WorldWideScience

Sample records for captive riders

  1. 19 CFR 113.24 - Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... types of bond riders. (1) Name change of principal. A bond rider to change the name of a principal on a bond may be used only when the change in name does not change the legal identity or status of the... rider for a name change of the principal can not be used. A new bond would be required. (2)...

  2. A State of Free Riders?

    OpenAIRE

    Šejvl, M. (Michal)

    2012-01-01

    The article tries to develop some consequences for the concept of state that arises from free rider's "morality". The particular attention is paid to the potential changes in the sphere of bureaucracy, judiciary and to the political culture in general with the special focus on the situation in Central and Eastern European countries.

  3. Captive insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosová, Simona

    2011-01-01

    This thesis has as its main goal the objective analysis of the potential for captive insurance risk management in specific situations and market analysis of captive insurance. It uses a description of the history and development of this sector, addressing the advantages and disadvantages, which helps to reflect on the usefulness of this tool. Furthermore, the analysis of that market, location options of captive insurance companies and types of captives are described here as well. A large part...

  4. The Measles and Free Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Katharine

    2016-07-01

    This article takes up a game-theoretic perspective on California's recently passed bill (SB 277) that closes all nonmedical exemptions for school-mandated vaccination. Such a perspective characterizes parental decisions to vaccinate their children as a collective action problem and reveals the presence of an incentive to free ride-to enjoy the benefits of others' efforts to vaccinate their children without vaccinating one's own. This article defends California's legislation as a reasonable means of overcoming the free rider problem and of ensuring that the burdens of vaccination are shared equally. PMID:27348831

  5. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  6. A Free Rider Experiment for the Large Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Jane H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the concept of "free riders," those who enjoy the benefits of a public good without contributing to the costs of providing it. Reviews classroom experiments on the free rider topic and describes a free rider experiment using an undergraduate class of 73 students. (CFR)

  7. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the Netherlan

  8. The Free Rider and Voter Paradox "Games."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulock, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents several time-effective classroom games that can be used to help students discover the consequences of two important concepts in public finance: the free rider problem and the voting paradox. Maintains that these games encourage student involvement and stimulate class discussion. (DB)

  9. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  10. Moped and light-moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Moped and light-moped riders run a relatively high risk of becoming crash casualties. Although a trend can be observed in decreasing fatalities, the number of serious road injuries does not decrease and even seems to increase. The high risk is mainly due to the high riding speed in relation to the r

  11. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  12. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  13. The Effects of Traditional Neuromuscular Training and Rider Specific Training on Novice Horse-Rider Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleanor Boden[1; Hayley Randle[2

    2015-01-01

    The equine industry and the competition rider community are increasingly acknowledging that rider strength and fitness contribute to successful performance, and other sporting disciplines are more aware of the potential to improve performance. This study aimed to determine if the rider could maintain the classical position (i.e., with a straight line between the ear, shoulder, hip and heel) pre and post an additional dismounted fitness training programme. Students (N = 16) completed a dismounted training programme. All candidates were self-reported as sedentary and graded "'novice" by a qualified riding instructor. Initial measurements of the deviation from the ESHH (ear, shoulder, hip, heel) alignment were carried out prior to the start of the regime, weekly and at the end of the 8-week training programme. An initial data collection was carried out (prior to any additional fitness regime) in walk, rising trot and sitting trot. An exercise session was timetabled into the syllabus as well as an hour riding session to film the candidates on a weekly basis. Each rider had 3D spherical markers attached at specific anatomical landmarks; QuinticTM Sports Biomechanics Video Analysis Software package allowed a vertical line to be drawn; the deviation of each marker from this line was recorded. Deviations from ESHH alignment were not normally distributed. The deviation of the marker in relation to time, marker placement, gait and repeat stride were tested using a Friedman test. The comparison between rider (subject) and marker (factor) was analysed using a Kruskal Wallis test. Additionally, dismounted exercise regimes suggested a significant improvement on novice rider position (P 〈 0.005), each gait had a significant effect on the deviation from the ESHH alignment (N = 16, H2 = 221.53; P 〈 0.001). The results suggest that additional exercise programs are effective at improving novice horse rider position, however, which exercise

  14. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  15. Development of a chinese motorcycle rider driving violation questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy Shu-Kei; Ng, Terry Chi-Kwong

    2010-07-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report questionnaire to assess the driving violations of Chinese motorcycle riders and evaluate its screening accuracy between accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders. A Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) scale, consisting of 19 items, was developed and administered to a sample of motorcycle riders (n=920). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution, which supported the theoretical premise that there are two types of driving violations, aggressive violations and ordinary violations, and that they also apply to motorcycle riders. Cronbach's alpha for these two sub-scales was between 0.876 and 0.914. The test-retest reliability was satisfactory with intra-class correlations of individual item scores ranging from 0.729 to 0.891. Respondents with a past history of active accidents scored significantly high than those without (priders. PMID:20441839

  16. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  17. Crossing Reliability of Electric Bike Riders at Urban Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Mei; Yang Xiaobao; Jia Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a crossing reliability model of electric bike riders at urban intersections using survival analysis approach. Riders’ crossing behavior was collected by video cameras. Waiting times in the red-light phase were modeled by reliability-based model that recognizes the covariate effects. Three parametric models by the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distributions were proposed to analyze when and why electric bike riders cross against the red light. The results indicate ...

  18. Wheelchair rider risk in motor vehicles: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk involved in riding different sizes and types of motor vehicles is required to make informed decisions regarding a reasonable level of protection for wheelchair riders. Wheelchair rider accident information that can be used to estimate risk is quite limited. This paper reviewed the resources available, including the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Motor vehicle accident data for the general public were analyzed in order to better characterize wheelchair rider risk. Using the National Safety Council annual transportation mode fatality rates and the (inverse) relationship of vehicle mass and occupant fatality rate, fatality rates for vehicles that transport wheelchair riders (minivans, vans, paratransit vans, and small and large buses) were estimated. Despite the large margins of error that must be assumed for accident data and the conclusions drawn from it, the available information suggests that 1) the majority of wheelchair rider injuries could be prevented by providing protection for abrupt vehicle maneuvers; 2) the type, size, and mass of the vehicle have a substantial effect on the fatality rate, although this effect decreases for heavier (<3,000 kg) vehicles; and 3) wheelchair riders who cannot properly use tiedown and occupant restraint systems or who are frail would face a lower risk of injury if transported in larger vehicles.

  19. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  20. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de, M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle stability. A system identification method is used to extract linear stability properties from time domain analysis. The weave and capsize eigenmodes of the bicycle-rider system are analysed. The e...

  1. Crossing Reliability of Electric Bike Riders at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a crossing reliability model of electric bike riders at urban intersections using survival analysis approach. Riders’ crossing behavior was collected by video cameras. Waiting times in the red-light phase were modeled by reliability-based model that recognizes the covariate effects. Three parametric models by the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distributions were proposed to analyze when and why electric bike riders cross against the red light. The results indicate that movement information and situation factors have significant effects on riders’ crossing reliability. The findings of this paper provide an important demonstration of method and an empirical basis to assess crossing reliability of electric bike riders at the intersection.

  2. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  3. Motorcycle Area Design and Location: Impacts on the Recreational Experiences of Riders and Nonriders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Richard L.; Fillmore, Edgar C.

    This study analyzes some of the psychological and sociological effects of constructing motorcycle riding areas adjacent to fixed-site compgrounds. Findings include rider and camper profiles, self- and camper-perceptions of riders, and preferences and satisfactions of campers and riders concerning the proximity and design of riding areas.…

  4. The effect of tyre and rider properties on the stability of a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, V.E.; Doria, A.; Belt, van de D.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To work towards an advanced model of the bicycle-rider-environment system, an open-loop bicycle-rider model was developed in the commercial multibody dynamics software ADAMS. The main contribution of this article to bicycle dynamics is the analysis of tyre and rider properties that influence bicycle

  5. Beachfront nourishment decisions: the "sucker-free rider" problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Coastal communities and beachfront property owners often respond to erosion by adding sand to restore local beaches. However, beach nourishment alters shoreline dynamics, not only at the replenishment site but also in adjacent coastal regions, as natural coastal processes shift sand from one location to another. The result is that "sucker" communities pay to build up their beaches, but that replenishment also helps protect the coastlines of "free rider" communities. The sucker-free rider situation is an example of a classic problem studied in economics and game theory frameworks.

  6. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, V.E.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Dubbeldam, R.; Bonnema, G.M.; Poelman, W.A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced rider/bicy

  7. On the Free-Rider Problem in Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William B.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperative-learning activities were implemented in one of two sections of an accounting class. The problem of "free riders"--students who do not participate fully in cooperative-learning groups--was reduced by having group members rotate midway through the course. (SK)

  8. COMMODITY ADVERTISING, IMPORTS AND THE FREE RIDER PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Fairchild, Gary F.

    1988-01-01

    Advertising without supply control in the U.S. orange juice industry illustrates the import dimension of the free rider problem. Estimates of supply response to advertising are offered for "Florida-grown" orange juice, as well as for U.S. orange juice imports into both Florida and other U.S. ports.

  9. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  10. The Dynamic Free Rider Problem: A Laboratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini, Marco; Nunnari, Salvatore; Palfrey, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Most public goods are durable and have a significant dynamic component. In this paper, we report the results from a laboratory experiment designed explicitly to study the dynamics of free riding behavior in the accumulation of a durable public good that provides a stream of discounted benefits over a potentially infinite horizon. This dynamic free-rider problem differs from static ones in fundamental ways and implies several economically important predictions that are absent in static framewo...

  11. Compulsory Unionism and the Free-Rider Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Moorhouse Author-Email:

    1982-01-01

    Section 9(a) of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 provides that a union, established by a majority vote of the employees in a bargaining unit, must accord all employees in the unit the benefits of union representation. Many students of the American union move- ment interpret this legal obligation as potentially threatening union security because ofthe free-rider phenomenon. Typically, they argue that since an employee receives union benefits regardless of his membership status, economi...

  12. Patient and impatient punishers of free-riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Herrmann, Benedikt; Gamella, Juan F

    2012-12-22

    Costly punishment of cheaters who contribute little or nothing to a cooperating group has been extensively studied, as an effective means to enforce cooperation. The prevailing view is that individuals use punishment to retaliate against transgressions of moral standards such as fairness or equity. However, there is much debate regarding the psychological underpinnings of costly punishment. Some authors suggest that costly punishment must be a product of humans' capacity for reasoning, self-control and long-term planning, whereas others argue that it is the result of an impulsive, present-oriented emotional drive. Here, we explore the inter-temporal preferences of punishers in a multilateral cooperation game and show that both interpretations might be right, as we can identify two different types of punishment: punishment of free-riders by cooperators, which is predicted by patience (future orientation); and free-riders' punishment of other free-riders, which is predicted by impatience (present orientation). Therefore, the picture is more complex as punishment by free-riders probably comes not from a reaction against a moral transgression, but instead from a competitive, spiteful drive. Thus, punishment grounded on morals may be related to lasting or delayed psychological incentives, whereas punishment triggered by competitive desires may be linked to short-run aspirations. These results indicate that the individual's time horizon is relevant for the type of social behaviour she opts for. Integrating such differences in inter-temporal preferences and the social behaviour of agents might help to achieve a better understanding of how human cooperation and punishment behaviour has evolved. PMID:23075842

  13. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  14. Who Is the Free Rider in the Drop-Shipping Supply Chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Li Feng; Tu Yijian; Guo Xiaolong

    2011-01-01

    In Drop-shipping supply chain, retailers get the customer orders and manufacturers carry out the orders. Are there any free riders while obtaining the customer order? If any, who could be the free riders? By comparing the decentralized and centralized decision making, we find that both manufacturers and retailers are possible to behave as free riders. Also, we study the contract designs to coordinate manufacturers and retailers in Drop-shipping supply chain, and we find that a combination of ...

  15. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  16. Validation of a Persian Version of Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; ASADI-LARI, Mohsen; Rahimi, Habibollah; Eftekhar, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    In Iran, road traffic injuries are the first cause of burden of disease and motorcyclists are the most vulnerable road users. Elliot and colleagues developed the “Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire” (MRBQ), on the basis of Reason’s “Driver Behavior Questionnaire” (DBQ) in 2007. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Persian version of MRBQ. The 43-item MRBQ was adapted to Persian according to translation-back translation method. The questionnaire was si...

  17. The Free Rider and Cooperative Learning Groups: Perspectives from Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Geri; Clements, Kimberly D.; Hutchinson-Lendi, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Free riders are individuals who decide not to participate in cooperative learning group activities and often lower the group's morale, productivity, and effectiveness. This research paper presents a review of free riding and the results of a research study to examine the perspectives of faculty members about free riders and how they address them.…

  18. Motion analysis of a motorcycle taking into account the rider's effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaopeng; Murakami, Shintaroh; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, to analyse the rider's effects on the motion of a motorcycle, we model a rider-motorcycle system by taking into account the leaning motion of the rider's upper torso and his/her arm connection with the handlebars. The nonlinearity of the tyre force is introduced by utilising hyperbolic tangent functions to approximate a Magic Formula tyre model. On the basis of a derived nonlinear state-space model, we analyse the effects of not only the rider's arms but also his/her postures during steady turning by simulations. The rider's postures including lean-with, lean-in and lean-out are realised by adding the lean torque to the rider's upper torso. The motorcycle motion and the rider's effects are analysed in the case where the friction coefficient of the road surface changes severely during steady turning. In addition, a linearised state-space model is derived during steady turning, and a stability analysis of the rider-motorcycle system is performed.

  19. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders. PMID:25463942

  20. Co-variations between perceived personality traits and quality of the interaction between female riders and horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study seeks to investigate the relationship between perceived equine and rider personality traits on the one hand and quality of horse–rider relationships on the other. An Internet questionnaire examined the self-perceived personality traits of 2525 horse–female rider dyads that indicate

  1. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of passive rider effects on motorcycle weave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Matteo; Lot, Roberto; Cossalter, Vittore; Brendelson, James; Sadauckas, James

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of rider passive response to the lateral dynamics of motorcycles, there is very little literature on the subject. Even more uncommon are works that consider rider passive steering impedance and its effect on motorcycle stability. Moreover, until this time, there have been no published studies on steering impedance that include correlation to on-road motorcycle stability testing. This paper explores these topics using an advanced motorcycle simulation model which includes rider torso and steering impedance values derived from experimental characterisation and anthropometric modelling. A novel method for quantitatively evaluating on-road stability is discussed and utilised to compare the simulation results to on-road weave stability testing for two different riders in the 'hands-off' and 'hands-on' the handlebars conditions. Good correlation is achieved between simulation and test indicating stability differences between riders and highlighting hands-off/on effects.

  3. Comparative analyses of rider position according to skill levels during walk and trot in Jeju horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Ryew, Che-Cheong; Oh, Woon-Yong; Lee, Chong-Eon; Kang, Min-Soo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rider position at walk and trot as a function of rider skill level by analyzing joint angles. Participants included three advanced riders and six beginners, and training was conducted for one hour, twice a week for 24 weeks. In the walk stage of the beginners' group, the elbows and shoulders sustained postures comparable to those of the advanced riders group; the trunk tilted forwards at first, but later it tilted slightly behind the vertical. The knee, ankle, and left-right angle kept stable postures after 12 weeks of training (pstudy suggested that the correlation between the joint and body segment angles could be an important indicator in the evaluation of rider proficiency.

  4. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Ne...... and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users.......Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...

  5. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  6. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  7. Who Is the Free Rider in the Drop-Shipping Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Drop-shipping supply chain, retailers get the customer orders and manufacturers carry out the orders. Are there any free riders while obtaining the customer order? If any, who could be the free riders? By comparing the decentralized and centralized decision making, we find that both manufacturers and retailers are possible to behave as free riders. Also, we study the contract designs to coordinate manufacturers and retailers in Drop-shipping supply chain, and we find that a combination of quantity discount and delivery reliability compensation mechanism as to guarantee manufacturers a safe delivery can achieve the bi-direction excitation, and finally the coordination of the supply chain.

  8. Study of vibration and its effect on health of the motorcycle rider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumara BS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The motorcycle riders are subjected to extreme vibrations due to the vibrations of its engine, improper structural design of the motorcycle and the bad road conditions. The literature review reveals that the vibrations are most hazardous to the health if it exceeds the limit. The experiments were conducted to measure the magnitude of the vibrations acting on the rider during motorcycle riding under various road conditions. Experimental values of accelerations and frequencies which are beyond permissible limits according to the literature confirm that vibration certainly affects health of the motorcycle rider

  9. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  10. Modelling biomechanical requirements of a rider for different horse-riding techniques at trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cocq, Patricia; Muller, Mees; Clayton, Hilary M; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2013-05-15

    The simplest model possible for bouncing systems consists of a point mass bouncing passively on a mass-less spring without viscous losses. This type of spring-mass model has been used to describe the stance period of symmetric running gaits. In this study, we investigated the interaction between horse and rider at trot using three models of force-driven spring (-damper)-mass systems. The first system consisted of a spring and a mass representing the horse that interact with another spring and mass representing the rider. In the second spring-damper-mass model, dampers, a free-fall and a forcing function for the rider were incorporated. In the third spring-damper-mass model, an active spring system for the leg of the rider was introduced with a variable spring stiffness and resting length in addition to a saddle spring with fixed material properties. The output of the models was compared with experimental data of sitting and rising trot and with the modern riding technique used by jockeys in racing. The models show which combinations of rider mass, spring stiffness and damping coefficient will result in a particular riding technique or other behaviours. Minimization of the peak force of the rider and the work of the horse resulted in an 'extreme' modern jockey technique. The incorporation of an active spring system for the leg of the rider was needed to simulate rising trot. Thus, the models provide insight into the biomechanical requirements a rider has to comply with to respond effectively to the movements of a horse. PMID:23785107

  11. Free Riders, Holdouts, and Public Use: A Tale of Two Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Miceli

    2009-01-01

    Free riders and holdouts are market failures that potentially impede the completion of otherwise beneficial transactions. The key difference is that the free rider problem is a demand side externality that requires taxation to compel payment for a public good, while the holdout problem is a supply side externality that requires eminent domain to force the sale of land for large scale projects. This paper highlights that distinction between these two problems and uses the resulting insights to...

  12. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  13. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  14. Coupled economic-coastline modeling with suckers and free riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zachary C.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya

    2013-06-01

    erosion is a natural trend along most sandy coastlines. Humans often respond to shoreline erosion with beach nourishment to maintain coastal property values. Locally extending the shoreline through nourishment alters alongshore sediment transport and changes shoreline dynamics in adjacent coastal regions. If left unmanaged, sandy coastlines can have spatially complex or simple patterns of erosion due to the relationship of large-scale morphology and the local wave climate. Using a numerical model that simulates spatially decentralized and locally optimal nourishment decisions characteristic of much of U.S. East Coast beach management, we find that human erosion intervention does not simply reflect the alongshore erosion pattern. Spatial interactions generate feedbacks in economic and physical variables that lead to widespread emergence of "free riders" and "suckers" with subsequent inequality in the alongshore distribution of property value. Along cuspate coastlines, such as those found along the U.S. Southeast Coast, these long-term property value differences span an order of magnitude. Results imply that spatially decentralized management of nourishment can lead to property values that are divorced from spatial erosion signals; this management approach is unlikely to be optimal.

  15. Blood donation as a public good: an empirical investigation of the free rider problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abásolo, Ignacio; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-04-01

    A voluntary blood donation system can be seen as a public good. People can take advantage without contributing and have a free ride. We empirically analyse the extent of free riding and its determinants. Interviews of the general public in Spain (n = 1,211) were used to ask whether respondents were (or have been) regular blood donors and, if not, the reason. Free riders are defined as those who are medically capable to donate blood but do not. In addition, we distinguish four different types of free riding depending on the reason given for not donating. Binomial and multinomial logit models estimate the effect of individual characteristics on the propensity to free ride and the likelihood of the free rider types. Amongst those who are able to donate, there is a 67 % probability of being a free rider. The most likely free rider is female, single, with low/no education and abstained from voting in a recent national election. Gender, age, religious practice, political participation and regional income explain the type of free rider. PMID:23797489

  16. A Free-Rider Forecasting Model Based on Gray System Theory in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to forecast the number of free-riders in P2P networks which can help network managers to know the status of the networks in advance and take appropriate measures to cope with free-riding behavior. Free-riding behavior is common in P2P networks, which has a negative impact on the robustness, availability and stability of the networks. Severe free-riding behavior may lead to the crash of the whole P2P application system. Based on the research of free-riding behavior in P2P networks, this paper constructs a free-rider forecasting model (GST model using Gray System Theory. Simulation experiments show that this model has high feasibility, and can carry out reasonable predictions on the number of free-riders in P2P networks.

  17. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the ``punishment pool'' from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  18. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the "punishment pool" from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defector...

