WorldWideScience

Sample records for captive rearing program

  1. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  3. Captive rearing initiative for Salmon River chinook salmon; Report period: January 1998-January 1999; Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IDFG initiated a captive rearing program for populations at high risk of extinction to maintain metapopulation structure. Captive rearing is a short-term approach to species preservation. The main goal of the captive rearing approach is to avoid demographic and environmental risks of cohort extinction; maintaining the genetic identity of the breeding unit is an important but secondary objective

  4. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  5. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program. PMID:26598960

  6. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  7. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  8. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina)

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Wayne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3) previou...

  9. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  10. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  11. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  12. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

  13. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-03-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

  14. Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

    2004-08-01

    In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

  15. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired. PMID:20205263

  16. Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock rearing and research, 1994. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species

  17. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. An approach to the statistics of wild lagomorph captive rearing for releasing purposes in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sánchez García-Abad; Marta Elena Alonso de la Varga; Carlos Díez Valle; Vicente Ramiro Gaudioso Lacasa; de Pablos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of rearing wild lagomorphs in captivity for hunting and predator conservation in Spain, little is known about this production sector.  Taking official data into account, in this work the number and distribution of farms in Spain and the possible number of animals produced were analysed during the period 2005-2010.  In 2010, 114 wild rabbit farms were widely distributed throughout the country (especially Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia and Castile-La Mancha regions), while...

  20. The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their chances of survival in the wild. Individually tagged birds were observed at the rearing facility, the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, from hatch to 20 weeks of age and at the release site in Central Florida for up to 6 weeks post release. The rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Observations at the rearing facility are described in a previous paper. At the release site, each bird was observed for 5 min every morning (0700?1000 h) and late afternoon (1500?1800 h) during the 6-week study period. Our results indicated that most of the time, the n = 34 birds were foraging (46.03 ? 1.48%), followed by nonvigilant (20.89 ? 0.73%), vigilant (19.21 ? 0.72%), or performing comfort behaviors (11.61 ? 1.28%). Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. PR birds were found in larger groups than HR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and greater than HR and HRE birds afterwards. This may be interpreted as an antipredator strategy for birds that relied on parental guidance during rearing. HR and HRE birds foraged more than PR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and PR birds were more vigilant during the first 2 weeks post release. Across rearing treatments, the percentages of time spent foraging and engaged in vigilant behaviors during rearing were positively correlated with their behavior upon release. If any of these behaviors can be demonstrated to have relevance for the

  1. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions. PMID:25469953

  2. Alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRusha, R H; Forsythe, J W; DiMarco, F P; Hanlon, R T

    1989-07-01

    The requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commercial enterprises and home aquarists. We evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. The diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to octopuses, cuttlefishes or squids and in most trials the results were compared to animals fed control diets of live marine shrimps, crabs or fish. Overall, frozen marine shrimp proved to be the best alternative diet tested. Adult Octopus maya on frozen marine shrimp diets grew as well as those on control diets at 2.8% body weight per day (%/d) compared to 2.0%/d on live freshwater crayfish, 1.4%/d on live marine polychaete worms and 0.8%/d on live freshwater fish (Tilapia sp.). Juvenile Octopus maya and Octopus bimaculoides also grew comparably to controls when fed frozen marine shrimps; growth rates ranged from near 3.0%/d at 3 months of age to nearly 2.5%/d at 6 months of age. Thus, these alternatives are acceptable as the octopuses end their exponential growth phase at an age of 3 - 5 months. Attempts to rear O. maya hatchlings and juveniles (up to 1 month of age) on dead foods resulted in high mortality and slow or negative growth. No live or dead alternative diet has been found yet that will promote good growth and survival in hatchling octopuses. Hatchling F3 generation Sepia officinalis (the European cuttlefish) were reared for 6 weeks exclusively on adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2761235

  3. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  4. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  5. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve;

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n...... = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that...

  6. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H., Jr.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  7. Survival of captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots released in the Caribbean National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H., Jr.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual reintroduction of a second wild population elsewhere on the island. After extensive prerelease training, we released 10 parrots in 2000, 16 parrots in 2001, and eight parrots in 2002 ranging in age from 1-4 years old. All birds were equipped with radio-transmitters to monitor survival. The overall first-year survival estimate for the 34 parrots was 41% (CI = 22%-61%). Only one parrot died within the first week postrelease, with most (94%) surviving for at least eight weeks after release. Most (54%) documented mortalities were due to raptor predation, which claimed 21% of all released parrots. A captive-reared bird (male, age one), released in 2001, paired with a wild female and fledged two young in 2004. We also calculated survival based on 0% and 50% of observed predation losses and found hypothetical survival rates of 72% and 54%, respectively. Rigorous prerelease training and acclimation was believed to have improved initial postrelease parrot survival, and releasing mixed age-class groups suggests the potential for shortening the time to recruitment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  8. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  9. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  10. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  11. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  12. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  13. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  15. Radiographic analysis of the development of the pelvic limb of captive-reared cranes (Grus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For captive-reared cranes, pelvic limb abnormalities in chicks have been identified as significant morbidity/mortality factors. An important component of the diagnosis of limb abnormalities is the understanding of the normal limb. This study was undertaken to describe the normal, radiographic development of the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and fibula of the whooping crane (Grus americana), Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus). Crane chicks were anesthetized and their pelvic limb bone development evaluated radiographically on a weekly to bimonthly basis from one to fourteen weeks of age. Body weight, bone length, diaphyseal width, and physeal development and closure were evaluated. Based on the radiographic analysis, the gross development of the long bones of the pelvic limb of whooping, Florida sandhill, and Siberian cranes was found to be similar among the three species, and not dissimilar from other avian species which have been studied. Repeated handling, anesthesia, and radiographic exposure did not produce any behavioral, developmental, or physical abnormalities in the studied cranes when compared to cranes of the same species raised using the same methods. This is the first work to describe pelvic limb bone development in these species

  16. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H., Jr.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  18. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  19. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  20. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  2. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  3. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    (%) at different stages of mass-scale rearing (from stocking of juveniles to adult stage) were recorded at fortnightly intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Time taken to attain sexual maturity was noted. Signs of maturity in females could easily be identified... was observed (P>0.05). 11 3.7. Mass scale culture from pelagic-stage juvenile to adult 3.7.1. Growth, survival, sexual maturity and sex ratio The average growth rate (Ht) recorded during the mass-scale rearing is shown in Fig.7. Relatively faster...

  4. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  5. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Coulthard Hampson

    Full Text Available Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, snow leopard (Uncia uncia, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113, snow leopards (p<0.01, male cheetahs (p<0.01 and female clouded leopards (p<0.01 produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404. Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01. Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107. Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01 and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395 in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349 in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs. Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  6. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Maja Coulthard; Schwitzer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (plitters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404). Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01). Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107). Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01) and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395) in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349) in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs). Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the results of this study highlight that careful consideration should be taken when deciding whether or not to hand-rear individuals that are part of Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes. PMID

  7. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  8. Brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from fish reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. KLAOUDATOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of brood stock is considered to be one of the most important operations in order to acquire eggs and fry from any promising candidate finfish species for aquaculture production. The sex reversal observed in hermaphrodite species adds to confusion and creates additional complications in forming a brood stock. The present study describes the efforts and the results of the brood stock formation of the hermaphrodite finfish species Pagellus erythrinus (common Pandora from individuals aged between 4 and 5 years (TL>300mm reared in floating cages. Six groups were formed (50 fish/group in all of which females were present comprising 20 to 40% of the population. The presence of females was in contrast to the literature, which reported that sex reversal of the common Pandora is complete in naturally occurring populations with the absence of females in sizes of a total length greater than 220mm, indicating that in captivity sex reversal is not complete for this species. Four of the groups formed spawned under natural environmental conditions without hormonal treatment and the other two groups were administered a different dosage (250 and 500 IU/kg of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG to induce spawning. The reproductive period started in the middle of May and ended at the beginning of July and spontaneous spawning occurred in all groups. Egg release lasted for a mean period of one month for the groups that spawned without hormonal treatment with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between groups. The groups that spawned under hormonal treatment released eggs for a period of six and seven days, for the group that spawned under the high and low hormonal treatment, respectively, with no significant difference in the number of viable eggs between them. The hormonal induced spawning resulted in egg release within a short period of time ideal for a hatchery. However, the number of viable eggs produced was significantly lower

  9. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  10. enriched diets and the growth, development and survival of litoria moorei (anura) tadpoles reared in captivity at low density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    increasing numbers of amphibian species require conservation breeding programs for their survival.a major challenge is the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many of which require complex habitats and specialised diets.aquatic tadpoles of the west australian frog litoria moorei were kept at low density (1 tadpole per 1.95 litres water) in aquaria at 25℃.fed on a staple diet of boiled lettuce and leaf litter,group of diets were supplemented with either control,wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,seratm gvg-mix tropical fish food,or a combination of wardley(r) premium spirulina discs and seratm gvg-mix fish food.there was a relatively high loss (i.e.,found dead,euthanized due to scoliosis,or not found) of tadpoles fed with the lettuce/leaf litter alone,but this was increased significantly when supplemented with wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,either alone or with seratm gvg-mix fish food,and seratm gvg fish food alone.however,the survived tadpoles fed on the three supplements were all heavier after three weeks and at metamorphosis than those fed with lettuce/leaf litter alone,and reached metamorphosis quicker.it is concluded that any benefit of the food supplements in terms of increasing the rate of growth and development of the tadpoles is outweighed by greater mortality.there is now a need for the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many from novel species that need complex habitats.further studies of diet are required due to the current conservation crisis of amphibians.

  11. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  12. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  13. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  14. Shift in phenotypic variation coupled with rapid loss of genetic diversity in captive populations of Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae): consequences for rearing and potential commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francuski, Ljubinka; Djurakic, Marko; Ludoski, Jasmina; Hurtado, Pilar; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rojo, Santos; Milankov, Vesna

    2014-04-01

    Because of its importance as a pollinator and its potential economic usefulness for the biodegradation of organic animal waste, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the drone fly, Eristalis tenax L. (Diptera: Syrphidae), was studied in both wild and captive populations from southeastern Europe. Wild specimens from a natural protected habitat (with low human impact), field crop habitat (semisynanthropic condition), and intensive pig farming habitat (synanthropic condition) were compared with a laboratory colony reared on artificial media An integrative approach was applied based on allozyme loci, cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA, wing traits (size and shape), and abdominal color patterns. Our results indicate that the fourth and eighth generations of the laboratory colony show a severe lack of genetic diversity compared with natural populations. Reduced genetic diversity in subsequent generations (F4 and F8) of the laboratory colony was found to be linked with phenotypic divergence. Loss of genetic variability associated with phenotypic differentiation in laboratory samples suggests a founder effect, followed by stochastic genetic processes and inbreeding. Hence, our results have implications for captive bred Eristalis flies, which have been used in crop pollination and biodegradation of organic waste under synanthropic conditions. PMID:24772566

  15. Research on captive broodstock programs for pacific salmon: annual report, 2000-2001; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  18. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  19. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program: hatchery element: annual progress report, 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    survey areas in 1995 from as high as 1,205 redds in the same area in 1969 (Table 1). All streams reached low points (0-6 redds in the index areas) in the 1990's, except those in which no redds were found for several years and surveys were discontinued, such as Spring, Sheep and Indian creeks which had a total of 109 redds in 1969. The Minam and Wenaha rivers are tributaries of the Grande Ronde River located primarily in wilderness areas. Chinook salmon numbers in these two streams (based on redd counts) also decreased dramatically beginning in the early 1970's (Table 1). Since then there have been a few years of increasing numbers of redds but counts have generally been 25-40% of the number seen in the 1960's. No hatchery fish have been released into either of these streams and we monitor them during spawning ground surveys for the presence of hatchery strays. These populations will be used as a type of control for evaluating our supplementation efforts in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River. In this way, we can attempt to filter out the effects of downstream variables, over which we have no control, when we interpret the results of the captive broodstock program as the F1 and F2 generations spawn and complete their life cycles in the wild. The Grande Ronde Basin Captive Broodstock Program was initiated because these chinook salmon populations had reached critical levels where dramatic and unprecedented efforts were needed to prevent extinction and preserve any future options for use of endemic fish for artificial propagation programs for recovery and mitigation. This program was designed to quickly increase numbers of returning adults, while maintaining the genetic integrity of each endemic population.

  2. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  4. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    HB Braz; MMT Rocha; MFD Furtado

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the mortality and average survival rates of captive female Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis snakes maintained for venom production. Also, two factors likely to reduce captive survival were studied - body condition at admission and seasonality. Mortality peaks occurred during the second month in captivity. More than half the individuals were dead at the end of the third month. This suggests that the first three months in captivity are the most critical in t...

  5. Captive rearing of the deep-sea coral Eguchipsammia fistula from the Red Sea demonstrates remarkable physiological plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna

    2015-01-20

    The presence of the cosmopolitan deep-sea coral Eguchipsammia fistula has recently been documented in the Red Sea, occurring in warm (>20 °C), oxygen- and nutrient-limited habitats. We collected colonies of this species from the central Red Sea that successfully resided in aquaria for more than one year. During this period the corals were exposed to increased oxygen levels and nutrition ad libitum unlike in their natural habitat. Specimens of long-term reared E. fistula colonies were incubated for 24 h and calcification (G) as well as respiration rates (R) were measured. In comparison to on-board measurements of G and R rates on freshly collected specimens, we found that G was increased while R was decreased. E. fistula shows extensive tissue growth and polyp proliferation in aquaculture and can be kept at conditions that notably differ from its natural habitat. Its ability to cope with rapid and prolonged changes in regard to prevailing environmental conditions indicates a wide physiological plasticity. This may explain in part the cosmopolitan distribution of this species and emphasizes its value as a deep-sea coral model to study mechanisms of acclimation and adaptation.

  6. Captive rearing of the deep-sea coral Eguchipsammia fistula from the Red Sea demonstrates remarkable physiological plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the cosmopolitan deep-sea coral Eguchipsammia fistula has recently been documented in the Red Sea, occurring in warm (>20 °C, oxygen- and nutrient-limited habitats. We collected colonies of this species from the central Red Sea that successfully resided in aquaria for more than one year. During this period the corals were exposed to increased oxygen levels and nutrition ad libitum unlike in their natural habitat. Specimens of long-term reared E. fistula colonies were incubated for 24 h and calcification (G as well as respiration rates (R were measured. In comparison to on-board measurements of G and R rates on freshly collected specimens, we found that G was increased while R was decreased. E. fistula shows extensive tissue growth and polyp proliferation in aquaculture and can be kept at conditions that notably differ from its natural habitat. Its ability to cope with rapid and prolonged changes in regard to prevailing environmental conditions indicates a wide physiological plasticity. This may explain in part the cosmopolitan distribution of this species and emphasizes its value as a deep-sea coral model to study mechanisms of acclimation and adaptation.

  7. Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as a model for captive rearing milk formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Gail E; Derocher, Andrew E; Andersen, Magnus; Rogers, Quinton R; DePeters, Edward J; Lönnerdal, Bo; Mazzaro, Lisa; Chesney, Russell W; Hollis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D(3), 25(OH)D(3), vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), protein, and amino acids. Total lipids in milk did not differ for cubs (mean ± SEM = 26.60 ± 1.88 g/100 ml vs. yearlings 27.80 ± 2.20 g/100 ml). Milk lipids were of 23.6% saturated fatty acid for cubs and 22.4% for yearlings. Milk consumed by cubs and yearlings contained 43.8 and 42.0% mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 23.4 and 21.9% polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Carbohydrate content was higher in milk for cubs (4.60 ± 0.64 g/100 ml) than for yearlings (2.60 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Vitamin D(3) concentration of milk was 18.40 ± 5.00 ng/ml in early lactation compared with 7.60 ± 2.00 ng/ml for mid-lactation. 25(OH)D(3) was lower in milk consumed by cubs (162.00 ± 6.70 pg/ml) than in milk consumed by yearlings (205.00 ± 45.70 pg/ml). Vitamin A concentrations were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/ml for cubs and yearlings, respectively. Vitamin E was higher in milk consumed by cubs (20.16 ± 4.46 µg/ml) than by yearlings (7.30 ± 1.50 µg/ml). Protein content did not differ in milk available to cubs (11.40 ± 0.80 g/100 ml compared with milk for yearlings 11.80 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Taurine was the most abundant free amino acid at 3,165.90 ± 192.90 nmol/ml (0.04% as fed basis). PMID:21246608

  8. Feeding behaviour, swimming activity and boldness explain variation in feed intake and growth of sole (Solea solea reared in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mas-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non- feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD growth of 2.7 (1.9 g/kg(0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: "Novel Environment" and "Light Avoidance". Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%, growth (CV = 25% and behavior (CV = 100%. Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = -0.65 and r = -0.77 and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66 and growth (r = 0.58. Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1 fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = -0.55 and growth (r = -0.66; (2 fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1 and had higher growth (P<0.05. In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity.

  9. Reproductive characteristics of captive greater rhea (Rhea americana males reared in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAA Góes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheas (Rhea americana belongs to the ratite group. Considering the commercial significance of this birds, some techniques, such as semen collection, were standardized. In this study, 107 male rheas (3 to 4 years of age reared in commercial farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were used. Semen was collected during the breeding and off-breeding seasons of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Bird hierarchical behavior was observed. Birds were restrained performed using a box and a black hood. Semen was collected by digital pressure on the base of the phallus, which size was measured, and the presence or absence of spiral shape was observed. Immediately after collection, semen samples were evaluated for volume, motility, sperm concentration, and morphology. In a limited number of birds, blood samples were collected to measure testosterone levels. Among the 69 birds studied during the breeding season, 44 presented large phalluses, out of which 26 showed spiral shape. The method of semen collection was efficient. The following semen parameter results were obtained: volume (0.68 ±0.14 ml, motility (61.11±11.54%, sperm concentration (3.29±1.33 x10(9 sptz/ml, and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (2.40±1.38x10(9 sptz/ml. Morphological abnormalities were analyzed and recorded. Testosterone levels were statistically different (p = 0.0161 between the breeding and non-breeding season (53.28±18.41 ng/ml and 5:57±3.81 ng/ml, respectively. Variations in phallus size were also found between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Larger phalluses and higher testosterone levels were correlated with dominant behavior. The results of the present experiment confirmed that it is possible to collect semen from rheas, allowing the future use of biotechnologies such as artificial insemination.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  14. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the mortality and average survival rates of captive female Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis snakes maintained for venom production. Also, two factors likely to reduce captive survival were studied - body condition at admission and seasonality. Mortality peaks occurred during the second month in captivity. More than half the individuals were dead at the end of the third month. This suggests that the first three months in captivity are the most critical in terms of survival and adaptation. Females collected and admitted during spring and summer lived less time than those collected in autumn and winter. As gravidity and egg-laying occur during spring and summer, we suggest that the lower survival rates in these seasons may be due to high costs and stress involved in these reproductive events. Unexpectedly, body mass and body condition were poor predictors of survival in captivity. Our results have important implications in maintaining snakes for venom production. We propose some prophylactic measures to minimize the deleterious impacts of captivity during the adaptation period.

  15. Applying SNP-Derived Molecular Coancestry Estimates to Captive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jamie A; Putnam, Andrea S; Navarro, Asako Y; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A

    2016-09-01

    Captive breeding programs for wildlife species typically rely on pedigrees to inform genetic management. Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs. We generated SNP data for a zoo-based population of addax (Addax nasomasculatus) using both the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and double digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing. Our results demonstrated that estimates of allele sharing (AS) between pairs of individuals exhibited low variances. Average AS variances were highest when using 50 loci (SNPchipall = 0.00159; ddRADall = 0.0249), but fell below 0.0003 for the SNP chip dataset when sampling ≥250 loci and below 0.0025 for the ddRAD dataset when sampling ≥500 loci. Furthermore, the correlation between the SNPchipall and ddRADall AS datasets was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.84-0.91) when subsampling 500 loci. Collectively, our results indicated that both SNP genotyping methods produced sufficient data for accurately estimating relationships, even within an extremely bottlenecked population. Our results also suggested that analytic assumptions historically integrated into the addax pedigree are not adversely impacting long-term pedigree-based management; kinships calculated from the analytic pedigree were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with AS estimates. Overall, our conclusions are intended to serve as both a proof of concept and a model for applying molecular data to the genetic management of captive breeding programs. PMID:27208150

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  18. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early

  19. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  1. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Egyptian tortoise conservation: A community-based, field research program developed from a study on a captive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attum, Omar; Baha El Din, Mindy; Baha El Din, Sherif; Habinan, Suliman

    2007-09-01

    Local community participation and ex situ conservation has the potential to assist the recovery of the endangered Egyptian tortoise, Testudo kleinmanni. We initiated an in situ community-based conservation and research program from a captive population of T. kleinmanni. We used a captive population of the Egyptian tortoise to train a member of the local community as a research technician and used his indigenous tracking skills and knowledge of the area to collect activity and dietary data on 28 captive tortoises. We overcame problems with illiteracy by creating a data sheet based on symbols and numbers. This data sheet allowed us to use the indigenous knowledge of various people from the community, and employ them in the future. Our local community approach to data collection, in conjunction with a craft program, made the conservation of the Egyptian tortoise more rewarding to the local community by providing a more sustainable form of income than collecting animals for the pet trade. Our multidimensional approach (local community participation as research technicians, craft program, and trust building) for gaining local support eventually led to the rediscovery of wild Egyptian tortoises in North Sinai, which was significant, as this species was presumed extinct in Egypt. We have now shifted our focus to in situ conservation, using the research and local capacity building template developed from this captive population study. Our template can be used by zoos and conservation organizations with small budgets and collections of native species in natural habitats to create similar captive research programs that can be applied to in situ conservation. Zoo Biol 26:397-406, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360589

  3. Evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Els; Vercruysse, Jozef; Vercammen, Francis; Dorny, Pierre

    2006-03-01

    Parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. In the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. The next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. In the third year, an early-season treatment program with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg p.o. for 3 days), applied three times at 5-wk intervals, was evaluated. Effectiveness of these control programs was assessed by fecal egg counts and by scores of body condition and fecal consistency at weekly intervals. Involved animal species were Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros), Soay sheep (Ovis aries soay), ibex (Capra ibex), red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), and Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). With the spring-summer regime, fecal egg counts remained low during the first 5 mo, but from September onward, they slowly increased to significant levels in all seven herds. The early-season program with fenbendazole resulted in fecal egg counts near zero during the entire year in four herds but a significant egg shedding from August onward was noted in Arabian oryx, scimitar-horned oryx, and Soay sheep. The early-season program with ivermectin resulted in very low to zero egg shedding in gazelle, adult Soay sheep, ibex, red deer, and Nelson's elk during the entire grazing season, but failed to prevent high shedding in October in Arabian oryx and scimitar-horned oryx. High contamination of grassy pastures with infective larvae/eggs in the previous year or before the first treatment may explain failure of the treatment regimes in some herds. PMID:17312807

  4. Captive insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosová, Simona

    2011-01-01

    This thesis has as its main goal the objective analysis of the potential for captive insurance risk management in specific situations and market analysis of captive insurance. It uses a description of the history and development of this sector, addressing the advantages and disadvantages, which helps to reflect on the usefulness of this tool. Furthermore, the analysis of that market, location options of captive insurance companies and types of captives are described here as well. A large part...

