, such as energy and pitch distributions, are sought to provide a better understanding of the transport mechanisms at hand. We have constructed and implemented two fast ion loss detectors (FILDs) for use on MST. The FILDs have two, independent, design concepts: collecting particles as a function of v⊥ or with pitch greater than 0.8. In this work, we present our preliminary findings and results from our FILDs on MST. This research is supported by US DOE.

  19. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  20. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)