  19. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  20. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  1. Why Churches Need Free-riders: Religious Capital Formation and Religious Group Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McBride

    2007-01-01

    According to existing theory, religion thrives when groups overcome the free-rider problem in the production of religious goods. This paper explains, however, that allowing some free-riding is necessary in a dynamic setting. If an individual only contributes when she has high religious capital, and if capital only forms after exposure to the religious good, then a church must allow her to temporarily free-ride in order to turn her into a future contributor. Free-riders comprise a risky but ne...

  2. Blood Donation as a Public Good: An Empirical Investigation of the Free-Rider

    OpenAIRE

    Abásolo, I.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2012-01-01

    A voluntary blood donation system can be seen as a public good. People can take advantage without contributing, which leads to the so called free-rider problem. An empirical study is undertaken to analyse the extent of free-riding and its determinants in this context. Interviews of the general public in Spain (n=1,211) ask whether respondents are (or have been) regular blood donors; and if not, the reason. Free-riders are defined as those individuals who have no medical reason that disables t...

  3. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and wrap-up…

  4. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids.

  5. Analysis of the stability of PTW riders in autonomous braking scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidis, Ioannis; Kavadarli, Gueven; Erich, Schuller; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    While fatalities of car occupants in the EU decreased remarkably over the last decade, Powered Two Wheelers (PTWs) fatalities still increase following the increase of PTW ownership. Autonomous braking systems have been implemented in several types of vehicles and are presently addressed by research in the field of PTWs. A major concern in this context is the rider stability. Experiments with volunteers were performed in order to find out whether autonomous braking for PTWs will produce a greater instability of the rider in comparison to manual braking. The PTW's braking conditions were simulated in a laboratory with a motorcycle mock-up mounted on a sled, which was accelerated with an average of 0.35 g. The motion of the rider was captured in autonomous braking scenarios with and without pre-warning as well as in manual braking scenarios. No significant differences between the scenarios were found with respect to maximum forward displacement of the volunteer's torso and head (pautonomous braking at low deceleration will not cause significant instabilities of the rider in comparison to manual braking in idealized laboratory conditions. Based on this, further research into the development and implementation of autonomous braking systems for PTWs, e.g. by extensive riding tests, seems valuable.

  6. Academic Standards as Public Goods and Varieties of Free-Rider Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Denton

    2002-01-01

    Explores the manner in which academic standards confer benefit, exhibit public-good characteristics, and elicit free-riding and "underproduction" in various parts of the academic community. Examines the resulting challenge to the maintenance of academic quality and the difficulty of discouraging free-rider behavior. (Contains 32 references.)…

  7. Bargaining Representation and Union Membership in the Federal Sector: A Free Rider's Paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Marick F.; Atkin, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Examines bargaining representation and union membership data among the three principal federal-employee unions. Finds that each union faces a free rider problem and the magnitude of the problem differs across unions. Discusses the financial implications of the problem and offers insights toward future directions. (JOW)

  8. Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanathan, Karthik; Boyd, Robert

    2004-11-25

    Models of large-scale human cooperation take two forms. 'Indirect reciprocity' occurs when individuals help others in order to uphold a reputation and so be included in future cooperation. In 'collective action', individuals engage in costly behaviour that benefits the group as a whole. Although the evolution of indirect reciprocity is theoretically plausible, there is no consensus about how collective action evolves. Evidence suggests that punishing free riders can maintain cooperation, but why individuals should engage in costly punishment is unclear. Solutions to this 'second-order free rider problem' include meta-punishment, mutation, conformism, signalling and group-selection. The threat of exclusion from indirect reciprocity can sustain collective action in the laboratory. Here, we show that such exclusion is evolutionarily stable, providing an incentive to engage in costly cooperation, while avoiding the second-order free rider problem because punishers can withhold help from free riders without damaging their reputations. However, we also show that such a strategy cannot invade a population in which indirect reciprocity is not linked to collective action, thus leaving unexplained how collective action arises. PMID:15565153

  9. Differences in rider movement pattern between different degrees of collection at the trot in high-level dressage horses ridden on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, A; Roepstroff, L; Geser-von Peinen, K; Weishaupt, M A; Rhodin, M

    2015-06-01

    Collection is a central term in equine dressage, defined as a shortening of the horse's stride length with retained energy and hind limb activity. How collection is induced by the rider has yet not been investigated objectively. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the movement pattern of high-level dressage riders between free trot (loose reins), passage and a range of three speeds in collected trot. Both at higher speed in collected trot and in passage, the rider's pelvis became more caudally rotated and the rider's lumbar back became more flexed. However, in passage there was also a decrease in phase-shift between horse and rider movements, suggesting that the rider used the seat more actively. In free trot, the rider's pelvis was more cranially rotated, the lumbar back was more extended, the rider's body inclined more forwards, and the phase-shift between horse and rider was increased, compared to collected trot. The observed changes were partly explainable from changes in the horse's movement pattern. However, most differences in rider body position seemed unrelated to the horse's movements, but were in accordance with instructions in equestrian texts, suggesting that those changes were voluntarily adopted by the riders. PMID:25703543

  10. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  11. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability in the horse and its rider: different responses to training and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Mareike; Biau, Sophie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Faure, Jean-Michel; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Although some information exists on the stress response of horses in equestrian sports, the horse-rider team is much less well understood. In this study, salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals) were analysed in horses and their riders (n=6 each) at a public performance and an identical rehearsal that was not open to the public. Cortisol concentrations increased in both horses and riders (P<0.001) but did not differ between performance and rehearsal. HR in horses and riders increased during the rehearsal and the public performance (P<0.001) but the increase in HR was more pronounced (P<0.01) in riders than in their horses during the public performance (from 91 ± 10 to 150 ± 15 beats/min) compared to the rehearsal (from 94 ± 10 to 118 ± 12 beats/min). The SDRR decreased significantly during the equestrian tasks in riders (P<0.001), but not in their horses. The RMSSD decreased in horses and riders (P<0.001) during rehearsal and performance, indicating a decrease in parasympathetic tone. The decrease in RMSSD in the riders was more pronounced (P<0.05) during the performance (from 32.6 ± 6.6 to 3.8 ± 0.3 ms) than during the rehearsal (from 27.5 ± 4.2 to 6.6 ± 0.6 ms). The study has shown that the presence of spectators caused more pronounced changes in cardiac activity in the riders than it did in their horses.

  12. Rotary peening with captive shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building

  13. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  14. Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Mason C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive OttersPage 18 - 19 (Report)Chris MasonAssays for DDE, Dieldrin and PCBs were carried out on captive otters to provide a baseline of presumed uncontaminated animals for comparison with results from surveys in the wild. Results for captive animals were much lower than those from upland Wales, which has a thriving population of wild otters.

  15. A randomized controlled evaluation study of the effects of a one-day advanced rider training course.

    OpenAIRE

    Boele-Vos, M.J. & Craen, S. de

    2016-01-01

    Motorcyclists have a relative high risk of crash involvement. As a consequence there is an on-going search for safety measures to improve road safety for motorcyclists. One popular measure is motorcycle training. Although intuitively sound, there are only few thorough studies on rider training courses and they do not always show a positive safety effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the advanced rider training course ‘Risk’. Through random assignment motorcyclists (N = 2...

  16. Vision-based measuring system for rider's pose estimation during motorcycle riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, F.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzola, M.; Ruspini, E.; Zappa, E.

    2013-07-01

    Inertial characteristics of the human body are comparable with the vehicle ones in motorbike riding: the study of a rider's dynamic is a crucial step in system modeling. An innovative vision based system able to measure the six degrees of freedom of the driver with respect to the vehicle is proposed here: the core of the proposed approach is an image acquisition and processing technique capable of reconstructing the position and orientation of a target fixed on the rider's back. The technique is firstly validated in laboratory tests comparing measured and imposed target motion laws and successively tested in a real case scenario during track tests with amateur and professional drivers. The presented results show the capability of the technique to correctly describe the driver's dynamic, his interaction with the vehicle as well as the possibility to use the new measuring technique in the comparison of different driving styles.

  17. Resultatandelssystem i en mindre svensk bank : Ger systemet upphov till Free rider-problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlind, Mattias; Kans, Ellinor

    2013-01-01

    Den här studien använder Agency-teorin och Stewardship-teorin för att undersöka hur motiverande ett Resultatandelssystem (RS) är för de anställda på en mindre svensk bank. Mer specifikt så undersöks hur påtagliga så kallade Free rider-problem är och vilka bakomliggande orsaker som påverkar vikten av sådana problem. Detta bygger på en rent kvalitativ undersökning baserat på intervjuer med anställda på Leksand Sparbank. Resultaten visar att förekomsten av Free rider-problem inte är så vanlig so...

  18. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. PMID:27015225

  19. Contests over Public Goods: Evolutionary Stability and the Free-Rider Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    We analyze group contests for public goods by applying the solution concept of an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS). We show that a global ESS cannot exist, because a mutant free-rider can always invade group behavior successfully. There does exist, however, a unique local ESS, which we identify with evolutionary equilibrium. It coincides with Nash equilibrium, the hitherto dominant solution concept in contest theory, if and only if groups are symmetric. For asymmetric groups it always propo...

  20. The Free-Rider Problem: A Pedagogical Note (Using Indifference Curve Technology)

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Belton, Willie; Mcleod, John

    1994-01-01

    This brief note develops a pedagogically useful new (albeit still rudimentary) way of teaching the free-rider concept. This simple approach applies the familiar tools of indifference curve analysis to the topic at hand. Since so many students of economics are well versed in indifference curves, this approach is suggested as a useful supplement to the usual textbook treatment, which generally adopts supply-demand analysis .

  1. The Free Rider Problem in Community-Based Rural Water Supply: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Breier; Martine Visser

    2006-01-01

    Community-based water supply projects in rural South Africa have frequently proved unsustainable, with many communities unable to raise sufficient funds to meet operation and maintenance costs. A key obstacle to cost recovery (and the focus of this paper) is the free rider problem. As rural water services are frequently supplied as a public good, the link between paying for water and receiving it is not as straightforward as it is for private goods, and beneficiaries may have a material incen...

  2. Dynamic Voluntary Contribution to a Public Good: Learning to be a Free Rider

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Christiane; Riechmann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether boundedly rational agents learn to behave optimally when asked to voluntarily contribute to a public good. The decision process of individuals is described by an Evolutionary Algorithm. We analyze the learning process of purely and impurely altruistic agents and find that in both cases the contribution level converges towards the Nash equilibrium although, with pure altruism, exact free rider-behavior is never observed. The latter result corresponds to...

  3. Can Endogenously Chosen Institutions Mitigate the Free-Rider Problem and Reduce Perverse Punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan, Arhan; Page, Talbot; Putterman, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Previous experiments on public goods dilemmas have found that the opportunity to punish leads to higher contributions and reduces the free rider problem; however, a substantial amount of punishment is targeted on high contributors. In the experiment reported here, subjects are given the opportunity to vote on rules governing punishment. We found that, from their first opportunity to vote, no group ever allowed punishment of high contributors, most groups eventually voted to allow punishment o...

  4. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding.

  5. Forging a global environmental agreement through trade sanctions on free riders?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of self-enforcing global environmental agreements in a world economy with international trade and two groups of countries that differ with respect to fuel demand and environmental damage. It investigates whether the signatories' threat to embargo (potential) free riders secures all countries' participation in the agreement. Resorting to numerical analysis, we find that an embargo may be unnecessary, ineffective or even counterproductive - depending on the degr...

  6. The streetboard rider: an appealing problem in non-holonomic mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janová, J.; Musilová, J.

    2010-03-01

    This paper enlarges the reservoir of solved tutor problems in non-holonomic mechanics at the undergraduate level of physics education. Unlike other, rather artificial, solved problems typically used, the streetboard-rider locomotion problem presented here represents an appealing contemporary real-world problem with interesting applications in a popular sport and in robotics. In this paper, the streetboard motion is discussed from the physical point of view. We show that the interesting snake-like motion performed by streetboard riders stems from its non-holonomic nature. The related non-holonomic constraints are derived and the problem of the mechanical system subjected to these non-holonomic constraints is solved using methods appropriate to the undergraduate university level. The analytical solution for the circular motion and the numerical solution for the general motion are obtained, the physical meaning of the derived constrained forces is investigated and the results are discussed with respect to observed streetboard-rider locomotion. The brief outline of the paper can be used as a demonstration example in non-holonomic mechanics lessons, while the paper itself establishes an original undergraduate computational student project in theoretical mechanics.

  7. Effects of rider position on continuous wave Doppler responses to maximal cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, W D; Betz, C B; Humphrey, R H

    1994-03-01

    Using 10 well-trained (VO2peak = 60.6 ml kg-1min-1) college age cyclists and continuous wave Doppler echocardiography, peak acceleration (PkA) and velocity (PkV) of blood flow in the ascending aorta, and the stroke velocity integral (SVI) were assessed to determine if rider position influenced the central haemodynamic responses to graded maximal cycle ergometry. Cyclist position was determined by hand placement on the uprights (UPRI) or drops (DROP) of conventional handlebars or using aerodynamic handlebars (AHB). All subjects consistently achieved a peak workload of 300 W. The Doppler variables did not differ significantly between rider positions at each stage of the maximal exercise tests but did change in response to increasing workloads. PkA was significantly (P or = 240 W versus PkV increased significantly (P < 0.05) up to 180 W and then reached a plateau. SVI increased to a workload of 120 W and then progressively declined, becoming significantly (P < 0.05) less at 300 W. For each stage, neither submaximal VO2, VI nor heart rate (HR) differed significantly between each trial. These results suggest that rider position does not affect the physiological response to maximal bicycle ergometry as responses to each position are similar. PMID:8044492

  8. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program. PMID:26598960

  9. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  10. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. PMID:23036395

  11. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  12. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  13. Negotiating left-hand and right-hand bends: a motorcycle simulator study to investigate experiential and behaviour differences across rider groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Crundall

    Full Text Available Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding 'bad habits' gained through experience alone.

  14. Negotiating left-hand and right-hand bends: a motorcycle simulator study to investigate experiential and behaviour differences across rider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Crundall, David; Stedmon, Alex W

    2012-01-01

    Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding 'bad habits' gained through experience alone.

  15. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  16. Horse mouth behaviour related to selected kinematic variables representing horse-rider interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Eisersiö, Marie; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, MA; Egenvall, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the influence of rein contact and the movement of the rider’s hand on the horse’s behaviour, analysing data on horses ridden in two different head and neck positions. We hypothesized that the rider’s hand movements and rein tension generate behavioural responses from the horse, and more so when ridden on the bit compared to free and unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horses/riders in sitting trot on a high-speed treadmill...

  17. A Free-Rider Forecasting Model Based on Gray System Theory in P2P Networks

    OpenAIRE

    He Xu; Zhao-xiong Zhou; Suo-ping Wang; Ru-chuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to forecast the number of free-riders in P2P networks which can help network managers to know the status of the networks in advance and take appropriate measures to cope with free-riding behavior. Free-riding behavior is common in P2P networks, which has a negative impact on the robustness, availability and stability of the networks. Severe free-riding behavior may lead to the crash of the whole P2P application system. Based on the research of free-riding behavior in ...

  18. The union membership wage-premium puzzle: Is there a free rider problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Economists have, at least since Olson (1965), suggested that there is a free rider problem associated with labour union membership. The reason is that union-set wages are available to all workers covered by unions irrespective of whether or not they are union members, and - given that there are costs to membership – workers will only join if they are coerced or offered incentive excludable goods. Yet empirical research for both the US and for Great Britain has shown that there is a substantia...

  19. Analysis of Potential Free-Rider Eligibility for a Proposed Commercial Building Lighting Tax Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Biyani, Rahul K.

    2004-09-30

    The report provides estimates of the potential volume of ''free riders'', in terms of both eligible square footage and associated available tax deductions, in a proposed commercial building lighting tax amendment to the 2003 Energy Bill. Determination of the actual tax rate for businesses and how the amendment may impact tax revenue collected by the treasury is beyond the scope of this effort. Others, such as the Treasury itself, are best equipped to make their own estimates of the eventual impact based on the total deductions available to taxable entities.

  20. The role of composition in the interpretation of the Rider on the white horse and the seven seals in Revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G.R. de Villiers

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the way in which the author of Revelation composed the seven seals: Formal elements group the seals in smaller patterns. It then explains how this reading of the composition contributes to the process of interpretation by analysing the Rider on the white horse as first seal. Other aspects of the author’s compositional skills are brought into discussion in a last part of the article where the meaning of the Rider on the white horse and the ambiguity of the symbols are discussed.

  1. EL PROBLEMA DEL FREE-RIDER EN LAS TOMAS DE CONTROL Y LA REGULACIÓN DE LAS OPA S /

    OpenAIRE

    Baixauli Soler, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    La existencia de un toehold influye en la aparición del problema de free-rider, pero su influencia esta condicionada por el régimen legislativo que regule las OPAs. Este artículo utiliza un modelo de un único comprador para analizar el problema de free-rider teniendo en cuenta el efecto de los parámetros que deben estar definidos en una ley de OPAs. Usamos el marco legislativo del mercado español para estudiar cómo la probabilidad de éxito en una OPA esta limitada o condicionada por el marco ...

  2. Simulative investigation on head injuries of electric self-balancing scooter riders subject to ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Qi, Hongsheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The safety performance of an electric self-balancing scooter (ESS) has recently become a main concern in preventing its further wide application as a major candidate for green transportation. Scooter riders may suffer severe brain injuries in possible vehicle crash accidents not only from contact with a windshield or bonnet but also from secondary contact with the ground. In this paper, virtual vehicle-ESS crash scenarios combined with finite element (FE) car models and multi-body scooter/human models are set up. Post-impact kinematic gestures of scooter riders under various contact conditions, such as different vehicle impact speeds, ESS moving speeds, impact angles or positions, and different human sizes, are classified and analyzed. Furthermore, head-ground impact processes are reconstructed using validated FE head models, and important parameters of contusion and laceration (e.g., coup or contrecoup pressures and Von Mises stress and the maximum shear stress) are extracted and analyzed to assess the severity of regional contusion from head-ground contact. Results show that the brain injury risk increases with vehicle speeds and ESS moving speeds and may provide fundamental knowledge to popularize the use of a helmet and the vehicle-fitted safety systems, and lay a strong foundation for the reconstruction of ESS-involved accidents. There is scope to improve safety for the use of ESS in public roads according to the analysis and conclusions.

  3. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. PMID:27092548

  4. Injury Severity of Motorcycle Riders Involved in Traffic Crashes in Hunan, China: A Mixed Ordered Logit Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fangrong; Li, Maosheng; Xu, Pengpeng; Zhou, Hanchu; Haque, Md Mazharul; Huang, Helai

    2016-01-01

    Issues related to motorcycle safety in China have not received enough research attention. As such, the causal relationship between injury outcomes of motorcycle crashes and potential risk factors remains unknown. This study intended to investigate the injury risk of motorcyclists involved in road traffic crashes in China. To account for the ordinal nature of response outcomes and unobserved heterogeneity, a mixed ordered logit model was employed. Given that the crash occurrence process is different between intersections and non-intersections, separate models were developed for these locations to independently estimate the impacts of various contributing factors on motorcycle riders' injury severity. The analysis was based on the police-reported crash dataset obtained from the Traffic Administration Bureau of Hunan Provincial Public Security Ministry. Factors associated with a substantially higher probability of fatalities and severe injuries included motorcycle riders older than 60 years, the absence of helmets, motorcycle riders identified to be equal duty, and when a motorcycle collided with a heavy vehicle during the night time without lighting. Crashes occurred along county roads with curve and slope alignment or at regions with higher GDP were associated with an elevated risk of fatality of motorcycle riders, while unsignalized intersections were related to less severe injuries. Findings of this study are beneficial in forming several targeted countermeasures for motorcycle safety in China, including designing roads with appropriate road delineation and street lighting, strict enforcement for speeding and red light violations, promoting helmet usage, and improving the conspicuity of motorcyclists. PMID:27428987

  5. Author Shares a Message of Acceptance with Young Readers: Encouraging Cultural Understanding Author Prue Mason's "Camel Rider"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Prue Mason about her book "Camel Rider." Prue Mason has written articles for a children's magazine in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and for "The School Magazine" in Australia. Mason also serves as the science and technology editor for an Australian children's magazine. She discusses what prompted her to write…

  6. Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods. I. Resources, Interest, Group Size, and the Free-Rider Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwell, Gerald; Ames, Ruth E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study in which high school students were confronted with an investment opportunity and had to decide whether to invest in a private good which returned profits to the individual or a public good which returned profits to the group. Results indicate that "free riders" in the public good group do not contribute to the deterioration of the…

  7. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  8. Effect of the rider position during rising trot on the horse׳s biomechanics (back and trunk kinematics and pressure under the saddle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Cheze, L; Pourcelot, P; Desquilbet, L; Duray, L; Chateau, H

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about the horse-saddle-rider interaction remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rider׳s position at rising trot on the pressure distribution, spine movements, stirrups forces and locomotion of the horse. The horse׳s back movements were measured using IMUs fixed at the levels of thoracic (T6, T12, T16) and lumbar (L2, L5) vertebrae, the pressure distribution using a pressure mat and stirrups forces using force sensors. The horse׳s and rider׳s approximated centres of mass (COM) were calculated using 2D reflective markers. To compare both trot phases (rider seated/rider standing), three horses were trotted at the rising trot by the same rider. Means±SD of each parameter for sitting and standing were compared using a Student׳s t test (p=0.05). Stirrups forces showed two peaks of equal magnitude in every stride cycle for left and right stirrups but increased during the standing phase. Simultaneously, the pressure for the whole mat significantly increased by +3.1kPa during the sitting phase with respect to standing phase. The T12-T16 and T16-L2 angular ranges of motion (ROM) were significantly reduced (-3.2° -1.2°) and the T6-T12 and L2-L5 ROM were significantly increased (+1.7° +0.7°) during sitting phase compared to standing phase. During rising trot, the sitting phase does not only increase the pressure on the horse׳s back but also reduces the back motion under the saddle compared to the standing phase. These results give new insights into the understanding of horse-rider interactions and equine back pain management. PMID:26947029

  9. REITs as Captive-Financing Affiliates: Impact on Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Ho Hsieh; C.F. Sirmans

    1991-01-01

    Some real estate investment trusts are created as "captive-financing" affiliates by their sponsors. This creates conflicts of interest between the sponsor/manager and shareholders. Such conflicts could affect the financial performance of the firm. Using data on a sample of REITs, results show that captive-financing REITs' financial performance is on average inferior to that of non-captive REITs.