  5. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program hatchery element, Annual Progress Report: January 1, 1998 - December 31, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  7. Effects of Different Rearing Strategies and Ages on Levels of Natural Antibodies in Saliva of the Philippine Crocodile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Ven, van de W.A.C.; Weerd, van M.

    2013-01-01

    The endemic Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis) is a relatively small, critically endangered freshwater crocodile. In a head start program, crocodile hatchlings are caught in the wild, reared in captivity, and released back into the wild after two years. The current study aimed to determin

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  9. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias the interpretat......During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias the...... interpretation of the results obtained from analyses based on such data. In this investigation, 12 microsatellite loci were investigated to evaluate the studbook information of the critically endangered Persian wild ass, Equus hemionus onager. Relatedness and inbreeding coefficients were calculated in order to...... onager population into four subgroups that indicate departure from random mating, and thus minor rotation of animals between zoos. Lastly, analyses for inferring past demographic changes revealed a gradual population decline and inbreeding over several generations. This may indicate a low genetic load in...

  10. Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species. PMID:20853415

  11. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory

  12. Mass rearing of the oriental tobacco budworm for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the study is to find out a proper technique for mass rearing the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta Guenee. The oriental tobacco budworms larvae were reared with different formulation diets and kept in traditional glass test tubes or in specially-designed cell-unit devices. When the diets including vitamin C and tomato source, and the ratio of corn and soybean powder was set as 1:2, the pupae weight, moth weight, pupation, emergence, fecundity and hatchability were increased significantly. When reared in cell-units, there is no significant difference in insect compared with those in glass test tubes, but the production efficiency was much higher and the cost was lower than the latter. The results of this study provide a key technical support for the application of sterile insect technique in control of oriental tobacco budworm. (authors)

  13. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare. PMID:26403665

  14. 77 FR 35541 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Program would have to follow requirements for animal identification, testing, herd management, and... ] follow the program requirements of a cooperative State-Federal program for animal identification, testing... requires testing of such animals. Conducts traceback on such animals, to determine what other animals...

  15. Monthly morphometric data on captive Kemps ridley sea turtles 1995-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip,...

  16. 黄嘴鹮鹳混群笼养繁殖和育雏行为观察%Yellow-billed Stork Mixed Group of Captive Breeding and Rearing Behavior Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁宇

    2009-01-01

    The yellow-billed stork was kept in a captive environment from 2006 to 2008. Scan sampling and the focus animals methods were used to observe yellow-billed stork breeding, nestling growth and development. The results showed that: Through human intervention, the yellow-billed stork in the Beijing area can reproduce in a whole year. The adult birds raise chicks together. Nestling birds is an altrices, compared to the ibis, the yellow-billed stork has a lot of specificity in the growth and development which close to the storks.%从2006年到2008年间对黄嘴鹮鹳的饲养环境进行人工调节,采用焦点动物法和扫描取样法对黄嘴鹮鹳的繁殖行为、雏鸟的生长发育进行观察.结果表明,人工措施可使黄嘴鹮鹳在北京地区全年繁殖;亲鸟在育雏期共同养育雏鸟;雏鸟属晚成鸟,但与鹮类相比,在生长发育上有特异性,更接近于鹳.

  17. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  18. Comparative analysis of male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in wild and captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zupa, R.; FAUVEL, Christian; Mylonas, C. C.; Santamaria, N.; Valentini, L.; Pousis, C.; Papadaki, M.; Suquet, Marc; De La Gandara, F.; Bello, G; G De Metrio; A. CORRIERO

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly observed reproductive dysfunction in male fishes reared in captivity is reduction in sperm volume and quality. The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) is one of the few large pelagic and migratory marine fishes maintained in captivity with the purpose of establishing breeding populations to support an aquaculture industry. The objectives of the present study were to compare male germ cell proliferation and apoptosis between wild and captive indiv...

  19. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

    OpenAIRE

    GONO SEMIADI; R. TAUFIQ PURNA NUGRAHA

    2006-01-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The...

  20. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  1. Intraspecific variation in the wild male population, and its potential value in the mass rearing program, of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for improvement of quality of breeding stock used for mass-rearing of tephritid fruit flies for sterile release eradication programs is reported. According to this concept, high quality individuals are those that are numerically dominant in the wild population and hence, they would be selected for breeding purposes. To recognize dominant variants among the wild males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), intraspecific differences were determined. A total of nine intraspecific variants were recognized. Out of these one labelled GIIC. was dominant in the dry, wet, and fringe habitats of this fruit fly

  2. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  3. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  8. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  9. Genetics and ecology of colonization and mass rearing of Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in sterile insect control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is critical to maintain the genetic, physiological and behavioral competence of colonized populations of insect species, such as fruit flies, which are reared for release in sterile insect and other genetic control programs. Selective pressures associated with the mass rearing process affect this competence, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic change arc largely unknown. However, competence is often an operational goal achieved by manipulating environmental factors without possessing precise genetic knowledge of alleles and their marginal effects on the desired traits. One goal of this paper is to show that the precise genetic and statistical analysis of components that determine competence in a broad sense or fitness in the narrower ecological sense, is extremely difficult. We can gel contradictory results from the different methods for estimating genetic variation in tephritid populations. We observe low levels of allozyme variation, but high levels of recessive mutants in inbred populations. We propose that genetic variability may be maintained in colonized and mass reared laboratory populations by balanced lethal systems and that the introduction of fresh genetic material may reduce, not increase, fitness. We require rigorous and precise models of directional selection in the laboratory and selective forces in the natural environment to aid our understanding of dynamic changes in courtship and mating behavior under artificial conditions. We have chosen to examine the lek model as an example of an idea whose usefulness has yet to be determined by test ing and validation. The inclusion of lek forming ability in genetic models will be depen dent on rigorously establishing the validity of the lek model for each tephritid species

  10. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150125

  11. Hematology values of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís C. Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematological results are reported for 13 giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and 13 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla. Animals were captive-reared adults held at the Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil and Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, and were considered healthy on physical examination. Examined parameters included red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total plasmatic protein and differential leukocyte counts. Also, a survey for hemoparasites was done and none was observed in thin blood smears. The results were generally similar to those previously reported in the exiguous literature for these species, providing further reference data for the interpretation of laboratory results besides health monitoring, assisting early disease diagnosis and providing relevant information for conservation programs for these species.

  12. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  13. The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloshnja, E.; Miller, T R

    2007-01-01

    This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is $121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is $6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost $13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0–4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984–1986 vs. 199...

  14. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  15. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  16. Composite Car Rear Spoiler

    OpenAIRE

    Kyei Minkah, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This thesis study was conducted using NASTRAN Software to perform a static load analysis over a Solidworks designed composite rear spoiler with a chord length of 1400 mm. Product design methods were incorporated in the manufacturing process of the fiberglass rear spoiler with vacuum infusion lamination of a female and male mould encapsulated with a honeycomb core. The sandwiched material provided the product with very low weight, high stiffness and durability. Based on the p...

  17. Variables influencing the origins of diverse abnormal behaviors in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, L T; Fritz, J; Alford, P A; Brent, L

    1999-01-01

    The developmental origin of abnormal behaviors is generally associated with early rearing environments that lack sufficient physical and sensory stimulation. However, other factors should also be considered. A large sample of captive chimpanzees (128 males and 140 females) was surveyed for the presence or absence of 18 abnormal behaviors. Origin variables included the subject's source (zoo, pet, performer, or laboratory), rearing (mother- or hand-reared), and sex. Animals were assessed while held at the Primate Foundation of Arizona, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, or White Sands Research Center. There was a confound among origin variables; more hand-reared animals than expected were from laboratories. Logistic regression tested the relationship of rearing and source, with sex as a secondary predictor variable, to each of the abnormal behaviors. There was no clear association between any abnormal behavior and source. However, for coprophagy, relative to animals from the laboratory, zoo animals tended to show a higher prevalence, while performers tended to show a lower prevalence (when rearing and sex were controlled). Rocking and self-sucking were significantly more likely in hand-reared animals. Coprophagy and depilation of self were significantly more likely in mother-reared animals. When rearing and source were statistically controlled, the only significant sex difference was a higher prevalence of coprophagy in females and a higher prevalence of rocking in males. In a second, smaller sample of 25 males and 33 females from Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, no significant sex association was found for coprophagy, urophagy, rocking, or self-depilation. In this second sample, coprophagy was also significantly more likely in mother-reared than hand-reared subjects. The association of some abnormal behaviors with mother-rearing suggests that some form of social learning may be involved in the origin of some of these behavior patterns

  18. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  19. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  20. Socialization Strategies and Disease Transmission in Captive Colonies of Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Schapiro, Steven J.; Bernacky, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In captive research environments for nonhuman primates (NHP), social housing strategies are often in conflict with protocols designed to minimize disease transmission. This is particularly true in breeding colonies, and is especially relevant when attempting to eliminate specific pathogens from a population of primates. Numerous strategies have been used to establish such specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colonies (primarily of macaques), ranging from nursery rearing of neonates to single...

  1. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  2. A Rearing Method for Argynnis (Speyeria diana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae That Avoids Larval Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rearing protocol that allowed us to raise the threatened butterfly, Argynnis diana (Nymphalidae, while bypassing the first instar overwintering diapause. We compared the survival of offspring reared under this protocol from field-collected A. diana females from North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Larvae were reared in the lab on three phylogenetically distinct species of Southern Appalachian violets (Viola sororia, V. pubescens, and V. pedata. We assessed larval survival in A. diana to the last instar, pupation, and adulthood. Males reared in captivity emerged significantly earlier than females. An ANOVA revealed no evidence of host plant preference by A. diana toward three native violet species. We suggest that restoration of A. diana habitat which promotes a wide array of larval and adult host plants, is urgently needed to conserve this imperiled species into the future.

  3. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Herrmann, Esther; Kaminski, Juliane; Krupenye, Christopher; Melis, Alicia P; Schroepfer, Kara; Tan, Jingzhi; Warneken, Felix; Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    As many studies of cognition and behavior involve captive animals, assessing any psychological impact of captive conditions is an important goal for comparative researchers. Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011) sought to address whether captive chimpanzees show elevated signs of psychopathology relative to wild apes. They modified a checklist of diagnostic criteria for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in humans, and applied these criteria to various captive and wild chimpanzee populations. We argue that measures derived from human diagnostic criteria are not a powerful tool for assessing the psychological health of nonverbal animals. In addition, we highlight certain methodological drawbacks of the specific approach used by Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011). We propose that research should (1) focus on objective behavioral criteria that account for species-typical behaviors and can be reliably identified across populations; (2) account for population differences in rearing history when comparing how current environment impacts psychological health in animals; and (3) focus on how changes in current human practices can improve the well-being of both captive and wild animals. PMID:22889365

  4. 1994 Wisconsin trumpeter swan decoy-rearing final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was the sixth year of the Wisconsin Trumpeter Swan DecoyRearing Program at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. Necedah NWR staff and refuge manager Bud Oliveira...

  5. The Captive Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Beverly

    1986-01-01

    Provides information and insights on the teaching of art and music in prisons, primarily in California. Maintains that art teacher education programs should better equip graduates for teaching in the prison environment, since such programs are expanding. (JDH)

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors

    OpenAIRE

    María Díez-León; Jeff Bowman; Steve Bursian; Hélène Filion; David Galicia; Jeannette Kanefsky; Angelo Napolitano; Rupert Palme; Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde; Kim Scribner; Georgia Mason

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environm...

  7. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  8. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and wrap-up…

  9. Self-hypnosis training and captivity survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D P; Sexton, J L

    1997-01-01

    In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school. PMID:9037797

  10. What defines successful integration into a social group for hand-reared chimpanzee infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, Meredith J; Gullott, Rebecca L; Gill, Emily C

    2010-04-01

    Hand-rearing of captive great ape infants is sometimes necessary but can have negative behavioral consequences. Modern hand-rearing protocols, including early integration into a diverse group of conspecifics, appear to reduce the negative consequences of hand-rearing, but the process of integration is not well studied. We investigated six potential metrics of success during the introduction of two hand-reared chimpanzee infants into a troop of nine other chimpanzees at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore. Little aggression was observed and the infants continue to be maintained in the troop at publication. As we predicted, during the introduction the hand-reared infants showed consistent levels of stress-related behaviors, participated in affiliative interactions with all available partners, and acted, received, and mutually engaged in these interactions. Solitary behaviors by these infants were similar to a mother-reared infant in the same group. Each infant also formed a relationship with a specific female that involved nest-sharing, carrying, retrieval, and intervening to reduce risk to the infant; these relationships could be classified as allomothering because they involved maternal behavior but occupied significantly less of the infants' time than a maternal relationship. Contrary to our prediction, the hand-reared infants therefore spent significantly less time in social behavior than a mother-reared infant of the same age. In addition, the hand-reared infants continued to show strong social preferences for each other as introductions progressed and to direct a low but consistent number of nonfeeding social behaviors to humans. The successful introduction of hand-reared infants appeared to involve adding conspecific social relationships to the infants' social repertoire, but not eliminating social interactions directed at humans. PMID:19916071

  11. Rotary peening with captive shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building

  12. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  13. Avian Predation by Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Green R.

    2000-01-01

    During fifteen years of keeping otters, no predation on birds was observed until the winter of 1999-2000. Freshly killed birds offered to otters had not apparently been recognised as food. In the winter of 1999, a sub-adult captive otter stalked and killed a variety of birds - two pheasants, two gulls, a thrush and a goose. Otters in the adjacent pen caught and ate a heron.

  14. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  15. Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Mason C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine Contaminants in Spraints from Captive OttersPage 18 - 19 (Report)Chris MasonAssays for DDE, Dieldrin and PCBs were carried out on captive otters to provide a baseline of presumed uncontaminated animals for comparison with results from surveys in the wild. Results for captive animals were much lower than those from upland Wales, which has a thriving population of wild otters.

  16. Lineage identification and genealogical relationships among captive Galápagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael; Boyer, Donal; Wiese, Robert J; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Marquez, Lady; Garrick, Ryan; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic tools have become a critical complement to traditional approaches for meeting short- and long-term goals of ex situ conservation programs. The San Diego Zoo (SDZ) harbors a collection of wild-born and captive-born Galápagos giant tortoises (n = 22) of uncertain species designation and unknown genealogical relationships. Here, we used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic data and nuclear microsatellite genotypic data to identify the evolutionary lineage of wild-born and captive-born tortoises of unknown ancestry, to infer levels of relatedness among founders and captive-born tortoises, and assess putative pedigree relationships assigned by the SDZ studbook. Assignment tests revealed that 12 wild-born and five captive-born tortoises represent five different species from Isabela Island and one species from Santa Cruz Island, only five of which were consistent with current studbook designations. Three wild-born and one captive-born tortoise were of mixed ancestry. In addition, kinship analyses revealed two significant first-order relationship pairs between wild-born and captive-born tortoises, four second-order relationships (half-sibling) between wild-born and captive tortoises (full-sibs or parent-offspring), and one second-order relationship between two captive-born tortoises. Of particular note, we also reconstructed a first-order relationship between two wild-born individuals, violating the founder assumption. Overall, our results contribute to a worldwide effort in identifying genetically important Galápagos tortoises currently in captivity while revealing closely related founders, reconstructing genealogical relationships, and providing detailed management recommendations for the SDZ tortoises. PMID:21674601

  17. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  19. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  20. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  1. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  2. Linking Inbreeding Effects in Captive Populations with Fitness in the Wild: Release of Replicated Drosophila melanogaster Lines under Different Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2008-01-01

    conditions and involve traits not easily measured under laboratory conditions. More generally, inbreeding effects measured in captive populations may not necessarily predict their field performance, and programs to purge captive populations of deleterious alleles may not necessarily lead to fitness benefits...

  3. Provident Funds Pension Programs in English-Speaking Sub-Saharan Africa: A Look in the Rear Mirror and Lessons for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Kpessa

    2011-01-01

    Pension reform has been on the social policy agenda in many countries throughout the world since the mid-1980s. The main debate has been whether to transform existing defined benefit pay-as-you-go (PAYG) social insurance programs into private pension plans based on defined contributions or maintains them. While many countries throughout the world especially those in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe have opted for private pensions involving the partial or full replacement of pay-as...

  4. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Stewart W; Murra, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12 degrees C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8 degrees C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12 degrees C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8 degrees C was greater than that of the 12 degrees C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12 degrees C compared to the fish reared at 8 degrees C. Fish reared at 12 degrees C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8 degrees C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8 degrees C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12 degrees C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic

  5. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  6. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-17984 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... issued the first Captive Nations Proclamation in solidarity with those living without personal...

  7. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Comm...

  8. Every partridge counts, successful techniques used in the captive conservation breeding programme for wild grey partridge in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1998 and 2001 the last remaining wild grey partridge (Perdix perdix population in Ireland faced imminent extinction with an estimated spring population of 4–6 pairs, and an autumn population of 22–24 birds. A captive breeding programme began in 2002 with two pairs of grey partridge. In the most successful year in 2010, 39 pairs produced a total of 510 chicks. Average chick survival rate was 65.13%. At 88.9 the highest chick survival rate was achieved in 2011. Chick survival of parent–reared birds in captivity is defined by the number of juveniles surviving at age six weeks: similar to estimations used for wild populations of grey partridge. Family coveys were released in late summer to early autumn. In most instances the entire family cohort was released as one unit. However, in coveys of twenty or above, an average of five parent–reared poults were held back as breeding stock for the following year. In early spring of the following year, birds held back were paired with single males or females trapped from the wild. The techniques we used were traditional and labour intensive but highly effective. We recommend that other grey partridge recovery projects should consider captive breeding using the methods employed in this programme to compliment other game management methods used.