  10. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  11. Optimal design parameters of the bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihuku, Y; Herzog, W

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal values of design parameters for a bicycle-rider system (crank length, pelvic inclination, seat height, and rate of crank rotation) which maximize the power output from muscles of the human lower limb during bicycling. The human lower limb was modelled as a planar system of five rigid bodies connected by four smooth pin joints and driven by seven functional muscle groups. The muscles were assumed to behave according to an adapted form of Hill's equation. The dependence of the average power on the design parameters was examined. The instantaneous power of each muscle group was studied and simultaneous activity of two seemingly antagonistic muscle groups was analyzed. Average peak power for one full pedal revolution was found to be around 1100 W. The upper body position corresponding to this peak power output was slightly reclined, and the pedalling rate was 155 rpm for a nominal crank length of 170 mm.

  12. Equine behaviour and heart rate in temperament tests with or without rider or handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König von Borstel, U; Euent, S; Graf, P; König, S; Gauly, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare horses' heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (RMSSD, pNN50) and behaviour in the same temperament test when being ridden, led, and released free. Behavioural measurements included scores and linear measurements for reactivity (R), activity (A), time to calm down (T) and emotionality (E), recorded during the approach (1) and/or during confrontation with the stimulus (2). Sixty-five horses were each confronted 3 times (1 ridden, 1 led, 1 free running in balanced order) with 3 novel and/or sudden stimuli. Mixed model analysis indicated that leading resulted in the lowest (PFree running resulted either in the strongest (A2, E1, E2, R2) or in the lowest (A1, T2, HR, RMSSD, pNN50) reactions. The repeatability across tests for HR (0.57), but not for RMSSD (0.23) or pNN50 (0.25) was higher than for any behavioural measurement: the latter ranged from values below 0.10 (A1, A2, T2) to values between 0.30 and 0.45 (E1, E2, R2). Overall, the results show that a rider or handler influences, but not completely masks, the horses' intrinsic behaviour in a temperament test, and this influence appeared to be stronger on behavioural variables and heart rate variability than on the horses' heart rates. Taking both practical considerations and repeatabilities into account, reactivity appears to be the most valuable parameter. Emotionality and heart rate can also yield valid results reflecting additional dimensions of temperament although their practical relevance may be less obvious. If a combination of observed variables is chosen with care, a valid assessment of a horse's temperament may be possible in all types of tests. However, in practice, tests that resemble the practical circumstances most closely, i.e. testing riding horses under a rider, should be chosen. PMID:21616087

  13. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  14. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  15. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... support the universal rights of freedom of religion, expression, and peaceful assembly; equality for men... course of history when the actions of ordinary people yearning for freedom ignite the desires of people... advancing freedom's cause. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first Captive Nations Week...

  16. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; Visser, Kathalijne E K; van den Broek, Jan; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2012-04-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A-C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as 'matching' or 'mismatching', and the horses were categorised as 'compliant', 'partly-compliant' or 'non-compliant'. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P=0.015) and a decreased BS (P=0.004) within and across different tests. 'Matching' horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR ('match' 69±10 vs. 'mismatch' 72±9, P=0.001) and BS ('match' 1.9±1.1 vs. 'mismatch' 3.8±1.4, P=0.017) of the horse. 'Compliant' (68±8, Phorses had significantly lower HR than 'non-compliant' (75±9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective 'match' diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.

  17. Anticipation, Free-Rider Problem, and Adaptation to Trade Union: Re-examining the Curious Case of Dissatisfied Union Members

    OpenAIRE

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents evidence that rejects the paradox of dissatisfied union members. Using eleven waves of the BHPS, it studies the past, contemporaneous, and future effects of union membership on job satisfaction. By separating union "free-riders" from other nonmembers in the fixed effects equations, I find significant anticipation effects to unionism for prospective members and covered nonmembers of both genders. Workers go on to report, on average, a significant net increase in overall jo...

  18. Cooperative VET in Training Networks: Analysing the Free-Rider Problem in a Sociology-of-Conventions Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Julia Leemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In training networks, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises pool their resources to train apprentices within the framework of the dual VET system, while an intermediary organisation is tasked with managing operations. Over the course of their apprenticeship, the apprentices switch from one training company to another on a (half- yearly basis. Drawing on a case study of four training networks in Switzerland and the theoretical framework of the sociology of conventions, this paper aims to understand the reasons for the slow dissemination and reluctant adoption of this promising form of organising VET in Switzerland. The results of the study show that the system of moving from one company to another creages a variety of free-rider constellations in the distribution of the collectively generated corporative benefits. This explains why companies are reluctant to participate in this model. For the network to be sustainable, the intermediary organisation has to address discontent arising from free-rider problems while taking into account that the solutions found are always tentative and will often result in new free-rider problems.

  19. Injury Severity of Motorcycle Riders Involved in Traffic Crashes in Hunan, China: A Mixed Ordered Logit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangrong Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to motorcycle safety in China have not received enough research attention. As such, the causal relationship between injury outcomes of motorcycle crashes and potential risk factors remains unknown. This study intended to investigate the injury risk of motorcyclists involved in road traffic crashes in China. To account for the ordinal nature of response outcomes and unobserved heterogeneity, a mixed ordered logit model was employed. Given that the crash occurrence process is different between intersections and non-intersections, separate models were developed for these locations to independently estimate the impacts of various contributing factors on motorcycle riders’ injury severity. The analysis was based on the police-reported crash dataset obtained from the Traffic Administration Bureau of Hunan Provincial Public Security Ministry. Factors associated with a substantially higher probability of fatalities and severe injuries included motorcycle riders older than 60 years, the absence of helmets, motorcycle riders identified to be equal duty, and when a motorcycle collided with a heavy vehicle during the night time without lighting. Crashes occurred along county roads with curve and slope alignment or at regions with higher GDP were associated with an elevated risk of fatality of motorcycle riders, while unsignalized intersections were related to less severe injuries. Findings of this study are beneficial in forming several targeted countermeasures for motorcycle safety in China, including designing roads with appropriate road delineation and street lighting, strict enforcement for speeding and red light violations, promoting helmet usage, and improving the conspicuity of motorcyclists.

  20. Injury Severity of Motorcycle Riders Involved in Traffic Crashes in Hunan, China: A Mixed Ordered Logit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fangrong; Li, Maosheng; Xu, Pengpeng; Zhou, Hanchu; Haque, Md. Mazharul; Huang, Helai

    2016-01-01

    Issues related to motorcycle safety in China have not received enough research attention. As such, the causal relationship between injury outcomes of motorcycle crashes and potential risk factors remains unknown. This study intended to investigate the injury risk of motorcyclists involved in road traffic crashes in China. To account for the ordinal nature of response outcomes and unobserved heterogeneity, a mixed ordered logit model was employed. Given that the crash occurrence process is different between intersections and non-intersections, separate models were developed for these locations to independently estimate the impacts of various contributing factors on motorcycle riders’ injury severity. The analysis was based on the police-reported crash dataset obtained from the Traffic Administration Bureau of Hunan Provincial Public Security Ministry. Factors associated with a substantially higher probability of fatalities and severe injuries included motorcycle riders older than 60 years, the absence of helmets, motorcycle riders identified to be equal duty, and when a motorcycle collided with a heavy vehicle during the night time without lighting. Crashes occurred along county roads with curve and slope alignment or at regions with higher GDP were associated with an elevated risk of fatality of motorcycle riders, while unsignalized intersections were related to less severe injuries. Findings of this study are beneficial in forming several targeted countermeasures for motorcycle safety in China, including designing roads with appropriate road delineation and street lighting, strict enforcement for speeding and red light violations, promoting helmet usage, and improving the conspicuity of motorcyclists. PMID:27428987

  1. Global Economic Crisis and Career Aspirations among ‘Okada’ Riders in Nigeria: The Influence of Apprenticeship Skills Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluranti I. Ogunrinola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of their usefulness as fast movers of passengers and goods in urban traffic congestion, the motor-cycle taxis have been noted for high rate of road traffic crashes inflicting injuries to many and death in some cases. Thus, a number of operators are in the occupation for other purposes rather than making it a lifetime career. This study is therefore aimed at examining such other purposes and future career aspirations of riders. It is also aimed at testing the hypothesis of the probabilistic migration model as propounded by Todaro. The data for the study is from a survey of 777 okada riders in two states of South West Nigeria. Using binary logit regression approach, the determinants of career choice among respondents are examined. The findings of the study shows employment as okada riders are for raising start-up capital in most cases, and that education, current earnings level and apprenticeship skills training among others are statistically significant variables affecting career aspiration among the respondents. Provision of commensurate employment for the educated youths and relaxing capital constraints for those with previous skills training are some of the policy implications of findings.

  2. Traumatic tentorial hematoma in two-wheeler riders: Correlation with helmet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak; Dawar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tentorial hematoma is frequently seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially in motorized two-wheeler riders following head injury. However its relevance and prognostic significance are not known. Objective: To evaluate patients of TBI with tentorial hematoma using a simple grading system and attempt to correlate this grading with factors like helmet use and neurological outcome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study over a 1-year period included patients with TBI who had tentorial hematoma in the initial plain head. Patients were divided into three grades based on the initial CT findings: Grade I: Isolated tentorial hematoma, grade II: tentorial hematoma with midline shift but open cisterns and grade III: Tentorial hematoma with effaced cisterns. Clinical and radiological records of patients including admission GCS and GOS at discharge were assessed in all cases. Observations: A total of 1786 patients of TBI were admitted during the study period. Of these, 106 (5.9%) patients had tentorial hematoma. 84.9% (n = 90) were male and 15.1% (n = 16) were female with the mean age being 36.5 years (range 2-66 years). The mean admission GCS was 13, 11 and 8 in patients with grade I, II and III tentorial hematoma respectively. 43.4% (n = 46) of the patients had grade I, 32.1% (n = 34) had grade II and 24.5% (n = 26) patients had grade III tentorial hematoma. Seventy-one patients (84.5%) were riding motorized two wheelers with 63 (89%) wearing helmets. The majority of the patients wearing helmets (58.8%) had grade I hematoma with 35% (n = 22) having grade II hematoma and only 6.3% (n = 4) having grade III hematoma. Overall, there were 20 deaths. 50% (n = 10) of the deaths were in patients with grade III hematoma and 40% (n = 8) of the deaths were in patients with grade II hematoma. There were two (10%) deaths in patients with grade I hematoma (both unrelated to head injury). The mean GOS at the time of discharge was 5, 4.1 and 2.2 in patients

  3. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  4. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  5. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  6. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  7. Captive Insurance Tax Policy: Resolving a Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    M Moshe Porat; Michael R. Powers

    1995-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the global captive insurance movement has established itself as a significant alternative to traditional insurance. During this period, the controversy surrounding the tax-deductibility of both premiums paid to captives and reserves held by captives has never abated. In the United States, the controversy derives from a fundamental conflict within a federal tax policy that attempts to respect the legal separate-ness of corporate entities, while at the same time que...

  8. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

    OpenAIRE

    GONO SEMIADI; R. TAUFIQ PURNA NUGRAHA

    2006-01-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The...

  9. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  10. ANDREW LANG, COMPARATIVE ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE CLASSICS IN THE AFRICAN ROMANCES OF RIDER HAGGARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Hilton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing friendship between Andrew Lang (1844-19121 and Henry RiderHaggard (1856-19252 is surely one of the most intriguing literary relationships ofthe Victorian era.3 Lang was a pre-eminent literary critic and his support forHaggard’s earliest popular romances, such as King Solomon’s mines (1885 andShe (1887, helped to establish them as leading models of the new genre ofimperial adventure fiction.4 Lang and Haggard co-authored The world’s desire(18905 and the ideas of Lang, who was also a brilliant Classics scholar, can beseen in many of Haggard’s works. There are some significant similarities betweenthe two men: both were approximate contemporaries who lived through the mostaggressive phase of British imperialism, both were highly successfully writers whoearned their living by their pens, both wrote prolifically and fluently on a wide range of subjects,6 both were largely self-educated, both were interested in thesupernatural, both had had unhappy experiences in love at first but later maintainedlong-lasting marriages, and both were men with powerful faculties of imagination.There are, of course, significant differences also: Lang was a gifted intellectualwho had won a fellowship at Oxford, a Homeric scholar, a poet with a gift forirony and humour, and one of the earliest exponents of the new science ofanthropological mythology; Haggard was less well educated and more seriousminded,he preferred action to ideas, was personally involved in the extension ofBritish rule in Southern Africa,7 and had a close experience of African tribal life.This article sets out to investigate the relationship between these two men, and toassess the extent to which Lang’s classical and anthropological thinking shaped thenarratives of Haggard, especially those set in his imperialistic fantasy of theAfrican continent.

  11. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  12. 9 CFR 313.15 - Mechanical; captive bolt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical; captive bolt. 313.15 Section 313.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.15 Mechanical; captive bolt....

  13. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  14. The free-rider problem and the optimal duration of research joint ventures: theory and evidence from the Eureka program

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagiwa, Kaz; SISSOKO, Amy; SONG, Huasheng

    2015-01-01

    In a research joint venture (RJV), members' contributions consist mostly of personnel and proprietary technical know-how. Since the quantity and quality of such contributions are difficult to verify, each member has the temptation to free-ride on others' contributions. In this paper we show that a RJV can resolve this free-rider problem by pre-committing to its duration. Our model predicts, among others, that a RJV chasing a higher-cost innovation tends to have a shorter duration. We then uti...

  15. The free-rider problem and the optimal duration of research joint ventures: theory and evidence from the Eureka program

    OpenAIRE

    Kaz Miyagiwa; Aminata Sissoko

    2013-01-01

    A research joint venture (RJV) faces a serious free-rider problem because its participants¡¯ contributions are mostly unobservable. We first present a model that shows that a RJV solves this problem by pre-committing to its termination date. Our analysis shows that there is an optimal termination date or duration, which increases with the value of the innovation per member and decreases with the R&D flow cost per member. Utilizing data from the European Eureka program, we then examine the fac...

  16. The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    Full Text Available Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2 to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3. Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

  17. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  18. Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus Leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Cheri Anne

    1994-01-01

    Focal-animal sampling techniques developed for investigating social behaviour of terrestrial animals were adapted for studying captive belugas, providing quantitative descriptions of social relationships among individuals. Five groups of captive belugas were observed, allowing a cross -sectional view of sociality in groups of diverse sizes and compositions. Inter-individual distances were used to quantify patterns of spatial association. A set of social behaviours for which actor and recipient could be identified was defined to characterize dyadic interactions. The mother-calf pair spent more time together, and interacted more often than adults. The calf maintained proximity with his mother; larger adults generally maintained proximity with smaller adults. Among adults, larger groups performed more kinds of behaviours and interacted at higher rates than smaller groups. Within dyads, the larger whale performed more aggressive behaviours and the smaller whale more submissive behaviours. Clear dominance relations existed in three groups, with larger whales dominant to smaller whales. Vocalizations of three groups were classified subjectively, based on aural impressions and visual inspection of spectrograms, but most signals appeared graded. Statistical analyses of measured acoustic features confirmed subjective impressions that vocalizations could not be classified into discrete and homogeneous categories. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-553-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  19. Self-hypnosis training and captivity survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D P; Sexton, J L

    1997-01-01

    In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school. PMID:9037797

  20. The impact of generic advertising and the free rider problem: a look at the U.S. orange juice market and imports

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark G.; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Thomas H. Spreen

    1995-01-01

    Increased demand for an advertised product may increase price, which, in turn, may lead to a free rider problem where competitive imports increase and result in a smaller price increase than otherwise. A study of Florida Department of Citrus advertising for orange juice indicated that the free rider problem has notably limited the impact of advertising on price in the U.S. market. High U.S. orange juice demand, which in part has been a result of advertising, has attracted substantial amounts ...

  1. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans, and (b improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world.

  2. Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremías David Tosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962, 2008 (n=977, 2012 (n=2,542, and 2014 (n=2,466. The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  3. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  4. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  5. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities. PMID:23525178

  6. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  7. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the se

  8. Cooperative Learning and Peer Evaluation: The Effect of Free Riders on Team Performance and the Relationship between Course Performance and Peer Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, Molly J.; Wei, Wei; Huq, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning has gained popularity in higher educational settings. However, assigning grades equitably to all team members in a way that rewards them for their contributions remains challenging. In this paper, we ask whether having free riders on a team lowers the quality of submitted work, and whether students' course performance…

  9. A Flip of the Coin--A Roll of the Die: An Answer to the Free-Rider Problem in Economic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robin L.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research literature on the effectiveness of cooperative learning in higher education. Identifies and discusses the free-rider problem inherent in assigning grades in cooperative learning activities. Proposes that one randomly selected group member take the examination with his or her grade assigned to all group members. (CFR)

  10. Las malqueridas: La chambre verte de F. Truffaut, Mes petites amoureuses de J. Eustache, Kiss me deadly de R. Aldrich y además Free Rider

    OpenAIRE

    La madriguera

    2001-01-01

    La madriguera (2001). Las malqueridas: La chambre verte de F. Truffaut, Mes petites amoureuses de J. Eustache, Kiss me deadly de R. Aldrich y además Free Rider. Ediciones de intervención cultural S.L. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/41938. 58 58 36

  11. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS...

  12. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  13. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  14. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  15. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  17. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  18. Have somatic parameters of wild Equidae in captivity been changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes commonly occurred to animals under domestication distinguish domestic animals from their wild ancestors. Similar changes on some wild animals kept in captivity (zoological gardens) can also be observed. This diploma thesis concerns these morphological changes on a skeleton of Equidae. For several species and subspecies of this family some osteometric data received from those kept in captivity are compared to those from the wild. A more deta...

  19. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  20. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anna M.; Elizabeth A Hobson; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of p...

  1. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  2. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  3. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare. PMID:26403665

  4. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  5. BitTorrent系统中free riders的研究%A study on free riders in BitTorrent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于魁飞; 程久军; 李玉宏; 马建

    2007-01-01

    针对BitTorent文件共享过程的特点,根据乐观疏通的思想,利用仿真实验分析了free riders对系统中其他类型的peers的下载进程的影响,给出了识别free riders的方法,提出了解决free riders问题的机制,并进行了仿真实验.结果表明:这种解决free riders问题的机制更好地激励了系统中的peers为系统做出贡献,从而获得利益;有效地控制了BitTorrent系统中的free riders,提高了系统的整体性能.

  6. Democracy under uncertainty: the wisdom of crowds and the free-rider problem in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Tsukasaki, Takafumi; Hastie, Reid; Berg, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a game theory model of individual decisions to cooperate by contributing personal resources to group decisions versus by free riding on the contributions of other members. In contrast to most public-goods games that assume group returns are linear in individual contributions, the present model assumes decreasing marginal group production as a function of aggregate individual contributions. This diminishing marginal returns assumption is more realistic and generates starkly different predictions compared to the linear model. One important implication is that, under most conditions, there exist equilibria where some, but not all, members of a group contribute, even with completely self-interested motives. An agent-based simulation confirmed the individual and group advantages of the equilibria in which behavioral asymmetry emerges from a game structure that is a priori perfectly symmetric for all agents (all agents have the same payoff function and action space but take different actions in equilibria). A behavioral experiment demonstrated that cooperators and free riders coexist in a stable manner in groups performing with the nonlinear production function. A collateral result demonstrated that, compared to a dictatorial decision scheme guided by the best member in a group, the majority/plurality decision rules can pool information effectively and produce greater individual net welfare at equilibrium, even if free riding is not sanctioned. This is an original proof that cooperation in ad hoc decision-making groups can be understood in terms of self-interested motivations and that, despite the free-rider problem, majority/plurality decision rules can function robustly as simple, efficient social decision heuristics.

  7. Democracy under uncertainty: the wisdom of crowds and the free-rider problem in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Tsukasaki, Takafumi; Hastie, Reid; Berg, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a game theory model of individual decisions to cooperate by contributing personal resources to group decisions versus by free riding on the contributions of other members. In contrast to most public-goods games that assume group returns are linear in individual contributions, the present model assumes decreasing marginal group production as a function of aggregate individual contributions. This diminishing marginal returns assumption is more realistic and generates starkly different predictions compared to the linear model. One important implication is that, under most conditions, there exist equilibria where some, but not all, members of a group contribute, even with completely self-interested motives. An agent-based simulation confirmed the individual and group advantages of the equilibria in which behavioral asymmetry emerges from a game structure that is a priori perfectly symmetric for all agents (all agents have the same payoff function and action space but take different actions in equilibria). A behavioral experiment demonstrated that cooperators and free riders coexist in a stable manner in groups performing with the nonlinear production function. A collateral result demonstrated that, compared to a dictatorial decision scheme guided by the best member in a group, the majority/plurality decision rules can pool information effectively and produce greater individual net welfare at equilibrium, even if free riding is not sanctioned. This is an original proof that cooperation in ad hoc decision-making groups can be understood in terms of self-interested motivations and that, despite the free-rider problem, majority/plurality decision rules can function robustly as simple, efficient social decision heuristics. PMID:20822292

  8. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs. PMID:11021439

  9. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences. PMID:16604276

  10. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  11. Does the rider influence the horse's movement in hippotherapy? [Ovlivňuje jezdec pohyb koně v hipoterapii?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Janura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In hippotherapy, in comparison to equitation, it is assumed that the rider is a passive element, only stimulated by mechanical impulses produced by the moving horse's back. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the rider on the horse's movement in hippotherapy. METHODS: Two sound thoroughbreds with a similar body shape and size (age: 19 and 14 years, withers height: 1.65 m both, weight: 548 and 500 kg participated in the study. The test group of riders consisted of twelve healthy young women (age: 23.3 ± 2.8, weight: 59.2 ± 5.3, height: 167.3 ± 4.2 without any previous horse riding experience. For each rider 36 trials in total (6 strides in 6 hippotherapy sessions held during the course of five weeks were evaluated. The movement was recorded by 4 videocameras (frequency 50 Hz. Spatiotemporal variables, the vertical displacement of selected points on the horse's limbs and the back and angle displacement of tarsus joint were analyzed by the APAS programme. Statistical processing was performed by the Statistica programme (one way ANOVA. RESULTS: In our study, we didn't find any statistically significant difference (p CONCLUSIONS: In hippotherapy, basic spatiotemporal variables of a horse's natural walking aren't influenced by the rider. As for the vertical displacement of points on the limbs and the horse's back, the results are not explicit. A larger number of horses is necessary for future study. The patient and the horse in hippotherapy are to be rather considered as interactive elements than as passive and active elements.[VÝCHODISKA: V hipoterapii je, na rozdíl od jezdectví, jezdec považován za pasivní prvek, který je stimulován impulsy, které vycházejí z pohybujícího se hřbetu koně. CÍLE: Cílem studie bylo zjistit, zda jezdec ovlivňuje pohyb koně v hipoterapii. METODIKA: Do studie byli zařazeni dva angličtí plnokrevníci podobné tělesné konstituce (věk: 19 a 14 let, v

  12. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shangying YU; Jiang, Zhigang; Hui ZHU; Li, Chunwang; Enquan ZHANG; Zhang, Jinguo; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among ...

  13. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  14. P2P网络中Free-rider的平衡机制%Balance Mechanism on Free-rider in P2P Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 刘玉华; 许凯华; 潘华强

    2010-01-01

    针对P2P 网络中出现的free-rider 现象,提出一种控制点位于服务提供节点上的平衡机制.该机制充分考虑P2P 网络拓扑结构不一致的问题,并允许一定数量的free-rider 节点存在.实验证明,该机制既能有效利用网络资源,提高交易的成功率,又能对严重的free-rider行为进行抑制.

  15. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  16. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  17. 信任模型中搭便车节点的抑制%Reducing Number of Free Riders in Trust Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓东; 邹宝军; 朱士瑞

    2012-01-01

    Although current existing trust model reduces the impact of peers' malicious attack in P2P system, these reputation systems do not concern with reducing free riders in P2P networks,namely, peers with high trust value tansform to free riders. Because lots of free riders exist,robust and avaliable of P2P system are degraded. So,a trust model based on time slots was designed,and the nearer time from now the greater time slot's weight was gaven. Theoretical analysis and simulation show that this proposal not only prevents peers with high trust value to free riders,but also limits peers to make malicious attack recently,and peers' trust value are more and more hight in compared with other proposals.%现有的信任机制虽然有效地遏制了P2P系统中节点的恶意攻击,但未考虑如何抑制内在的大量搭便车节点的存在,即高信任值节点向搭便车节点的转变.大量搭便车节点的存在,降低了P2P网络的健壮性及可用性,为此设计了基于时间窗口的信任模型,对距现在时刻越近的时间窗口给予的权重值越大.仿真结果表明,机制不仅能够有效抑制大量高信任值节点向搭便车节点的转变,而且与提出的其它方案相比,能够有效遏制节点近期内进行恶意攻击,并且节点的信任值会更高.

  18. Subjective analysis of exercise-induced changes in back dimensions of the horse: The influence of saddle-fit, rider skill and work quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Line; Murray, Rachel; Dyson, Sue

    2015-10-01

    Recommendations concerning saddle-fit are empirical rather than based on scientific information. A saddle needs to fit the horse in motion, but there has been no investigation of whether the thoracolumbar region changes in dimensions in association with exercise. The objectives of this study were to quantify exercise-induced back dimension changes and to describe the association with work quality, saddle-fit and rider skill. Sixty-three sports horses in regular work were assessed prospectively in a non-random, cross-sectional survey. Thoracolumbar dimensions/symmetries were measured at predetermined sites before and immediately after a 30 min exercise period; widths for two levels at each site were measured and the shape-ratio calculated. The work quality and rider skill were graded and the presence of lameness and saddle-fit were recorded. Descriptive statistics, univariable and multivariable mixed-effect linear regression were performed to assess the relationship between horse-saddle-rider factors and changes in back dimensions. The mean back width after ridden exercise was greater compared with before exercise. Mean changes were greater in horses working correctly vs. those not working correctly, in those with correctly-fitting vs. ill-fitting saddles, and in horses ridden by good > moderately > poorly skilled riders. Back-width changes were significantly associated with saddle-fit. The back dimensions of horses working correctly change transiently with work. If a saddle does not fit properly before exercise, this increase in size does not occur. Saddle-fit should be assessed both before and after exercise to ensure correct fit.

  19. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  20. Research on Free Rider Problem Based on Economic Experiments%基于经济学实验的搭便车问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 张麒麟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the collection and analysis of free rider behavior researches,this paper analyses free rider problem by using behavior and experiment economic method which reflects cross-interdisciplinary study features.This paper designs three experiments,which analyze how the initial factor endowment,the rate of return and the information disclosure on free ride influences free rider behavior respectively..The results are shown as follows: individual members are inclined to free ride while the initial factor endowment is increasing;females are more inclined to free ride;there are at least three categories in a group: complete free riders,incomplete free riders and benevolent ones;when the group account's rate of return increases significantly,individual members will restrain their performance of free ride so as to pursue benefit;individual members are inclined to free ride as long as the information disclosure mechanism is profit-oriented.%通过对搭便车行为的研究现状进行了梳理,采用行为与实验经济学的方法,对搭便车问题进行了分析,体现了跨学科交叉研究的特点。在现有实验基础上改进并设计了三项搭便车行为实验,分别研究了初始禀赋、收益率和信息公开等因素对搭便车行为的影响。实验数据显示,随着初始禀赋的增加,个体成员者更倾向于搭便车,女生比男生更倾向于搭便车;集体中至少存在完全搭便车型、不完全搭便车型和乐善好施型三类人群;当公共账户的收益率显著增加时,个体成员为追求利益会减少搭便车的行为;如果公开的信息存在利益导向作用,那么个体成员更倾向于搭便车。

  1. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  2. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Sterenborg, Marlijn; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress—or, more appropriately, “allostatic overload”—may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine i

  3. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  4. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  5. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.

  6. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  7. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife com

  8. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  9. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  10. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  11. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Brett W; Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans.

  12. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  13. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  14. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  15. A note on reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Dezonne Motta

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Conditions leading to successful reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity are described. A trial involving four mating pairs which had been maintained at least four months in the laboratory resulted in three litters and one false pregnancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first record of successful breeding of this species in captivity.As condições utilizadas para o sucesso da reprodução de D. marsupialis em cativeiro são descritas. Esta tentativa envolveu quatro casais, os quais haviam sido mantidos no mínimo por quatro meses em laboratório e resultou em três ninhadas e uma falsa prenhez. Julgamos ser este o primeiro registro da reprodução desta espécie em cativeiro.

  16. Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpan...

  17. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  18. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    OpenAIRE

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M.; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo.METHODS:The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to...

  19. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  20. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  1. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals. PMID:9678505

  2. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  3. Rapid compressions in a captive bubble apparatus are isothermal

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wenfei; Hall, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    Captive bubbles are commonly used to determine how interfacial films of pulmonary surfactant respond to changes in surface area, achieved by varying hydrostatic pressure. Although assumed to be isothermal, the gas phase temperature (Tg) would increase by >100°C during compression from 1 to 3 atm if the process were adiabatic. To determine the actual change in temperature, we monitored pressure (P) and volume (V) during compressions lasting 10 min after the compression when the two phases shou...

  4. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  5. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  6. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID:25469538

  7. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  8. Application of synthetic pheromones on animals in captivity: A possibility on wild ungulates?

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Urgell, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster There is an increasing evidence proving the existence of diverse abnormal behaviours due to stress on captive animals. The growing awareness for animal welfare, specifically for those captive in zoos or similar centres accommodating wild animals, has triggered that numerous measures of environmental enrichment are being implemented all over the globe. A recent practice of environmental enrichment to reduce the stress of wild animals in captivity is the employment of different odours...

  9. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  10. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  11. Being Attractive Brings Advantages: The Case of Parrot Species in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Frynta; Silvie Lisková; Sebastian Bültmann; Hynek Burda

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the ...

  12. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Kumar Thawait; Maiti, S. K.; Aditi A. Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zoological gardens exhibit wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases constitute one of the major problems causing morbidity and even mortality in captive wild animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals belonging to Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 faecal samples were screened from apparently normal/healthy captiv...

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  15. Bruk av captive forsikringsselskap i internasjonal olje- og energiforsikring : Belyst ved Statoil Forsikring a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven tar for seg bruken av captive forsikringsselskaper, herunder særskilt Statoil Forsikring a.s. I tillegg behandles den gjensidige mekanismen for energiforsikring - O.I.L., behovet for captive-fronting i fremmede jurisdiksjoner, samt forsikringsordningen for SDØE på norsk kontinentalsokkel.

  16. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

  17. 77 FR 35541 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... 2011, has been found only in wild and captive animals in North America and in captive animals in the... from Certified herds to move interstate. They also allow the interstate movement of wild animals captured for interstate movement or release, if identified with two forms of animal...

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  20. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  1. Story Corner: Freedom Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    These days, when people want to travel a long way, they take an airplane. But once, not so long ago really, only rich people flew in airplanes. Most people took a train or a bus. Back then, in the Montgomery Greyhound station, one could notice a bricked-up doorway that was once an open door with a sign above it that said "Colored Entrance." That's…

  2. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  3. Primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, R N

    1975-01-01

    Under natural light in Portland, Oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in Madagascar. A series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. After photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received additional photoperiod changes. Unimpregnated females, on the other hand, showed no significant decline in the incidence of estrous cycles under prolonged exposure to a constant day length regimen (12.OL:12.OD) for over a year.

  4. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  5. Comparing Object Play in Captive and Wild Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Whitney E.; Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Dudzinski, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the role of play as related to individual and group social development is important to understanding a species. The purpose of our study was to examine whether there is a difference in the frequency of object play exhibited by dolphins from two groups – one captive and one wild. Data were collected with underwater video, with resulting videos event sampled for bouts of play involving various objects used by dolphins. From 159 hr of video data, roughly 102 min featured object play: 7...

  6. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  7. Avian penicilliosis caused by Penicillium griseofulvum in a captive toucanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, R; Westerling, B; Ajello, L; Padhye, A A; Samson, R A

    1990-01-01

    A sudden fatal illness developed in a group of New World toucanets held captive in Finland. Necropsy studies on one of the birds revealed the presence of invasive, hyaline, septate, branched mycelium in the lungs, air sacs, liver and other tissues. In addition, conidiophores and conidial chains, typical of members of the genus Penicillium were present in the lungs and air sacs. Cultures yielded a mould which was subsequently identified as Penicillium griseofulvum. A critical review of the literature revealed that only seven other species of Penicillium have been convincingly documented as agents of penicilliosis on the basis of histologic and cultural findings. PMID:2283582

  8. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vercammen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion.

  9. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL)

  10. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  11. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-02-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), presumed secondary to fatal arrhythmias, is a common cause of mortality in captive chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility. Over the 6-year period at the Alamogordo Primate Facility between 2001 and 2006, 13 animals were defined as sudden cardiac death (11 male and 2 female) on the basis of clinical presentation which was 38% of all deaths. All animals had annual physical exams, including electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Six of the 13 animals underwent a complete cardiac evaluation by a veterinary cardiologist and all six of these animals were diagnosed with various degrees of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in two of the 13 cases and antemortem cardiac arrhythmias were seen in all 13 animals. Histological examination of the hearts revealed myocardial fibrosis in 12 chimpanzees. Most of the animals (10/13) that died of sudden cardiac death had cardiomegaly (increased heart weight/body weight ratio) and some degree of myocardial fibrosis noted. Additional data as well as serial diagnostic evaluations will be needed to identify the possible causes of sudden cardiac death in captive chimpanzees. PMID:18269527

  12. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches. PMID:27298248

  13. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  14. Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian S.W. Tordiffe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50%of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a. The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

  15. Mortality Pattern in Captive Wild Carnivores in Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Kinge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 244 deaths were recorded in seven different species of captive wild carnivores which reveal highest mortality in lion 92 (37.70 % followed by 60 (24.59 % in tiger and leopard respectively. Lowest mortality was recorded in rest of felines. Similarly region wise and season wise mortality summarized. Disease symptom wise mortality pattern revealed involvement of respiratory affection in 56 (22.95 % followed by digestive 46 (18.85 % miscellaneous 40 (16.39 % and generalized conditions 39 (15.98 %. The causes of death attributed to specific diseases in carnivores 13 (5.31 % showed trypanosomiasis, hookworm in tiger, trypanosomiasis in jungle cat, fox and pasteurellosis in lion and leopard. From study it is concluded that pattern of mortality in carnivores is serious concerned in captive wildlife conservation and these losses due to mortality can be controlled to considerable extent by taking appropriate measures (Veterinary aid well in time. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 23-25

  16. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  17. Oral tool use by captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R C; McGrew, W C

    2000-01-01

    Eight captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were given wooden blocks embedded with raisins and bamboo as raw material for tool making in a study of manual laterality. In about three quarters of the raisin extraction bouts, the orangutans held the tool in the lips or teeth rather than in their hands. Three adult males and 2 adult females showed extreme (> or =92%) preference for oral tool use, a subadult male and an adult female used oral tools about half the time, and 1 adult female preferred manual tool use. Most oral tool users made short tools (approx. 4-10 cm long) that were held in the lips and (probably) supported by the tongue. Preference for oral tool use does not correlate with body weight, age or sex, but it may be related to hand size or individual preference. This is the first report of customary oral tool use as the norm in captive orangutans; it resembles the behavioral patterns reported by van Schaik et al. and Fox et al. in nature. PMID:11093037

  18. captive breeding of the four-eyed turtle (sacalia quadriocellata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    in 1998,a study on forty-five four-eyed turtles (sacalia quadriocellata) was initiated to gather preliminary biological data of this species and to investigate the feasibility of its captive reproduction.in the following six years,no courtship behavior was found occurring in males and no oviposition in females.from 2004 to 2007,two successful techniques were applied to initiate reproductive behavior:1) injecting exogenous reproductive hormones; and 2) reducing the stress of living in captivity.as a result of the hormone treatments,courtship behavior and copulation were observed during september and october,2005.however,no courtship displays were seen from the ck males,which were not treated with hormones.ovulation occurred between december and march,and the correlation was not significant between behavior of ovulation and food intake.females laid only one clutch of eggs each year,with 2.47 eggs (n=34,range=l-4) at average,and 84 eggs were totally obtained,of which 13 were damaged,52 were infertile and 19 fertile.of the fertile eggs,nine were hatched with mean incubation period of 105.9 days (n=9,range=89-122 days) at temperature ranging from 24 to 27℃.

  19. Immunomagnetic cell separation, imaging, and analysis using Captivate ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laurie; Beechem, Joseph M.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed applications of CaptivateTM ferrofluids, paramagnetic particles (approximately 200 nm diameter), for isolating and analyzing cell populations in combination with fluorescence-based techniques. Using a microscope-mounted magnetic yoke and sample insertion chamber, fluorescent images of magnetically captured cells were obtained in culture media, buffer, or whole blood, while non-magnetically labeled cells sedimented to the bottom of the chamber. We combined this immunomagnetic cell separation and imaging technique with fluorescent staining, spectroscopy, and analysis to evaluate cell surface receptor-containing subpopulations, live/dead cell ratios, apoptotic/dead cell ratios, etc. The acquired images were analyzed using multi-color parameters, as produced by nucleic acid staining, esterase activity, or antibody labeling. In addition, the immunomagnetically separated cell fractions were assessed through microplate analysis using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay. These methods should provide an inexpensive alternative to some flow cytometric measurements. The binding capacities of the streptavidin- labled Captivate ferrofluid (SA-FF) particles were determined to be 8.8 nmol biotin/mg SA-FF, using biotin-4- fluorescein, and > 106 cells/mg SA-FF, using several cell types labeled with biotinylated probes. For goat anti- mouse IgG-labeled ferrofluids (GAM-FF), binding capacities were established to be approximately 0.2 - 7.5 nmol protein/mg GAM-FF using fluorescent conjugates of antibodies, protein G, and protein A.

  20. The storage of radioactive wastes in the 'Macron law'. A legislative rider uncovered by the Constitutional Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the French constitutional council censored several articles of the so-called 'Macron law', this article more particularly addresses one of these censored article, article 201 which addressed the notion of reversibility of radioactive waste storage, and the commissioning conditions of the industrial centre of geological storage (Cigeo). This article has been censored for procedure-related reasons, but also put some aspects of environmental law and nuclear law into question. The author comments these aspects which concern the duties of the French agency for nuclear safety (ASN) and the conditions under which the pilot phase of the project of waste landfill is performed, but also an opposition to the Environment Charter. In a second part, the author comments how the constitutional judge addressed these issues, and more particularly how these arrangements about the storage of radioactive wastes has been considered as a so-called 'legislative rider' and finally censored

  1. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  2. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  3. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  4. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Gray, Patricia L; Brightsmith, Donald; Palculict, Blake; Hoppes, Sharman; Steiner, Jörg M; Tizard, Ian; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2010-12-15

    The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and disease. Only limited data are available about the composition of the intestinal microbiota of captive animals compared to those of wild animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cloacal microbiota of apparently healthy wild and captive parrots. A total of 16 parrots, 8 wild and 8 captive, belonging to 3 different species, were used in this study. Cloacal material was collected via cloacal swabbing. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. A total of 518 clones were analyzed, and 49 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The OTUs were classified in 4 bacterial phyla: Firmicutes (72.9%), Proteobacteria (14.9%), Actinobacteria (12%), and Bacteroidetes (0.2%). Bacterial diversity was significantly lower in wild birds than in captive birds. Principal component analysis based on the Unifrac distance metric indicated that the cloacal microbiota differed between wild and captive parrots. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was significantly more abundant in wild birds, while Escherichia coli was significantly more abundant in captive birds. In conclusion, wild and captive parrots appear to have differences in the composition of their cloacal bacterial microbiota. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined.

  5. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  6. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  7. Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

    2006-05-27

    This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

  8. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Koster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 µg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot(R, Novartis, Kempton Park while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001. There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867. Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238.