  9. [Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Aldeima T T

    2008-03-01

    Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m2 of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m3 in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I), the other was totally covered (tank II). Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001). Mean growth (103.0 +/- 6.81 cm) and weight (3 987 +/- 0.98 g) were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 +/- 7.58 cm; 2 705 +/- 0.69 g). The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes. PMID:18624249

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in wild and captive Japanese serows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, T; Minamoto, N; Sugiyama, M; Sugiyama, Y

    1992-10-01

    The fecal Escherichia coli isolated from wild Japanese serows living in mountainous areas away from humans and those from captive serows kept in human areas were examined for antimicrobial resistance and the possession of transferable R plasmids. Of 874 E. coli strains isolated from 283 wild serows in 1980-1981, only 11 (1.3%) were resistant to at least one of 6 antimicrobial drugs; ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and sulfadimethoxin. Seven (2.5%) individuals were found to carry resistant E. coli. To heighten the isolation frequency of drug-resistant strains, fecal samples of 244 wild serows in 1983-1984 were cultured directly onto drug-supplemented media. Only 12 (4.9%) serows were shown to have drug-resistant E. coli. No transferable R plasmid was detected among a total of 87 resistant strains from wild serows. In contrast, all 33 captive serows except one which was kept only one day after capture, showed resistant E. coli and 20 (60.6%) serows were excreting R plasmid-carrying E. coli. Of 161 drug-resistant strains from captive serows, 50 (31.1%) were found to carry R plasmids. Wild serows seemed to readily change to harbor resistant E. coli almost as soon they were reared in human areas without direct exposure to drugs. These results lead to the conclusion that drug-resistant E. coli can probably be used as microbial indicator for natural environmental pollution. PMID:1420561

  11. Effects of telemetry transmitter placement on egg retention in naturally spawning, captively reared steelhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maturing female anadromous salmonids receiving surgical intraperitoneally-implanted telemetry transmitters may experience difficulty depositing eggs during natural spawning. We allocated maturing adult steelhead females to three treatments: tags surgically implanted in the body cavity (internal), tags implanted between the skin and muscle tissue (subdermal), and non-tagged, and allowed them to spawn naturally in an experimental channel. Internally tagged females retained significantly more eggs than both the subdermally tagged treatment (P = 0.005) and non-tagged controls (P = 0.001); the subdermal and non-tag controls did not differ significantly (P = 0.934). The internal, subdermal and non-tag treatments retained an average of 49%, 11% and 2% of their eggs, respectively. The onset of sexual activity did not differ significantly among treatments (P = 0.413). Post-spawning mortality was 70% for both internally and subdermally tagged females and 0% for non-tagged females (P <0.01). We suggest that subdermal implantation techniques be considered in future studies during the reproductive period to reduce egg retention caused by internal implantation of transmitters

  12. Physical characteristics of the eggs of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da idade das fêmeas (um, dois e três anos e do mês de postura (março, abril e maio sobre as características físicas dos ovos da perdiz vermelha (Alectoris rufa criada em cativeiro. O peso (W, o comprimento máximo (L e a largura máxima (B de 2878 ovos foram determinados diretamente, enquanto o índice de forma (B/L, o volume (V e a superfície (S foram calculados com base nos parâmetros determinados diretamente. A análise mostrou diferenças significativas (P0,05. Observaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,01 na largura máxima e no índice de forma do ovo entre as diferentes classes de idades, com valores mais elevados nas fêmeas mais velhas e no período de postura mais tardio. O volume dos ovos estimados por meio de V1= 0,51LB2e V2=0,913W foi afetado significativamente (P<0,01 pela idade e pelo mês de postura, bem como as áreas, S1=4.835W0,662, S2=4,951V10,666e S3=4,951V20,666, as quais apresentaram os mesmos efeitos.

  13. Distribution and accumulation of mercury in tissues of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Hines, R.K.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the distribution and accumulation of Hg in tissues of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks maintained for up to 15 weeks on either a control diet with no added methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) or one containing either 0.4 or 1.2 ??g Hg (as MeHgCl)/g wet-weight food. Total Hg and MeHg tissue concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 > 0.95) with the amount of Hg delivered to individual chicks throughout the course of the experiment. The pattern of differential Hg concentration in internal tissues was consistent within each treatment: Liver > kidney > muscle > carcass > brain. Feather Hg concentrations were consistently higher than those of internal tissues and represented an important route of Hg elimination. Feather mass accounted for 4.3% ?? 0.1% (average ?? standard error) of body mass, yet 27.3% ?? 2.6% of total Hg intake was excreted into feathers. Our calculations indicate that 26.7% ?? 4.9% of ingested Hg was not accounted for and, thus, either was never absorbed or was absorbed and subsequently eliminated in feces. With the additional excretion into feathers, 54% of ingested Hg was excreted. Demethylation was evident in the liver at all treatment levels and in the kidneys of chicks dosed at 1.2 ??g Hg/g. Mercury concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 ??? 0.95) among internal tissues and with blood Hg concentration. Mercury concentrations of secondary feathers were moderately correlated (r2 = 0.82-0.93) with internal tissues. We supply regression models that may be used to provide perspective and a useful means of interpreting the variety of measures of Hg exposure reported in the literature. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  14. Artificial reproduction and larval rearing of captive endangered Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio

    OpenAIRE

    WILLIOT P.; Rouault, T; Pelard, M.; Mercier, D.; Jacobs, L

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990s a functional ex situ brood stock of the European Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio was initiated in France as the only means of saving the species from extinction. In late spring 2007, partial and complete oogenesis and complete spermatogenesis were recorded in fish which were born in the wild in 1994 and entered the hatchery in 1995. Here, we report on the 2007 artificial reproduction attempts, which represent a breakthrough in terms of conservation of A. sturio, and poss...

  15. Models for the analysis of growth curves for rearing tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    P Tholon; SA Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Growth curves models provide a visual assessment of growth as a function of time, and prediction body weight at a specific age. This study aimed at estimating tinamous growth curve using different models, and at verifying their goodness of fit. A total number 11,639 weight records from 411 birds, being 6,671 from females and 3,095 from males, was analyzed. The highest estimates of a parameter were obtained using Brody (BD), von Bertalanffy (VB), Gompertz (GP,) and Logistic function (LG). Adul...

  16. Models for the analysis of growth curves for rearing tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tholon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth curves models provide a visual assessment of growth as a function of time, and prediction body weight at a specific age. This study aimed at estimating tinamous growth curve using different models, and at verifying their goodness of fit. A total number 11,639 weight records from 411 birds, being 6,671 from females and 3,095 from males, was analyzed. The highest estimates of a parameter were obtained using Brody (BD, von Bertalanffy (VB, Gompertz (GP, and Logistic function (LG. Adult females were 5.7% heavier than males. The highest estimates of b parameter were obtained in the LG, GP, BD, and VB models. The estimated k parameter values in decreasing order were obtained in LG, GP, VB, and BD models. The correlation between the parameters a and k showed heavier birds are less precocious than the lighter. The estimates of intercept, linear regression coefficient, quadratic regression coefficient, and differences between quadratic coefficient of functions and estimated ties of quadratic-quadratic-quadratic segmented polynomials (QQQSP were: 31.1732±2.41339; 3.07898± 0.13287; 0.02689±0.00152; -0.05566±0.00193; 0.02349±0.00107, and 57 and 145 days, respectively. The estimated predicted mean error values (PME of VB, GP, BD, LG, and QQQSP models were, respectively, 0.8353; 0.01715; -0.6939; -2.2453; and -0.7544%. The coefficient of determination (R² and least square error values (MS showed similar results. In conclusion, the VB and the QQQSP models adequately described tinamous growth. The best model to describe tinamous growth was the Gompertz model, because it presented the highest R² values, easiness of convergence, lower PME, and the easiness of parameter biological interpretation.

  17. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be physically marked prior to sale or disposal regardless of whether or not they have attained 6... any means except shooting. Such birds may be killed by shooting only in accordance with all applicable... killed by shooting, in any number, at any time, within the confines of any premises operated as...

  18. Avaliação de diferentes programas de restrição alimentar na recria de matrizes avícolas tipo corte Evaluation of different feeding programs for broiler breeder females during the rearing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neventon Santi Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Santa Maria, to study the of feeding programs on the body weight gain, uniformity of weight and viability of broiler breeders. A completely randomized designe with 3 treatments and 4 replicates of 67 birds was used. In the fírst 2 weeks of age they were all feed ad libitum, and in the 2 subsequent weeks feed was controled daily. From 5 to 20 weeks they were submitted to the following feeding treatments: T1: 5-14 weeks = "Skip-a-Day", 15-17 = "Skip on day out of two and 18-20 = controled daily; T2: 5-8 weeks = "Skip-a-Day", 9-16 = 48-57-63 hours of feeding intervals and 17-20 = ''Skip one day out of two"; T3 = 5-20 " 48-57-63 hours intervals between feeding. The results show that the feeding program of 48-57-63 hours interval between feeding during the rearing period can be used with no negative effects on the parameters studied, and with the advantage ofno need of feeding during the weekend, saving handwork costs.

  19. Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyear, K M; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L; MacDonald, S E

    2009-05-01

    The critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been subject to a strictly managed captive breeding program for three decades. A retrospective demographic analysis of the captive population was performed based on data from the red wolf studbook. Data analyses revealed a decrease in the effective population size relative to the total population size, and changes in age structure and inbreeding coefficients over time. To varying degrees, the probability of successful breeding and litter sizes declined in association with increasing dam age and sire inbreeding coefficients. Neonate survival also declined with increasing dam age. Recent changes in strategies regarding breed-pair recommendations have resulted in moderate increases in reproductive success. PMID:19504595

  20. Integrating microsatellite and pedigree analyses to facilitate the captive management of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth L; Hereford, Scott G; Savoie, Megan L; Leibo, S P; Howard, Jerome J

    2012-01-01

    The minimization of kinship in captive populations is usually achieved through the use of pedigree information. However, pedigree knowledge alone is not sufficient if pedigree information is missing, questionable, or when the founders of the captive population are related to one another. If this is the case, higher levels of inbreeding and lower levels of genetic diversity may be present in a captive population than those calculated by pedigree analyses alone. In this study, the genetic status of the critically endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (MSC) (Grus canadensis pulla) was analyzed using studbook data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managed captive breeding program as well as microsatellite DNA data. These analyses provided information on shared founder genotypes, allowing for refined analysis of genetic variation in the population, and the development of a new DNA-based studbook pedigree that will assist in the genetic management of the MSC population. PMID:21604289

  1. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. PMID:27092548

  2. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  3. REITs as Captive-Financing Affiliates: Impact on Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Ho Hsieh; C.F. Sirmans

    1991-01-01

    Some real estate investment trusts are created as "captive-financing" affiliates by their sponsors. This creates conflicts of interest between the sponsor/manager and shareholders. Such conflicts could affect the financial performance of the firm. Using data on a sample of REITs, results show that captive-financing REITs' financial performance is on average inferior to that of non-captive REITs.

  4. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  5. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program. PMID:23426800

  6. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  7. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    OpenAIRE

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is reached, that occurs around 14 to 16 weeks of age. Under current rearing, young does loose significant part of their fat and energy reserves during first lactation. This seems related to the decrea...

  8. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in...

  9. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  10. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-17948 Filed 7-19...--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... States of America A Proclamation When President Dwight D. Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive...

  11. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  12. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) captive propagation to promote recovery of declining populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is endemic to the eastern United States with local distributions restricted to rocky habitats within deciduous forests. Over the last 40 years, woodrats have declined precipitously due to an array of human-mediated pressures. There is growing interest in the captive propagation of woodrats as a tool to promote in situ conservation, but their solitary social structure, territorial behavior, and low fecundity present challenges for the attainment of levels of ex situ reproduction sufficient to support reintroduction programs. In 2009 we established a captive breeding program with 12 wild-caught individuals (4.8) collected from Indiana and Pennsylvania. Restricting breeding to wild-caught individuals, over 26 months we produced 19 litters comprised of 43 pups (26.17), of which 40 (24.16) survived to weaning. In sum, wild-caught individuals readily habituated to the captive environment and the low fecundity of woodrats was offset by high survival rates for both adults and juveniles. Therefore, when managed appropriately, captive Allegheny woodrat populations should be capable of supporting the release of surplus individuals to augment in situ conservation measures. PMID:24391017

  13. HYMENOPTERAN PARASITOIDS: LABORATORY REARING AND EVALUATION OF STORAGE TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Binazzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The present work focused on O. pityocampae (Mercet) (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae), an indigenous and polyphagous egg-parasitoid that might play a role in biological control programs against Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Shiff.) (Lepidoptera Notodontidae). Therefore biological parameters of this encyrtid reared on alternative host eggs were analyzed by testing its behavior and reproductive parameters. Time between oviposition and progeny emergence, sex ratio of offspring, parasitization rate and ...

  14. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

  15. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  16. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  17. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  18. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Captive Psittacine Birds Belonging to Pet Shops and Private Residences In and Around Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prathipa1*, Jayathangaraj MG2, Gomathinayagam S3 and Thangavelu A4

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to identify the common endoparasites that affect the captive Psittacine birds reared as pets in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India. A total of 250 samples from dropping of captive Psittacine birds were collected from different companion birds like Budgerigars (150 samples, African Love Birds (50 samples and Cockatiels (50 samples that belonged to various pet shops and private residences. The samples were stored in small containers filled with 10% formalin. The samples were examined for the evidence of endoparasitism by both centrifugal sedimentation and floatation techniques as suggested by Soulsby (1982. Our examination revealed the presence of endoparasites such as Ascaridia sp. (11.20%, Capillaria sp. (20.0%, Strongyloides sp. (2.0%, Strongyle (1.60%, oocyst of Eimeria sp (10.40% and mixed infections (11.60%. Based on our study, we identify the major causes for endoparasitism and we suggest important managemental measures to prevent endoparasites and promote the health of birds that are reared as pets.

  19. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  20. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  1. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  2. Observational Learning in Wild and Captive Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Yeater, Deirdre B.; Kuczaj II, Stan A.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-human species imitate the behavior of others, and dolphins seem particularly adept at this form of observational learning. Evidence for observational learning in wild dolphins is rare, given the difficulty of observing individual wild animals in sufficient detail to eliminate other possible explanations of purported imitation. Consequently, much of the evidence supporting observational learning in dolphins has involved animals in captive settings. This research suggests that dolphins...

  3. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  4. The Three-Dimensional Morphological Effects of Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R.; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evalua...

  5. Captive Insurance Tax Policy: Resolving a Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    M Moshe Porat; Michael R. Powers

    1995-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the global captive insurance movement has established itself as a significant alternative to traditional insurance. During this period, the controversy surrounding the tax-deductibility of both premiums paid to captives and reserves held by captives has never abated. In the United States, the controversy derives from a fundamental conflict within a federal tax policy that attempts to respect the legal separate-ness of corporate entities, while at the same time que...

  6. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  7. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2012-03-27

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  8. Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus mice in response to a captive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Lacy

    Full Text Available Many wildlife species are propagated in captivity as models for behavioral, physiological, and genetic research or to provide assurance populations to protect threatened species. However, very little is known about how animals evolve in the novel environment of captivity. The histories of most laboratory strains are poorly documented, and protected populations of wildlife species are usually too small and too short-term to allow robust statistical analysis. To document the evolutionary change in captive breeding programs, we monitored reproduction and behavior across 18 generations in six experimental populations of Peromyscusleucopus mice started from a common set of 20 wild-caught founders. The mice were propagated under three breeding protocols: a strategy to retain maximal genetic diversity, artificial selection against stereotypic behaviors that were hypothesized to reflect poor adaptation to captivity, and random bred controls. Two replicates were maintained with each protocol, and inter-replicate crosses at generations 19 and 20 were used to reverse accumulated inbreeding. We found that one of the stereotypic behaviors (repetitive flipping was positively associated with reproductive fitness, while the other (gnawing was relatively invariant. Selection to reduce these stereotypic behaviors caused marked reduction in reproduction, and populations not under artificial selection to reduce these behaviors responded with large increases in flipping. In non-selected populations, there was rapid evolution toward much higher proportion of pairs breeding and more rapid conception. Litter size, pup survival, and weaning mass all declined slowly, to the extent that would be predicted based on inbreeding depression. Inter-crossing between replicate populations reversed these declines in fitness components but did not reverse the changes in behavior or the accelerated breeding. These findings indicate that adaptation to captivity can be rapid

  9. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  10. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuatte, Paola F; Lincango, M P; Heimpel, G E; Causton, C E

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer's yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer's yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  11. A comparison of reproductive parameters of female Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the wild and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Guo, Yurong; Stott, Philip; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-01-01

    A healthy population of captive Amur tigers might assist recovery of the wild population in Northeast China if individuals were properly prepared and considered suitable for release in the wild. We analyzed the breeding records of 68 female Amur tigers from 1995 to 2010 in the Hengdaohezi Felid Breeding Center of China and compared the reproductive parameters of this population to wild female Amur tigers. We found that the reproductive parameters of the captive population (the age of first parturition, length of gestation and litter survival rate) were not significantly different from those of wild Amur tigers. Differences in birth date and litter size between wild and captive populations may be caused by management protocols for the captive population or insufficient field data from the wild population. Reproductive parameters of females giving birth after losing a litter were similar to parameters of females that did not lose a litter, except for birth date. These results provide no indication of major problems in using captive females for a breeding program for release of cubs into the wild, but additional information is still needed to assess their suitability. PMID:26663661

  12. Captivate the customer or vanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout its expansion program in the 1960s and its energy efficiency programs in the 1970s and 1980s, Hydro-Quebec had a satisfactory proportion of satisfied customers. However, at the end of the 1980s, the utility's customer satisfaction rating slipped below 50% for the first time. Hydro-Quebec's first response was to re-establish transmission system reliability. Service interruptions per customer were reduced from 10 h/y in 1989 to just over 4 h in 1993. Starting in 1990, the utility devised a strategy aimed at fully integrated quality management, with customer service as the top priority. A series of performance commitments was adopted which pinpointed 27 specific targets, each linked to a specific activity; of those targets, 16 are directly related to customer service. A training plan was developed which makes the customer the focus of every action taken by a Hydro-Quebec employee, and office hours have been reorganized in response to constantly evolving customer needs. A courtesy call strategy has been adopted to anticipate customer expectations before they are expressed. Highly personalized and accurately targeted informational tools have been developed for each customer category and a toll-free energy efficiency hotline has been established. Energy efficiency publications are distributed to business and residential customers. Satisfaction with Hydro-Quebec activities rose from 77% in 1992 to 93% in 1993, and credibility in energy efficiency rose from 73% to 85%. A new project being investigated is an electronic superhighway with a variety of customer applications including home automation, load and meter telecontrol, telebilling, and direct payment

  13. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, M K; White, B N

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to approximately 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been low, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using...

  14. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  15. Differences in hoarding behavior between captive and wild sympatric rodent species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmao ZHANG; Yu WANG

    2011-01-01

    In hand reared birds and mammals,it is generally considered that the development of hoarding behavior is the result of an interaction between the development and maturation of the nervous system and learning from individual experience.However,few studies have been done on wild animals.We tested differences in hoarding behavior between captive reared and wild individuals of two sympatric small rodents,Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae and Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventer confucianus.Our aim was to identify if lack of experience from the wild would result in poorly developed hoarding behavior.The Korean field mice perform scatter- and larder-hoarding behaviors whereas Chinese white-bellied rats hoard food in larders only.Within outdoor enclosures we compared seed-hoarding behavior in reared juveniles (RJ,40-50 d old,pregnant mothers were captured in the wild),wild juveniles (WJ,as young as the R J) and wild adults (WA,over-winter animals).We found that a lack of experience from the wild had significant effects on seed-hoarding behavior for both species.The R J-group removed and hoarded fewer seeds than the WJ- and WA-groups.The two latter groups hoarded seeds in a similar way.In the Korean filed mouse the RJ-group placed more seeds on the ground surface than other groups.These findings suggest that wild experience is important for the acquisition of an appropriate food-hoarding behavior (especially for scatter-hoarding) in these species [Current Zoology 57 (6):725-730,2011].

  16. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  17. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  18. A Primary Report on the Alive Triplets of Captive Forest Musk Deer%圈养林麝繁殖成活三胞胎实验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨营; 蔡永华; 付文龙; 朱萍

    2015-01-01

    Three captive forest musk deers in the core group of Sichuan musk deer breeding institute gave birth to the three cubs on June to July, 2014. The triplets were reared by artifi-cial feeding,and all survived and grew well.%2014年5~6月,四川养麝研究所马尔康养獐场的圈养林麝繁育核心群,有3只母麝产下了三胞胎,经人工哺乳补饲喂养,全部成活,且生长发育良好。

  19. Passing a seawater challenge test is not indicative of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts performing as well at sea as their naturally produced conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A J; Berg, M; Bremset, G; Finstad, B; Hvidsten, N A; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Lund, E

    2016-06-01

    Despite satisfactory reactions to seawater challenge tests indicative of appropriate physiological state, hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts stocked in the Eira River in Norway between 2001 and 2011 performed less well at sea in terms of growth, age at maturity and survival than smolts of natural origin. The mean rates of return to the river for hatchery-reared and naturally produced S. salar were 0·98 and 2·35%. In the Eira River, c. 50 000 hatchery-reared S. salar smolts of local origin were stocked annually to compensate for reduced natural smolt production following regulation for hydroelectric purposes, while a mean of 17 262 smolts were produced naturally in the river. This study demonstrates that, although captive S. salar perform well in seawater challenge tests, hatchery-reared smolts are not necessarily as adaptable to marine life as their naturally produced counterparts. These findings suggest that production of hatchery-reared smolts more similar to naturally produced individuals in morphology, physiology and behaviour will be necessary to improve success of hatchery releases. Where possible, supplementary or alternative measures, including habitat restoration, could be implemented to ensure the long-term viability of wild stocks. PMID:27133912

  20. Wild Tigers in Captivity: A Study of the Effects of the Captive Environment on Tiger Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsko, Leigh Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Humans maintain wild animals in zoological parks for the purposes of education,conservation, research, and recreation. However, abnormal behaviors may develop in animals housed in human-made environments, if those environments do not allow them to carry out their natural behaviors (such as swimming, climbing, stalking, and predation). Captive environments in zoological parks often do not provide for natural behaviors due to spatial constraints and negative public reaction. Tigers (Panthera ...

  1. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals...