  9. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Koeppel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27 between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026, while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363 and post-treatment (P = 0.004 period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  10. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Pzoo. PMID:27514888

  11. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism of captive wild pigeons at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and  Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-

  12. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179

  13. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  14. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  15. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  16. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  17. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  18. El precio de la cautividad (The price of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de las fundamentales causas y consecuencias que pueden afectar la salud de aves de vida libre una vez sometidas a la cautividad. Trabajo realizado gracias a la experiencia acumulada durante años en la consulta Veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba. Patologías muchas de ellas que no aparecen en aves ya nacidas bajo este régimen o en otras aves ornamentales que se reproducen de forma comercial desde hace muchos años. Pensamos que si se conoce con mayor profundidad el daño que ocasiona la captura a nuestra Avifauna y esto es divulgado pudiera incidir en la toma de conciencia de personas que hoy se dedican a esta labor y promovería por parte de nuestras instituciones nacionales protectoras de esta patrimonio a instaurar nuevos y más eficaces planes para su protección. Abstract This study analyses the causes and health consequences of captivity on wild birds. The study has been possible thanks to the long experience accumulated at the veterinary surgery of the Asociacion Nacional Ornitologica de Cuba. Many of the pathologies shown on wild birds are found neither in birds born under this system nor in ornamental ones which have been reproduced for many years for commercial purpose. We believe that understanding the strong damage that captivity causes on our wild birds can have a direct influence on people working on this type of trade and will promote our protecting institutions to set up new efficient protection plans.

  19. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Junginger

    Full Text Available This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%. Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50% with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11, genital (8, lympho-hematopoietic (5 and alimentary organs (4 as well as the mesothelium (3. Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2, thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1, pleural mesotheliomas (3, hemangiosarcomas (2 and glossal papillomas (2. Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  20. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  1. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  2. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  3. First Care Area Logs for captive loggerhead and Kemps ridley sea turtles 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.

  4. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  5. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  6. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  7. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  8. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  9. (Forced Walks on the Wild Side: Precarious Borders in American Captivity Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Starre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most readings of American captivity narratives have so far investigated their intercultural, psychological, and theological significances, while disregarding their ecological aspects. Despite its appropriation into US-American national literature, the captivity genre contains at its root a transcultural plot of an individual's confrontation with the environment and the unsettling forces of wilderness and animality. These personal memoirs indeed hold global value by pointing to our collective embeddedness and embodiedness.This essay surveys two early captivity narratives - the classical one by Mary Rowlandson (1682 and a lesser known text by John Gyles (1736 - alongside contemporary examples of the genre that relate the stories of American captives in Iraq and Colombia.

  10. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  11. Captive but mobile: Privacy concerns and remedies for the mobile nvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Baruh, Lemi; Popescu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    We use the legal framework of captive audience to examine the FTC’s 2012 privacy guidelines as applied to mobile marketing. We define captive audiences as audiences without functional opt-out mechanisms to avoid situations of coercive communication. By analyzing the current mobile marketing ecosystem, we show that the FTC’s privacy guidelines inspired by the Canadian “privacy by design” paradigm fall short of protecting consumers against invasive mobile marketing in at least three respects: (...

  12. Do captive waterfowl alter their behaviour patterns during their flightless period of moult?

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Steven J.; Isaac, Rhian; Quinton, Kate L.; Reynolds, S. James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Many different behavioural changes have been observed in wild waterfowl during the flightless stage of wing moult with birds frequently becoming inactive and reducing time spent foraging. Increased predation risk, elevated energetic demands of feather re-growth and restriction of foraging opportunities are thought to underlie these changes. By studying captive populations of both a dabbling and a diving duck species at the same site, we determined whether captive birds wou...

  13. Habituation towards environmental enrichment in captive bears and its effect on stereotypic behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claes

    2008-01-01

    The benefits gained by the presentation of environmental enrichment (EE) to captive animals are widely recognized. Few studies have, however, studied how to maximize the effect of EE. Repeated presentations of EE may cause a reduced interest towards the EE device, called habituation. To study the effect of habituation towards EE, behavioural data from 14 captive Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) were collected during two different EE treatments. In treatment one, honey logs were presented for fi...

  14. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of reproductive diseases in gorillas and other captive great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Júlia Braga

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária The present work focused on the analysis of ultrasound examinations from 29 male and female captive great apes performed since 1995 by the Leibniz-Institut für Zoo-und Wildtierforschung, IZW (Berlin, Germany), reproduction management group. The ultrasonographic appearance of the normal and abnormal reproductive tract was described. Out of 22 female captive subjects, 18 were detected to have reproductive tract lesions. The altered ul...

  16. Use of video system and its effects on abnormal behaviour in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates have highly developed visual cognitive abilities, they have few opportunities to exert such abilities in captivity. Video presentation can reproduce multiple features of the complex, real, visual world. Therefore, video presentation can be expected to act as environmental enrichment for captive primates. The present study evaluated the enriching effects of novelty and content of videos as well as control over videos using newly developed technology including network...

  17. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Craig A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L.; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S.; Fair, Patricia A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D. Ann; Rowles, Teri K.; Lori H Schwacke; Townsend, Forrest I.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood ($n = 95$ live animals) and tissues ($n = 15$ freshly dea...

  18. The Distribution and Development of Handedness for Manual Gestures in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie; Freeman, Hani; Buehler, Nicole; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and development of handedness for manual gestures in captive chimpanzees. Data on handedness for unimanual gestures were collected in a sample of 227 captive chimpanzees. Handedness for these gestures was compared with handedness for three other measures of hand use: tool use, reaching, and coordinated bimanual actions. Chimpanzees were significantly more right-handed for gestures than for all other measures of hand use. Hand use for simple reaching at ...

  19. The partial captivity condition for U(1) extensions of expanding maps on the circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yushi; Tsujii, Masato; Wittsten, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns the compact group extension f:T2→T2,f(x,s)=(E(x),s+τ(x) mod 1) of an expanding map E:{{{S}}1}\\to {{{S}}1} . The dynamics of f and its stochastic perturbations have previously been studied under the so-called partial captivity condition. Here we prove a supplementary result that shows that partial captivity is a \\mathscr{C}r generic condition on τ, once we fix E.

  20. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes. PMID:21158624

  1. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild. PMID:21719832

  2. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  3. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  4. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  5. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  6. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant.

  7. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  8. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  9. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  10. Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animals in captive or laboratory settings may outperform wild animals of the same species in both frequency and diversity of tool use, a phenomenon here termed ‘captivity bias’. Although speculative at this stage, a logical conclusion from this concept is that animals whose tool-use behaviour is observed solely under natural conditions may be judged cognitively or physically inferior than if they had also been tested or observed under controlled captive conditions. In turn, this situation cre...

  11. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  12. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication.

  13. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  14. SOME BEHAVIORAL TRAITS OF RED NECK OSTRICH UNDER CAPTIVE CONDITIONS

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    F.A. MOHAMMED AHMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.. The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.. The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

  15. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  16. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E

    1988-07-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  17. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  18. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (pwhales, including mother-offspring dyads. By contrast, for three of four whales for which we had sufficient samples, no significant differences were found on any measure between samples taken from the same whales five years apart. These findings therefore support the notion that the voices of individual orcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  19. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An extramedullary plasmacytoma case in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu is reported. The animal, a female aging three years old, had a medical history of diffusely distributed skin and mucocutaneous junction lesions, associated with swollen lymph nodes. Clinical examination and complementary exams (complete blood count, biochemical analysis, skin scraping to search mites and fungal culture were performed. Thirty days after examination, the animal died. At necropsy, multiple consistent nodules, aseptic pustules and swollen lymph nodes were found. On histological exams of the skin and oral mucosa, we observed a large number of round cells forming masses organized in nests, sheets, and cords of cells in a well-vascularized fibrovascular tissue. Neoplastic plasma cells infiltrated between the fibers and the lamina propria of smooth muscle. Spaces among the cell masses were filled with some eosinophil and fluid. Most of the cells were well differentiated, presenting a perinuclear clear zone. In some points, the cells were pleomorphic. The plasma cells presented eccentric, basophilic and spherical nuclei, showing a dense to organized chromatin with distinct nucleoli. Binucleate cells were observed, but multinucleated giant cells were rare. Oral mucosa and lymph nodes tested by immunohistochemical analyses were positive for Mb-1, with a multifocal distribution. In regard to Bcl-2, the neoplastic cells were intermittent weakly positive. So, an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed in the collared peccary considering the location, the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  20. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds. PMID:24758135

  1. Optical factors in the rapid analysis of captive bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoojinian, Hamed; Goodarzi, Jim P; Hall, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    Bubbles and droplets offer multiple advantages over Langmuir troughs for compressing interfacial films. Experiments, however, that manipulate films to maintain constant surface tension (γ) present problems because they require feedback. Measurements of bubbles and droplets calculate γ from the shape of the interface, and calculations in real time based on finding the Laplacian shape that best fits the interface can be difficult. Faster methods obtain γ from only the height and diameter, but the bubbles and droplets rest against a solid support, which obscures one section of the interface and complicates measurements of the height. The experiments here investigated a series of optical variables that affect the visualized location of the different surfaces for captive bubbles. The pitch of the support and camera as well as the collimation of illuminating light affected the accuracy of the measured dimensions. The wavelength of illumination altered the opacity of turbid subphases and hydrated gel used to form the solid support. The width of all visualized edges depended on the spectral width and collimation of the illuminating light. The intensity of illumination had little effect on the images as long as the grayscale remained within the dynamic range of the camera. With optimization of these optical factors, the width of all edges narrowed significantly. The surfaces away from the solid support approached the infinite sharpness of the physical interface. With these changes, the grayscale at the upper interface provided the basis for locating all surfaces, which improved real-time measurements based on the height and diameter.

  2. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S

    2001-12-13

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  4. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  5. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SWANSON, Marisa O. KING

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals, but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates, despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study. In addition, whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated. In this study, we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations, after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1, and again after an additional 1–2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2. Msum increased significantly (16.9% following the initial captive period, but remained stable thereafter. Body mass (Mb also increased significantly (9.2% during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter, suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation. Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds, but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups. These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations. In addition, Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable, but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses. This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals, and such variation could have fitness consequences [Current Zoology 59 (4: 439–448, 2013].

  6. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  7. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  8. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Herrmann, Esther; Kaminski, Juliane; Krupenye, Christopher; Melis, Alicia P; Schroepfer, Kara; Tan, Jingzhi; Warneken, Felix; Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    As many studies of cognition and behavior involve captive animals, assessing any psychological impact of captive conditions is an important goal for comparative researchers. Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011) sought to address whether captive chimpanzees show elevated signs of psychopathology relative to wild apes. They modified a checklist of diagnostic criteria for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in humans, and applied these criteria to various captive and wild chimpanzee populations. We argue that measures derived from human diagnostic criteria are not a powerful tool for assessing the psychological health of nonverbal animals. In addition, we highlight certain methodological drawbacks of the specific approach used by Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011). We propose that research should (1) focus on objective behavioral criteria that account for species-typical behaviors and can be reliably identified across populations; (2) account for population differences in rearing history when comparing how current environment impacts psychological health in animals; and (3) focus on how changes in current human practices can improve the well-being of both captive and wild animals. PMID:22889365

  9. Reproductive success of wild-caught and captive-bred cynomolgus macaques at a breeding facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Laurent; de Marigny, Sandra Desvaux

    2015-10-01

    The revised European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes encourages the scientific community to consider the feasibility of transitioning from the use of wild-caught breeders toward the exclusive use of captive-born breeders in non-human primate breeding centers. Little is known about how such a transition will affect animal health, productivity and accompanying husbandry practices. These concerns are important both for the efficient operation of a breeding facility and for the optimal welfare of the animals in its care. The authors analyzed records of wild-caught and captive-born female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used for breeding at a facility between 2006 and 2011. Productivity was measured by proportional birth rate and interbirth interval; perinatal mortality was quantified by cause and type of death; and body condition was estimated using recorded visual assessments. Captive-born breeders generally showed lower productivity, higher perinatal mortality and poorer body condition than wild-caught breeders in the same husbandry conditions. These findings indicate that facilities transitioning to the use of captive-born macaques in breeding might need to explore new and revised husbandry strategies that address potential developmental and behavioral differences of captive-born breeders. PMID:26398613

  10. Probiotic treatment restores protection against lethal fungal infection lost during amphibian captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Harris, Reid; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-09-28

    Host-associated microbiomes perform many beneficial functions including resisting pathogens and training the immune system. Here, we show that amphibians developing in captivity lose substantial skin bacterial diversity, primarily due to reduced ongoing input from environmental sources. We combined studies of wild and captive amphibians with a database of over 1 000 strains that allows us to examine antifungal function of the skin microbiome. We tracked skin bacterial communities of 62 endangered boreal toads, Anaxyrus boreas, across 18 time points, four probiotic treatments, and two exposures to the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in captivity, and compared these to 33 samples collected from wild populations at the same life stage. As the amphibians in captivity lost the Bd-inhibitory bacteria through time, the proportion of individuals exposed to Bd that became infected rose from 33% to 100% in subsequent exposures. Inoculations of the Bd-inhibitory probiotic Janthinobacterium lividum resulted in a 40% increase in survival during the second Bd challenge, indicating that the effect of microbiome depletion was reversible by restoring Bd-inhibitory bacteria. Taken together, this study highlights the functional role of ongoing environmental inputs of skin-associated bacteria in mitigating a devastating amphibian pathogen, and that long-term captivity decreases this defensive function. PMID:27655769

  11. HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED CAPTIVE TASMANIAN DEVILS (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Katharine L; Peck, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population has decreased by estimates of 80% in the past 20 yr due to the effects of devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the process of creating a DFTD-free insurance population, the captive population and the number of institutions housing devils worldwide has increased tremendously. In order to provide the best husbandry and veterinary care for these captive animals, it is essential to know normal hematology and biochemistry values for the species. Baseline reference intervals (RIs) were determined for hematology and biochemistry variables for 170 healthy anesthetized captive Tasmanian devils and significant sex and age differences were determined. Higher relative neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and cholesterol were seen in males compared to females, whereas higher white cell counts (WBC) and lymphocyte counts (absolute and relative) were seen in females. Subadults have higher red blood cell counts, WBC, lymphocytes (absolute and relative), calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose, and albumin than adults; whereas, adults have higher relative neutrophils, relative eosinophils, mean corpuscular volume, MCH, platelets, total solids, total plasma proteins, globulins, and chloride than subadults. This study provides a comprehensive report of hematology and serum biochemistry RIs for healthy captive anesthetized Tasmanian devils and offers invaluable diagnostic information to care for the growing captive population of this endangered marsupial. PMID:27468030

  12. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  13. Rapid loss of antipredatory behaviour in captive-bred birds is linked to current avian invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of behaviour in conservation biology, there have been few studies that address behaviour in areas such as invasion ecology. There is an urgent need to identify specific traits that facilitate the establishment and spread of alien species to prevent biological invasions and their impact on biodiversity. Changes in antipredatory behaviour in captivity have been proposed to explain the higher invasiveness of wild-caught exotic species. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by assessing the response of wild-caught and captive-bred cage birds facing an approaching predator and their ability to escape from human capture, using species available in the Spanish pet market. Results showed the loss of antipredatory responses and escape abilities in captive-bred birds compared with wild-caught ones. An intraspecific comparison between wild-caught and the first generation of captive-bred birds pointed to a rapid behavioural loss in captivity (individual lifetime) rather than to differences among species (evolutionary exposure). In the context of current avian invasions, the proportion of individuals showing antipredatory responses within a species was positively related to the likelihood of the species being found escaped and breeding in the wild. These results offer a link between behaviour, fitness, and the invasion syndrome in birds.

  14. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  15. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    HB Braz; MMT Rocha; MFD Furtado

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the mortality and average survival rates of captive female Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis snakes maintained for venom production. Also, two factors likely to reduce captive survival were studied - body condition at admission and seasonality. Mortality peaks occurred during the second month in captivity. More than half the individuals were dead at the end of the third month. This suggests that the first three months in captivity are the most critical in t...

  16. Effects of captivity and artificial breeding on microbiota in feces of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuwei; Xia, Pu; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Yimin; Mora, Miguel A; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. Although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. The study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. The gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The gut microbiotas were dominated by three phyla: Firmicutes (62.9%), Proteobacteria (29.9%) and Fusobacteria (9.6%). Bacilli dominated the 'core' community consisting of 198 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both captivity and artificial breeding influenced the structures and diversities microbiota of the gut. Especially, wild cranes had distinct compositions of gut microbiota from captive and artificially bred cranes. The greatest alpha diversity was found in captive cranes, while wild cranes had the least. According to the results of ordination analysis, influences of captivity and artificial breeding were greater than that of life stage. Overall, captivity and artificial breeding influenced the gut microbiota, potentially due to changes in diet, vaccination, antibiotics and living conditions. Metagenomics can serve as a supplementary non-invasive screening tool for disease control. PMID:27628212

  17. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in a controlled environment. (2) If reproduction is asexual, the parent was in a controlled..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON... means an ensemble of captive wildlife used for reproduction. (c) Bred-in-captivity criteria. For...

  18. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cattle, bison... Indemnity § 50.4 Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis...

  19. Effects of captivity and artificial breeding on microbiota in feces of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuwei; Xia, Pu; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Yimin; Mora, Miguel A.; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. Although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. The study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. The gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The gut microbiotas were dominated by three phyla: Firmicutes (62.9%), Proteobacteria (29.9%) and Fusobacteria (9.6%). Bacilli dominated the ‘core’ community consisting of 198 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both captivity and artificial breeding influenced the structures and diversities microbiota of the gut. Especially, wild cranes had distinct compositions of gut microbiota from captive and artificially bred cranes. The greatest alpha diversity was found in captive cranes, while wild cranes had the least. According to the results of ordination analysis, influences of captivity and artificial breeding were greater than that of life stage. Overall, captivity and artificial breeding influenced the gut microbiota, potentially due to changes in diet, vaccination, antibiotics and living conditions. Metagenomics can serve as a supplementary non-invasive screening tool for disease control. PMID:27628212

  20. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  3. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides. The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids.

  4. Analysis of nutrient components of food for Asian Elephants in the wild and in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lihong; LIN Liu; HE Qian; ZHANG Jinguo; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven wild plants as food for Asian elephants in the field in Simao,Yunnan province,China and five cultivated plants as food for captive elephants in the Beijing Zoo were collected and analyzed for their main nutrient components.Protein,fat,fiber,dry material,ash as well as major microelements:calcium,kalium,zincum,sodium in the food were analyzed by standard methodology.No significant differences were found between the wild plants taken in the field and forage provided in captivity.However,the calcium content in the forage is significantly less than the average of those in the wild plants.It is suggested that the increase in calcium intake may contribute to the relief of low plasma calcium diseases of elephants in captivity.

  5. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  6. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Davis, Barbara; Tseng, Flo

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis. Based on submissions to a private diagnostic institution over a 16-yr period, ESRD was the most commonly diagnosed cause of death or euthanasia in captive polar bears in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of over 20%. Further research is needed to discern the etiology of this apparently common disease of captive polar bears. PMID:24712164

  7. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired. PMID:20205263

  8. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired.

  9. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  10. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  11. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  12. Maintenance and breeding of aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J B; Haring, D M

    1994-01-01

    The husbandry practices of the 3 institutions currently holding captive aye-ayes outside Madagascar (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Duke University Primate Center and Paris Zoo) are reviewed. Information on housing, diet, oestrous cycles and infant rearing is included. Aye-ayes are active, nocturnal animals that are mainly solitary in the wild. They need large cages that are well furnished with arboreal substrates. Captive diet consists of fruit, nuts, insects and a pellet- or cereal-based gruel. Breeding of aye-ayes occurs either within stable pairs of animals or in pairs that are mixed only during the peri-ovulatory period.

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  14. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27468041

  15. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  16. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  17. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  18. The North American model and captive cervid facilities—What is the threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John; Decker, Thomas A.; Lama, Tanya M.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation represents the key principles that in combination resulted in a distinct form of wildlife conservation in the United States and Canada. How and to what extent captive cervid facilities comport with or conflict with these principles has implications for wildlife conservation. Greatest threats appear to be toward principles of public ownership of wildlife, allocation of wildlife by law, and in policy decisions based on science. Captive cervid facilities have potential to contribute to erosion of the underlying principles of the Model and could undermine public support for conservation initiatives.

  19. Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

    2013-03-01

    A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes.

  20. The Control-Oriented Design and Analysis for Morphing Wave-rider%面向控制的可变形乘波体概念设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓俊; 刘燕斌; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    针对高超声速乘波飞行器强耦合、非线性和大包线飞行等特点,在概念设计阶段将智能变形技术引入到乘波体设计中来,根据不同飞行状态调整乘波体外形,实现飞行性能的最优化.利用高超声速空气动力学和具有热增加的准一维流估算乘波体表面气动力和发动机推力,建立可变形乘波体的参数化数学模型.仿真分析可高燃冲压发动机性能和乘波体气动特性随结构变化的关系,针对发动机性能提出了变形的依据.通过经典的内外环分布式控制器控制可变形乘波体的姿态稳定的同时具有一定的指令跟踪能力,并且验证了形变对飞行和控制性能的影响.%The wave-rider is a kind of aerodynamic shape for hypersonic vehicle, as a result of high lift-drag rito and maneuvering capacity. Hypersonic vehicle has the characteristics of strong coupling, nonlinear and large envelope flight, flight performance can be optimized by introducing intelligent morphing technology which can change vehicle configuration with flight states in wave-rider conceptual design. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical longitudinal model of a hypersonic vehicle is established with its geometry provided to estimate aerodynamic force and thrust by using hypersonic aerodynamics and quasi-one-dimensional flow with heat added. By analyzing the change of sramjet engine performance and wave-rider aerodynamic characteristics to vehicle configuration, the rule of morphing based on the engine performance is given. A classical decentralized inner-outer loop control system is introduced to stable morphing wave-rider and the reference command is tracked.

  1. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) captive propagation to promote recovery of declining populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is endemic to the eastern United States with local distributions restricted to rocky habitats within deciduous forests. Over the last 40 years, woodrats have declined precipitously due to an array of human-mediated pressures. There is growing interest in the captive propagation of woodrats as a tool to promote in situ conservation, but their solitary social structure, territorial behavior, and low fecundity present challenges for the attainment of levels of ex situ reproduction sufficient to support reintroduction programs. In 2009 we established a captive breeding program with 12 wild-caught individuals (4.8) collected from Indiana and Pennsylvania. Restricting breeding to wild-caught individuals, over 26 months we produced 19 litters comprised of 43 pups (26.17), of which 40 (24.16) survived to weaning. In sum, wild-caught individuals readily habituated to the captive environment and the low fecundity of woodrats was offset by high survival rates for both adults and juveniles. Therefore, when managed appropriately, captive Allegheny woodrat populations should be capable of supporting the release of surplus individuals to augment in situ conservation measures. PMID:24391017

  2. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  3. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...

  4. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  5. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van der Kuyl (Antoinette); R. van den Burg (Remco); M.J. Hoyer (Mark); R.A. Gruters (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Berkhout (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and we

  6. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  7. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 Section 77.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... tests, the testing veterinarian must submit a report to cooperating State and Federal animal...

  8. Ichthyodinium identified in the eggs of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) spawned in captivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    A presumed parasitic protozoan was found in the eggs of European eel obtained from an experiment on captive breeding of eel, Anguilla anguilla, based on silver eels from a freshwater lake in the northern part of Denmark. Gross morphology of the organism was comparable to that of early stages of...

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  10. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors. PMID:25563613

  11. Circadian Rhythms of Locomotor Activity in Captive Birds and Mammals : Their Variations with Season and Latitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Aschoff, Jürgen

    1975-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in time of daily onset and end of locomotor activity are described for 3 species of mammals and 5 species of birds kept in captivity at the arctic circle and at lower latitude. These variations are most pronounced at high latitude. 2. The duration of daily activity plotted

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activities in captive-bred cultured yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852).

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pise, N.M.; Pawar, A.P.; Parab, P.P.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pawar, H.B.; Revankar, A.D.

    ) is one of the heavily traded and expensive materials in TCM. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts from three body portions (head, trunk and tail) in both genders of captive-bred H. kuda were evaluated. Mean measured...

  13. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may f

  14. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyathilakan, N.; Raman, M.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs.

  15. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Raman, M; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2015-03-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs. PMID:25698874

  16. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  17. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided di

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  19. The long-term implications of war captivity for mortality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Greene, Talya; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Zerach, Gadi; Benyamini, Yael; Ohry, Avi

    2014-10-01

    The current study aims to (1) assess the long-term impact of war captivity on mortality and various health aspects and (2) evaluate the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) (N = 154) and a matched control group of combat veterans (N = 161) were assessed on health conditions and self-rated health 18 years post-war (1991: T1). The whole population of ex-POWs, and the T1 sample of controls were then contacted 35 years after the war (2008: T2), and invited to participate in a second wave of measurement (ex-POWs: N = 171; controls: N = 116) Captivity was implicated in premature mortality, more health-related conditions and worse self-rated health. PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between war captivity and self-rated health, and partially mediated the relationship between war captivity and health conditions, and these effects were amplified with age. Aging ex-POWs who develop psychiatric symptomatology should be considered a high-risk group entering a high-risk period in the life cycle. It is important to monitor ex-POWs and provide them with appropriate medical and psychological treatment as they age. PMID:24165831

  20. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, BJ; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  1. Variation in koala microbiomes within and between individuals: effect of body region and captivity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Niccoló; Courtiol, Alexandre; Vielgrader, Hanna; Timms, Peter; Roca, Alfred L; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA has been used to profile microbial communities at high resolution, and to examine their association with host diet or diseases. We examined the oral and gut microbiome composition of two captive koalas to determine whether bacterial communities are unusual in this species, given that their diet consists almost exclusively of Eucalyptus leaves. Despite a highly specialized diet, koala oral and gut microbiomes were similar in composition to the microbiomes from the same body regions of other mammals. Rectal swabs contained all of the diversity present in faecal samples, along with additional taxa, suggesting that faecal bacterial communities may merely subsample the gut bacterial diversity. Furthermore, the faecal microbiomes of the captive koalas were similar to those reported for wild koalas, suggesting that captivity may not compromise koala microbial health. Since koalas frequently suffer from ocular diseases caused by Chlamydia infection, we also examined the eye microbiome composition of two captive koalas, establishing the healthy baseline for this body part. The eye microbial community was very diverse, similar to other mammalian ocular microbiomes but with an unusually high representation of bacteria from the family Phyllobacteriaceae.

  2. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  3. Surviving the "School of Slavery": Acculturation in Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" and Joyce Hansen's "The Captive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Karen Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although children's literature has long alluded to cultural connections between Africans and African Americans, very few texts establish clear lines of influence between particular African ethnic groups and African American characters and communities. Joyce Hansen's "The Captive" (1994) and Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" (2006)…

  4. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  5. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.

  6. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals removed by APHIS from a herd for testing, will be appraised by an APHIS official appraiser and a State... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of...

  7. Encephalitozoon hellem Infection in a Captive Juvenile Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; Slocombe, R F; Crameri, S; Hair, S

    2015-11-01

    Microsporidiosis is reported rarely in reptiles and has never been reported in any species of crocodilian. Microsporidiosis was diagnosed histologically in a juvenile captive freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) that was found suddenly dead in its enclosure. Ultrastructural and molecular testing revealed infection to be due to Encephalitozoon hellem. This is the first report of E. hellem infection in any species of reptile. PMID:26386870

  8. Captive insurance: is it the right choice for your insurance exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Potential benefits of a captive insurance company include: Broader coverage Improved cash flow and stability. Direct access to reinsurance markets. Tax advantages. Better handling and control of risk management and claims. Potential drawbacks and challenges include: Startup capitalization. Underwriting losses. Administration and commitment. PMID:26793945

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  10. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  11. A Case Study in Jewish Moral Education: (Non-)Rape of the Beautiful Captive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of teaching classic religious texts with flawed moral messages from a contemporary point of view is examined in the case of the Beautiful Captive of War (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). A moral dilemma is generated by contradictory ethical stands within the Jewish tradition, between which students have to choose. This dilemma is explored in…

  12. Bacterial populations and metabolites in the feces of free roaming and captive grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Gänzle, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Gut physiology, host phylogeny, and diet determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) belong to the Order Carnivora, yet feed on an omnivorous diet. The role of intestinal microflora in grizzly bear digestion has not been investigated. Microbiota and microbial activity were analysed from the feces of wild and captive grizzly bears. Bacterial composition was determined using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The feces of wild and captive grizzly bears contained log 9.1 +/- 0.5 and log 9.2 +/- 0.3 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. Facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were dominant in wild bear feces. Among the strict anaerobes, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group was most prominent. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in the feces of captive grizzly bears, at log 8.9 +/- 0.5 gene copies x g(-1). Strict anaerobes of the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group and the Clostridium coccoides cluster were present at log 6.7 +/- 0.9 and log 6.8 +/- 0.8 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. The presence of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) verified microbial activity. Total SCFA content and composition was affected by diet. SCFA composition in the feces of captive grizzly bears resembled the SCFA composition of prey-consuming wild animals. A consistent data set was obtained that associated fecal microbiota and metabolites with the distinctive gut physiology and diet of grizzly bears.

  13. Evaluation of captive needle stunning of farmed eel (Anguilla anguilla L.): suitability for humane slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Pieterse, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the study, 53 eels with a live weight of 700 to 800 g were restrained and equipped with EEG and ECG electrodes before stunning. The eels were mechanically stunned by a captive needle pistol using a shooting pressure of 8 bar and an air injection of 3 bar during 1.5 s. The behaviour was observed d

  14. Reproductive activity after induced anestrus using altrenogest in Tursiops truncatus females in captivity in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available i nterest to reproduce Bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus in captivity has increased due to the international restrictions for its commercialization and the risks and logistical difficulties for transporting specimens. Therefore, it has become important to study its reproductive biology in captivity. The objective of the present study was to determine altrenogest ( r egumate ® post-treatment indicators of vaginal cytology, estradiol levels and restarting of reproductive activity of T. truncatus females in captivity in marine environment. Twelve females received altrenogest at a daily dose of 0.07mg kg -1 for a year. a total 420 slides of vaginal cytology of each female were performed to determine the percentage of cornified cells. a lso, 60 blood samples of each animal were analyzed to determine estradiol levels. r egarding the vaginal cytology; percentage of cornified cells increased between 60 and 70% from day 4 to day 9 after removing the altrenogest treatment and between 70 and 80% from day 12 to day 19. e stradiol levels were in the range of 16 to 114pg ml -1 during the entire monitoring period. a positive correlation (r = 0.7062; P<0.05 was found between these indicators. Therefore, we conclude that treatment with altrenogest and monitoring the estrous cycle with simple techniques such as vaginal cytology might be used for designing protocols for assisted reproduction for groups of T truncatus in captivity.

  15. Breeding facilities for polar bears, Thalarctos maritimus (Phipps, 1774), in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, E.F.

    1968-01-01

    The breeding results of Polar Bears in captivity are in general very disappointing. Unsuitable maternity dens are the main cause. These should be completely closed, very quiet without outside disturbances and should have connection with a run and thus with an outside enclosure. The female should be

  16. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate grou

  17. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Captive breeding of European eel, Anguilla anguilla is challenged by the complex hormonal control of Anguillid eel reproduction and the distinctive ontogeny of the leptocephalus larvae that are unique to the Elopomorph superorder. Recent experimental research has succeeded in the production...

  18. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  19. Effect of Captive Environment on Plasma Cortisol Level and Behavioral Pattern of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajjad, U. Farooq1*, M. Anwar, A. Khurshid2 and S.A. Bukhari1

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive environment in zoological parks often do not provide optimum conditions for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. These factors elicit stereotypic behavior in tigers such as pacing, head bobbing and aimless repetition of some movements, and are considered to be an indication of stress. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of captivity on the plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern in Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Tigers kept in captivity at the Lahore zoo (n=4 and in semi natural environment at the Lahore Wildlife Park (n=6 were used for this study, and standard protocols of housing and sampling were observed. The mean plasma cortisol values for the captive animals and those kept in a semi natural environment were 34.48±1.33 and 39.22±3.16µg/dl, respectively; and were statistically non significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the plasma cortisol levels was observed among the individuals within each form of captivity. From the behavioral survey it was observed that the time spent in pacing and resting was much longer for captive animals than animals confined to the semi natural environment. Thus, Technically monitored “Environmental Enrichment’ plans need to be devised which are as close as possible to the natural environment of the captive animals in order to achieve their utmost performance.

  20. Riders to the Sea de Ralph Vaughan Williams : un hymne à la mer, indomptable et indomptée, qui unit les nations Ralph Vaughan Williams’ Riders to the Sea: a hymn to the sea, indomitable, untamed, uniting all nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Le Doussal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riders to the Sea: An opera in one act based on the play by John Millington Synge, Ralph Vaughan Williams’s fifth opera, composed between 1925 and 1932, after The Poisoned Kiss (A Romantic Extravaganza, was first performed at London’s Royal College of Music on December 1st, 1937, with Malcolm Sargent conducting. A masterpiece of poetic intensity and a compendium of pain and quiet, resigned courage, worthy of a Greek tragedy, the Irish dramatist’s play was faithfully adapted by the composer-librettist in a work whose originality and universal message cannot fail to impress. Originating in his wide-ranging imagination―humanistic, brotherly, idealistic, universal―it speaks of a voyage of initiation to the Aran Islands, off the west coast of Ireland. The composer, inspired by folk wisdom and the world of the Spirit, open to worldly solicitations as well as to meditation, saw the play as a vehicle to highlight some aspects of his own musical heritage. In a few pages of dialogue, the score conveys a whole range of different emotions arising from the confrontation with Nature, and more particularly, from the forlorn struggle of the islanders against the sea and God, their ruler.

  1. Survival estimates of wild and captive-bred released Puaiohi, an endangered Hawaiian thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Eric; Crampton, Lisa H.; Diegmann, Julia; Atkinson, Carter T.; Leonard, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating and monitoring adult and juvenile survival are vital to understanding population status, informing recovery planning for endangered species, and quantifying the success of management. We used mark–recapture models to estimate apparent annual survival of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered thrush endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, from 2005 to 2011. Our sample included 87 wild birds and 123 captive-bred birds that were released at various ages. Survival was higher for wild adult males (0.71 ± 0.09) than for wild adult females (0.46 ± 0.12). Survival of wild juveniles (0.23 ± 0.06) was lower than that of wild adults of both sexes, indicating that recruitment may limit population growth. Captive-bred birds released when old had survival (0.26 ± 0.21) comparable with that of wild juveniles, but captive-bred birds released at 1–3 yr old had very low survival (0.05 ± 0.06). Only 8 of 123 (7%) captive birds were seen again after release. Two wild birds resighted five years after marking are the oldest known individuals, being at least six years of age. Malarial infection did not affect survival of wild Puaiohi, unlike many Hawaiian forest birds. The difference between adult male and adult female survival is consistent with rat (Rattusspp.) predation of females on the nest as a major source of mortality. As such, attempting to reduce nest predation by controlling rats may be the best available management option. Releasing captive-bred birds has had little effect on the wild population in recent years.

  2. Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus mice in response to a captive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Lacy

    Full Text Available Many wildlife species are propagated in captivity as models for behavioral, physiological, and genetic research or to provide assurance populations to protect threatened species. However, very little is known about how animals evolve in the novel environment of captivity. The histories of most laboratory strains are poorly documented, and protected populations of wildlife species are usually too small and too short-term to allow robust statistical analysis. To document the evolutionary change in captive breeding programs, we monitored reproduction and behavior across 18 generations in six experimental populations of Peromyscusleucopus mice started from a common set of 20 wild-caught founders. The mice were propagated under three breeding protocols: a strategy to retain maximal genetic diversity, artificial selection against stereotypic behaviors that were hypothesized to reflect poor adaptation to captivity, and random bred controls. Two replicates were maintained with each protocol, and inter-replicate crosses at generations 19 and 20 were used to reverse accumulated inbreeding. We found that one of the stereotypic behaviors (repetitive flipping was positively associated with reproductive fitness, while the other (gnawing was relatively invariant. Selection to reduce these stereotypic behaviors caused marked reduction in reproduction, and populations not under artificial selection to reduce these behaviors responded with large increases in flipping. In non-selected populations, there was rapid evolution toward much higher proportion of pairs breeding and more rapid conception. Litter size, pup survival, and weaning mass all declined slowly, to the extent that would be predicted based on inbreeding depression. Inter-crossing between replicate populations reversed these declines in fitness components but did not reverse the changes in behavior or the accelerated breeding. These findings indicate that adaptation to captivity can be rapid

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  4. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline;

    2016-01-01

    -bred and wild fish may affect the ecological and/or genetic integrity of wild fish populations. Unambiguous identification tools for captive-bred fish will be highly valuable to manage risks (fisheries management) and tracing of escapees and seafood products (wildlife forensics). Using single nucleotide...... to monitor the effects of deliberate releases of captive-bred fish on wild populations. Population assignment proved to be more efficient after several generations of captive breeding, which makes it a useful method in forensic applications for well-established aquaculture species. We suggest...

  5. Evidence for chronic stress in captive but not free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) based on adrenal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda

    2004-04-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is highly endangered because of loss of habitat in the wild and failure to thrive in captivity. Cheetahs in zoos reproduce poorly and have high prevalences of unusual diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. These diseases are rarely observed in free-ranging cheetahs but have been documented in cheetahs that have been captured and held in captive settings either temporarily or permanently. Because captivity may be stressful for this species and stress is suspected as contributing to poor health and reproduction, this study aimed to measure chronic stress by comparing baseline concentrations of fecal corticoid metabolites and adrenal gland morphology between captive and free-ranging cheetahs. Additionally, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone metabolites were quantified to determine whether concentrations of gonadal steroids correlated with corticoid concentration and to assure that corticosteroids in the free-ranging samples were not altered by environmental conditions. Concetntrations of fecal corticoids, estradiol, and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay in 20 free-ranging and 20 captive cheetahs from samples collected between 1994 and 1999. Concentrations of baseline fecal corticoids were significantly higher (p = 0.005) in captive cheetahs (196.08 +/- 36.20 ng/g dry feces) than free-ranging cheetahs (71.40 +/- 14.35 ng/g dry feces). Testosterone concentrations were lower in captive male cheetahs (9.09 +/- 2.84 ng/g dry feces) than in free-ranging cheetahs (34.52 +/- 12.11 ng/g dry feces), which suggests suppression by elevated corticoids in the captive males. Evidence for similar sulppression of estradiol concentrations in females was not present. Adrenal corticomedullary ratios were determined on midsagittal sections of adrenal glands from 13 free-ranging and 13 captive cheetahs obtained between 1991 and 2002. The degree of vacuolation of cortical cells in the zona fasciculata was graded for each animal

  6. The Emergence of Captive Finance Companies and Risk Segmentation of the Consumer Loan Market:Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Staten; John M. Barron; Andrew B. Chong

    2004-01-01

    A parental seller with market power to some degree in its product market can earn rents. In this context, there is a gain to granting credit for the purchase of the product and thus the establishment of captive finance company for expanding the sales by offering loans to consumers who need financing for purchase of durable good. This paper examines the optimal behavior of such a durable good seller and its captive finance company when the consumer loan market is segmented into captive and ind...

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  9. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  10. Genetic Assessments and Parentage Analysis of Captive Bolson Tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) Inform Their “Rewilding” in New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Edwards; Elizabeth Canty Cox; Vanessa Buzzard; Christiane Wiese; Scott Hillard, L; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28). Both popul...

  11. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in captivity, Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeja, V.; A. Bijukumar

    2013-01-01

    Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki), collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal l...

  12. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    A. Q. Mir; Dua, K; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiac...

  13. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) with the use of environmental enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Reisfeld; Mayla Barbirato; Laura Ippolito; Ricardo Cesar Cardoso; Marcílio Nichi; Manuela G.F.G. Sgai; Cristiane S. Pizzutto

    2013-01-01

    Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot) lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use...

  14. Recent Studies on Captive Cetaceans in Japan: Working in Tandem with Studies on Cetaceans in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    MORISAKA, Tadamichi; Kohshima, Shiro; Yoshioka, Motoi; SUZUKI, Miwa; Nakahara, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advances have allowed researchers to acquire a vast amount of information on wild cetaceans, much of which had previously been inaccessible. However, despite these new technologies, existing studies on cetaceans in captivity remain valuable. In this article, we review the recent research conducted on captive cetaceans in Japan to show their importance. We indexed the existing studies regarding behavior (resting behavior, vocal development, social behavior, and behavior di...

  15. Free-riders to forerunners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, Klaus; Cremades, Roger; Filatova, Tatiana; Hewitt, Richard; Jaeger, Carlo; Kovalevsky, Dmitry; Voinov, Alexey; Winder, Nick

    2015-12-01

    Multi-actor integrated assessment models based on well-being concepts beyond GDP could support policymakers by highlighting the interrelation of climate change mitigation and other important societal problems.

  16. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Edwards

    Full Text Available The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n = 28. Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n = 26 potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  18. Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive coatis (Nasua nasua Storr, 1780 (Carnivora: Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Langoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide infection that affects many species, including wild animals. The present study aimed to detect Leptospira spp. antibodies in 17 captive coatis (Nasua nasua by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Nine (52.94% animals tested positive and the following serovars were identified: Copenhageni (22.22%, Shermani (22.22%, Andamana (11.11%, Wolfii (11.11% and Pyrogenes (11.11%. Two samples presented coagglutination, one (11.11% for Hebdomadis and Wolfii, and another (11.11% for Hebdomadis, Hardjo and Wolfii. The current study revealed the presence of the infection even in animals without any clinical signs, reinforcing the possibility that wild animals in captivity may be infected by leptospire serovars, thus enabling reservoirs.