  2. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs. PMID:26882002

  3. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J. L.; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L.; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  4. 幼龄东北虎的人工饲养%Hand-rearing of manchurian tiger cubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春蕾

    2014-01-01

    Captivity female Manchurian tiger(Panthera tigris altaica) because there is no rearing experience or motherhood is not strong and other reasons, often showing abandoned young behavior. So artificial rearing of Manchurian tiger cubs is an important measure to raise the survival rate. We carried out an artificial rearing trial of tigress discarded 2 young female Manchurian tiger cubs at Sanming Zoo using imported brands Nestle Shield Series of human milk. Suitable for the rejected tiger cubs to create a living environment, the development of scientific feeding methods and strict operating procedures, so that all cubs are well developed, the survival rate is one hundred percent.%人工饲养条件的雌性东北虎因为没有哺育幼仔的经验或其母性不强等原因,往往呈现弃仔行为。因此,对幼龄东北虎进行人工饲养是提高东北虎幼仔成活率的重要手段。针对三明动物园被母虎遗弃的2只幼龄雌性东北虎采用进口品牌雀巢能恩金盾系列人用乳粉进行人工饲养,为幼虎创造适宜的生存环境,制定科学的饲养方法和严格的操作流程,幼虎发育良好,成活率为百分之百。

  5. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391

  6. Boldness towards novelty and translocation success in captive-raised, orphaned Tasmanian devils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, David L; Cawthen, Lisa; Jones, Susan M; Pukk, Chrissy; Jones, Menna E

    2014-01-01

    Translocation of endangered animals is common, but success is often variable and/or poor. Despite its intuitive appeal, little is known with regards to how individual differences amongst translocated animals influence their post-release survival, growth, and reproduction. We measured consistent pre-release responses to novelty in a familiar environment (boldness; repeatability=0.55) and cortisol response in a group of captive-reared Tasmanian devils, currently listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN. The devils were then released at either a hard- or soft-release site within their mothers' population of origin, and individual growth, movement, reproduction (females only), and survival across 2-8 months post-release was measured. Sex, release method, cohort, behavior, and cortisol response did not affect post-release growth, nor did these factors influence the home range size of orphan devils. Final linear distances moved from the release site were impacted heavily by the release cohort, but translocated devils' movement overall was not different from that in the same-age wild devils. All orphan females of reproductive age were subsequently captured with offspring. Overall survival rates in translocated devils were moderate (∼42%), and were not affected by devil sex, release method, cohort, release weight, or pre-release cortisol response. Devils that survived during the study period were, however, 3.5 times more bold than those that did not (effect size r=0.76). Our results suggest that conservation managers may need to provide developmental conditions in captivity that promote a wide range of behaviors across individuals slated for wild release. PMID:24375492

  7. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities. PMID:23525178

  8. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS...

  9. Have somatic parameters of wild Equidae in captivity been changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes commonly occurred to animals under domestication distinguish domestic animals from their wild ancestors. Similar changes on some wild animals kept in captivity (zoological gardens) can also be observed. This diploma thesis concerns these morphological changes on a skeleton of Equidae. For several species and subspecies of this family some osteometric data received from those kept in captivity are compared to those from the wild. A more deta...

  10. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anna M.; Elizabeth A Hobson; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of p...

  11. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  12. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    OpenAIRE

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflie...

  13. The Optimal Choice of Promotional Vehicles: Front-Loaded or Rear-Loaded Incentives?

    OpenAIRE

    Z. John Zhang; Aradhna Krishna; Sanjay K. Dhar

    2000-01-01

    We examine the key factors that influence a firm's decision whether to use front-loaded or rear-loaded incentives. When using price packs, direct mail coupons, FSI coupons or peel-off coupons, consumers obtain an immediate benefit upon purchase or a front-loaded incentive. However, when buying products with in-pack coupons or products affiliated with loyalty programs, promotion incentives are obtained on the next purchase occasion or later, i.e., a rear-loaded incentive. Our analysis shows th...

  14. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  15. Brief communication: Hand preference for bimanual and unimanual feeding in captive gorillas: extension in a second colony of apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Megan

    2012-08-01

    Right-hand dominance is widely considered to be a uniquely human trait. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit similar population-level hand preferences remains a topic of considerable debate. Despite extensive research focusing on laterality in nonhuman primates, our interpretation of these studies is limited due to methodological issues including the lack of a common measure of hand preference and the use of tasks that may not be reliable indicators of handedness. The use of consistent methods between studies is necessary to enable comparisons within and between species and allow for more general conclusions to be drawn from these results. The present study replicates methods used in recent research reporting population-level right-handedness in captive gorillas (Meguerditchian et al.,2010). Observational data were collected on hand preference for unimanual and bimanual feeding in 14 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Individual-level preferences were found, primarily for bimanual feeding; however, the data reveal no group-level directional bias (contra Meguerditchian et al.). Like the study by Meguerditchian et al. (2010), though, bimanual feeding revealed significantly stronger hand preferences than unimanual reaching, and age, sex, group membership, or rearing history had no effect on hand preference. Finally, variations in diet and corresponding grip type between studies suggest that hand preferences may vary across bimanual tasks depending on grip morphology. This study aims to contribute to our existing knowledge of primate laterality by increasing the number of individuals investigated using methods that allow for comparisons with similar research. PMID:22639326

  16. The transaction costs driving captive power generation: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2003 Indian Electricity Act incentivizes captive power production through open access in an attempt to harness all sources of generation. Yet, we observe that only some firms self-generate while others do not. In this paper we give a transaction cost explanation for such divergent behavior. Using a primary survey of 107 firms from India, we construct a distinct variable to measure the transaction-specificity of electricity use. The ‘make or buy’ decision is then econometrically tested using probit model. Results are highly responsive to transaction-specificity and the likelihood of captive power generation is positively related to it. At the industrial level, this explains why food and chemical firms are more likely to make their own electricity. Since the burden of poor grid supply is highest on smaller sized and high transaction-specific firms, the grid access policies need to account for firm-level characteristics if government wants to incentivize captive power generation. - Highlights: • We analyze why some firms opt for captive power generation while others do not. • We examine the role of transaction costs in this decision making using probit model. • Unique data from a primary survey of manufacturing firms in Andhra Pradesh, India. • Transaction-specificity significantly determines who installs captive power plant (CPP). • Firm-level characteristics crucial in policies incentivizing captive generation

  17. REARING OF CETACEANS IN CAPTIVITY IN CHINA%中国鲸类动物的人工饲养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁俊; 王克雄; 赵庆中

    2002-01-01

    我国从1965年由青岛海产博物馆首次开始饲养江豚和宽吻海豚.以后中国科学院水生生物研究所等单位先后饲养白(既)/(鱼)豚和长江江豚成功,1995年以后,由于外国资本和技术的介入,使我国鲸类动物的人工饲养水平很快赶上世界先进水平,但由于发展速度太快,布局也不尽合理,因此,必须认真研究和探讨,使我国鲸类动物的人工饲养得到健康有序的发展.

  18. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  19. Markedly Elevated Antibody Responses in Wild versus Captive Spotted Hyenas Show that Environmental and Ecological Factors Are Important Modulators of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Andrew S; Mansfield, Linda S; Grant, Chris K; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have shaped the vertebrate immune system over time, but proximal mechanisms control the onset, duration, and intensity of immune responses. Based on testing of the hygiene hypothesis, it is now well known that microbial exposure is important for proper development and regulation of the immune system. However, few studies have examined the differences between wild animals in their natural environments, in which they are typically exposed to a wide array of potential pathogens, and their conspecifics living in captivity. Wild spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are regularly exposed to myriad pathogens, but there is little evidence of disease-induced mortality in wild hyena populations, suggesting that immune defenses are robust in this species. Here we assessed differences in immune defenses between wild spotted hyenas that inhabit their natural savanna environment and captive hyenas that inhabit a captive environment where pathogen control programs are implemented. Importantly, the captive population of spotted hyenas was derived directly from the wild population and has been in captivity for less than four generations. Our results show that wild hyenas have significantly higher serum antibody concentrations, including total IgG and IgM, natural antibodies, and autoantibodies than do captive hyenas; there was no difference in the bacterial killing capacity of sera collected from captive and wild hyenas. The striking differences in serum antibody concentrations observed here suggest that complementing traditional immunology studies, with comparative studies of wild animals in their natural environment may help to uncover links between environment and immune function, and facilitate progress towards answering immunological questions associated with the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:26444876

  20. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  1. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  2. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID

  3. Validation of a new larval rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae mass rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Balestrino

    Full Text Available The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895 mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms.

  4. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J;

    2014-01-01

    participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...... the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training...... important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity....

  5. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs. PMID:11021439

  6. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences. PMID:16604276

  7. A new home for the long-snouted seahorse : Hippocampus guttulatus : breeding in captivity to preserve in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Filipa Faleiro de, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Habitat degradation and intensive exploitation are threatening seahorse populations worldwide. Captive breeding may be essential to replace harvesting of natural populations and provide an alternative source of seahorses for commercial trade and supplementation programs in the wild. The present investigation evaluates the potential of Hippocampus guttulatus culture as a tool...

  8. A longitudinal study on avian polyomavirus-specific antibodies in captive Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Amrita; Foldenauer, Ulrike; Borjal, Raffy Jim; Streich, W Jürgen; Lüken, Caroline; Johne, Reimar; Müller, Hermann; Hammer, Sven

    2010-09-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes a range of disease syndromes in psittacine birds, from acute fatal disease to subclinical infections, depending on age, species, and other unidentified risk factors. To determine the prevalence of APV-specific antibodies in a captive population of Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii) in Quatar, 54 birds were tested by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A prevalence of 48.1% for APV antibodies, which indicates viral exposure, was found. Of 36 Spix's macaws that were serially tested over a period of 4 years, 50.0% were consistently positive, 36.1% were consistently negative, 5.5% had permanently declining antibody levels, and 2.8% showed variable results. By using polymerase chain reaction testing on whole blood samples, an apparent viremia was detected in 1 of 44 birds (2.3%), although contamination provides a likely explanation for this isolated positive result in a hand-reared chick. The white blood cell count was significantly higher in antibody-positive birds compared with antibody-negative birds (P < .05). Because antibody-positive and antibody-negative birds were housed together without a change in their respective antibody status, transmission of APV within the adult breeding population appeared to be a rare event. PMID:21046939

  9. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  10. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  11. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DHANEESH Kottila Veettil; AJITH KUMAR Thipramalai Thankappan; SWAGAT Ghosh; BALASUBRAMANIAN Thangavel

    2012-01-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater.We designed an indoor program of A.percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1,during which the impacts of feed type,water temperature,and light intensity,on the efficiency of its reproduction,were revealed.The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency.Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276±22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp.rather than clam (204±16.4eggs),trash fish (155±12 eggs) and formulated feed (110±10 eggs).The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature,28.74±0.55℃) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature,24.55±0.45℃) on average of 1 spawning per month.Among three light intensities (100,500,and 900 Ix) set to evaluate larval survival rate,larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 Ix.The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach,will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  12. Comparison of infection by Brucella spp. in free-ranging and captive wild animals from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JMAP Antunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the infection rate by Brucella spp. in wild and in captive animals. Serum samples from 121 animals (94 free-ranging and 27 captive of different mammal species were evaluated. Sera were submitted to rose Bengal test (RBT for screening and serum agglutination tests (SAT and 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME for confirmatory results. Nine animals (five free-ranging and four captive tested positive in RBT, but negative in the confirmatory tests. Several domestic animal diseases that have control programs are not focused on wild reservoirs, such as brucellosis in Brazil. The study of new reservoirs in wildlife is essential to prevent emerging diseases.

  13. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  14. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shangying YU; Jiang, Zhigang; Hui ZHU; Li, Chunwang; Enquan ZHANG; Zhang, Jinguo; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among ...

  15. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  16. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  17. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  18. Behavioral recovery from tetraparesis in a captive chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Misato; Sakuraba, Yoko; Watanabe, Shohei; Kaneko, Akihisa; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    An adult male chimpanzee living in a captive social group at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University developed acute tetraparesis. He was paralyzed and received intensive care and veterinary treatment as previously reported in Miyabe-Nishiwaki et al. (J Med Primatol 39:336-346, 2010). The behavioral recovery of the chimpanzee was longitudinally monitored using an index of upright posture between 0 and 41 months after the onset of tetraparesis. Four phases were identified during the course of behavioral recovery. During Phase 0 (0-13 months), the chimpanzee remained lying on his back during the absence of human caretakers. An increase in upright posture occurred in Phase I (14-17 months), then remained at a stable level of around 50-70 % in Phase II (18-29 months). During Phases I and II, the subject's small treatment cage represented a spatial limitation. Thus, behavioral recovery was mainly mediated by arm muscle strengthening caused by raising the body trunk with the aid of materials attached to the cage walls as environmental enrichment. When the chimpanzee was moved to a larger rehabilitation room in Phase III (30-41 months), the percentage of upright posture constantly exceeded 80 %, except in the 40th month when he injured his ankle and was inactive for several days. The enlargement of the living space had a positive effect on behavioral recovery by increasing the types of locomotion exhibited by the subject, including the use of legs during walking. Rehabilitation works were applied in face-to-face situations which enabled the use of rehabilitation methods used in humans. The process of behavioral recovery reported in this study provides a basic data set for planning future rehabilitation programs and for comparisons with further cases of physical disability in non-human primates. PMID:23673560

  19. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  20. Yaw control using rear wheel steering

    OpenAIRE

    Westbom, Daniel; Frejinger, Petter

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to continue the work on a vehicle model developed in ADAMS/Car and applied with the concept of ACM (Autonomous Corner Module). The project is divided up in two parts. The objective of the first part is to setup a co-simulation environment between ADAMS/Car and MATLAB/Simulink, and evaluate the vehicle model. In the second part a yaw controller is developed using only the rear wheel steering possibilities. The controller will be evaluated when it is applied on th...

  1. Child-Rearing Attitudes of Working Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Haktanır, Gelengül; Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu Çocuk Gelişimi Anabilim Dalı; Baran, Gülen; Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu Çocuk Gelişimi Anabilim Dalı; Alisinanoğlu, Fatma; Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu Çocuk Gelişimi Anabilim Dalı

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of working women at different educational levels to child rearing and the influences of the mothers’ age and educational level and of the children’s age and sex on these attitudes were examined. 288 mothers with children between 3 and 17 years old and working at all faculties of Ankara University as academics and officials were studied. Information was obtained by using the “Personel Information Form” and the “Parental Attitudes Research Instrument (PARI)”. The results showed th...

  2. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, M.; Berk, J.; Ellendorff, F.; M. Wolf-reuter; Čop, D.; Holcman, A.; Štuhec, I.

    2003-01-01

    The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.). The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In t...

  3. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  4. IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group: Otters in Captivity Task Force (OCT – Supporting Quality Captive Otter Care Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Work on creating the Otters in Captivity Task Force was begun in earnest in 2007 after OSG chair Jim Conroy reiterated Claus Reuther’s earlier request that the OSG look at how we could best interface with our colleagues working with otters in captive settings. I am pleased to report that this task force, known as OCT, has made some valuable progress in establishing our goals, identifying objectives, meeting some targets, and solidifying positive working relationships with otter professionals worldwide.

  5. Mass-rearing of Mediterranean fruit fly using low-cost yeast products produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moreira da Silva Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests of fruits for exportation, and Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been the most efficient and environmental friendly technique used to control fruit fly populations around the world. A key goal in achieving a successful SIT program is a mass rearing system producing high quality insects at low cost. Providing adults with an artificial diet containing hydrolysed protein has been the major obstacle for bio-production facilities in Brazil, because it is expensive and has to be imported. Two other commercial products, autolysed yeast (AY and yeast extract (YE, of domestic origin and low cost, were tested as substitutes of the imported hydrolyzed protein. To compare their efficiency we observed the female fecundity, adult survival and egg viability of flies raised on diets containing one of each of the different protein products. Flies reared on the domestic yeast products had equivalent or superior performance to the flies reared on imported protein. Both AY and YE can be a possible substitute for imported hydrolyzed protein for C. capitata mass-rearing, as they are cheaper and are readily available in the national market.

  6. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  7. Genetic guidelines for captive breeding and reintroductions of the endangered Black-fronted Piping Guan, Aburria jacutinga (galliformes, cracidae), an Atlantic Forest endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Jr, Paulo R R; Costa, Mariellen C; Silveira, Luis F; Francisco, Mercival R

    2016-07-01

    The survival of a number of birds rely on captive breeding and reintroduction into the wild, but captive populations are often small and can be exposed to the negative effects of inbreeding and genetic drift. Then, managers are concerned not only with producing as much offspring as possible, but also with the retention of the maximum genetic variability within and between populations. The Black-fronted Piping Guan, Aburria jacutinga, is an endangered cracid endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern South America. Because of its conservation status and functional importance, a captive breeding program started independently, mainly in three aviaries, in the decade of 1980. Although they have supplied animals for reintroductions, genetic variability aspects have never been considered. Here we addressed levels of genetic variability within and between these aviaries. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed two lineages. Inbreeding was not detected, although we found evidences for a recent bottleneck in one of the aviaries. Then, our main management recommendations are: i) reintroducing the species in areas where it has been extinct is more prudent than supplementing natural populations, as it could involve risks of disrupting local adaptive complexes; ii) as far as inbreeding can be avoided, the captive groups should be managed separately to minimize adaptation to captivity; iii) crossbreedings in pre-release generations could improve reintroduction success; and iv) a studbook should be implemented. As populations of Black-fronted Piping Guan from conservation units are progressively declining, these captive genetic repositories may gain importance in a near future. Zoo Biol. 35:313-318, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27232628

  8. Variabilidad morfológica y crecimiento corporal de cuatro poblaciones de Crocodylus moreletii en cautiverio Morphological variability and body growth on four populations of Crocodylus moreletii in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Serna-Lagunes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la variabilidad morfológica y el crecimiento corporal de 4 poblaciones del cocodrilo de pantano (Crocodylus moreletii que se encuentran en la Unidad de Manejo para la Conservación de la Vida Silvestre Cacahuatal ubicada en el estado de Veracruz, México. Se compararon 4 poblaciones: 2 poblaciones cuyos individuos nacieron en vida silvestre y 2 que nacieron en cautiverio. Los rasgos morfológicos estudiados fueron similares entre poblaciones y entre sexos. Las tasas de crecimiento corporal fueron significativamente diferentes entre poblaciones. Los individuos que nacieron en condiciones naturales crecieron más rápidamente que los nacidos en cautiverio. Se concluye que el cautiverio no parece afectar la expresión morfológica, pero sí la tasa de crecimiento corporal. Estos resultados muestran que diferentes poblaciones de C. moreletii pueden presentar un crecimiento diferencial determinado por las condiciones de cautiverio.The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of captivity upon morphological characteristics and body growth rates of the Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii. The studied individuals are currently reared in the Management Unit for Wildlife Conservation (Cacahuatal, located at Veracruz, Mexico. Four populations were compared: individuals from 2 of them were born in wild conditions, whereas individuals from the other 2, were born in captivity. Morphology was similar among populations and between sexes. Body growth rates were significantly different among populations, those individuals born in natural conditions grew faster than those born in captivity. We conclude that captivity does not seem to affect the morphological expression of C. moreletii in comparison with a significant effect upon the rate of body growth. These results show that different populations of C. moreletii can exhibit differential body growth patterns depending on the conditions experienced in captivity.

  9. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  10. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Sterenborg, Marlijn; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress—or, more appropriately, “allostatic overload”—may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine i

  11. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  12. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...

  14. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...

  15. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.

  16. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  17. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  18. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife com

  19. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Brett W; Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans.

  20. Reducing Stress to Improve Welfare of Captive Animals at Guangzhou Zoo%动物园动物的应激行为与动物福利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小青; 吴其锐; 王静; 彭建宗

    2012-01-01

    Stress of animals in captivity at Guangzhou Zoo was increased by zookeepers, visitors, and environments in cages. We analyzed animal stress behaviors and made recommendations for improving animal welfare at Guangzhou Zoo. We recommend to establish set times for visits by zookeepers and to standardize feeding. Animals should be housed in separate cages during breeding season and special rooms should be designated for birthing and rearing of neonates. By using animal behavior enrichment programs and improving the environments in animal cages we can improve animal health, reduce disease, increase longevity and ensure proper breeding.%动物园动物是人工驯养的动物,动物的应激行为表现是动物与饲养管理人员、游人之间和与笼舍环境的应激,是人为造成的。分析广州动物园动物应激行为表现,与广州动物园动物的福利水平,提出动物园动物福利管理思路和方法。减少动物园动物的应激行为,在饲养管理中定人、定点、定时、定量。在动物繁殖期分笼,设立专门的产房和育幼室。应用动物行为丰容技术和动物园笼舍建设生态化。让动物康乐生活,防疫好,疾病少,寿命长,合理繁殖。

  1. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  2. The reproductive cycle of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and factors associated with reproductive success in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, T; O'Brien, J K; Fanson, B G; Masters, K; McGreevy, P D

    2012-04-01

    Numbers of wild Tasmanian devils are declining as a result of the fatal, transmissible Devil Facial Tumor Disease. A captive insurance population program has been initiated but current captive breeding rates are sub-optimal and therefore the goal of this project was to increase our understanding of the estrous cycle of the devil and elucidate potential causes of failed male-female pairings. Temporal patterns of fecal progestagen and corticosterone metabolite concentrations were examined for females (n=41) in three categories of reproductive status (successful: viable young, n=20 estrous cycles; unsuccessful: paired with a male but no young confirmed, n=44 estrous cycles; non-mated: no access to a male during estrus, n=8 estrous cycles) but substantial differences were not found. Females were more likely to produce pouch young if pairing with the male extended into late proestrus (P0.05). Unsuccessful females had 1-3 estrous cycles within a single year. Successful females were predominantly wild-caught (17/19, 90%) and most produced young following the first estrous cycle of the season (18/20, 90%). Unsuccessful females were predominantly captive born (20/27, 74%) in this study. It is possible that a proportion of females that do not produce pouch young achieve conception but the timing of reproductive failure continues to be elusive in this species. PMID:22306283

  3. SEROLOGIC SURVEY AND RESULTS OF URINARY PCR TESTING FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, June E; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination. Leptospira microscopic agglutination test identified 12 of 22 (54.5%) prairie dogs with antibody titers ≥1 : 100 against Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on initial serologic examination. All prairie dogs within this collection were serologically negative for L. interrogans serovars canicola, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine was negative in all animals tested. This report describes evidence that captive prairie dogs may be exposed to leptospirosis, most likely from wild rodent reservoirs; however, serum titers are low, and lack of leptospiral DNA detected by PCR indicates that these captive animals are unlikely to be important reservoirs for the disease. PMID:26667541

  4. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  5. Transmission and shedding patterns of Salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (Rattus rattus) from a Salmonella-contaminated layer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Dennis V; Lapuz, Randy Rhon Simoun P; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2012-06-01

    organs, whereas Salmonella Infantis is more likely an enteric type of infection, in which isolation is most likely to occur in the intestinal contents. It is very plausible that layer chickens could become infected with Salmonella through ingestion of Salmonella-positive fecal droppings or feeds contaminated with these fecal droppings from infected resident roof rats. This is likely one of the major reasons why layer houses can be persistently infected by Salmonella even if the facilities are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected and if replacement stocks are obtained from Salmonella-free breeders and rearing units. It is therefore a noteworthy suggestion that rodent control programs inside poultry premises comprise an essential and effective tool in the management and control of Salmonella contamination in layer flocks. PMID:22856184

  6. Recent developments in medfly mass rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous light in the adult stage increased by 15-20% the number of eggs produced by artificially reared Mediterranean fruit flies as compared with a 14:10 h light:dark regime. This increase was not apparent when the flies were kept in high density mass rearing cages because of a steep increase in insect mortality owing to the continuous light. An oviposition net, with hole size similar in diameter to the female's ovipositor, almost doubled the number of eggs produced per female as compared with oviposition nets with large holes. The increased degree of egg 'sticking' observed on the net with small holes was reduced significantly when the net was treated with a lubricant release agent. In a 'starter-finisher' standard IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory larval diet, sugar could be replaced in the finisher diet with molasses. In an all-molasses diet, the quantity of molasses could be reduced by 50% in the finisher diet without any substantial effect on insect production or quality. The spent finisher larval diet, heat treated to kill the remaining larvae or pupae, could be used for successful second larval production, provided it was mixed again with water and small amounts of sugar and combined with a fresh starter diet. Collection of all larvae within the first 'popping' day by a 'tumbling' machine, and subsequent pupation in wheat bran, resulted in the smallest pupae, but longest living adults, as compared with four day popping and pupation in wheat bran, sand, talc and 'naked' pupation. The latter resulted in a significant decrease in adult survival. Pupal handling procedures for sterile insect technique release reduced both adult emergence and flight ability. The percentage of emergence was substantially reduced by mechanical sorting, irradiation, storage at low temperature and packing in airtight plastic bags, while flight ability was affected substantially by fluorescent powder treatment for adult marking and, to a lesser extent, by irradiation and low temperature

  7. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  8. Rear surface passivation in buried contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.H.; Dai, X.M.; Zhao, J.H.; Wang, A.H.; Wenham, S.R.; Honsberg, C.B. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Photovoltaic Special Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    A range of rear surface structures have been developed and studied for the purpose of improving the performance of buried contact solar cells (BCSC). In particular, improved results are reported for the double grooved BCSC with oxidized p-type rear surface, with V{sub oc} of 685 mV having been demonstrated. The importance of including an alneal treatment is clearly evident with open circuit voltages typically degrading 60 mV without its inclusion. Devices with the same structure but with a rear floating junction are also evaluated within the study and again the dependence on an alneal is evident for cells with low surface phosphorus concentration. In the highest voltage devices, the rear boron diffused grooves contribute almost 30% of the total device dark saturation current, with test devices achieving V{sub oc} as high as 694 mV for a BCSC with the rear grooves replaced by photolithographically defined boron diffused contact regions.

  9. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  10. Behavioral and hormonal effects of attachment object separation in surrogate-peer-reared and mother-reared infant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J S; Novak, M A; Bowman, R E; Harlow, H F

    1975-09-01

    Mother-reared and surrogate-peer-reared rhesus monkeys were separated from their respective attachment objects at 6 months of age and tested for the following 9 weeks to determine their home-cage behavior and their pituitary-adrenocortical responses to stress. Both groups displayed a strong immediate behavioral response to separation which was characterized by increased vocalization, increased locomotion, and decreased self-play. However, the surrogate-peer-reared infants showed a subsequent recovery in their levels of self-play whereas the mother-reared infants instead developed stereotypic behavior patterns such as repetitive pacing. The 2 groups displayed similar plasma cortisol responses to weekly sessions in an apparatus equipped with animated toy "monsters". Mother-reared but not surrogate-peer-reared subjects, however, also manifested elevated cortisol levels when an animal in an adjacent cage was captured and removed for stress testing. Mother-reared infant monkeys thus responded in a stronger and more prolonged manner to the loss of their attachment object than surrogate-peer-reared infants. These results suggest that infant rhesus monkeys form stronger attachments to monkey mothers than to inanimate surrogate mothers, a phenomenon which has not been as clearly demonstrated using other indices of attachment strength. PMID:817950

  11. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  13. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  14. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  15. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  16. Biochemical composition of three algal species proposed as food for captive freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, C.M.; Orcutt, D.M.; Kreeger, D.A.; Parker, B.C.; Jones, V.A.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    To identify potential diets for rearing captive freshwater mussels, the protein, carbohydrate (CHO), and lipid contents of two green algae, Neochloris oleoabundans, Bracteacoccus grandis, and one diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were compared at different growth stages. The fatty acid and sterol composition were also identified. Protein was greatest (55-70%) for all species at late log growth stage (LL), and declined in late stationary (LS) growth. CHO was greatest at LS stage for all species (33.9-56.4% dry wt). No significant change in lipid levels occurred with growth stage, but tended to increase in N. oleoabundans. Mean lipid content differed significantly in the order: N. oleoabundans > P. tricornutum > B. grandis. Total fatty acids (TFA) were higher at LS stage compared to other stages in the two green algae, and stationary stage in the diatom. Mean unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as %TFA was significantly higher in N. oleoabundans than the other species. The green algae contained high percentages of C-18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while the diatom was abundant in C-16 saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and C-20 PUFA fatty acids. Growth stage had no effect on sterol concentration of any species. B. grandis showed significantly higher sterol levels than the other species except P. tricornutum at S stage. B. grandis was characterized by predominantly ??5, C-29 sterols, while N. oleoabundans synthesized ??5,7, ??5,7,22, and ??7, C-28 sterols. P. tricornutum produced primarily a ??5,22, C-28 sterol, and a small amount of a ??7,22, C-28 sterol.

  17. A note on reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Dezonne Motta

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Conditions leading to successful reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis in captivity are described. A trial involving four mating pairs which had been maintained at least four months in the laboratory resulted in three litters and one false pregnancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first record of successful breeding of this species in captivity.As condições utilizadas para o sucesso da reprodução de D. marsupialis em cativeiro são descritas. Esta tentativa envolveu quatro casais, os quais haviam sido mantidos no mínimo por quatro meses em laboratório e resultou em três ninhadas e uma falsa prenhez. Julgamos ser este o primeiro registro da reprodução desta espécie em cativeiro.

  18. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  19. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes bel...

  1. Temperature discrimination by captive free-swimming tuna, Euthynnus affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Captive kawakawa, Euthynnus affinis, were instrumentally conditioned to respond to an increase in temperature to determine discrimination abilities. Two fish yielded a discrimination threshold of 0.10 to 0.150C. Thermal sensitivity of this high-seas pelagic fish is thus no more acute than that of inshore fishes and appears inadequate for direct sensing of weak horizontal temperature gradients at sea

  2. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo; Simone Akemi Uenaka; Maitê Bette Motta; Cristina Harumi Adania; Letícia Yamasaki; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Heli...

  3. Sarcocystosis among Wild Captive and Zoo Animals in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Baha; Vellayan, Subramaniam; Omar, Effat; Abdullah, Suliman; Mat Desa, Noryatimah

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. infection was investigated in 20 necropsied captive wild mammals and 20 birds in 2 petting zoos in Malaysia. The gross post-mortem lesions in mammals showed marbling of the liver with uniform congestion of the intestine, and for birds, there was atrophy of the sternal muscles with hemorrhage and edema of the lungs in 2 birds. Naked eye examination was used for detection of macroscopic sarcocysts, and muscle squash for microscopic type. Only microscopically visible cysts were d...

  4. Comparative mortality levels among selected species of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel H. Preston; Laurie Bingaman Lackey; Iliana Kohler

    2006-01-01

    We present life tables by single year of age and sex for groups of animals and for 42 individual mostly mammalian species. Data are derived from the International Species Information System. The survivorship of most of these species has never been mapped systematically. We demonstrate that, in most of the groups, female survivorship significantly exceeds that of males above age five. Wild-born animals do not have mortality that differs significantly from captive-born animals. While most speci...

  5. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes bel...

  6. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    OpenAIRE

    Vercammen, F.; J. Brandt; Van Brantegem, L; L. Bosseler; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, th...

  7. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) in Captive, Group-Housed, Female Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C.; Provenzale, James M.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R.; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-01-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival P...

  8. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals. PMID:9678505

  9. Rapid compressions in a captive bubble apparatus are isothermal

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wenfei; Hall, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    Captive bubbles are commonly used to determine how interfacial films of pulmonary surfactant respond to changes in surface area, achieved by varying hydrostatic pressure. Although assumed to be isothermal, the gas phase temperature (Tg) would increase by >100°C during compression from 1 to 3 atm if the process were adiabatic. To determine the actual change in temperature, we monitored pressure (P) and volume (V) during compressions lasting 10 min after the compression when the two phases shou...

  10. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    OpenAIRE

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M.; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Holmes, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo.METHODS:The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to...

  11. Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpan...

  12. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  13. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana. PMID:26565681

  14. Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, U; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G; Wittig, M; Franke, A; Griffith, S C; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

    2015-04-01

    Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression-namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the genome that is IBD (propIBD), and we apply this method to a wild and a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In each of 948 wild and 1057 captive individuals we analyzed available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (260 SNPs) spread over four different genomic regions in each population. This allowed us to determine whether any of these four regions was completely homozygous within an individual, which indicates IBD with high confidence. In the highly nomadic wild population, we did not find a single case of IBD, implying that inbreeding must be extremely rare (propIBD=0-0.00094, 95% CI). In the captive population, a five-generation pedigree strongly underestimated the average amount of realized inbreeding (FPed=0.013capture inbreeding loops that reach back up to a few hundred generations. PMID:25585923

  15. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  16. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  17. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  18. Condition monitoring of steam turbo generators of captive power plant at HWP (Manuguru) through vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbo Generator is a critical equipment in steam based power plant circuit. Any failure causes loss of production and hence as applicable to Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru, it results in loss of heavy water production as the captive power plant at Manuguru is solely designed to supply steam and power to Main Plant, which is meant for production of heavy water. Thereby condition monitoring is very much essential and required as part of predictive maintenance program for the turbo generators which are in continuous operation. This paper focuses on identification of the turbo generator system through vibration spectrum, characterising and differentiating the fault mechanisms, trending the faults through changes in vibration spectrums and orbit plots and subsequently planning for corrective actions/measures after evaluating the changes in machine conditions

  19. REPRODUCTIVE NEOPLASMS IN WILD AND LONG-TERM CAPTIVE FEMALE FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Rotstein, David S; Ball, Ray L; Gerlach, Trevor J; Kinsel, Michael; Rodriguez, Maya; de Wit, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. This case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between April 2009 and May 2014. All cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) were made. The underlying cause of tumor development and effects on reproductive success is currently unknown, but possible asymmetric reproductive aging and/or a correlation between obesity and reproductive disorder in long-term nonreproductive female manatees are of interest and warrant further investigation. PMID:26667547

  20. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  1. Application of synthetic pheromones on animals in captivity: A possibility on wild ungulates?

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Urgell, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster There is an increasing evidence proving the existence of diverse abnormal behaviours due to stress on captive animals. The growing awareness for animal welfare, specifically for those captive in zoos or similar centres accommodating wild animals, has triggered that numerous measures of environmental enrichment are being implemented all over the globe. A recent practice of environmental enrichment to reduce the stress of wild animals in captivity is the employment of different odours...

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in a Captive Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. ...

  3. Being Attractive Brings Advantages: The Case of Parrot Species in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Frynta; Silvie Lisková; Sebastian Bültmann; Hynek Burda

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the ...

  4. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Kumar Thawait; Maiti, S. K.; Aditi A. Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zoological gardens exhibit wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases constitute one of the major problems causing morbidity and even mortality in captive wild animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals belonging to Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 faecal samples were screened from apparently normal/healthy captiv...

  5. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  6. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  8. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  9. Computer program performs statistical analysis for random processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, M. H.

    1966-01-01

    Random Vibration Analysis Program /RAVAN/ performs statistical analysis on a number of phenomena associated with flight and captive tests, but can also be used in analyzing data from many other random processes.

  10. Compensatory growth in slaughter pigs reared under organic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, José Adalberto; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compensatory growth is the physiological process leading to accelerated growth following a period of growth retardation. This study assessed different feeding strategies that may induce compensatory growth. Pigs from two sire breeds, reared under organic conditions, were subjected to...

  11. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  12. Prevalence and serovar distribution of Salmonella in fresh and frozen meat from captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, M

    1996-02-01

    Salmonella was isolated from 6 of 20 (30.0%) samples of fresh meat, and from 28 of 140 (20.0%) samples of frozen meat processed for human consumption from captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. Salmonella enterica isolates showed a serovar distribution of 41.2% (14/34) subsp. enterica, 11.8% (4/34) subsp. salamae and 41.2% (14/34) subsp. diarizonae. Analyses of fresh meat samples yielded Aeromonas (A. hydrophila) in 18 of 20 samples (90%), and a mean aerobic plate count (APC, 30 degrees C) of 5.79 cfu/g, a mean coliform count (TC, 37 degrees C) of 5.08 cfu/g and a mean faecal coliform count FC, 44 degrees C) of 4.76 cfu/g. It is suggested that the presence of Salmonella in meat samples may be due to skin surface contamination originating from faecally polluted rearing water ponds combined with excessive handling procedures during flaying. The common presence of Salmonella, including serovars of proven pathogenic potential, in crocodile meat offered for human consumption should concern consumers and public health authorities, as well as staff employed at crocodile farms. PMID:8722192

  13. Visitor effects on the behavior of captive Western lowland gorillas: the importance of individual differences in examining welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoinski, Tara S; Jaicks, Hannah F; Drayton, Lindsey A

    2012-01-01

    Given the conflicting and somewhat limited findings available on the effect of zoo visitors on primate behavior, the primary purpose of this study was to provide additional data on gorillas' response to variations in crowd size and to look at what other factors-both intrinsic (e.g. personality, sex, and rearing history) and extrinsic (e.g. group)-might influence such responses. Subjects included four groups (three mixed-sex and one bachelor) of captive western lowland gorillas living at Zoo Atlanta. Overall activity budgets and rates of social behaviors in high and low crowd conditions were compared. Behaviors suggestive of general welfare did not vary as a function of crowd size alone, although we did observe one significant interaction and several trends. Specifically, two groups spent more time engaged in undesirable behaviors in the high crowd condition, whereas the other two groups showed the opposite response pattern. Additionally, males, but not females, showed a trend toward greater rates of contact aggression in the high crowd condition, although wounding rates did not vary with crowd size. We also found trends towards variation in response to crowd size as a function of individual personality ratings. These results suggest that although the visitor effect may constitute an impediment to optimal animal welfare, this may only apply to some individuals or groups. We emphasize the importance of continuing to explore individual differences and the limitations of a one-size-fits-all approach when describing influences on animal welfare. PMID:22038867

  14. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  15. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author)

  16. A Simulation Model of the Mass Rearing of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, A; Rodríguez, D; Cure, J R; Cantor, F

    2016-06-01

    The supply of predatory mites as natural enemies is a key component to guarantee the success of biological pest control programs as alternatives to chemical control in commercial crops. To meet the demand for a supply of biologicals, the mass rearing of natural enemies is an option, and the first step must be to develop a standardized system that maximizes the production of prey. One choice for this first step is to use simulation models that can evaluate scenarios that are difficult or complex to address experimentally. In this work, a model was developed to evaluate the current management conditions for the mass rearing of the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our aim was to identify alternative scenarios to maximize mite production through mass rearing that could be evaluated in real systems. We assumed that populations of T. urticae were regulated by the conditions of supply-demand theory and modeled the age structure, temperature effects, and individual phenology of T. urticae. The supply-demand theory of resources was used to regulate populations, which involved structured ages and temperature effects for the different stages in the development of individuals. We used the functional response and the paradigm of metabolic pool models to describe resource acquisition and allocation. We demonstrated that 7- to 14-day-old plants infested with 45 or 62 T. urticae/plant could reach 25,000 individuals/plant, being 50% of these preys at the preferred stages by the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Our theoretical model requires validation in experimental/real systems of mass rearing to better verify the validity of all of the parameters and predictions before commercial implementation. PMID:26943232

  17. Rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of pink bollworm and their F1 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pink bollworm larvae were successfully reared in captivity on a casein wheat germ diet. The substitution of casein with soyflour, corn-cob grit and wheat germ, and casein for peanut flour, resulted in delayed development, reduced pupal recovery and fecundity of the adult moths. This reduction was more drastic in corn-cob grit and peanut flour diets. The irradiation of mature pupae at 50-200 Gy resulted in decreased adult emergence with increased gamma radiation doses, and more deformed moths were recorded at a dose of 200 Gy. Adults following irradiation of mature pupae when crossed with untreated males or females or treated individuals crossed to treated exhibited reduced fecundity and fertility with the increasing doses. This reduction was more pronounced when treated males were crossed with treated females. Females were relatively more sensitive to gamma radiation, as a reduced number of eggs was obtained when treated females were crossed with untreated males. At 200 Gy, no F1 progeny were obtained from any cross involving treated parents. The fecundity and fertility were reduced significantly when F1 males or F1 females from male parents irradiated as mature pupae were mated with untreated insects at both 100 and 150 Gy. However, inherited sterility was more pronounced when F1 males were crossed with untreated females than when F1 females were crossed with untreated males. Similarly reduced fecundity and fertility in F1 progeny from female parents irradiated as mature pupae, both at 100 and 150 Gy, were also recorded in crosses as described for male F1 progeny. The fecundity and fertility were the lowest in F1 progeny of both male and female parents irradiated as mature pupae when compared with the F1 progeny of male or female irradiated parents separately. (author). 28 refs, 7 tabs

  18. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  19. Annual changes in seminal variables of golden lanchead pitvipers (Bothrops insularis) maintained in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Zogno, M A; Camillo, A B; Pereira, R J G; Almeida-Santos, S M

    2015-12-01

    Bothrops insularis is an endemic and critically endangered snake with an estimated population of 2000 individuals restricted to Queimada Grande Island, in southeastern Brazil. Brazilian researchers established a captive breeding program for the species that includes the application of assisted reproductive technologies. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate semen samples from captive B. insularis throughout the year to ascertain seasonal differences in semen traits as well as correlations with body size and weight. Eighteen males with snout-vent length (SVL) ranging from 43.5 to 73.7 cm were collected at quarterly basis between August 2012 and May 2013. Macroscopic analysis revealed semen volumes ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 μL with samples featuring whitish to yellowish color and creamy and thick consistency. Viable sperm was obtained from all males indicating that individuals with SVL equal to or greater than 43.5 cm are sexually developed. However, adult and immature males (estimated by SVL) exhibited different seasonal profiles for motility and progressive motility. Adult males had a decrease in sperm motility and progressive motility during summer and spring, respectively, whereas the same variables did not vary throughout the year in immature snakes. Sperm concentration in all individuals was less (0.5 × 10(9) μL) during the winter, but no seasonal fluctuations were detected in semen volume. These findings are of particular importance to the development of reproductive tools such as male selection, artificial insemination and sperm freezing for the genetic management of this critically endangered snake. PMID:26559333

  20. Analysis of growth rate variables and postfeeding regurgitation in hand-reared Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, Heidi; Watson, Ryan; Hammer, Sven; Raidal, Shane R

    2008-09-01

    The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) successfully bred 10 Spix's macaws in the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons but intermittent episodes of postfeeding regurgitation in hand-raised chicks prompted the need to better understand and monitor the nutritional and physiologic requirements of growing nestlings. To ascertain and rank the possible causes of regurgitation in chicks, we undertook a critical analysis of the feeding, growth, and health data recorded for each individual hand-raised chick. Factors such as the total daily food intake (TDFI), growth curves, nursery room climate (temperature and humidity), and nutritional requirements were investigated as well as any health issues. Chicks attained a maximum body weight of 375 +/- 25 g at 45 days and then gradually lost weight until they reached a weaning weight of 300 +/- 30 g. The maximum daily volume of food that each chick received was 101 +/- 29 g at 42 days of age, which was also the age at which a peak in postfeeding regurgitation episodes occurred. The TDFI as a percentage of body weight peaked (83.1 +/- 12.3%) at day 3 of age and dropped to 30.1 +/- 2.3% by day 45 and then to 19.6 +/- 1.1% at day 92. Detailed analyses of the 2005 and 2006 records indicate that the regurgitation episodes may be primarily the result of overfeeding during the second trimester of hand-rearing. Our results indicate that smaller meals during the period when chicks are attaining their maximum body weights may contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of regurgitation episodes in hand-reared Spix's macaws. PMID:19014091

  1. Bruk av captive forsikringsselskap i internasjonal olje- og energiforsikring : Belyst ved Statoil Forsikring a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven tar for seg bruken av captive forsikringsselskaper, herunder særskilt Statoil Forsikring a.s. I tillegg behandles den gjensidige mekanismen for energiforsikring - O.I.L., behovet for captive-fronting i fremmede jurisdiksjoner, samt forsikringsordningen for SDØE på norsk kontinentalsokkel.