  19. Feline herpesvirus infection in a group of semi-captive cheetahs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by feline herpesvirus type-1 in wild felid species is similar to that in domestic cats. Herpesviruses are endemic in free-ranging lions in South Africa but actual clinical disease due to them has not been reported in free-ranging felids. The first reports of feline herpesvirus infection associated with clinical disease in wild felids came fromAustralia and the USA in 1970. Subsequent reports of clinical disease in cheetahs and other wild felid species were limited to captive animals. This report deals with clinical disease in a group of semi-captive cheetahs in which 18 animals were affected, and included 12 adult males, 4 adult females and 2 subadults. No mortalities occurred in this group, the most common clinical signs being sneezing, nasal discharge and loss of appetite.

  20. Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-01

    As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees. PMID:16229006

  1. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in captivity, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sreeja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki, collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal locomotion were also observed. As a defence behaviour, A. marginatus used aquarium rocks to protect the soft underside of their bodies. A. marginatus demonstrated tool use of coconut shells to make protective shelters, carrying the shells for future use. A female specimen also selected a coconut shell for egg laying and performed parental care by continuously cleaning and aerating her eggs with her arms and by squirting jets of water over the eggs.

  2. BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTION OF Sapajus nigritus (GOLDFUSS, 1809 RAISED IN CAPTIVITY AT IPATINGA, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santana Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of animals in captivity is one of the many ways of species preservation and allows studies that are often unattainable under natural conditions. Primate’s behavior and ecology studies supply tools for the development of conservation and management strategies. Consequently, the current research aimed to describe the patterns of behavior of a capuchin monkey, Sapajus nigritus, group raised in captivity at the Biodiversity Center of Associação Esportiva e Recreativa at Ipatinga, MG, Brazil. The Scan Sample was used with five minutes intervals. Ad libitum and Focal Animal were the complementary sampling. Twenty-three behavioral categories were recorded; this is considered average when compared to other ethograms. The behavioral class with greater prominence was foraging, however the different categories of behavior suggest a complex capacity of intra-specific interaction. The information serves as basic tools for the formulation of conservation strategies, management and to the comprehension of ecological interactions.

  3. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented. PMID:27057585

  4. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. PMID:26875762

  5. Wasted efforts: why captivity is not the best way to conserve species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pedrono

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation strategies of Malagasy turtles and tortoises are based principally on the captive-breeding of these species, with the ultimate aim of their possible reintroduction in the wild. Given the current precarious conservation status of endemic Malagasy turtle and tortoise species, it is clear that approach has been a failure. Instead of being used to complement in situ approaches, for a number of years captive-breeding efforts have been used as an alternative. It is essential to develop conservation strategies for these species based on empirical data, and not only on the subjective vision of NGOs with a strong interest in ex situ conservation approaches. It is only by fighting the causes of decline of Malagasy chelonian species in the wild that they will be able to be saved.

  6. The effects of automated scatter feeders on captive grizzly bear activity budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nathan L P; Ha, James C

    2014-01-01

    Although captive bears are popular zoo attractions, they are known to exhibit high levels of repetitive behaviors (RBs). These behaviors have also made them particularly popular subjects for welfare research. To date, most research on ursid welfare has focused on various feeding methods that seek to increase time spent searching for, extracting, or consuming food. Prior research indicates an average of a 50% reduction in RBs when attempts are successful and, roughly, a 50% success rate across studies. This research focused on decreasing time spent in an RB while increasing the time spent active by increasing time spent searching for, extracting, and consuming food. The utility of timed, automated scatter feeders was examined for use with captive grizzly bears (Ursis arctos horribilis). Findings include a significant decrease in time spent in RB and a significant increase in time spent active while the feeders were in use. Further, the bears exhibited a wider range of behaviors and a greater use of their enclosure.

  7. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  8. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  9. Socialization Strategies and Disease Transmission in Captive Colonies of Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Schapiro, Steven J.; Bernacky, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In captive research environments for nonhuman primates (NHP), social housing strategies are often in conflict with protocols designed to minimize disease transmission. This is particularly true in breeding colonies, and is especially relevant when attempting to eliminate specific pathogens from a population of primates. Numerous strategies have been used to establish such specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colonies (primarily of macaques), ranging from nursery rearing of neonates to single...

  10. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  11. Methicillin resistance gene diversity in staphylococci isolated from captive and free-ranging wallabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. S. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS can be life-threatening in humans and its presence in animals is a cause for public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRS in captive and free-ranging wallabies over a 16-month period in South Australia, Australia. Materials and methods: Eighty-nine purified staphylococcal isolates recovered from 98 captive and free-ranging wallabies' anterior nasal swabs were used in this study. All isolates were tested for the presence of the mecA, mecA1, and mecC genes. Multiplex PCR-directed SCCmec-typing, ccrB-typing, and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of oxacillin were performed on mec-positive isolates. Results and discussion: In total, 11 non-Staphylococcus aureus MRS were isolated from 7 out of 98 animals, corresponding to a 7.1% carriage rate. The SCCmec types I, III, and V were identified by multiplex PCR and sequencing of the ccrB gene. This is the first report of MRS carriage in both captive and free-ranging wallabies in Australia. These data demonstrate a low prevalence of MRS and no association between wallaby captivity status and MRS carriage could be assigned. These animals may act as a reservoir for the exchange of genetic elements between staphylococci. Furthermore, the mecA genes of animal isolates were identical to that found in human MRS strains and thus the possibility of zoonotic transfer must be considered.

  12. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was o...

  13. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  14. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  15. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (panimal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (panimal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  17. Unitary Joint Standoff Captive Air Training Missile avionics design through operational concepts and functional requirements analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dennis J., III

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. To accurately simulate the Unitary Joint Standoff (JSOW) weapon functions and provide pilots with the most realistic training, the captive air training missile (CATM) avionics design will fully implement well defined operational concepts and functional requirements in terms of flight simulation characteristics, operational functions, pilot feedback, and electronic interfaces. This would provide the Navy, Marines, and Air Force with a ...

  18. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR; Muthusamy THANGARAJ; Thathiredypalli R. BARATHKUMAR; Jayachandran SUBBURAJ; Kaliyan MUTHAZHAGAN

    2012-01-01

    Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai) and one captive (Mutukadu) population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and const...

  19. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    OpenAIRE

    Ippei Suzuki; Katsufumi Sato; Andreas Fahlman; Yasuhiko Naito; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Andrew W Trites

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumet...

  20. Serological monitoring of antibodies for an early diagnosis ofaspergillosis in captive penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela L. Cabana; Xavier, Melissa O.; Vanice Poester; Gabriel B. Klafke; Pedro L. B.Filho; Aryse Martins; Rodolfo P. S.Filho; Meireles, Mário C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of detection of anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies in captive penguins by double radial agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for the aspergillosis diagnosis. We included 134 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in rehabilitation at the Center for Recovery of Marine Animals (CRAM / FURG). All of them were monitored by AGID weekly until its final destination (death or release), totalizing 660 serum samples studied. All animals were clin...

  1. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S; Fair, Patricia A; Hansen, Larry J; Hohn, Aleta A; Lovewell, Gretchen N; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D Ann; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S

    2008-01-01

    We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood (n = 95 live animals) and tissues (n = 15 freshly dead animals) were screened by PCR (n = 106 animals), PCR of enrichment cultures (n = 50 animals), and subcultures (n = 50 animals). Bartonella spp. were detected from 17 cetaceans, including 12 by direct extraction PCR of blood or tissues, 6 by PCR of enrichment cultures, and 4 by subculture isolation. Bartonella spp. were more commonly detected from the captive (6/14, 43%) than from free-ranging (2/71, 2.8%) bottlenose dolphins, and were commonly detected from the stranded animals (9/21, 43%; 3/11 striped dolphins, 3/4 harbor porpoises, 2/3 Risso's dolphins, 1/1 pygmy sperm whale, 0/1 dwarf sperm whale, 0/1 bottlenose dolphin). Sequencing identified a Bartonella spp. most similar to B. henselae San Antonio 2 in eight cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 2 striped dolphins, 2 harbor porpoises), B. henselae Houston 1 in three cases (2 Risso's dolphins, 1 harbor porpoise), and untyped in six cases (4 bottlenose dolphins, 1 striped dolphin, 1 pygmy sperm whale). Although disease causation has not been established, Bartonella species were detected more commonly from cetaceans that were overtly debilitated or were cohabiting in captivity with a debilitated animal than from free-ranging animals. The detection of Bartonella spp. from cetaceans may be of pathophysiological concern. PMID:18721502

  2. Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, B; Collins, M; Stoddard, G; Appleton, A; Livingood, R; Sobcynski, H; Vogel, K D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the "head-only" method-application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun ( = 45). The second group ( = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the "head/heart" method-initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). Stunning efficacy was the indicator of animal welfare used in this study. All calves were instantly rendered insensible by the initial stun and did not display common indicators of return to consciousness. For meat quality evaluation, all samples were collected from the 12th rib region of the longissimus thoracis. Meat samples were evaluated for color, drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The L* values (measure of meat color lightness) were darker ( 0.05) observed in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values between treatments. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed in drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The blood yield from the CONTROL group (7,217.9 ± 143.5 g) was greater ( veal calves. PMID:26440354

  3. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  5. Morphometric Variables Related to Metabolic Profile in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Marcia CR; Higgins, Paul B.; Mattern, Vicki L; Garza, Melissa A De La; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, trig...

  6. Evaluation of Four Environmental Enrichment Procedures for Coatis (Nasua nasua) in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Pereira; L. B. C. Ferreira; T. A. R. Paula; A.K. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Wild Animal Sorting Centers (WASC) keeps animals that were captured from their natural habitat. These animals often suffer stress and may show atypical behavior due the difficulty encountered by them to adapt to captivity. In order to improve the quality of life of these animals was developed this work, in order to study the behavior of coatis subjected to different procedures of environmental enrichment. The study was conducted in WASC of Federal University of Visa, Visa-MG. Data were collec...

  7. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily P; Brettschneider, Helene; Caldwell, Peter; Oosthuizen, Almero; Dalton, Desiré L; du Plessis, Liza; Steyl, Johan; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research. PMID:27380652

  8. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P. Lane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research.Keywords: feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination

  9. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  10. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n = 26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ≥4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n = 9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations.

  11. Survival of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) following surgical liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Esler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We measured intra- and postoperative mortality rates of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) undergoing surgical liver biopsy sampling for determination of the induction of cytochrome P4501A, a biomarker of oil exposure. Liver biopsies were taken from and radio transmitters were implanted into 157 free-ranging Harlequin Ducks over three winters (55 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 47 in 2002). No birds died during surgery, but seven (4.5%) died during recovery from anesthesia (three in 2001 and four in 2002). None of the deaths could be attributed directly to the liver biopsy. Four of the 150 (2.7%) birds that were released died in the 2 wk period after surgery. All post-release deaths occurred in 2001; no birds died after release in 2000 or 2002. No mortalities of 36 captive birds occurred during surgery or recovery or in the 2 wk period following surgery. Hemorrhage was a minor problem with one captive bird. Surgical liver biopsies appear to be a safe procedure, but anesthetic complications may occur with overwintering ducks. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2010.

  12. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs. PMID:26882002

  13. Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Tessa H; Heistermann, Michael; Hankison, Shala J; Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity is widely dependent on the natural psychological, physical, and behavioral needs of the animals and how adequately these needs are met. Inability to engage in natural behaviors can lead to chronic stress and expression of stereotypic behavior. The majority of research on decreasing stereotypic behavior in captivity addresses problems at the group level and does not account for individual variability in each animal's needs, history, and preferences. This study combined physiological and behavioral measures of well being to comprehensively assess the unique needs of individually housed captive macaques (Macaca spp.) with the aim of developing tailored welfare strategies. Behavioral and hormonal data were collected under 2 conditions: baseline and individualized enrichment. The results showed a significant decrease in stereotypic behavior under the enrichment condition. Additionally, 7 out of 9 individuals showed a decrease in fecal glucocorticoid (stress hormone) levels, indicating a reduction in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Addressing welfare on an individual, rather than group, level allows for a better overall characterization of well being and maximizes the probability of improving the welfare of each animal. PMID:26882225

  14. Kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Andrea S; Ivy, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Zoo-based captive breeding programs typically rely on accurate pedigrees to maintain long-term population genetic diversity and prevent close inbreeding. For many mixed-sex captive populations, it is difficult to assign parentage of offspring with certainty without conducting DNA-based parentage analyses. Using the demographic parameters of a North American captive population of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in handling pedigrees with varying degrees of parentage uncertainty. We also compared these strategies with 2 nonkinship-based methods. Pedigrees simulated under different management strategies were compared for their long-term ability to maintain gene diversity (GD) and avoid inbreeding. For the Arabian oryx, results indicate that recording multiple possible parents instead of removing the unknown genomic portion of the pedigree can more efficiently utilize all animals available for breeding without compromising GD and inbreeding avoidance. Both kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies significantly outperformed the nonkinship-based strategies.

  15. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai and one captive (Mutukadu population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and construction of the dendrogram. A total of 589 scorable bands were obtained, 93.12% of them were polymorphic. The Nei�s gene diversity (H of two wild populations were more (0.0504 � 0.0670 and 0.0519 � 0.0953 than the captive population (0.0489 � 0.0850. The clustering pattern obtained by UPGMA method emphasized the wild populations were clustered in one clade and captive population was deviated into another clade. This study proved that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate L. calcarifer populations. Further molecular studies, comprising a higher number of molecular tools are still required to precisely evaluate the genetic structure of all seabass populations along the Indian coast.

  16. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil. PMID:27468012

  17. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  18. Being attractive brings advantages: the case of parrot species in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the perceived beauty of individual parrot species assessed by human observers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the purpose of data collection, we defined four sets of species (40 parrots, 367 parrots, 34 amazons, 17 macaws. Then, we asked 776 human respondents to evaluate parrot pictures of the selected species according to perceived beauty and we analyzed its association with color and morphological characters. Irrespective of the species set, we found a good agreement among the respondents. The preferred species tended to be large, colorful, and long-tailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We repeatedly confirmed significant, positive association between the perceived beauty and the size of worldwide zoo population. Moreover, the range size and body size appeared to be significant predictors of zoo population size. In contrast, the effects of other explanatory variables, including the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature listing, appeared insignificant. Our results may suggest that zoos preferentially keep beautiful parrots and pay less attention to conservation needs.

  19. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  20. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  1. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

    2008-08-01

    The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  2. Adaptive management for improving species conservation across the captive-wild spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of endangered species increasingly envisages complex strategies that integrate captive and wild management actions. Management decisions in this context must be made in the face of uncertainty, often with limited capacity to collect information. Adaptive management (AM) combines management and monitoring, with the aim of updating knowledge and improving decision-making over time. We provide a guide for managers who may realize the potential of AM, but are unsure where to start. The urgent need for iterative management decisions, the existence of uncertainty, and the opportunity for learning offered by often highly-controlled captive environments create favorable conditions for AM. However, experiments and monitoring may be complicated by small sample sizes, and the ability to control the system, including stochasticity and observability, may be limited toward the wild end of the spectrum. We illustrate the key steps to implementing AM in threatened species management using four case studies, including the management of captive programs for cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and whooping cranes (Grus americana), of a translocation protocol for Arizona cliffroses Purshia subintegra and of ongoing supplementary feeding of reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) populations. For each case study, we explain (1) how to clarify whether the decision can be improved by learning (i.e. it is iterative and complicated by uncertainty) and what the management objectives are; (2) how to articulate uncertainty via alternative, testable hypotheses such as competing models or parameter distributions; (3) how to formally define how additional information can be collected and incorporated in future management decisions.

  3. Investigating the relationship between feed and helminthic burden of captive birds of prey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernando; Lam, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle of most parasitic helminthes is related to their hosts feeding habits. Thus we need to investigate the impact of diet on the host's helminthic parasite burden. Not many studies in captive raptors have been conducted and published regarding parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the helminthic burden of raptors kept in captivity and establish a relationship with the feed provided. A total of N = 51 different species of captive birds of prey were fed different diets consisting in different combinations of day old chicks, chicken breast, whole chicken carcass and mice. Their feces were sampled and the parasite burden was determined. A negative binomial model was successfully fitted to the data and the feeds "mice" (P < 0.001) and "whole chicken carcass" (P < 0.001) significantly contributed to an increase in the observed burden. Significant differences were also found between species (P < 0.001). Raptors fed adult animal carcasses and offal may explain the increase in the observed burden as these feeds have a larger probability of being contaminated by a larger variety of helminthic fauna. PMID:24259341

  4. Genetic variability in captive populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Leandro R; Francisco, Flávio O; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Arias, Maria C

    2016-08-01

    Low genetic variability has normally been considered a consequence of animal husbandry and a major contributing factor to declining bee populations. Here, we performed a molecular analysis of captive and wild populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, one of the most commonly kept species across South America. Microsatellite analyses showed similar genetic variability between wild and captive populations However, captive populations showed lower mitochondrial genetic variability. Male-mediated gene flow, transport and division of nests are suggested as the most probable explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structure. We conclude that increasing the number of colonies kept through nest divisions does not negatively affect nuclear genetic variability, which seems to be maintained by small-scale male dispersal and human-mediated nest transport. However, the transport of nests from distant localities should be practiced with caution given the high genetic differentiation observed between samples from western and eastern areas. The high genetic structure verified is the result of a long-term evolutionary process, and bees from distant localities may represent unique evolutionary lineages. PMID:27305916

  5. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in wild and captive Japanese serows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, T; Minamoto, N; Sugiyama, M; Sugiyama, Y

    1992-10-01

    The fecal Escherichia coli isolated from wild Japanese serows living in mountainous areas away from humans and those from captive serows kept in human areas were examined for antimicrobial resistance and the possession of transferable R plasmids. Of 874 E. coli strains isolated from 283 wild serows in 1980-1981, only 11 (1.3%) were resistant to at least one of 6 antimicrobial drugs; ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and sulfadimethoxin. Seven (2.5%) individuals were found to carry resistant E. coli. To heighten the isolation frequency of drug-resistant strains, fecal samples of 244 wild serows in 1983-1984 were cultured directly onto drug-supplemented media. Only 12 (4.9%) serows were shown to have drug-resistant E. coli. No transferable R plasmid was detected among a total of 87 resistant strains from wild serows. In contrast, all 33 captive serows except one which was kept only one day after capture, showed resistant E. coli and 20 (60.6%) serows were excreting R plasmid-carrying E. coli. Of 161 drug-resistant strains from captive serows, 50 (31.1%) were found to carry R plasmids. Wild serows seemed to readily change to harbor resistant E. coli almost as soon they were reared in human areas without direct exposure to drugs. These results lead to the conclusion that drug-resistant E. coli can probably be used as microbial indicator for natural environmental pollution. PMID:1420561

  6. Genetic variability in captive populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Leandro R; Francisco, Flávio O; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Arias, Maria C

    2016-08-01

    Low genetic variability has normally been considered a consequence of animal husbandry and a major contributing factor to declining bee populations. Here, we performed a molecular analysis of captive and wild populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, one of the most commonly kept species across South America. Microsatellite analyses showed similar genetic variability between wild and captive populations However, captive populations showed lower mitochondrial genetic variability. Male-mediated gene flow, transport and division of nests are suggested as the most probable explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structure. We conclude that increasing the number of colonies kept through nest divisions does not negatively affect nuclear genetic variability, which seems to be maintained by small-scale male dispersal and human-mediated nest transport. However, the transport of nests from distant localities should be practiced with caution given the high genetic differentiation observed between samples from western and eastern areas. The high genetic structure verified is the result of a long-term evolutionary process, and bees from distant localities may represent unique evolutionary lineages.

  7. Neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho; Kindlein Vicentini, Franco; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Rosado Spilki, Fernando; Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2005-09-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. Although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of Brazil. In this study, 250 serum samples of six species of Brazilian captive wild felids (Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, and Panthera onca) were examined for neutralizing antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1. Positive sera were found in 72% of L. tigrinus samples, 15% of L. wiedii, 6% of L. pardalis, 8% of H. yaguarondi, 18% of P. concolor, and 14% of P. onca. The relatively low percentages of seropositivity and low antibody titers found among the last five species suggest that feline herpesvirus type 1 does not circulate extensively among these animals. Nevertheless, quarantine, serologic screening, and vaccination of newly introduced felids is recommended in zoos in order to prevent virus transmission and outbreaks of the disease among wild felids kept in captivity. PMID:17312763

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  9. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangying YU; Zhigang JIANG; Hui ZHU; Chunwang LI; Enquan ZHANG; Jinguo ZHANG; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space,unchanging habitat,lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity,abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment,as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals,has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques,olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden.These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator,prey,and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards,we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans,feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigrisaltaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment,eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors,cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration,followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more play behavior in presence of nutmeg

  10. Lead contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989, a red kite Milvus milvus reintroduction programme has been underway in the United Kingdom, with 4-6 week old nestlings brought into captivity and held for 6-8 weeks before reintroduction. As scavengers, red kites may consume unretrieved game, and ingest shot or lead (Pb) fragments in their prey's flesh. We evaluated exposure to Pb in captive and wild red kites by taking blood samples from 125 captive young red kites prior to release, through analysing 264 pellets (regurgitated by wild birds) collected from under a roost site, and analysing Pb concentrations in livers and/or bones of 87 red kites found dead between 1995 and 2003. Lead isotope analyses of livers were also conducted in an effort to identify Pb exposure routes. Forty-six (36.8%) kites sampled prior to release had elevated blood Pb concentrations (201-3340 μg l-1). The source of this Pb was probably small fragments of lead ammunition in the carcasses of birds or mammals either fed to the nestlings by their parents or, more likely, subsequently whilst in captivity. Once released, kites were also exposed to lead shot in their food, and a minimum of 1.5-2.3% of regurgitated pellets contained Pb gunshot. Seven of 44 red kites found dead or that were captured sick and died within a few days had elevated (> 6 mg kg-1 dry weight [d.w.]) liver Pb concentrations, and six of these (14%) had concentrations of > 15 mg kg-1 d.w., compatible with fatal Pb poisoning. Post-mortem analyses indicated that two of these birds had died of other causes (poisoning by rodenticide and a banned agricultural pesticide); the remaining four (9%) probably died of Pb poisoning. Bone samples from 86 red kites showed a skewed distribution of Pb concentration, and 18 samples (21%) had Pb concentrations > 20 mg kg-1 d.w., indicating elevated exposure to Pb at some stage in the birds' life. Lead isotopic signatures (Pb 208/206; Pb 206/207) in liver samples of the majority of kites were compatible with those found in lead shot

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  12. Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Lynne M; Jang, Spencer S; Lent, Cheryl L; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Norosoarinaivo, Jeanne Aimée

    2008-02-01

    A survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the United States. In Madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. Identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were used for captive and wild populations. The predominant types of aerobic bacteria flora were identified via five separate tests. The tests for parasites conducted included flotation, sedimentation and FA/GC. Twenty-seven bacteria unique to either the captive or wild populations were cultured with eight of these being statistically significantly different. Fourteen bacteria common to both populations were cultured, of which six differed significantly. Entamoeba coli was the only parasite common to both the captive and wild populations. Giardia spp., Isospora spp., strongyles-type ova, Entamoeba spp. and Entamoeba polecki were found only in captive samples. Cryptosporidium, Balantidium coli, pinworm-type ova, and two fluke-like ova were seen only in wild samples. In addition, samples were compared for both bacteria and parasites from three unique field sites in Madagascar. In this three-site comparison, six types of bacteria were statistically significantly different. No significant differences regarding parasites were seen. Significant differences were found between the captive and wild populations, whereas fewer differences were found between sites within Madagascar. Although we isolated Campylobacter and Giardia, all animals appeared clinically healthy. PMID:17854057

  13. Health evaluation of free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Karesh, William B; Wolfe, Nathan D; Bosi, Edwin J; Cook, Robert A; Andau, Mahedi

    2003-01-01

    Baseline data on health of free-ranging wildlife is essential to evaluate impacts of habitat transformation and wildlife translocation, rehabilitation, and reintroduction programs. Health information on many species, especially great apes, is extremely limited. Between 1996 and 1998, 84 free-ranging orangutans captured for translocation, underwent a complete health evaluation. Analogous data were gathered from 60 semi-captive orangutans in Malaysia. Baseline hematology and serology; vitamin, mineral and pesticide levels; and results of health evaluations, including physical examination, provide a baseline for future monitoring. Free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans shared exposure to 11 of 47 viruses. The semi-captive orangutans had significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus (P Balantidium coli and Plasmodium pitheci infections and exposure to mycobacterium was higher in the semi-captive animals. Differences in exposure to pathogens between the groups may be due to environmental factors including differences in exposures to other species, habitat quality, nutritional status, and other potential stressors. Differences in health parameters between captive and free-ranging orangutans need to be considered when planning conservation areas, translocation procedures, and rehabilitation protocols. Because survival of the orangutan is linked to animal and ecosystem health, results of this study will assist wildlife conservation programs by providing baseline health information. PMID:12685070

  14. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors.

  15. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors. PMID:27278778

  16. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W D; Russell, J L; Schaeffer, J A; Gardner, M; Schapiro, S J

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level handedness was found for this task; however, significant sex differences in preference and performance were found, with males showing greater left handedness and poorer performance compared to females. We also found that the hand preferences of offspring were significantly positively correlated with the hand preferences of their mothers. Lastly, older females performed more slowly on the task compared to younger individuals. The overall results neither confirm nor reject previous hypotheses claiming that raising chimpanzees in captivity induces right-handedness, but rather suggest that other factors may account for differences in hand preferences for tool use seen in wild and captive chimpanzees. PMID:20221316

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  19. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  20. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  1. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  2. Factors Affecting Initial Training Success of Blood Glucose Testing in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A.; Haller, Rachel L.; Thiele, Erica J.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor “openness” were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for “present-for-injection” (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  3. PARASITOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN URINE FROM MARINE MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS MAINTAINED IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.L. Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee (Trichechus manatus is one of the most endangered marine mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction. The main risks to the conservation of the species are from natural causes, such as the slow birth rate, human actions and infectious diseases. Among the main objectives of the National Centre for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (CMA/ICMBio is to promote scientific research and management actions for the conservation and recovery of endangered species of marine mammals, and develop and promote rehabilitation in captivity and release natural environment of the marine manatee. The passage of these individuals for captive is of utmost importance for the conservation of the species. The rehabilitation of captive cubs marine manatees and allow recovery and can return the animal to the natural environment, enables a greater knowledge of the species, referring to biological, behavioral and clinical. Studies on the parasitism of manatee in Brazil are few elucidated, more research related to the topic, it is necessary to better understand the disease and health aspects of the species. This work aims to realize the isolation of the parasite in urine samples of marine manatee kept in the rehabilitation process. All animals included in the study are from the rehabilitation center for wild animals CRAS/CMA/ICMbio , located in Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco. This deal is the first description of parasites in urine manatee in Brazil and can support management actions to be taken to ensure the health of animals in rehabilitation.

  4. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis.

  5. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  6. Applying SNP-Derived Molecular Coancestry Estimates to Captive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jamie A; Putnam, Andrea S; Navarro, Asako Y; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A

    2016-09-01

    Captive breeding programs for wildlife species typically rely on pedigrees to inform genetic management. Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs. We generated SNP data for a zoo-based population of addax (Addax nasomasculatus) using both the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and double digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing. Our results demonstrated that estimates of allele sharing (AS) between pairs of individuals exhibited low variances. Average AS variances were highest when using 50 loci (SNPchipall = 0.00159; ddRADall = 0.0249), but fell below 0.0003 for the SNP chip dataset when sampling ≥250 loci and below 0.0025 for the ddRAD dataset when sampling ≥500 loci. Furthermore, the correlation between the SNPchipall and ddRADall AS datasets was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.84-0.91) when subsampling 500 loci. Collectively, our results indicated that both SNP genotyping methods produced sufficient data for accurately estimating relationships, even within an extremely bottlenecked population. Our results also suggested that analytic assumptions historically integrated into the addax pedigree are not adversely impacting long-term pedigree-based management; kinships calculated from the analytic pedigree were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with AS estimates. Overall, our conclusions are intended to serve as both a proof of concept and a model for applying molecular data to the genetic management of captive breeding programs. PMID:27208150

  7. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  8. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and

  9. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  10. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country.

  11. Managing risk and marginalizing identities: on the society-of-captives thesis and the harm of social dis-ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    This article develops the constitutive features of the society-of-captives thesis as suggested by Arrigo and Milovanovic, and Arrigo, Bersot, and Sellers. The relevance of this thesis is briefly explored in relation to the institutional and community-based treatment philosophies that currently inform the mental health and criminal justice systems. This exploration specifies how risk (being human and doing humanness differently) is managed symbolically, linguistically, materially, and culturally. The management of this risk extends to the kept as well as to their keepers, regulators, and watchers (i.e., the society of captives). This article calls for a new clinical praxis (being/doing a critical mindfulness) designed to overcome the totalizing madness (the harm of social dis-ease) that follows from managing risk fearfully and marginalizing identities desperately as reified recursively through society's captivity. The ethical underpinnings of this clinical praxis represent an emergent direction for undertaking correctional policy reform.

  12. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country. PMID:25106849

  13. Effects of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Levels in Seawater from Juvenile Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas kept in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chuen-Im

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a major cause of high mortality in juvenile sea turtles at the Sea Turtle Conservation Centre, Chonburi Province, Thailand.The attempt is to identify sources of bacterial accumulation and contamination in order to reduce the number of infections. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the effects of live rocks and captivity parameters on microbiological water quality. Microbiological results indicated that the presence of live rocks in juvenile green turtle containers resulted in a reduction of haemolytic bacteria in seawater. Additionally, thehigh stock density of animals in the captivity has influence on the increased bacterial levels in the water, while temperature of the water was found to have an influence on bacterial growth. The results of this study implied that the environments of captivity have great impact on thebacterial levels in the water, which should be considered for the management of sea turtles as well as other aquatic animals.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  15. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  16. Fiber digestibility in juvenile Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) and implications for the development of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, J M; M Clauss; Gisler, R; Liesegang, A.; Wanner, M

    2005-01-01

    Digestive strategies have been recognized to be a key factor for healthy growth in juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra). The aim of present study was to investigate digestive coefficients with special regard to fiber fractions. Four captive bred Galapagos giant tortoises 4-5 years of age were fed a controlled diet for 32 days. The diet consisted of 77% hay, 15% tortoise pellets, and 8% apples on a dry matter basis. On a dry matter basis diet analysis showed: 95.7% organic mat...

  17. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  18. Presumptive Acute Neural Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Red-Necked Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A red-necked male wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus from a German zoo was presented for acute onset of severe neurological signs, including head tremor, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and weakness. Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased LDH- and AST-levels, hyperproteinaemia, and reduced ALT-, ALP-, and creatinine-levels. The wallaby was found serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect haemagglutination test. After initiation of therapy by subcutaneous injections of trimethoprim/sulfadoxin, amelioration of neurological signs was noted and after 10 days the affected wallaby recovered. T. gondii can be confirmed rapidly by serology, and immediate therapy may reduce clinical illness and fatality of the disease within captive macropods.

  19. [Life and death of captive eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) (1923-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillard, Violette

    2015-12-01

    The evolving channels through which zoos acquire animals is an important-albeit often ignored-part of the history of these institutions, allowing a better understanding of human-animal relationships. Following current developments in animal history, this essay focuses on animals themselves, their experience of capture, and of captivity. A micro-historical approach based on the case of Eastern gorillas'capture highlights human practices and policies, their effects on gorillas and the evolution towards a decrease of captures. PMID:26746645

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  1. Quantitative assessment of pair formation behavior in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Small, C.R.; Ellis, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Instantaneous scan sampling for mean distance and synchronous action patterns and all-occurrence sampling for unison call, dance, strut, and hoover-up behaviors were conducted for five potential whooping crane pairs at Patuxent Environmental Science Center, Laurel. Maryland. Dance, strut, and hoover-up differed among pairs, as did total frequency of social behaviors. It was unclear whether or not total frequency of social behaviors during pair formation can be used as an index for potential breeding success. The relative importance of different action patterns should be used as indices of pair compatibility in captive whooping cranes.

  2. Spontaneous proliferative lesions and tumors of the uterus of captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, Igor; Reavill, Drury R; Practice, Avian

    2004-06-01

    Fifteen captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), 3- to 5-yr-old, were diagnosed with proliferative uterine lesions (n = 28). Lesions were associated with vaginal bleeding in all cases, hematuria in 11 of 13 cases, and weight loss in 7 of 12 cases. Lesions were multiple in eight cases and single in seven cases. The lesions identified were 13 adenosarcomas, 7 endometrial stromal sarcomas, 6 endometrial polyps, 1 adenoleiomyosarcoma, and 1 adenoleiomyoma. In one animal with adenosarcoma, peritoneal seeding was detected at the time of hysterectomy. Mean survival time was 303 days (n = 10). Ovariohysterectomy allows prolonged survival of hedgehogs with uterine tumors. PMID:15305518

  3. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    House, Bailey R; Silk, Joan B; Lambeth, Susan P;

    2014-01-01

    and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing...... offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more "complex" experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more...

  4. Environmental enrichment for neotropical primates in captivity Enriquecimento ambiental para primatas neotropicais em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner Boere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Captivity is an extreme non-natural environment for primates. The success of a breeding colony depends of management and veterinarian procedures which must rely on the knowledge of primates' behavioral needs. Environmental enrichment consists of a series of procedures that improve the quality of life of captive animals by meeting their ethological needs. Enrichment can reduce stress, while increasing animal well being in captivity. Suitable ethical conditions, incidences of behavioral disorders, minimal clinical interventions, low mortality, higher reproduction rates and cost/benefit relationship, reflect directly on the quality of captive breeding colonies. Anthropoids like Neotropical primates possess complex neural structures and relate, in a sophisticated manner, to the environment. This review reports important experiences on enrichment procedures for Neotropical primates and the physiological events which could explain improvement of animal well-being.Cativeiro é um ambiente de extremos não naturais para primatas. O sucesso de uma criação de primatas depende do manejo e de procedimentos veterinários que devem considerar as necessidades etológicas dos animais cativos. Enriquecimento ambiental é um conjunto de técnicas que modificam o ambiente, resultando em uma melhora na qualidade de vida dos animais, ao satisfazer as suas necessidades comportamentais. O enriquecimento pode diminuir o estresse e melhorar o bem-estar. Primatas neotropicais se caracterizam por complexas estruturas neurais e se relacionam de maneira sofisticada com o ambiente. O enriquecimento ambiental pode aumentar a qualidade de uma criação ao adequar o manejo a padrões éticos aceitáveis, estimular o repertório normal do comportamento, diminuir a casuística clínica, diminuir a mortalidade, incrementar a taxa reprodutiva e maximizar a relação custo/benefício em uma criação. Esta revisão relata experiências relevantes nos procedimentos de

  5. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  6. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  7. Captives of Sarracins. Girona Bishops’ Licenses for Begging (1376-1415

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Valenti, Eduard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows Pilar Pueyo’s article (1999 about the permits given in Zaragoza, and tries to examine the litterae accaptandi (permits to ask for charity and more specifically the permits to ask forcharity from the bishops of Girona in order to redeem the christian captives in muslim North Africa (Barbaria. From 9th to 19th centuries, the coast of Girona’s Bishopric (now Costa Brava was attacked by muslim berbers, which are recorded. This article tries to offer a better knowledge of these interestig notices until 15th century. We hope to continue this research sometime.

    No disponible

  8. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Brasil; Roberta Parentoni; Roberto Farias; Thiago Nery; Sílvio Vasconcellos; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the spec...

  9. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy; Fedullo José Daniel Luzes; Corrêa Sandra Helena Ramiro; Teixeira Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Coutinho Selene Dall' Acqua

    2006-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus) are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken fr...

  10. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S

    2009-01-01

    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp. PMID:19204356

  11. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  12. Comparison of the genetic diversity of wild and captive groups of Microcebus murinus using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, H; Hafen, T; Zimmermann, E; Rumpler, Y

    1998-01-01

    Continued survival of most animal species depends on population management and active protection. It is generally agreed that, in order to avoid extinction of endangered species, ex situ and in situ conservation must be developed in tandem. However, even though many recommendations have been put forward to promote the survival of captive populations, some rapidly become extinct due to loss of genetic diversity (drift effect). Genetic markers, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, can be applied to rapid testing of many individuals. They also permit analysis of very small amounts of DNA, when small species such as mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are to be tested. Using RAPD markers, we compare genetic diversity in four captive groups of Microcebus murinus to that in a sample of 70 wild mouse lemurs. Following the principles of Mendelian inheritance, each amplified fragment of DNA may be considered as a 'locus' (or an amplifying site). The series of bands amplified by a particular primer in any individual is referred to as the individual's 'profile'. We tested 5 primers, or, in the above terms, we studied 98 different 'loci'. Results showed that the captive groups had lost genetic information with respect to the wild sample. Among the four captive groups, the loss of genetic diversity varied according to their number of founders and/or the management of their captive reproduction. Our study of polymorphism permitted us to establish tools for the genetic management of captive breeding, and for the determination of paternity which frequently give better results than behavioural studies; and simulation of introductions or departures of individuals in one very monomorphic group permitted estimation of future increases in its genetic diversity. PMID:9595690

  13. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen;

    2016-01-01

    = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...... were best fit by the logistic and Gompertz models respectively, implying greater heterogeneity in the wild environment likely due to harsher conditions. We found that age patterns of mortality were similar between the sexes in both populations. We calculated life expectancy and disparity, the latter...

  14. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  15. Characterization of Salmonella isolated from captive and free-living snakes in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stenkat, Julia; Szabo, Istvan; Ortlieb, Falk; Blindow, Irmgard; Neul, Ann-Kathrin; Pees, Michael; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are well-known reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and cases of reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) are increasing since reptiles are becoming more popular as pets. In the present study, the presence, distribution and prevalence of serovars of Salmonella was investigated in captive snakes (n = 87) and in free-living snakes (n = 87) in Germany. A total of 43 S. enterica-isolates were recovered from organ samples and cloacal swabs, predominantly belonging to the subspecies diarizonae (IIIb) (n = 27), enterica (I) (n = 7) and houtenae (IV) (n = 6). S. enterica subsp. enterica (I) serovar Paratyphi B (n = 4) and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serovar 47:l,v:z (n = 3) were the most frequently isolated serotypes. Nevertheless, the fact that most serotypes were only represented by a single isolate points out the high diversity of Salmonella present among snakes. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serotype 40:i:z53, which was isolated twice from two free-living Eurasian adders (Vipera berus) captured at different locations, has not been previously described. Our results confirm the role of both free-living and captive snakes as reservoirs of S. enterica in Germany.

  16. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  17. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  18. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA. Highlights: •The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, followed by PFOS and PFDA in all alligator samples. •Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males. •The concentrations of the five PFCAs showed significant negative correlation to age. -- Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators

  19. Deposition of growth layer groups in dentine tissue of captive common dolphins Delphinus delphis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Murphy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of age structure and longevity (maximum age are essential for modelling marine mammal population dynamics. Estimation of age in common dolphins (Delphinus spp. is primarily based on counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs in the dentine of thin, decalcified and stained sections of teeth. An annual incremental deposition rate was validated for Delphinus spp. 30-years ago through the use of tetracycline. However, it is not known if the pulp cavity becomes occluded in older individuals or GLGs continue to be deposited in dentine tissue. To investigate the deposition of GLGs in dentine tissue, teeth samples were obtained during the necropsies of two short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis that were held in captivity for 31 and 33 years in New Zealand. Individuals were captured together in Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand and classified as juveniles based on physical appearance. Teeth were processed in two ageing laboratories, using four different bone decalcifiers, two sectioning techniques incorporating the use of both a freezing microtome (-20°C and paraffin microtome, and two different stains. An age was estimated for one of the dolphins, in line with that proposed based on estimated age at capture and period in captivity. However, a hypomineralised area was observed in the dentine tissue close to the pulp cavity of the second individual, preventing estimation of maximum age. The presence and structure of this anomaly is explored further within the study. 

  20. Fatal Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Captive Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, V; van de Velde, N; Højer Kristensen, J; van Elk, C; Peters, M; Kilwinski, J; Schares, G; Siebert, U; Wohlsein, P

    2015-11-01

    A 7-year-old female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), born and held in captivity, suffered from reduced consciousness, imprecise and circling swimming movements and long phases of immobility over a period of 3 weeks. The animal died during treatment in a Danish open sea facility. Pathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous to necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglioneuritis, plexus chorioiditis, myocarditis, hepatitis and adrenalitis with few intralesional protozoal tachyzoites and bradyzoites within cysts. Immunohistochemistry was positive for Toxoplasma gondii antigen within the lesions. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of T. gondii-specific genome fragments was confirmed. A multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using nine unlinked marker regions (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) resulted in the identification of T. gondii type II (variant Apico Type I), which is the T. gondii genotype dominating in Germany. This is the first description of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis in a captive harbour porpoise that lived in an open sea basin. Surface water contaminated with toxoplasma oocysts is regarded as the most likely source of infection. PMID:26381675