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Patrick W.; Barnhart, Kirstin F.; Christian R. Abee; Lambeth, Susan P.; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  3. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF HUMAN-DIRECTED UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR EXHIBITED BY A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Allison L; BLOOMSMITH, MOLLIE A.; Kelley, Michael E; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further demonstrate the utility of function-based approaches to assess and treat behavior problems exhibited by captive animals.

  4. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  5. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL)

  6. Food preference of the amazonian manatee in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Pinto Colares; Ioni Gonçalves Colares

    2011-01-01

    Studies on one endangered species´ feeding contribute to the more complex knowledge about its ecology, as also its preservation and/or management. By this means, aiming to obtain one better development and food supply for the animals kept in captivity in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, one experiment was conducted to verify their food preferences. Aiming to observe the Amazonian manatee´s feeding behavior, eight animals were used kept inside one pool with 28,26 m2 and 1,0 m de...

  7. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  8. Cranial growth of captive bred bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiauskienė, Laima

    2007-01-01

    The cranial growth of C. glareolus was investigated using 444 captive bred individuals, aged from 5 to 680 days. Three growth patterns of skull characters were found: (1) rapid growth in the first decade of age, followed by a very slow change or stabilisation (width of molar M1 and length of maxillary tooth row), (2) long period of flat growth (length of mandibular tooth row and length of mandibular diastema), and (3) long period of initial growth followed by the plateau phase (length of nasa...

  9. Comparing Object Play in Captive and Wild Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Whitney E.; Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Dudzinski, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the role of play as related to individual and group social development is important to understanding a species. The purpose of our study was to examine whether there is a difference in the frequency of object play exhibited by dolphins from two groups – one captive and one wild. Data were collected with underwater video, with resulting videos event sampled for bouts of play involving various objects used by dolphins. From 159 hr of video data, roughly 102 min featured object play: 7...

  10. Maximum price paid in captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Thernström, Taina

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate what animals in captivity   might need is to conduct preference and motivational tests. These types of   tests can help facilitate the animals to express different priorities. The   motivation can be assessed by having the animals “pay an entry cost” (e.g.   push a weighted door) that increases with time to get access to a resource.   The highest price that the animals are willing to pay for this resource is   called “the maximum price paid”. This study intends to test ...

  11. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  12. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  13. Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[11C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[11C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min)

  14. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    David McLennan

    2012-01-01

    Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW). The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of wa...

  15. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella species in captive psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, M C; Lima-Rosa, C A V; Weimer, T A; Rodenbusch, C R; Pereira, R A; Streck, A F; Oliveira, S D; Canal, C W

    2008-06-21

    Cloacal swabs were collected from 280 captive psittacine birds belonging to 13 species. Samples of dna were tested by PCR using a pair of primers that amplify a 284 base pair fragment of the Salmonella genus invA gene, and the PCR-positive samples were tested by standard microbiological techniques. Thirteen per cent of the samples were positive by PCR, but negative by microbiological techniques. The infection rates were significantly different among the 13 species, the most commonly infected being Amazona amazonica (28 per cent) and Amazona pretrei (20 per cent). Specific tests for Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum did not produce positive results. PMID:18567929

  16. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  17. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  18. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  19. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... finding that an animal is bred in captivity? 23.63 Section 23.63 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... Findings § 23.63 What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity? (a... wildlife that was bred in captivity (see §§ 23.41 and 23.46). (b) Definitions. The following terms...

  20. DNA fingerprinting in captive population of the endangered Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarskaya, O N; Petrosyan, V G; Kashentseva, T; Panchenko, V G; Ryskov, A P

    1995-09-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate genetic diversity within the endangered Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) captive population consisting of several dozens of founders originating from the two wild populations of eastern and western Siberia. Similarity and difference among captive individuals were demonstrated by the unweighted pair-group (UPGMA) clustering procedure. Quantitative characteristics of the eastern and western captive population groups such as average percentage differences (APD) and heterozygosity showed a high extent of genetic variability of 77.9-79.3% and heterozygosity of 0.85-0.72 within each group. Genetic heterogeneity of the captive population structure observed here provides guidelines for management of the species gene pool in captivity. These data also indicate that monitoring of genetic diversity through DNA fingerprinting can facilitate the efforts of Siberian crane management and restoration. PMID:8582369

  1. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy. PMID:24933263

  2. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment. PMID:21905060

  3. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity. PMID:17679501

  4. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  5. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  6. Perinatal mortality and season of birth in captive wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, J K; Gaskin, C D; Markham, J

    1987-04-18

    The magnitude of perinatal mortality in 50 species of captive wild ungulates born at the Zoological Society of London's collections at Regent's Park and Whipsnade between 1975 and 1985 is reviewed. Thirty-five per cent of 2471 ungulates born during this 11 year period died before six months old and most deaths occurred in the first week after birth. Similar findings have been reported at other zoos and in the wild. The seasonal distribution of births is described in 43 species. Significantly higher perinatal mortality was found in species which breed throughout the year (notably axis deer and sitatunga) than in seasonal breeders, and differences associated with system of management were apparent in some species (eg, mouflon and scimitar-horned oryx) kept at Regent's Park and Whipsnade. Considerable advances have been made in the management of captive wild ungulates in recent years but it is likely that perinatal mortality rates could be further reduced by improved management and veterinary care of the dams and neonates. PMID:3590601

  7. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach.

  8. Oral tool use by captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R C; McGrew, W C

    2000-01-01

    Eight captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were given wooden blocks embedded with raisins and bamboo as raw material for tool making in a study of manual laterality. In about three quarters of the raisin extraction bouts, the orangutans held the tool in the lips or teeth rather than in their hands. Three adult males and 2 adult females showed extreme (> or =92%) preference for oral tool use, a subadult male and an adult female used oral tools about half the time, and 1 adult female preferred manual tool use. Most oral tool users made short tools (approx. 4-10 cm long) that were held in the lips and (probably) supported by the tongue. Preference for oral tool use does not correlate with body weight, age or sex, but it may be related to hand size or individual preference. This is the first report of customary oral tool use as the norm in captive orangutans; it resembles the behavioral patterns reported by van Schaik et al. and Fox et al. in nature. PMID:11093037

  9. Some aspects of radiocesium retention in naturally contaminated captive snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two captive snakes from contaminated natural habitats on or near the Savannah River Plant showed single-phase 137Cs bioelimination curves suggesting that, in the wild state, they were near equilibrium with respect to this radionuclide at the time of capture. Radiocesium biological half-lives in the snakes averaged 131.3 +- 15.7 (SE) days with extreme values of 430.0 and 23.7 days. There was no correlation between radiocesium loss rate and initial body burden. Radiocesium loss rate showed a positive linear correlation with caloric intake and a negative exponential correlation with body weight. Less than 1 percent of radiocesium excretion could be accounted for in shed skins, the remainder being lost mainly through the feces. Two females which laid eggs in captivity transferred 6.37 and 6.43 percent of their total body burden to their eggs. Radiocesium showed a greater concentration in skeletal muscle than in kidney or liver, while fat bodies contained the lowest concentrations. Radiocesium concentrations of feces and stomach contents were generally low and were not correlated with total body burdens. (U.S.)

  10. Immunomagnetic cell separation, imaging, and analysis using Captivate ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laurie; Beechem, Joseph M.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed applications of CaptivateTM ferrofluids, paramagnetic particles (approximately 200 nm diameter), for isolating and analyzing cell populations in combination with fluorescence-based techniques. Using a microscope-mounted magnetic yoke and sample insertion chamber, fluorescent images of magnetically captured cells were obtained in culture media, buffer, or whole blood, while non-magnetically labeled cells sedimented to the bottom of the chamber. We combined this immunomagnetic cell separation and imaging technique with fluorescent staining, spectroscopy, and analysis to evaluate cell surface receptor-containing subpopulations, live/dead cell ratios, apoptotic/dead cell ratios, etc. The acquired images were analyzed using multi-color parameters, as produced by nucleic acid staining, esterase activity, or antibody labeling. In addition, the immunomagnetically separated cell fractions were assessed through microplate analysis using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay. These methods should provide an inexpensive alternative to some flow cytometric measurements. The binding capacities of the streptavidin- labled Captivate ferrofluid (SA-FF) particles were determined to be 8.8 nmol biotin/mg SA-FF, using biotin-4- fluorescein, and > 106 cells/mg SA-FF, using several cell types labeled with biotinylated probes. For goat anti- mouse IgG-labeled ferrofluids (GAM-FF), binding capacities were established to be approximately 0.2 - 7.5 nmol protein/mg GAM-FF using fluorescent conjugates of antibodies, protein G, and protein A.

  11. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  12. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  14. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  15. Admixture between historically isolated mitochondrial lineages in captive Western gorillas: recommendations for future management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Bergl, Richard A; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Anthony, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    Although captive populations of western gorilla have been maintained in the United States for over a century, little is known about the geographic origins and genetic composition of the current zoo population. Furthermore, although previous mitochondrial analyses have shown that free-range gorilla populations exhibit substantial regional differentiation, nothing is known of the extent to which this variation has been preserved in captive populations. To address these questions, we combined 379 pedigree records with data from 52 mitochondrial sequences to infer individual haplogroup affiliations, geographical origin of wild founders and instances of inter-breeding between haplogroups in the United States captive gorilla population. We show that the current captive population contains all major mitochondrial lineages found within wild western lowland gorillas. Levels of haplotype diversity are also comparable to those found in wild populations. However, the majority of captive gorilla matings have occurred between individuals with different haplogroup affiliations. Although restricting crosses to individuals within the same haplogroup would preserve the phylogeographic structure present in the wild, careful management of captive populations is required to minimize the risk of drift and inbreeding. However, when captive animals are released back into the wild, we recommend that efforts should be made to preserve natural phylogeographic structure. PMID:25790828

  16. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species. PMID:23403930

  17. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species. PMID:26771321

  18. Optimization methods for selecting founder individuals for captive breeding or reintroduction of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Webb; Wright, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu; Schuster, Stephan C; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-01-01

    Methods from genetics and genomics can be employed to help save endangered species. One potential use is to provide a rational strategy for selecting a population of founders for a captive breeding program. The hope is to capture most of the available genetic diversity that remains in the wild population, to provide a safe haven where representatives of the species can be bred, and eventually to release the progeny back into the wild. However, the founders are often selected based on a random-sampling strategy whose validity is based on unrealistic assumptions. Here we outline an approach that starts by using cutting-edge genome sequencing and genotyping technologies to objectively assess the available genetic diversity. We show how combinatorial optimization methods can be applied to these data to guide the selection of the founder population. In particular, we develop a mixed-integer linear programming technique that identifies a set of animals whose genetic profile is as close as possible to specified abundances of alleles (i.e., genetic variants), subject to constraints on the number of founders and their genders and ages. PMID:19908356

  19. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety. PMID:22858900

  20. Causes of Mississippi sandhill crane mortality in captivity 1984-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    During 1984-95, 111 deaths were documented in the captive flock of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) housed at the Paluxent Wildlife Research Center. Trauma was the leading cause of death (37%), followed by infectious/parasitic diseases (25%), anatomic abnormalities (15%), and miscellaneous (8%). No positive diagnosis of cause of death was found in 19% of the necropsies. Chicks cause of deaths of captive juveniles anti adults, is likely Iimited to collisions in the wild. lnfectious/parasitic diseases and anatomic abnormalities could affect wild chick survival at similar rates to those of captive chicks.

  1. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  2. Economics of young stock rearing decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensiveness of agriculture has contributed to environmental pollution through a higher production of waste materials. The environmental and economic pressures mean that it is nowadays important that milk is produced in a more sustainable way. The young stock rearing enterprise also

  3. Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchler, Ralph; Andonov, Sreten; Bienefeld, Kaspar;

    2013-01-01

    Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for q...

  4. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard was...

  5. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  6. Rearing screwworms: from fresh meat to artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research in development and continuous modification of screwworm larval diet for mass rearing is driven by various factors, including increase in cost of ingredients used, availability and supply of ingredients, amount of labor and time needed to prepare and feed the insects, and developing an envir...

  7. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  8. Child-Rearing Patterns and Dimensions of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayer, John R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 85 students, 72 medical patients, and 66 state employees to assess the relationships between personality dimensions and child-rearing. Results indicated that parents of extraverts were performance-oriented and stimulating, parents of high psychoticism scorers were unstimulating and unaffectionate, and parents of high neuroticism scorers…

  9. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B. terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging. PMID:25994560

  10. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  11. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  12. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  13. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  14. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179

  15. Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

    2006-05-27

    This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

  16. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Pparasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  17. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  18. El precio de la cautividad (The price of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de las fundamentales causas y consecuencias que pueden afectar la salud de aves de vida libre una vez sometidas a la cautividad. Trabajo realizado gracias a la experiencia acumulada durante años en la consulta Veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba. Patologías muchas de ellas que no aparecen en aves ya nacidas bajo este régimen o en otras aves ornamentales que se reproducen de forma comercial desde hace muchos años. Pensamos que si se conoce con mayor profundidad el daño que ocasiona la captura a nuestra Avifauna y esto es divulgado pudiera incidir en la toma de conciencia de personas que hoy se dedican a esta labor y promovería por parte de nuestras instituciones nacionales protectoras de esta patrimonio a instaurar nuevos y más eficaces planes para su protección. Abstract This study analyses the causes and health consequences of captivity on wild birds. The study has been possible thanks to the long experience accumulated at the veterinary surgery of the Asociacion Nacional Ornitologica de Cuba. Many of the pathologies shown on wild birds are found neither in birds born under this system nor in ornamental ones which have been reproduced for many years for commercial purpose. We believe that understanding the strong damage that captivity causes on our wild birds can have a direct influence on people working on this type of trade and will promote our protecting institutions to set up new efficient protection plans.

  19. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan. PMID:26044884

  20. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  1. Behaviour of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus at two temperatures in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.G. Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural studies with cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus in captivity are scarce. Due to the need for appropriate management of these animals, this study was performed to examine the behaviour of cockatiels kept in captivity at two temperatures. Sixteen cockatiels were individually housed in cages (62cm high x 43cm long x 27cm wide and fed with a commercial ration and seed mixture for psittacids. Water was provided ad libitum. The eight-day experiment was divided into two stages of four days each. In the first stage, the birds were kept at room temperature (25°C with 70% relative humidity during 24 hours. In the next stage, they were kept at 35°C from 06:00 to 18:00h and 25°C from 18:00 to 06:00h, also at 70% relative humidity. The behaviour of the birds was assessed by the analysis of video recordings taken from 6:00 to 18:00h. Lateral displacement on the perch, walking on the wire net, resting on the abdomen, stopping on the wire net, standing on the drinker or feeder, seed intake, cleaning the wings and shaking the plumage were not influenced (P>0.08 by temperature. Undesirable activities such as gnawing the perch or the wire net also showed no influence of temperature (P>0.15. At 35°C, the birds remained on the cage floor less often (P<0.02 and more often on the perch. Flapping or gnawing the feeder increased as did the consumption of ration (P<0.01. Increase in temperature from 25 to 35°C changed the behaviour of the cockatiels, although these behaviours were not characterised as responses to temperature stress.

  2. Tooth wear in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Brasch, Juliane; Castell, Johanna C; Kaiser, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) mostly do not attain the longevity possible for this species and frequently have problems associated with low energy intake and fat storage mobilization. Abnormal tooth wear has been among the causes suggested as an underlying problem. This study utilizes a tooth wear scoring method ("mesowear") primarily used in paleobiology. This scoring method was applied to museum specimens of free-ranging (n=20) and captive (n=41) giraffes. The scoring system allows for the differentiation between attrition--(typical for browsers, as browse contains little abrasive silica) and abrasion--(typical for grazers, as grass contains abrasive silica) dominated tooth wear. The dental wear pattern of the free-ranging population is dominated by attrition, resembles that previously published for free-ranging giraffe, and clusters within browsing herbivores in comparative analysis. In contrast, the wear pattern of the captive population is dominated by abrasion and clusters among grazing herbivores in comparative analyses. A potential explanation for this difference in tooth wear is likely related to the content of abrasive elements in zoo diets. Silica content (measured as acid insoluble ash) is low in browse and alfalfa. However, grass hay and the majority of pelleted compound feeds contain higher amounts of silica. It can be speculated that the abnormal wear pattern in captivity compromises tooth function in captive giraffe, with deleterious long-term consequences. PMID:17939353

  3. As an instance of Mersin province on child rearing according to socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Eroğlu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to search the parents who have children aged between 3 to 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district, and to specify how their attitudes of child care- education. At the same time this study also searches the effects of parents’ socioeconomic level of child rearing.This study has been implemented on the 232 volunteer parents who have children aged between 3 and 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district. Applied family life and child care –education scale which has been developed with Öner and Torun (1989, consisted of questionnaires which will affect the attitudes of the parents in terms of child care- education and this includes   demographic information which will introduce the parents. These surveys have been performed by the parents who have children in Toros district’s Playschools, kindergartens and day care center by one-to-one interviews. The data which is obtained from surveys by the help of the SPSS 16.0 packet program has been evaluated by using the rate per cents, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t- test of analysis of variance and one way ANOVA.In consequence of this assessment has been seen the significant differences between participants’ ages and protectiveness dimension F (3,228 = 2,553; p<0,050], and has been seen the meaningful differences between levels of income and overprotective dimension [f (4,227 =3, 361; p<0,050]As a consequence has been seen the significance of the family’s socioeconomic level of child rearing. Child-rearing attitudes of families with low socio-economic level had significantly more protective attitude.

  4. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F1 sterility technique. (author)

  5. Rearing history and allostatic load in adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Wolfe, Barbara A; Crews, Douglas E

    2016-03-01

    Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014. AL estimates were calculated using biomarkers obtained during previous anesthetic events. Biomarkers in the high-risk quartile were counted toward a gorilla's AL. Rearing history was categorized as mother-reared, nursery-reared, and wild-caught. Using ANCOVA, rearing history and AL are significantly associated when age and sex are entered as covariates. Wild-caught gorillas have significantly higher AL than mother-reared gorillas. Neither wild-caught nor mother-reared gorillas are significantly different from nursery-reared gorillas. When examined by sex, males of all rearing histories have significantly lower AL than females. We suggest males face few stressors in human care and ill effects of rearing history do not follow. Wild-caught females have significantly higher AL than mother-reared females, but neither is significantly different from nursery-reared females. Combined with our previous work on AL in this group, wherein females had twofold higher AL than males, we suggest females in human care face more stressors than males. Disrupted rearing history may exacerbate effects of these stressors. Providing opportunities for females to choose their distance from males may help reduce their AL. Zoo Biol. 35:167-173, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26881840

  6. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported ...

  7. Instream Flows Needed for Successful Migration Spawning and Rearing of Rainbow and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Selected Tributaries of the Kootenai River: Final Report 1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian

    1986-12-01

    This study was conducted by Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in contractual agreement with Bonneville Power Administration and addresses measure 804(a)(9) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Objectives were to determine instream flow needs in Kootenai River tributaries to maintain successful fish migration, spawning and rearing habitat of game fish, evaluate existing resident and rearing fish populations, and compile hydrologic and fishery information required to secure legal reservation of water for the fishery resource.

  8. Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved within captive groups of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, A; Gilbert, T; Woodfine, T; Knowles, J M; Diniz, F M; Brenneman, R A; Louis, E E; Maclean, N

    2007-06-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx, now considered extinct in the wild, persists in large numbers in captivity. In this first molecular genetic study on this species, we explore the patterns of genetic diversity across European, North American, and a few other captive groups using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequencing. Strong population structure was not evident from microsatellite data but we discovered deep divergence within the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from a network analysis where three disconnected networks were obtained, with estimated divergence times of c. 2.1-2.7 million years. Mismatch distribution analyses suggest population expansions c. 1.2 and 0.5 million years ago. We discuss our findings in the context of historical climatic changes in North Africa and use information obtained on current patterns of genetic diversity within captive groups to make recommendations for future captive management and reintroduction strategies. PMID:17561904

  9. First Care Area Logs for captive loggerhead and Kemps ridley sea turtles 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.

  10. Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challender, Daniel W S; Thai, Nguyen Van; Jones, Martin; May, Les

    2012-01-01

    This is the first assessment of Manis javanica behavior in captivity. The aim of the investigation was to assess behavior in order to suggest ways of improving captive care and management of the species. This was undertaken by constructing time-budgets and activity patterns and identifying any abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) exhibited. Scan and focal animal sampling were implemented in observations of seven subjects. Analyses detailed idiosyncrasies in how subjects partitioned their active time. Peak activity occurred between 18:00 and 21:00 hr. Two ARBs, clawing and pacing, were identified and the cessation of clawing in one subject was possible by modifying its enclosure. Stress-related behavior, understood to be related to several factors, means maintaining this species in captivity remains problematic. Recommendations are made pertaining to husbandry, captive management, and future research. PMID:21360581

  11. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  12. 49 CFR 571.223 - Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... calculating the shaded area bounded by the curve in the force vs. deflection diagram and the abscissa (X-axis... the distance that the striking vehicle's front end slides under the rear end of the impacted vehicle... forward of the vehicle's rear extremity, as defined in S4 of 49 CFR 571.224, Rear Impact Protection....

  13. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  14. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  15. The Distribution and Development of Handedness for Manual Gestures in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie; Freeman, Hani; Buehler, Nicole; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and development of handedness for manual gestures in captive chimpanzees. Data on handedness for unimanual gestures were collected in a sample of 227 captive chimpanzees. Handedness for these gestures was compared with handedness for three other measures of hand use: tool use, reaching, and coordinated bimanual actions. Chimpanzees were significantly more right-handed for gestures than for all other measures of hand use. Hand use for simple reaching at ...

  16. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  17. Captive but mobile: Privacy concerns and remedies for the mobile nvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Baruh, Lemi; Popescu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    We use the legal framework of captive audience to examine the FTC’s 2012 privacy guidelines as applied to mobile marketing. We define captive audiences as audiences without functional opt-out mechanisms to avoid situations of coercive communication. By analyzing the current mobile marketing ecosystem, we show that the FTC’s privacy guidelines inspired by the Canadian “privacy by design” paradigm fall short of protecting consumers against invasive mobile marketing in at least three respects: (...

  18. The influence of roughage intake on the occurrence of oral disturbances in captive giraffids

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J; Clauss, M; Baxter, E; Flach, E J; Johanson, K.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of giraffe and okapi in captivity can differ significantly from the state in the wild. Duration and complexity of feeding and ruminating behaviour, and total amount of food ingested, are often reduced, while the energy content of the diet is increased compared to the wild. As known from domestic cattle in intensive keeping systems, oral disturbances like tongue-playing or licking of objects are reported to occur in captive giraffe and okapi. Oral disturbances are considered ...

  19. Excessive iron storage in captive omnivores? The case of the coati (Nasua spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, M; Hänichen, T.; Hummel, J.; Ricker, U; Block, K; Grest, P; Hatt, J M

    2006-01-01

    We collated necropsy reports for 13 coatis (Nasua spp.), revealing four cases of moderate and six cases of massive iron deposition in liver tissue. This survey corroborates an earlier report that noted a high frequency of iron deposits in coatis at necropsy. A comparison of the reported natural diet of coatis and the usually fed captive diets revealed that whereas vertebrate products (dog/cat food, prey items) represent the staple diet items for captive individuals, free-ranging coatis only r...

  20. Supplementing the diet of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with linseed extraction chips

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, M; Flach, E J; Ghebremeskel, K.; Tack, C; Hatt, J M

    2000-01-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) are reported to have low linolenic acid concentrations in body tissues in comparison with free-ranging individuals. However, it is not known whether this merely reflects a different diet, or whether it impairs body functions. As linseed contains significant amounts of linolenic acid, the feeding of linseed extraction chips might be a practical way of supplementation. Captive giraffe with low linolenic acid status in their blood lipids (compared to d...

  1. Screen for Footprints of Selection during Domestication/Captive Breeding of Atlantic Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Anti Vasemägi; Jan Nilsson; Philip McGinnity; Tom Cross; Patrick O’Reilly; Brian Glebe; Bo Peng; Paul Ragnar Berg; Craig Robert Primmer

    2012-01-01

    Domesticated animals provide a unique opportunity to identify genomic targets of artificial selection to the captive environment. Here, we screened three independent domesticated/captive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) strains and their wild progenitor populations in an effort to detect potential signals of domestication selection by typing of 261 SNPs and 70 microsatellite loci. By combining information from four different neutrality tests, in total ten genomic regions showed signs of...

  2. Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J.; Fritz, J.; Kienzle, E.; Medici, E P; Lang, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Streich, W J; Clauss, M

    2008-01-01

    Data from captive animals indicated that browsing (BR) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (GR). To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (MPS) in a GR and a BR ruminant (aurox Bos primigenius taurus, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a GR and a BR hindgut fermenter (Przewalski's...

  3. Irregular tooth wear and longevity in captive wild ruminants : a pilot survey of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Jurado, O; Clauss, M; Hatt, J M

    2008-01-01

    Tooth wear is often suggested as an important factor limiting the lifespan of free-ranging wildlife. Given the frequent occurrence of poor dental health in captive animals reported in the literature, one would expect tooth health to be a limiting factor in captivity as well. Additionally, it could be assumed that brachydont (browsing) animals are more susceptible to dental health problems than hypsodont (grazing) animals, given current indications for systematic increased tooth wear in some b...

  4. Effects of Captivity on Response to a Novel Environment in the Oldfield Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus subgriseus)

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, M. Elsbeth

    2003-01-01

    Long-term maintenance of captive populations and release of these animals into the wild is one approach to endangered species conservation. In this study, I used a traditional ethological technique, the open-field test, to assess captivity's effects on exploratory behavior, level of activity, and enclosure use in oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus subgriseus) upon introduction to a novel environment. The animals tested were from four populations collected from Ocala National Forest, Florida...

  5. Personality and well-­being in felids : assessment and applications to captive management and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia

    2014-01-01

    Research in animal personality has been increasing over the last decade, as scientists realise its importance to a variety of health outcomes. In particular, personality has been shown to have an effect on immune function, stress, infant survival, overall well-being, morbidity, and mortality. Because of this, personality can play an important role in captive management, especially as stress is often a problem for captive animals. Research has already shown that personality affe...

  6. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Craig A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L.; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S.; Fair, Patricia A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D. Ann; Rowles, Teri K.; Lori H Schwacke; Townsend, Forrest I.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood ($n = 95$ live animals) and tissues ($n = 15$ freshly dea...

  7. Captive-Versicherung im deutschen und US-amerikanischen Körperschaftssteuerrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Karl H.; Grillet, Luc L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a positive framework for studying the deductibility of premiums paid to captive insurers as business expenses in German and American tax law. A systematic analysis of the legal rules and judicial Standards that have evolved during many years of corporate litigation and quarelling with the Internal Revenue Service is compared with the economic viability of captive insurance as a risk-transfer instrument. The analysis concludes that sound public policy requires tax deduction...

  8. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris) kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ) (n=4) and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP) (n=6), Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of reproductive diseases in gorillas and other captive great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Júlia Braga

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária The present work focused on the analysis of ultrasound examinations from 29 male and female captive great apes performed since 1995 by the Leibniz-Institut für Zoo-und Wildtierforschung, IZW (Berlin, Germany), reproduction management group. The ultrasonographic appearance of the normal and abnormal reproductive tract was described. Out of 22 female captive subjects, 18 were detected to have reproductive tract lesions. The altered ul...

  10. Use of video system and its effects on abnormal behaviour in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates have highly developed visual cognitive abilities, they have few opportunities to exert such abilities in captivity. Video presentation can reproduce multiple features of the complex, real, visual world. Therefore, video presentation can be expected to act as environmental enrichment for captive primates. The present study evaluated the enriching effects of novelty and content of videos as well as control over videos using newly developed technology including network...

  11. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia S. Resende; Gabriella L. Remy; Valdir de Almeida Ramos Jr; Artur Andriolo

    2009-01-01

    Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I) period prior to the enrichment, II) per...

  12. The partial captivity condition for U(1) extensions of expanding maps on the circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yushi; Tsujii, Masato; Wittsten, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns the compact group extension f:T2→T2,f(x,s)=(E(x),s+τ(x) mod 1) of an expanding map E:{{{S}}1}\\to {{{S}}1} . The dynamics of f and its stochastic perturbations have previously been studied under the so-called partial captivity condition. Here we prove a supplementary result that shows that partial captivity is a \\mathscr{C}r generic condition on τ, once we fix E.

  13. Habituation towards environmental enrichment in captive bears and its effect on stereotypic behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claes

    2008-01-01

    The benefits gained by the presentation of environmental enrichment (EE) to captive animals are widely recognized. Few studies have, however, studied how to maximize the effect of EE. Repeated presentations of EE may cause a reduced interest towards the EE device, called habituation. To study the effect of habituation towards EE, behavioural data from 14 captive Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) were collected during two different EE treatments. In treatment one, honey logs were presented for fi...

  14. Do captive waterfowl alter their behaviour patterns during their flightless period of moult?

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Steven J.; Isaac, Rhian; Quinton, Kate L.; Reynolds, S. James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Many different behavioural changes have been observed in wild waterfowl during the flightless stage of wing moult with birds frequently becoming inactive and reducing time spent foraging. Increased predation risk, elevated energetic demands of feather re-growth and restriction of foraging opportunities are thought to underlie these changes. By studying captive populations of both a dabbling and a diving duck species at the same site, we determined whether captive birds wou...

  15. Captive Reproduction Of The Neotropical Otter In The Santa Fe Zoological Park In Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcila D.A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding reproduction of Lontra longicaudis is lacking. We present the first experience of Neotropical river otters born in captivity in Colombia. Of three parturitions registered, only one was successful. The gestation period for L. longicaudis was estimated at 86 days, with no evidence of delayed implantation. This kind of pregnancy can be classified as short and variable. We recommend further research efforts regarding behaviour and reproduction of Neotropical otters in captivity.

  16. Hazard perception of Dutch farmers and veterinarians related to dairy young stock rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, J S C; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Lievaart, J J

    2013-08-01

    period III (weaning until insemination; 6.3 vs. 14.3), which was again significant in period V (4 wks before calving until calving; 7.4 vs. 12.1). The outcome of this study shows that hazard perception of veterinarians and farmers differs for most rearing periods (in ranking and absolute values). The outcome of this study can be used for 2 purposes: first, to improve communication between farmers and their consulting veterinarian about hazards and hazard perception in young stock rearing; and second, the US scores can be used to select top priority hazards which should at least be integrated into management advisory programs to improve dairy young stock rearing. PMID:23726424

  17. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild. PMID:21719832

  18. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  19. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  20. Systematic investigation of the stability of food preferences in captive orangutans: implications for positive reinforcement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Andrea W; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Marr, M Jackson; Maple, Terry L

    2009-01-01

    Using preference-assessment tests with humans in conjunction with behavioral modification sessions has been a regular component of almost all operant conditioning programs with mentally challenged humans. This has been very effective in improving the efficiency of behavioral training in these settings and could be similarly effective in zoological and research environments. This study investigated the preferences of 9 captive orangutans for different food items. The study used a pairwise presentation to record each nonhuman animal's preferences for 5 different foods on 6 different occasions over the course of 6 months. Results of a Friedman's 2-way ANOVA indicated that the orangutans showed a clear overall preference for apple. However, there was significant variability among different orangutans in preference ranking for the 5 foods, as shown by a Kendall's tau. In addition, there was variability in preference rankings across time for each orangutan. Because the orangutans' preferences change over time and vary according to individual, regular assessments should identify items to be used as rewards in behavioral husbandry training or as part of feeding enrichment strategies. PMID:20183483

  1. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  2. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals. PMID:24450052

  3. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, A.; Bloomsmith, M.; Bard, Kim; Maple, T. L.; Marr, M J

    2015-01-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age (van IJzendoorn, Bard, Bakermans-Kranenburg & Ivan, 2009). Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a si...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL VALIDATION OF AN INFANT REARING PRACTICES INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSOL CORTÉS MORENO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rearing practices moderate undernourishment effects on psychological child development. There arenot suitable instruments to value such aspect. This study describes development and psychometric data insupport of Responsive Practices and Stimulation Questionnaire (CuPRE, a caregiver-report measure ofactions oriented to assure the survival and development. The initial items were derived from interviewsto 48 caregivers. Item reduction and reliability were complete with a sample of 242 caregivers. Principalcomponents analysis yielded a five-factor structure (composed of 23 items, accounting for 49.9% oftotal variance. The CuPRE was found to have good internal consistency (a = 0,83. The results suggestthe CuPRE can be a useful instrument to value rearing practices.

  5. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. PMID:22633252

  6. Development of a diet for rearing juvenile freshwater mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Gatenby, Catherine M.

    1994-01-01

    Over 100 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are endangered or threatened in the United States, and another dozen species support a declining commercial harvest of shells for the cultured pearl industry in Asia. Because of these Significant declines in abundance, a study was undertaken to develop a diet for rearing juvenile mussels, with the goal of long-term propagation of rare species. Three trials were conducted to test various tri-algal and commercial diets and to ...

  7. Rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Jan; Svensson, Catarina; Pehrsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length of productive life, lifetime milk production, a fixed milk price of 0.3 €/kg ECM, a...

  8. SLAUGHTERING TRAITS OF PIGS REARED CONVENTIONALLY AND ON DEEP LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare slaughtering traits of two pig genotypes when reared in two different ways, and to determine the influence of pig housing on carcass characteristics and muscle tissue quality. The research was carried out on 68 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups: the first group was kept on deep litter, and the second one was housed in flat deck pens without deep litter. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. At the end of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and the following values were determined: the pH45 and pH24 values, electric conductivity values (EC45, EC24, the “a” and “b” carcass length, loin values and the values of backfat and muscle thickness, aiming to evaluate the share of muscular tissue in carcass by applying the two-points method. Pigs reared on deep litter had statistically significantly smaller live weights (P<0.05 and warm carcass weights in comparison to pigs reared on flat deck without deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain, which were kept without deep litter had significantly thicker muscles than the ones crossed with German Landrace, kept on deep litter (P<0.05. Fattening pigs of both genotypes, reared without deep litter, had significantly smaller pH45 values in loins and in MLD, when compared to pigs crossed with Pietrain and kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The influence of genotype was statistically significant for the EC45 value in loin, as well as for the muscle thickness and percentage share of muscular tissue (P<0.05. Interaction between the way of fattening and genotype did not have any effect on carcass and meat quality.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms of adolescents reared in an orphanage in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

    2011-01-01

    This study compared male adolescents in an orphanage with adolescents raised by their families in terms of psychiatric symptoms, using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility, and Global Severity Index points were significantly higher in adolescents in the orphanage, although they did not reach pathological levels except with respect to hostility. Adolescents reared in orphanages scored high points for hostility, reaching pathological levels. PMID:21980809

  10. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Abeni; Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se,...

  11. Economics of young stock rearing decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nor, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensiveness of agriculture has contributed to environmental pollution through a higher production of waste materials. The environmental and economic pressures mean that it is nowadays important that milk is produced in a more sustainable way. The young stock rearing enterprise also contributes to the sustainability of dairy farming. For example, decisions about the number of young stock to retain on the farm have consequences for the amount of waste produced. A more sustainab...

  12. Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animals in captive or laboratory settings may outperform wild animals of the same species in both frequency and diversity of tool use, a phenomenon here termed ‘captivity bias’. Although speculative at this stage, a logical conclusion from this concept is that animals whose tool-use behaviour is observed solely under natural conditions may be judged cognitively or physically inferior than if they had also been tested or observed under controlled captive conditions. In turn, this situation cre...

  13. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Taylor; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E; Clauss, M

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a similar effect is evident in captive rhinoceros species. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of museum specimens of captive black (Diceros bicornis; browser), greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicorn...

  14. Handedness for tool use in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Sex differences, performance, heritability and comparison to the wild

    OpenAIRE

    HOPKINS, W. D.; Russell, J. L.; SCHAEFFER, J. A.; Gardner, M.; Schapiro, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    There is continued debate over the factors influencing handedness in captive and wild primates, notably chimpanzees. Previous studies in wild chimpanzees have revealed population-level left handedness for termite fishing. Here we examined hand preferences and performance on a tool use task designed to simulate termite fishing in a sample of 190 captive chimpanzees to evaluate whether patterns of hand use in captive chimpanzees differed from those observed for wild apes. No population-level ha...

  15. Resting Behaviour of Broilers in Three Different Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupan, M.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The highest number of broilers is reared in the intensive fattening system on the floor with litter. Besides the intensive systems some sustainable rearing ways are also brought forward (ecological, biologic-dynamic, organic, etc.. The aim of this study was to establish the possible differences in resting behaviour of broilers in three rearing systems: intensive on the floor, free range, and organic system. The results showed great varieties between intensive and less intensive systems. In the intensive system on the floor animals rested statistically highly significantly more than in other two systems. However no differences in the behaviour of broilers in the stall were noticed, ifcompared to broilers in free range and those in the organic system. Comparison of the outdoor area showed that broilers rested statistically significantly more in the organic system. The reasons for different resting behaviour could be in leg weakness, body weight, group size, health problems, age, housing system, etc. Our research did not confirm our hypothesis that the older broilers rest more.

  16. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Westover

    Full Text Available Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery, we 1 determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2 assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3 created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii. Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures. Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern.

  17. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse Selection of Brood-Rearing Habitat Using Remotely-Sensed Imagery: Can Readily Available High-Resolution Imagery Be Used to Identify Brood-Rearing Habitat Across a Broad Landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Casey; Jensen, Ryan; Petersen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse populations have decreased steadily since European settlement in western North America. Reduced availability of brood-rearing habitat has been identified as a limiting factor for many populations. We used radio-telemetry to acquire locations of sage-grouse broods from 1998 to 2012 in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Using these locations and remotely-sensed NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery, we 1) determined which characteristics of brood-rearing habitat could be used in widely available, high resolution imagery 2) assessed the spatial extent at which sage-grouse selected brood-rearing habitat, and 3) created a predictive habitat model to identify areas of preferred brood-rearing habitat. We used AIC model selection to evaluate support for a list of variables derived from remotely-sensed imagery. We examined the relationship of these explanatory variables at three spatial extents (45, 200, and 795 meter radii). Our top model included 10 variables (percent shrub, percent grass, percent tree, percent paved road, percent riparian, meters of sage/tree edge, meters of riparian/tree edge, distance to tree, distance to transmission lines, and distance to permanent structures). Variables from each spatial extent were represented in our top model with the majority being associated with the larger (795 meter) spatial extent. When applied to our study area, our top model predicted 75% of naïve brood locations suggesting reasonable success using this method and widely available NAIP imagery. We encourage application of our methodology to other sage-grouse populations and species of conservation concern. PMID:27218829

  18. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R.A.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  19. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Shank, K L; Kaneene, J B

    1997-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in Michigan. This is the first description of cervid farming in the United States. Data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from March 3 through June 28, 1993. Completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. Study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 766 (12.5%) elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 284 (4.6%) fallow deer (Dama dama), 114 (1.9%) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6 (0.1%) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 (treatment of injuries (27.7% [44/159]), anthelmintic administration (25.2% [40/159]), issuance of health certificates (19.5% [31/159]), diagnosis and treatment of illnesses (17.6% [28/159]), vaccination (13.8% [22/159]), disease diagnosis (treatment provided by farmer) (8.8% [14/159]), foot care (3.8% [6/159]), and other purposes (ie, necropsy, dystocia, antler removal) (11.3% [18/159]). PMID:9208449

  1. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE GAZELLE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Garner, Michael; Stedman, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Capturing disease trends among different species has indisputable value to both veterinary clinicians and zoo managers for improving the welfare and management of zoo species. The causes of mortality for eight species of gazelle (addra gazelle, Nanger dama; dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas; Grant's gazelle, Nanger granti; sand gazelle, Gazella leptoceros; Saudi goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa; Soemmerring's gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii; Thomson's gazelle, Eudorcas thomsonii; and Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei) are presented from an 18-yr period (1996 2014). The leading cause of mortality for all species was trauma, followed by bronchopneumonia, and failure to thrive/maternal neglect. Nephritis and rumenitis/abomasitis/enteritis were common ancillary lesions across all species. On average, female gazelle lived twice as long as male gazelle, with an average overall adult survival time of 9.3 yr. Dorcas, Thomson's and addra gazelle females had the longest average survival time (10-13 yr). Calves up to 6 mo of age died most frequently from failure of passive transfer or maternal neglect. Thyroid carcinoma was frequently identified in Thomson's gazelle. Sand and Speke's gazelle frequently died from systemic amyloidosis, and Saudi goitered gazelle were more likely to have renal amyloidosis. Hematuria syndrome was the second most common cause of death in Grant's gazelle. The majority of lesions identified in this study that cause or contribute to mortality are preventable with appropriate management. Knowledge of disease trends in captive gazelle populations can help guide veterinary care, management decisions, and collection management planning. PMID:27010271

  2. SOME BEHAVIORAL TRAITS OF RED NECK OSTRICH UNDER CAPTIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. MOHAMMED AHMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.. The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.. The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

  3. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds. PMID:24758135

  4. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McLennan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW. The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of war. If passing fighters or bombers (of either side did not "get" you the dysentry invariably did. The heat, lack of water and lack of compassion shown by Axis non-frontline troops towards South African prisoners of war are all documented by Leigh. He also highlights the differences South Africans experienced in the treatment meted out by Italians on the one hand and Germans on the other. Ironically this relationship was to change later in the war, when many South Africans were moved north into Germany after the collapse of Italy in mid-1943. The conditions in POW camps in Germany were much tougher than those experienced in Italy. 

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S

    2001-12-13

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  6. Spontaneous Reproductive Tract Lesions in Aged Captive Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, B K; Beck, A P; Owston, M A; Kumar, S; Baze, W B; Magden, E R; Dick, E J; Lammey, M; Abee, C R

    2016-03-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have served as an important model for studies of reproductive diseases and aging-related disorders in humans. However, limited information is available about spontaneously occurring reproductive tract lesions in aging chimpanzees. In this article, the authors present histopathologic descriptions of lesions identified in the reproductive tract, including the mammary gland, of 33 female and 34 male aged chimpanzees from 3 captive populations. The most common findings in female chimpanzees were ovarian atrophy, uterine leiomyoma, adenomyosis, and endometrial atrophy. The most common findings in male chimpanzees were seminiferous tubule degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrates in the prostate gland. Other less common lesions included an ovarian granulosa cell tumor, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, an endometrial polyp, uterine artery hypertrophy and mineralization, atrophic vaginitis, mammary gland inflammation, prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, dilated seminal vesicles, a sperm granuloma, and lymphocytic infiltrates in the epididymis. The findings in this study closely mimic changes described in the reproductive tract of aged humans, with the exception of a lack of malignant changes observed in the mammary gland and prostate gland. PMID:26823448

  7. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author)

  8. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  9. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  10. Comparison of Helicobacter spp. genetic sequences in wild and captive seals, and gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Andrew P A; McKay, David B

    2005-06-01

    Helicobacter species are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal system of humans and many animal taxa. Investigations of natural infections are essential to elucidating their role within the host. The feces of fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and sea lions Neophoca cinerea from 3 separate captive populations, as well as a wild colony from Kangaroo Island, Australia, were examined for the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. The feces from several wild silver gulls Larus novahollandiae were also investigated. As detected by PCR, 18 of 21 samples from captive and 12 of 16 samples from wild seals were positive for Helicobacter spp. Three species were identified in these animals. Whilst one possibly novel type was identified from wild fur seals, the majority of wild and captive individuals had the same species. This species also occurred in more than 1 seal type and in silver gulls, and shared a 98.1 to 100% identity to other Helicobacter spp. from harp seals and sea otters. A similar sequence type to species identified from cetaceans was also detected in several captive seals. This study reports for the first time the presence of Helicobacter spp. in wild and captive seals and demonstrates the diversity and broad-host range of these organisms in the marine host. PMID:16060262

  11. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  12. Responses of captive and free-ranging coyotes to simulated oral rabies vaccine baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farry, S C; Henke, S E; Anderson, A M; Fearneyhough, M G

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a bait for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in southern Texas. Captive trials were conducted from January to April, 1994, to determine bait preferences and behavioral responses of coyotes (n = 42) to selected baits and attractants. Baits were hollow rectangular cubes made of polymer dog food or fish meal. Attractants had sweet (watermelon), fruity (raspberry), sulfurous (synthetic WU), and lard (beef lard) fragrances. Captive coyotes did not exhibit a preference for either bait bases or attractants; however, coyotes chewed dog food baits 1.6 times more than fish meal baits. Average proximity of coyotes eliciting a response to baits was 2.2 +/- 1.3 m (mean +/- SE). Captive coyotes readily accepted dog food baits containing 2 ml of liquid rhodamine B, a biological marker. Rhodamine B staining of the oropharyngeal region was evident in each captive coyote. Results from the field evaluation of baits and attractants were consistent with that of the captive trials. Of 2,070 bait station-nights conducted from February to April, 1994, coyotes comprised the greatest single species visitation and uptake rates with 31% and 28%, respectively. Bait uptake rates of free-ranging coyotes did not differ among bait-attractant combinations. Coyotes took baits 93% of the time they encountered a bait, regardless of bait type. PMID:9476221

  13. HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED CAPTIVE TASMANIAN DEVILS (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Katharine L; Peck, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population has decreased by estimates of 80% in the past 20 yr due to the effects of devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the process of creating a DFTD-free insurance population, the captive population and the number of institutions housing devils worldwide has increased tremendously. In order to provide the best husbandry and veterinary care for these captive animals, it is essential to know normal hematology and biochemistry values for the species. Baseline reference intervals (RIs) were determined for hematology and biochemistry variables for 170 healthy anesthetized captive Tasmanian devils and significant sex and age differences were determined. Higher relative neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and cholesterol were seen in males compared to females, whereas higher white cell counts (WBC) and lymphocyte counts (absolute and relative) were seen in females. Subadults have higher red blood cell counts, WBC, lymphocytes (absolute and relative), calcium and phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose, and albumin than adults; whereas, adults have higher relative neutrophils, relative eosinophils, mean corpuscular volume, MCH, platelets, total solids, total plasma proteins, globulins, and chloride than subadults. This study provides a comprehensive report of hematology and serum biochemistry RIs for healthy captive anesthetized Tasmanian devils and offers invaluable diagnostic information to care for the growing captive population of this endangered marsupial. PMID:27468030

  14. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  15. Differential distribution of sperm subpopulations and incidence of pleiomorphisms in ejaculates of captive howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R. R.; Carvalho, F. M.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Leal, C. L. V.; García-Herreros, M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to determine the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates of howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) by using a combination of computerized analysis system (ASMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation methods on a regular basis from five individuals maintained under identical captive environmental, nutritional, and management conditions. Each sperm head was measured for dimensional parameters (Area [ A, (square micrometers)], Perimeter [ P, (micrometers)], Length [ L, (micrometers)], and Width [ W, (micrometers)]) and shape-derived parameters (Ellipticity [( L/ W)], Elongation [( L - W)/( L + W)], and Rugosity [(4л A/ P 2)]). PCA revealed two principal components explaining more than the 96 % of the variance. Clustering methods and discriminant analyzes were performed and seven separate subpopulations were identified. There were differences ( P < 0.001) in the distribution of the seven subpopulations as well as in the incidence of abnormal pleiomorphisms (58.6 %, 49.8 %, 35.1 %, 66.4 %, and 55.1 %, P < 0.05) among the five donors tested. Our results indicated that differences among individuals related to the incidence of pleiomorphisms, and sperm subpopulational structure was not related to the captivity conditions or the sperm collection method, since all individuals were studied under identical conditions. In conclusion, the combination of ASMA and PCA is a useful clinical diagnostic resource for detecting deficiencies in sperm morphology and sperm subpopulations in A. caraya ejaculates that could be used in ex situ conservation programs of threatened species in Alouatta genus or even other endangered neotropical primate species.

  16. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Survival problems are encountered at early stages of intensive fish rearing and antibiotics are widely used to remedy the situation. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative method to protect larvae from opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and promote a balanced environment. This study was......, metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...

  17. Larval rearing and fry raising of Pangasius sutchi(Fowler)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S.; Hossain, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Mirza, M.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Pangasius sutchi were artificially bred for determining the hatching success and larval growth response to live food in relation to varying stocking densities. The fertilized eggs were hatched out with successful hatching rates ranging between 60 and 63%. Newly hatched larvae of 4.4 mm average length were reared using Tubifex as live food in metallic trays with water temperature of 27 to 29.5°C and dissolved oxygen level of 3.88 to 6.22 mg/1 for 6-day with an average survival r...

  18. Quality evaluation of the mass reared Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.D. Guthrie et al. reported that the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Huebner, mass reared continuously on a meridic diet for over 14 generations, will eventually lose its virulence to susceptible inbred lines of maize. However, the present paper indicates that this is not the case with the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee, when mass reared on a semi-artificial diet developed by the first author. Larvae reared continuously for as many as 26 generations still maintain their ability to cause serious whorl and stalk damage to susceptible maize materials. It cannot be concluded, however, that the diet and rearing technique for ACB are superior to those for ECB unless the two diets are used to rear the two Ostrinia species at the same time and under the same rearing conditions. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  19. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  20. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline;

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-br...

  1. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides. The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids.

  2. Lessons from a non-domestic canid: joint disease in captive raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Dennis F; Evans, Richard H; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Smith, Gail K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids. PMID:23277118

  3. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Davis, Barbara; Tseng, Flo

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis. Based on submissions to a private diagnostic institution over a 16-yr period, ESRD was the most commonly diagnosed cause of death or euthanasia in captive polar bears in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of over 20%. Further research is needed to discern the etiology of this apparently common disease of captive polar bears. PMID:24712164

  4. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. PMID:25130685

  5. Check list of the parasitofauna in Adriatic sea cage-reared fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mladineo Ivona

    2006-01-01

    Along with the fast development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean, a number of emerging parasitic diseases was observed in cage-reared fish, which in confined rearing conditions induced mortality or/and indirect economical losses related to suppressed growth. The trend of diversification of aquaculture products and the introduction of new fish species in the rearing system, helped the introduction of new parasitic pathogens along with their host in the new environment. The process resulted ...

  6. Morphometric identification of queens, workers, intermediates in in vitro reared honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Daiana A.; Ying Wang; Osman Kaftanoglu; David De Jong; Amdam, Gro V.; Lionel S. Gonçalves; Francoy, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste cla...

  7. Spine morphology of neurons in the Avian forebrain is affected by rearing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rollenhagen, Astrid; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    1994-01-01

    An area of the caudal forebrain of male zebra finches, the Archi-Neostriatum caudale (ANC), which is active during arousal (Bischof and Herrmann, 1986, 1988), shows rearing-dependent changes in neuron morphology (Rollenhagen and Bischof, 1991). We demonstrate here that rearing conditions also affect the shape of spines of one of the four ANC neuron types. This neuron type was examined in birds reared under five different conditions - in isolation (1), caged (2), in the aviary (3), and with so...

  8. A SURVEY OF DISEASES IN CAPTIVE RED WOLVES (CANIS RUFUS), 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Garner, Michael M; Waddell, William T; Wolf, Karen N

    2016-03-01

    Conservation efforts to preserve the red wolf (Canis rufus) have been in progress since the 1970s through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Red Wolf Recovery Program and the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's Red Wolf Species Survival Plan. An ongoing part of this project has been to monitor mortality trends, particularly to look for potential genetic conditions resulting from inbreeding given the small founding population of only 14 individuals. An initial survey was conducted in the 1990s but a comprehensive assessment of the population has not been done since then. This retrospective review evaluates mortality in the population from 1997 to 2012 through analysis of gross necropsy and histology records provided by cooperating institutions that housed red wolves during the time period of interest. Of the 378 red wolves that died during this 15-yr period, 259 animals had gross necropsy records, histology records, or both that were evaluated. The major causes of neonatal death were parental trauma, stillbirth, or pneumonia. Overall, juveniles had very low mortality rates with only 12 wolves aged 30 days to 6 mo dying during the study period. The most common cause of death within the adult populations was neoplasia, with epithelial neoplasms, carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas being the most common types reported. Gastrointestinal disease was the second most common cause of death, particularly gastric dilation and volvulus, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrointestinal perforations. These findings are in stark contrast to causes of mortality in the wild population, which are primarily due to human-related activities such as vehicular trauma, gunshot, or poisoning. Overall, the captive population has few health problems, but an increase in inflammatory bowel disease in particular warrants further investigation. PMID:27010267

  9. "Use it or lose it": characterization, implications, and mitigation of female infertility in captive wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Linda M; Powell, David; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Asa, Cheryl S

    2014-01-01

    Zoos and other ex situ wildlife institutions can play an important role in species conservation by maintaining populations for education and research, as sources for potential re-introduction or reinforcement, and as ambassadors for financial support of in situ conservation. However, many regional zoo associations are realizing that current captive populations are unsustainable, with many programs failing to meet demographic and genetic goals to ensure long-term viability. Constraints on population size due to limited space often mandate delayed and/or less frequent breeding, but for females of many species this can have profound effects on fertility. A retrospective analysis combined with published literature and reliable anecdotal reports reveals that, when females are housed in a non-breeding situation for extended periods of time, reproductive changes that negatively impact fertility have occurred in multiple species, including canids, elephants, white rhinoceros, Seba's bats, wildebeest, stingrays, and some felid species. Competing space needs and changing interest in taxa for exhibits over time compound the problem. Counter strategies to breed early and often have their own demographic and genetic consequences as well as logistical and political implications. Strategies to mitigate the sustainability crisis in these taxa might include a mixed strategy in which young, genetically valuable females are bred earlier and at more regular intervals to ensure reproductive success, in combination with the judicious use of available tools to manage the number of offspring produced, including contraception and culling. An understanding of the issues at stake is the first step towards developing management strategies for sustainable populations. PMID:24375838

  10. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  11. An Evaluation of Different Plant Species for Rearing Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, David G.; Albano, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Many research projects concerning the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) are dependent on a steady supply of ACP.  ACP is not a difficult insect to rear in most respects, and basic information on rearing procedures has been published (Skelley and Hoy 2004).  Skelley and Hoy (2004) reported on rearing procedures using the host plant Murraya exotica (=paniculata) L.  USDA-ARS in Fort Pierce, Florida has reared ACP on M. exotica (Hall et al. 2007) and also on Citrus macrophylla Wester (Hall...

  12. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  13. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer. PMID:27468041

  14. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  15. Cold stress in captive great apes recorded in incremental lines of dental cementum

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    Incremental lines in dental cementum of museum specimens of 11 free-ranging great apes were compared to the respective structures in 5 captive specimens of known age-at-death, and with many known life-history parameters. While the dental cementum of the free-ranging apes was regularly structured into alternating dark and light bands, 4 out of 5 captive animals showed marked irregularities in terms of hypomineralized bands which could all be dated to the year 1963. Cementum preservation was in...

  16. DISSEMINATED OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA INFECTION IN A CAPTIVE EASTERN MASSASAUGA (SISTRURUS CATENATUS CATENATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jessica; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Woodburn, Daniel B; Adkesson, Michael J; Landolfi, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    An adult, captive-born eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) was examined for a subcutaneous abscess and fistula cranial to the vent. The wound improved initially with lavage and systemic antibiotic therapy, but multiple, scattered, small subcutaneous nodules later developed over the ventrum and lateral aspects of the body. Examination of fine needle aspirates from these nodules revealed granulomatous inflammation and fungal elements morphologically consistent with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. The animal died before antifungal therapy could be implemented. At necropsy, fungal granulomas were also present in the kidneys, liver, lung, air sac, ovary, and spleen. This case report describes an atypical presentation of systemic ophidiomycosis in a captive-born snake. PMID:27010298

  17. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    OpenAIRE

    MAIA O. B.; A.T.A. Jácomo; B.A. Bringel; C.K. Kashivakura; de Oliveira, C A; L.O.F. Teodoro; Silveira, L; M.E.L. Teixeira da Costa; M.C.C. Malta; M.M. Furtado; N.M. Torres; P.S.R. Mattos; .P Viau; T.F.G. Lima; R.G. Morato

    2008-01-01

    Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P < 0.05) across seasons for 16 captive males, being higher in autumn (2184.7 ± 355.1 pg/mL) than in summer (1...

  18. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  19. The North American model and captive cervid facilities—What is the threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John; Decker, Thomas A.; Lama, Tanya M.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation represents the key principles that in combination resulted in a distinct form of wildlife conservation in the United States and Canada. How and to what extent captive cervid facilities comport with or conflict with these principles has implications for wildlife conservation. Greatest threats appear to be toward principles of public ownership of wildlife, allocation of wildlife by law, and in policy decisions based on science. Captive cervid facilities have potential to contribute to erosion of the underlying principles of the Model and could undermine public support for conservation initiatives.

  20. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author)

  1. Damaging biting behaviors in intensively kept rearing gilts: the effect of jute sacks and relations with production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursinus, W W; Wijnen, H J; Bartels, A C; Dijvesteijn, N; van Reenen, C G; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-11-01

    Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types of tail biters. Tail docked rearing gilts originated from 72 litters, which were kept in partly slatted pens with jute sacks (J) or barren control pens (CON; 36 litters per treatment). Tail and ear damage were observed at weaning (4 wk) and during the weaner and rearing phase (17 J and 19 CON pens). Sow (dam) damage was also considered. Biting behaviors (tail, ear, and other) were observed during the weaner and rearing phase. Weight was recorded at birth, weaning, and end of the weaner phase and ADG was calculated from birth till weaning and from weaning till 9 wk. Furthermore, estimated breeding values for litter size, litter birth weight, back fat, and growth between birth and ∼ 105 kg, and ∼ 25 to 105 kg were determined. Jute sacks reduced tail and ear damage at weaning (both P tail damage (P = 0.09). Jute sacks also reduced tail damage post-weaning (P tail wounds at the age of 13 wk. Biting behaviors directed at pen mates were up to 50% lower in J pens (P tail-biting behavior (P = 0.002 to 0.09), albeit dependent on treatment and phase. Higher phenotypic litter sizes were associated with higher levels of biting behaviors (P = 0.004-0.08). High-tail-biters and Medium-tail-biters (the latter less pronounced) stemmed from larger litters (P = 0.01 to 0.05), were heavier (P = 0.03 to 0.04), grew faster (P = 0.05 to 0.08), and displayed higher levels of all kinds of biting behavior directed to pen mates and the jute sack (P tail-biters, the effect size dependent on treatment and phase of life. To conclude, jute sacks may profoundly reduce damaging behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts, probably because they partly meet the behavioral need of pigs for rooting and

  2. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE WILD AND REARED PSEUDOSCIAENA CROCEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 苏永全; 全成干; 丁少雄; 张纹

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of both wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) col-lected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified poly-morphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild popula-tion as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were rel-atively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance be-tween the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overilshing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable arti-ficial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-Yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is sug-gested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

  4. Attitudes of Parents Toward Child-Rearing: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Celik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation of parents’, living in rural areas or urban areas and with children 5-6 years of age, difference in their attitudes towards children according to demographic characteristics and living conditions, rural and urban areas. The study group of the research includes 200 parents who have 5-6 years old children taking pre-school education. 100 of them live in rural areas and 100 of them live in the city center. Instruments of study are Personal Information Form and PARI (Family Life and Child-Rearing Attitude Scale. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were used for data analysis. According to findings, mothers are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than fathers. Parents living urban areas are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than parents living rural areas. Moreover, parents living in extended families are more disciplined, less over-protective and less democratic egalitarian in terms of attitudes than parents live in nucleus families. As a result, educational status, gender, family type and location are predictors for parents’ child-rearing attitude. However, the variables of age and number of children do not contribute to the total variance significantly.

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE WILD AND REARED PSEUDOSCIAENA CROCEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of both wild and reared Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) collected from Guan-Jing-Yang in Ningde, China in May 1999 was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the present study. The polymorphism and mean difference of the wild population as revealed by RAPD were 18.9% and 0.0960 respectively, and those of the reared stocks were relatively lower, with 16.7% in polymorphism and 0.0747 in mean difference. The genetic distance between the two stocks was 0.0041. From the comprehensive investigation, the main reasons for the loss of genetic diversity were probably overfishing, small number of parents as broodstocks and the debatable artificial ranching. Results from this study also showed that the large yellow croaker populations distributed along Fujian coastal waters including Guan-Jing-Yang still potentially wide genetic variability. It is suggested that genetic management and prevention should be scientifically conducted in order to maintain and improve the genetic diversity of the P. crocea population.

  6. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  7. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    OpenAIRE

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 milli...

  8. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  9. Suppurative peritonitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive gold-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria F L; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ribeiro, Vanessa L; Cunha, Marcos P V; Oliveira, Maria G X; Davies, Yamê M; Silva, Ketrin C; Silva, Ana P S; Lincopan, Nilton; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2016-02-01

    This report describes an outbreak of suppurative peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in an adult female of captive golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas). Two virulent and multidrug-resistant strains were isolated and classified through MLST as ST60 and ST1263. The microbiological diagnosis works as a support tool for preventive measures. PMID:26620445

  10. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  11. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van der Kuyl (Antoinette); R. van den Burg (Remco); M.J. Hoyer (Mark); R.A. Gruters (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Berkhout (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and we

  12. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  13. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  14. Ichthyodinium identified in the eggs of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) spawned in captivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Skovgaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    A presumed parasitic protozoan was found in the eggs of European eel obtained from an experiment on captive breeding of eel, Anguilla anguilla, based on silver eels from a freshwater lake in the northern part of Denmark. Gross morphology of the organism was comparable to that of early stages of...

  15. Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Jakubas, Walter J; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Among captive lynx, juvenile and castrated males had lower concentrations of fecal androgens (fA) than intact males, thereby demonstrating that the assay detects biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity. We found that captive males in general had much higher fA levels than wild males. All males showed strong seasonal variation in fA concentrations, with significantly higher levels being expressed during the breeding season (February and March) than during the non-breeding season. Among captive males, variation in seasonal fA levels did not correlate with latitude. Finally, males housed with intact cage-mates (either male or female) had significantly higher fA levels than males housed alone or with a neutered cage-mate. PMID:20828574

  16. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  17. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.

  18. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may f

  19. Tetanus as cause of mass die-off of captive Japanese macaques, Japan, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomomi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide; Une, Yumi

    2012-10-01

    In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani-contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys. PMID:23017658

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors. PMID:25563613